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(Cols "STUDENT™ ALGEBRA LINIARA GEOMETRIE ANALITICA SI DIFERENTJIALA Curse de ft se mrseat in primal ad steno de a profil de ‘lecirnis i Telosomonict. sin problemi abot, el est wil msturor cbr interes in eumongores §flosica cect e metodlor st whactor lemeatre de Algsbr nar gometre eal diferent fo laborarea fismodsl matemitice In vel ele, micro yi ro ceonomis, “Act pe baza progrmeloranaliice de ls rofl mai sus amin cual ‘caprinde poblemele prisciple ale metoclogit de crectae natemation apc, absolt sesre in dewvodil uerioee pe fete ‘um i domeal de sediviate, ‘hata sclecstpzelglele probleme ale investiga matematce, vind tn vedere api Spopaie do care a disp gi grado de cupindre pogrms maltie « sideior cloma i se adeseazL. Dack praepile Boteae i prolessle metodologice prezeatate eu fst sinictizt, erent fate ve psc pa meee Ge seal comptes jor wt [nvesig matematioe eine Probleme aberdeen inkaga Neer ret poze ft-oviiune larg i profindé. Sunt sbornte probleme care au clpttt o important enssi tn ulm imp. ‘eferent inffi: Pound, Octavian LIPOVAN [Desecerca CIP WibfoteiNajionate a Ronnie |GoueT, 10an’ ‘igsbrdlniartsgeometrle anal diferent contd Town Gole srst Den Popescu -Timijoa: Edit] Poliehice, 2011 ‘blog: ISBN 978-406-554.416-1 h. Pores, Dan fr2.su0758) 14 1200758) 14.10758) ‘Contr. loon GOLET Asist. Dan POPESCU ALGEBRA LINIARA GEOMETRIE ANALITICA $I DIFERENTIALA Coes. {THINTA MATERIALELOR* EDITURA POLITEHNICA TIMISOARA ~2011 ‘Copyright © Eaturs Pottchnic, 2011 “Teae depturile sunt reserva edt. Nici o pate din peas Iueraré nu poate reprodist toca sau tansnist pin indifient ce fr fr acral sb eri al Ear Polteaica EDITURA POLITEHNICA Ba, Republi nz. 9 300159 Timigour, Roma ‘Tek onssicon 23 ax (256403.825, eal: ediura@edipolopz0 (Conse editorial: Profane Sabin TONEL, Redactor Claudia MIHALT ‘Bun deimpeat: 1.012012 Coll de par: 19.5 CZ. s12640758) 514120758) 51410738) ISBN 978-606554-8161 ‘ipa exes sub comand m8 [e'Tigografa Universi "Polishica dn Timigoas PREFATA In proces de matematinre a mnitor domi de sete tabu sui in vedere o mine cores cu uprnt a ndeleor nate ct orth in selestare olor mal pour lstramente steric in stires “nor fesomene din domi! thu, economic ee, fn concordance rile practic. Mat mul ex oncind tematic vine into vara de ‘modu i desolares de mods oficac, adapt i csi! iene fia rere pie ‘Remarc fap elastin, gpratal matemaie pune de un iene sin pin dervolres inna i tek de eal ft rim farte ‘plc Pexu a fie pusl cu scsteevohi rape temas tebe Sezvoile exptole poly 9 speach acura (Cura de fete tore ptr es ene cpr pg i sti problematic compose do le Faclstn de Blectronih i Telecoms El iecarct sa punt is dspoaia acestr siden anime beck le slgshe nize, geomet anus deren, ato fnlegre cores, fare sf le unuece paruaderes in interpettes creole #1 prof & ‘Enomensoe dn domi or de speiaa ‘eearece curl se adresses stuenir dn anol, pena de fommure fetus, Iden cusuutete de am rine cto, po cit posi, [Eo alt bisiogai, deci spre conslarefcaativ,Inacet Soop tu fost ‘ja asp paagrtlor exer probleme, car ecole ace tip ev stuereaproblemelor terete vor duce mai buns ings & confnuu tenet Atvicctizares necesita studul aspestlor eave ale uni feeomen impane ttdesna un volum de noi $ atode statis, ee Nate cau to, dau un aga mumt model maleate TFeaomeul tains, elecvonie find. absinctiat fhi-un model ‘mate, post 6 scit mtrn ou eau care forces hares ‘ior devia eorecte gi bine indasentas.Corespunstor mtr fener stot se utllzat ib cearea made tematic adcomt, dit eaptle ‘demutenatct Aprope atoms scete este de materi specie mo otf decvokate fra avea Is bez ofan de algbes Ins, geome nlite i cftenals pe cae preset ear le ade fa stata vitordor ingines. ‘ingore 16122011 Aud CAPITOLUL 1 STRUCTURI ALGEBRICE 1 Grupur, inele si corpuri acest copil preci oon clomesiare Ge soc lgbrise neon poi lpeten Scot es de alger ar. ‘Definia 1. Se ast lege de compa aterm et re scar,eg (operaie) Intrns pe mine Kee sis 7K XK. Conta etl defi, peru x,y #U) it nama inversaailor une peru + le vom aot eu (6): perm eure 50 deficete aul x ‘min sites ct peel Foam (2) = (9, Pema 5 se mere stapes pet) eck) (2) = Detnie 17, Se aunoye determinant nl matlesl price Anlegh jes = Ml) sont ed) de et ta) ZetOmyemey ec unde Sy ete slimes tarot permuelor mai (L2eonly er 6) ‘Sige. perm ¢ Dacian! ate Aly), jar az ~ a daca) <|21 22" rat nd is ais drminnel duce unto poi 1 dey deems ee matie eel denis tine eam 2 Da, chovae woe alt ine) ptrte Aaleyh jaime a(S) rm Ge fem oy wey aj Ape 2) on satis oe oe dn mavow A neuin lems ot (on oepciv a) st ave daca =a) de 3. Duoh clanale sh nt ae emit co om sar ae Senet ote ts STRUCTURE ALGERRICE 15, 44 Dick fn-un determinant se scblnbt tote ele doa} Uniespective ounce) atte se sshimht seme! ternal 5. Un determine exe are doul Iiniempectv cele) egle sou ‘opens ete a Dicd o line (Cerpestv 0 coloa) ae wate elementle mule atnst eternal te eal 0 0; 4 Deck ino lnktespestive In © soles) 2 anet matric) dunt Tlesentele ste! lisse loan) emuie cu acelegl muy ate! acest (pure sre seleg determinant ex fh mutta Ina. ‘Caeatal determing 1. Peau determin de ordinal doi reepect wl petem aplice defini Lotemimnti de unde bfinem denote ees R22 PD eetr yr Dedacem anmiteea denolare © dtminasuh ackt muri A: daa) aydytrt 6 eh eos daca ap Bs) naa 2021 oesgm1+ 233012021 Definiia 18, Dstrmioota Dy. oy de cela k format ou clemente al fide ME te Sie de aes tse 4 (oy), “1G ALGERRA UNGARA, CEOMETRIE ANALIDCK gt DareMENTALA, Car nmeyte minor de ordin & al decemiuants Pei ee MRA tra 4 3. De asemenea peu dktermimati de ordi mat mare silo tl eg ni pit etme pt esi ip I Dect 4 gi Bat matice pate de ordinol ant h(a) = ded). xemplu 9. $5 so eaeules valoues detent to20 2110 fi 20 4 Joo a ast Deol detemisurul Ge exemu duph pina tne svem Deterianof de adil tania gl atne valores daurmisetu ete det ©5340-2040 Tagalin pine cleat cu 2 pe care adonim in coloass a tia pol dealin capt pine Unie se calle de exemply eu rogule S Cleo ulnuil decrmiact se va fice co copa renghiuls de unde ‘isem of tlouen decrminenal ate umia rangalmatce 4 mania) maul (otic rong A= kai cl ‘au are mice sole se pote exape dn mice < Doct tices semi A= (oy), = jg € MualK) me rng £ out aves mite prope 9 ks minim} 1) meth mace A de ondin et amie dec (Sa ex nk Bn Acesth mei de étemioare a og wel maize ex sue rinrlr ste apercnah iad crn! tie eel esse oot ‘pla a sods cam ar 8 msds tanvominlorsenerace Denaia 20. Numin tramsormist clementare slo veel mice ‘peruse & douk lini sen elon); 1) tule une tings cotene) eu us selar ses 4H) nduaren la lencotle nel tas une colasce) elementle ai Tigh lel ealae)tmuite os sexo! mde Dost matics obste use di aa pein aaforiet oebivaente e ‘sumsse ehlvaleate cure so soazi eu AB. Tlaed com de propre termignor cedocem. cl Seulmatiel chivalate so scnzat rng. Fracica tansforpia “atces inl tao matice agen vind HHemeotele de pe Ggonels psspale ce ane a cif mero ar In rot Tene clomentte sunt sale cu er, Nemil decife ele ot wah dk De ‘Shgeala principal’ cepeints dina! cle cnt mare minor eat rte file eare ene ce pt range are! i 18 ALGEBRA LDGARA, EOMERIE ANALITICA 51 DIERENTIALA Exempla 10,58 detemioe asgu mats! 213 - 3-120 134-2 4311 Resoare; Deermismn rangul oatice! A prin tasters clement satel 24 23s-ay(1 0 0 0 3-1 s20[|as sa 13 14-2] -s-s 1 4-3 411} ls 10 w ~ 10 vooyfio0g) on 1 00|\o100 on -100\Jo000 02 200) 0009) te wade ang) =2. Defaiia 21, © mace pitch 4 el citei dtrminant este neat! (especie al) mameyte esingaard (eect angular). Definiin 22. Masien Ml) se numer Savers hike cd exist oF mtrie (mumish tversamatice’ 4) sotts ca AW © My(K) stil tet Av At = AA dy. lade de al ade aaron Ae MK) oe loves ick g mums ih te aig wk C4) 0. ‘Peach venti! Ase pede as 1) se cabulnch ded) (aed dei) #0 atusci ext A", i se dee taepusn mata aed A, fips deernind mation adhe A° (A se cbfne tlcuind lemeie mare 4 eu compensa sages overs mel are armies propit A ser et re Remivare Metods 1 etm alguna de Havre ol eiler ie Pe opt Slatin race ne 4s excops pl pe hme) yah fenamacotnh fea f exmaeor fo 20 ALGEBRA LNGARA,GEOMETRUE ANALITICK $f DIFERENTIALA Mets de caeel provi mal sus se desu de gels dria ‘tceminich complete alge O ald tog de deerme a lovee il satie Se weal pe naomi lamented mace Metode2 Determinism invest mies 4 oi aftr sansomiclor lementre Fomisn amass entice foi a alpen mats! bs main att Go da 8 75 (Ce stra eater eementare apcatsLnloe miei dvi, objec ‘autinn Moat Ge td tok. "oste ace ganna = tor pice in sen tmp os Monts sore alltuet foal in poten rapt a alo vom eos favor mas A aan A? Alt 11100) lit 1} 01 ol Bat foe 4, bh ffi iiioo -h+z3h|0 0-2) -11 ol 4g 2hlo -2 0 | -101, no opaaia natesnle 2 21-2 Bole 2 ea Ao ana ctyssufo ya tn lo-2 04 4 b a 1 jase 10 A oO o -htkzo|0 1 0 | 2 2 Lb i nous i 2 13 Slsteme de eeuafil Uniere Defaia 23. Prin site sgebrc iniar dem semi u oscunsut ee coal K ieegn un aati de mai de fon form +a,282 + e495 =P, Jans +222%9 + aaey =a lemttt +2932 + Sant (22 ALOERRA LRUARA,GEOMETRIE ANALITICA gL DAFERENTIALA, Levey i nde ay eX, 1= Tm, j= ip wt oie smcuoreucr, by eK, 11 easier iar xj 1K j =I escorts ster Detniia 24 Mavic A= (oj rntrces stem, asic 2 =|? Je My (09) matriees coloant = 92) Myei(K) matriea coloand a fermentor Uberti matin 2 secunscteor. Sitewal se sie sb forma maint AX'=B. Maes Z= (412) format pin ediogresla san 4 maize olen 6 temir Ubi 2 se ‘nieve Hates ext « seo ‘Sistema se ic ck ete neomogen (spect omogen ac ae pain sm terme ber penal (ot eet Mer rt ul). Definia 25. Defi ola stents un eet Goat dln» bneate aureneyeK caw verde cele mr cout ale sen Dein 6 Sut sc mine coma denice sesermina) cack te 0. nid eat ule Freompatibi dct nua tic o sobs Dot ste sunt ehivalente eo eae sh ‘efifa 27, Us stem liar (L1) do» cum ou w ateunosete vind mein sso Anoop ss aa sistem Crome. ‘Teor 1, (Cram) Oreo shtom Cramer ese compa doerminat iar OD ie ‘ta far samen Dj se objae din natine A talon’ clos j en ccouan teem Ie Demonstrate. Avem steal Ulnar Cramer de ecu eu n mceceate feel teien sub Kemi maticalt AX'= J-Maireos stems ee engl ec! de(4)~0 de unde deduct ete invert Dich in mics assent tomutin Ia stiags cu Aebjioen ob pe " ate 4B, Tid com de tres ane x 7 dete OD) mele Ii Cramer x a = 1 eacay* = oun shtecuis se doce din formule il Cramer 3 = (xa te =1 empl 12. Si se este ates fay +39 lata =0 oud Remtare. Fie 4=|1 0 1] matiees sitet , 2 119) , inal 1 emails Mak Nita 2 «(ey wee reat Sine eat 3 wea a km ; ht F | 10-8. oman wf ° oe fet mi A ow | sng, Stal dat ate de Sp Cramer jar sole fe determi 26 ALGEBRA LNIABA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICK 1 OFERENTIALA 1, Teorem 2. GGronseker-Cappli) Cool osesrh gi sufcenth c n Fleem nar de cas fe compl ste ch fg arcs sistema sh Se egal co gl main! eine ale rang() = rang( 2). Pri a eas at ete Yr sara defile Detiaia 28, Un misar nen do oar al maz! sistema se ve uni minor principal Fomfe # seanosetlar le chor sien Sr (3 fied) fh nabs sec minor te sunes:pinclple Gecupdar), Mizar de fra rl fem pra boxer miguel eaetal cu esate vepunitars dat cine termoalor bat pcumyi cx coca! Stour pricle iso ome renndid so same minor ‘crstrel ‘Observaia 4. Panty om sistem dom ech co rag mate stoma vom sve io! cates ai Gel m > uae Sal Tor ewe m= 2 Teorema 2(Ruchtfrobene) Sisal line este compat dk 9 msl diet tf mit orate fot al ‘Observe 8 Pasa a ree stem tine ta cae gamit de con (w) ene ep ct ua de neunate) a4 tice ster ete leg (de(4)=0) vom proved a: 1, Deermini sargal matte sien (A= rang(4), gl sim uo sor pial de ein # zal, 2 Sti cote race i exe secunda,necuassule praca expanive eae sees, 3, Consruim ce =r air cacti sali compatiies seme shar tree Raub 4. ln caz de compile separim gearseutle principle i vom eco sisal forme nets cane pinta Remivaresshtemlor prin moda sleminirlk Gass) stim prion cuape 2 semi ict ay, #0 (a car center pam rims ecusio ca ucaa coupe in cae covicit nesinneisi x, ete io, lini seecnsota din ecunile 23, assum Selena! nae se ane i sem eles louis) toot by ab tab 8 Onin = Bi ops psu inal se rar semaines aut $n Blas tonalng alg af ‘cet sistem se rel pond de Iuka ecu spe pina sca sempla 13, Si se dicate compuinee sistema seep any : ALG LINTARA, GEOMETRIES ANALITIC $1 DFERENTIALA tenecioe tbe Vor demise eumizacrsl male a+ 2K0+0" Disatits 1. Dae ee RV(-12} de(4) #0 ren mates A ete rings? dec stoma tee dep Cramer #2 stun! confor Teo Ii ‘Glam stoma ste comput cetera. aad 4.Dued g=-I evened mauioe semua A=|1 11 faeraagal 1. way ic misral pitep Spy =[]#0 stl ens ete pina st ecmle 3. Posie @=2 mitbes stemmt tues tnt cet Spm? nse a cs epi pt oma xy sum peaumoete pple respec 7 accumu Cua ‘Svea [iter mete adel 21] Bear =|t -2 2=9¥0. rt ia teres at Rovehé ret somal ete ineompatl Stone osopne Seay =, 1=i met tnadonen compe iat i sit ot pin ete ton y=: =.5g =O. Un stem onagee ke eomoiote gi mogol irish sktimlll ogee ep cu k ste sob ‘ite de sohiga tami ck gf manal dictavem tndeplintrafa k< ‘Observatla 6 Us site onogen db » ecw si» nxunerte dite sola Sanat (asst acbamle) duet Gt() = Of) =0) ane 4 ete tes sell onoge. senplu A, Deomiai pannel el @ a Ut ste fm +253 tary +304 =0 ati-25-14=0 aynaxg=0 mn ta-25 x00 adits sap adbanale gl esha seman aes xz. easvars. [ystems onogencefit mai aus cul de el ( 12a 3 1-2 te ga os semi de eanescuin=d) ar de] 1? TE te 11-2 = morcet stems Sitemol ake solyll oxbamle dict yi muna ck "een msgid) y=a(h2,0)+0(0,-L1) declare t U=(v=efl2.0)+H0,-.D]a,beR)=L(S) wade sistema § ste ‘SoU0.20,G,-1)}- Boe linen Wate subspatd gourat desist eoems 24.3. Dash 4 stdout sep ale api veo ve atne 13 Saline + We = (v= os | eM eM, mus sa ae Wy eon abet vai ti Sytenstia 87 one abapta vectra a ai Ps 5S manlones Pi ya seo substi vectorial “Demmartie (Fewee Mey. adie wm agrany =o + vy andem, sue Begun me, Dros ur ch glue me cela oh vestoral ce atv) Cis sparing To Rohe Braue by ©) eka, eM, eleven n= Bm) = Qos) sportne ft hte, vem Ress Des Wil eK ku sive) gh bar bveades bu ve 0M C)Feriet eine Bi me My slice Remi + mem, m+ meM fest se MUM, TEhemp 23, fies WL geet repent ov m= 5, p= 13h 0G 1) gl an CD tse C12) = 3)-S858 comic Spal OU. TRezlvare. Subp IU contin ee vet pen sre ait sree foo ng ve Dat WY i oan subsp arymeacms asvn™ Bn Banr* Bom Foloind opie vei dn Robie pe component avidast2ay” BreBs say *15a +100" 2.28.3 Bs faut ang mises sami ee sm, confi terme ah Rouhé, scp isso eget dunes aerial vie sip? pes Pa~ 0. Oban Py 7234, Brady fm, 2 HERS. [aes s3 pre 4st = 163 415A 415) = BAA WHE) ede Ruste deel HAUL" (15). ‘Tereod 214. Fie Wy wi My Souk spt verte gi veWetth Densompumeas vn eke ic ac oma acs 74 =f). 36 ALGHDNK UNIARA, G2OMETRIE ANALITICA $1 DEERENTIALA Demoastatis Fe v= m+ ¥= 9+ vi. Dae m, eM sim, 9h eM etn = 9-8] = she coat a WW De aeaea A. = (0) Imp y= yj v= vai cate escompane. ‘eco, units imple 7, (0, deze Te xz cna vce etn seul © 8) % Moaraveaclpta cout decompene y= W-2 0-08 ‘Define 2.4 Pe out eke ves ale ‘Does hem (ame ume = ye amet em ees senor W&M Deck te pl) @ My = ¥, cael; gi My se mum saben spinor TErempl 21.6 Subspace ar rea impare man pliant soph vec fu al nie rae eas pea, ) ite ee aie eos + Sit feo, Verets.2, “Wf abe ioe fnsie/:(o, 3) -y0 osu neo fei park ua ngs ret sade de sun suns eet pot extn cv ou um et de sake veil, TEleupi 207. Fes bapaile ngan-{4-(5 Z)hneer|e au saoo-fon(® dhea}ean Soin fet scans te mt weno Rama: Fe vae(® {) MR) att um neta 20 91,09) 2 Antitds a(S ZJemtends-(% fJeatan deans dain © ruin (Jest epee. 2. Seay VECTOMALE 37 ‘ox demas per te vae(2 ema 244 2 le miem, <4 weg o> aie] gn 2 lemon 424442 =a eel sibpaile nit plement 2.2, Dependenfhs Independent lint Fem ever peep 5nd det mente Sin tS ad ar Spa an conn oe nant ea Poth carder onmsatitat $y, 00 Din tat need ac hr pdt sear eke Sh {st penne oie lege elemento 89 merreene fide esa mn #8 po te oi ec yee pee eee Seale pe tne 3 bt piate emt toe arta se poe erp co en slips sear a au alt vee, aunt ee Toi me Tremp 222. Sie sce pede Harpe stem de vec Sef =GlBhvs = 02.04%) =Chh D.C 3_AUGEDEA UNARA,GEOMIETRIE ANALITICK gt DHERENTALA Renneare Fe ego 01409 °¥9 +5 ivaeys ses ogee ect eu seen omogen in inns veoosar pay +ag-as=0 a +203 +0: 3a~3aj=0 sn soli shale ici sit! de vetosS ate Sar dpeniee Un se fede dew pene sel obogen ee ey =1,cz)=—lay 1 & unde reat mag de dene ity ~¥3 +5 =. sump 223. Stain dd ste de vest Shino) 2} 2008 a }s WER. eH npn. Teivere Seer de ys $ exe stem il de vee ei eh ve 4 nar edit dct once matcton SS flee, dependent opece Wh aks Spades dock eek nba "cS BA Tat rece, Gomi seo te ly urn sie eel ene “re tascam eR, nN cxicam ma) ea tren sag) By eo) 4-2 eo) 0, Yee “Dep i ea pe] em came [Préenas aad: sc00, [Moock ben a k~ sntcen 9-0 Toemujis rain (%) pe rind ox sin(k-2) pentru kin gi integrand pe (928 qe tom Frent-nodtenieao.vobaTs (0 pears [fon mica [et Yhhin een of ay =0, fbr 2. sexy vecroRaLE 38 0) eevine yc) +t By 25003)=0, YEN pe ee @ umn p ed cx os), =i apo opin pe (0,2) fie ses [owen POE E ae boi ete 6h Py =0, =i ecko caver $e Una independet Gok 1 sien S ot lr eden, "Teeromi 22.1. FieS= (nam -» ») & Yo mine nar independent US) atin Val n hi 8 ae alme de pvt ent din LS) ete sar ependen nt, temo olehe np vet wb opal 149, Ra hw shor th = Demo SS =0 tse sy Je Bios Sut nr indepent one ay hg one ay Of 2s ‘Acs sso sagen eu 7 coat gp 1 oeeaniite odie ot sos bani rivuare st a pene 2.3, Bazi si dimenstune ie Vom spay pete cra Denne 234. 0 maine Be vector Gn 7 se sumete bask pean ech Bea tar indepen 9 gees pV hit elon Regent ote demons ce paved do (0) sce bs Spo vectorial Vr meg alt imensoeal Gch ota ft a ost = {bhi er conta ae mete a eimensiona (Potent 23. Fie Pun spo vsti at anenina. Oscar ous haze le a mu asng nana element. ‘Demons Fe dou bee sle bi VF n puta eat i B 9. 1 san lene dn Dac Be nepndes gene pl Ves Za (oe mine odin + ete ete dependent) applic nS. As ‘onment ports tines coaduce a ww deci = o LIWAKA,CEOMETIE ANALITICA 1 DIFERENTIALK “Tesreas 22. josie, uratoana defi: Detate 2:13: Se mance dncsianes spatial vectorial ¥, sual fm ach poses baz format din alee 0, ack ¥=(0}, ‘Un p vxon ev dimenseat se ume nimensoal este oa 7 Temple 3 ‘Di poi vsti ete. Vesta =(1, 0,0.) 5 (0,0, By wDyrn eps Oye Oy) Satara Bath = ty 6: St Satu ci independents lai eas (den 0h ach === wis) =e) sey, rey del B genes 3) Spel ystral ks} our faeion pened imonsines nol, Trev een et B= {1,8 este ndepeaceai, Benge te eh + hats Doe hye y= fam. ig0 gh once plinom 6 (ad 2 nee cob ins fa de elamente da 3) Shai vec Mg (fR)sl matisordepanakinlare ae dimesinee mn 0 back ete muiaen B = Uy StS, 15/0), By fad onion ere are ‘Meet te nteset ale | oloana eae eae fd nae “) He le) suf vtoral leu fnelee pola fs medeterinets ss Poloumle eect Ba sa Re) ew OA) = “Teovamis 24, Fon esa vectra V su ndearate semitone sel 1) 0 maine de vec Uslarindepenenti din Vy ese « submulhine tunel baz a 3) Ovce ule format i » vest niafndepenen est ob aT ‘sioumetl ele st ger ao ber, dan oui te pa Catruat ‘toeesone pallet fa, Shull serie fi dnenslonl sw pot dott de pe wea pez zl inact nna ex ext posites occas ltl concolor {eta os loi din cotta! combinatorial Tin sete eget vector Freait) imi ck explains tnt coonoeateor”inpuae Tn med nectar ‘rdasre element tae bate duet, In eee ute, pit bz nn aim est "Yenremi 22.3. Ore vector ve, smite expat uh dps veer bas. Fes ety 2. seaqu vecroMALE 4 Demonsraie. Deore = LB), ee vector» & H-pgte fi ers cx 0 comin na devs baci at »= Sg Preece ose yw dee oo pin v= Soe este stinen © = $s ak vet wt alr natn in tina 22.1 cert unesele se amet coordonsele vet ‘esa Fe +R tnt pny => (sy) He me em de vordona ‘Teor vom prefem identiinen v= yt. 29 noc at ey ny iran a) ed = yds) EY = Ca mea "Feorema 2.3.4. ack Wi iat spate vesorl Va, pa (+0) + aim" 0, Fie ial = p,dinU'=9, ding U) =r, a =a) ay =0 (4 steel dim RP=3)esi conform teem 2.32. cert oh B este bark pees us prin coostntia bael B cone steel 5 24, Matrices de trecere de In 0 baxh Ia alts oF si esti poi a bse B= (0, Dash cotta on sinen ae poate! Fomor) ePe amet oe esctapin oper cvtan B sat w= Bane See “46 ALGEBRA UNNARA,GEOMETRUE ANALITIC 91 DIFERENTIALA ‘Accor vetori 1 sg aagstst matsoen forms din coeicient) elor p Gscconpuner, geo pe clone ete a uit maces stoi fl de vector $ elo ws ny pu ies x eoonbele Finny 1a Ei Ranga ace’ 4 st eal ev mata maxim a vectorilor ola a independ. si Ws ara B ident Mi, Detemane be fle ‘Demenntraie pons ang A ~ rade 2 plc. tise edapentents vectorilorcolouak , oy Yr Fi coloana vp unde P21 pi determina ‘leat dine acl determi et mal daprece ena 1 <1, Dae ous tnt ent, pon > rei Dy seal mre es, Destin pe D tps ae ah Wit ot e+ ae 8, aA Stair ces wat sunt einen xin vent» Sy. <1 py act en fp ok fisare cleat ese 0 combi nar de prinele ela le mae 2. seagu VECTORIALE #1 CCoralar 24, Fic opiel vectrisl Yai stem de vector Scfvvonrnety Leb stu dimesiznes sibepatoel (8) este egal co Sabie "aaziet be vector tala independent. da atemal 5 de vet. eae ee Canatiannlised en ttemsl Sse p vector st Be ise Tnlependenl” ete ck tunguleatiell" formate pe closne oo Letooatieselos p vector Intro. bach da ah fle pls ou momar oeieiorSitenut Seip. vetor_ she. lalar dependent dict ang! ast vot = eStats n seumal da [a] #0. Defias 2..- Tie B= e050) $189 (6p ey 6) bse iio tn coma vectorial Yo, Nomin matrices de tecer de Ta basa B Me besa By te gat Sel als eich colene sunt soordontele Yestclor barel B10 apo cuss B, 0888 T= [ey ‘Coralar 244. Determinantal miei de tetee de Tao bart ls sith “afere de sr. smu 242 Fey mapecty xj, 41,2... oondonatsle sels vesorv a apr ex bez Bresesiv Pea ware y= Sag emeciy Sees rent tian re = Sx(Eoe) S {Evi}: ceordonatlr bo zane es; mel wie X= TX unde 2 st Tansee oleae X= fay os td espeaiy X= (ah, na Ry 8 repre oordoniele veel > tn rapt cu baa B eespectv Bir mies Typ (Ste matrices de reer dea bazaB a baz ‘Crane 243, tons de tio de hem Be bam steht ives atic Tan: hed Ty {8 ALGHHRA INARA, GEONETRIE ANALIICK §¢ DUERENTIALA Bsemplu 2.41. $8, se serie matrices do weet dela bam Babu a(hthyy=(2)} CRE Ie baze B= (y= C3) = (9) RE Rezalvate: Deicompstem vectrt azsi B fut de boxe 2 sayy Fay 8) y= oy Lae y= +B =P = DH + Sciem Typ, matiess ce cocere den bare Hla buza B', maces Pratich de cedzal do ale cite coloane sunt cooedonatele vector bezel vir Heempla 242, Stind ob Tyy=|1 1 0) maticee de secede Is baz 8°= (avntg}ERR Us baz f= Quy = Cho¥D, 15 = Chh-D) GR? . 88 oe detrine baa 2 Relvar: Dis defiia Typ mui de voce de te baz 8° te a 2 adem eile fs manent liD=as = a pia setae tn rapt cu vest ze” cbiem WELD = (0-22). (02,0) sempla 243. 81 se sublease formule Ge waesormae ale eset cand tee des bza 20,5 = Com taay CLEAN = =I 2. sva7H vecToRAUE 9 bern B= (2100. 12.2% “CALLA. =GALDI CRE [RezWare: Fle vER* uo vesor cucue 9 Ge decampanesie sie aps cele oun be Yea mag yy Hy-4 P= ADE MHS AI up retort Daze 8° Inlocuind estat wei~TA cu descompunerle tor ia bese 3° tn Aescompaneres veorual vER' de unde objer Year nym Catnltatytn nde Cum) sein 9) Din torema descompenat nice” a anu vecior tat-o. ‘ba reais naformaren de coordoate Dunant 25. Spafil vectoriale euclidiene. Ortogonalitate Adauga In sive e spt vectorial o nous soln, aceon sey aparl cra pte cf hinge engl ona ‘otf 234, Fe Pun supe vctaral el 6 splice pe VeeT gaara Bare propre ‘or)= Oo) (ares) u tu) EG) = G0) GrDz Osu 29 v= 0, 50_ALOEBHA LINIARA,GEOMITU ANALIICA 1 DFERINTALA, ¥ yan eV, ka snus prods scalar ge "Yeon 2... Dest spp vet fal ete dt ey wn produs sca, atone et sotto? ion Caney Setar]? = GK ot ‘ti deck pl mses ac ott i epee D yetarl'y sw siot sent Fie gumifal veel serecare eR stil dn propre profuse avem 05 (=f, —bo)= (9) 21, w) +, ished con ef un oligo: de pmdul dot ese pear dc (vs) 20h A=Aogn)? Ao) <0 dedoeem (0? <(0NG 9 ech =O = of enain (v2 w) +i w/o? ar sings Steet eats dbl Jy adit @—ewy9—low7)=0 cen ee inpich r= lov-O de unde (dns ck veto yr mt nin dependent. etn 3 up ee ae eon pro el in vectra oe fal unc ‘Bxemple de spa vectril encleneeanoice 1) Fe x= (ryt D1 = Ord 3) ol vote oars in pai vectorial arma R, Fane eal ein pra) = 920.0 etoun pods salerpe "Sef vc sal lor Fila ca val el come pew ner to Ales pincssin eal apo ev apap i pia Gad | Fede und 2.52. Fie V un spate vectorial eutiion sea. Functin | :¥—> Re epi n= of) sto noms pV le suse relate Til>0 pest » 0, [|= 0, Ge Bi bese [iv wt 2 is et Cnegatote tanga), ona nel arts taste norms uch. sate, Prupuntan os Veneta sua vetrl comple, Tegan De (uo) 20 mpl ins 2 0, gna decd mal dc vetevecoral nl. Def tcdeoen pentru KR ¥ v my Con0) 42 G9) + Gone) = BE 2M hi ete dou propsoti ale nome sgt ch ole lemon v din ¥ pont sexs forms Y= Pie ande [eel Veto «co ropes eel suey verte i, vor aoc ui veto aeaatetee = 1 i i ¥ un spa vectra ein rea. Pe sbumatines ¥\ (0), nealatn cote. fo: 5 tae ee ‘fie 2.3, Fe Van spf vectra rely, w dol eso em ia ¥.Nomral 0 © (0, x) dt de eulain coe @ sangha ne vs ‘Define "24 Un peje vectorial dont ca non se names spin sectrin!nrmat ssa vetacal noma nee non prove dian Pros ‘Snr se aumentespafieprebllberdam- Us spas priberian couple (eal Esp Chay comme a ctr core) "Teoremi 283. Fle Von spf vcr aeraa. Fug tcl oii — penates = vay esto daunted secs ee ‘duis} 2 Odio uy ac) = aie) ‘e, ») Sw) ln), Vz r 8 ‘sin dap tems get ttc, Dao norma ete roel ml ease pn snr (,) Peo Seat pe i) adnan penton Ba Sod pute wait ean pede st ae pend eae, we) 2 epibas)si'vie re toees whol So ecru fetta ae esa an 52 ALGHAA DTARA, QUOMETIE ANALIICK 1 FERENTIAL sung pi)=aes tt on di eotnenle SGA ~ foe AE] +0 + coe pe sop iajeancbn sah neadesa. 0902 ecntenentein-nl-tperdaien 9 maple £ : eg 253 nt eng) a Ee Cay) a +2592 +a Heo » VE Gm y= OprdERe So asa STE “peda sled nasa = Guy) Ga) We= Capa). On rade Gren) EP sy) =e) U9) = AC p 4 92a +82 I) =D) ar 90) (een) Gin 2 Oi a-oe ro Gada day omy 4 SE= (425) 420, em 5) RE (62) =0 42 #0, =0= (000 Ye=au1.9 =Ohaahe=GredeRe, VEER Cnogealiates ete wna dine ele mal impor ei dake vse wut pain ‘Sal evel “Setae 255, Fi Vu spt vsti ucla, Dol vcr i ¥ se umes rope act pod! cose oa O sbpuioe S cee uneys orogens ‘level sist etapa ote dol alt (2) =, Vi. 65, oS moe erogeml se mere ortonoant Sct Bre ces ol bu excavate. 2 SPAT Vicromae 53 ‘Teor 254. Orcs amine onognalh dus sya vet eulilan wo an eleente pate ee ine nupentents. Deen Y= atl orice {line oops care sojinemslemeste male lew bat na Demensrafe. Fe'S P-(0) © ansine onoapal, aie fon > + hyo cent smi Laas io clemente in 5 pat ont A=. = ioe ey.) +0) gy = 0, J = fat (1,2, ‘ania pe td) 1,2- pin os de eagle el 1,0) =O, for Ove goy) =. Pe ala pane © pti yo) 0 sh BERET TEE ARS eins nape Densonrate tine pra eee el nei in cores 2.3.2. ‘Pont sud spar vitovleelone ate comod se ures cata came Conf! inal 255. bam B [oy en ones Je yess ortonomath i me sje ae Sse on eee intent [02] are tn produsul saa rin piu fe) = | SCadetade, easier unitosce suki aii de fncieigonomtice Ste fo) fs) = ab fo0)~ sn 12 at Oe ‘Pm utes cS eke mole erognal drt oogonia oti Eon ob 9 cnine cement ula sail C(O, 2D, uexeh eb Sele NE, fost ffeost mae =VE, I Sea = forme cpm alien oon (4.6, Indoendett.Inptnd Scare foci pin norm 8, I Jone d= gor es = SE Te “Observe, Majies onognel Sue ait a coneruim sere Feuer @ use ‘ini pies se me | ALGHHRA LONARA, QEOMETREANALITICA $1 DOERECTALA (oo, Desai 286. Fis Vn pti ers ein, Ventas wa 7 .» 0, we aumegteprokeeia vectarut¥ pe w, ar cumin oe seme mri ste pro vp Se Pe Pee ver ean Yast B= (echt ov ali Pt y= Sse satmein =f ‘particu, daca B cote tant aronerat tel = 4 Decne veneers ari unle cao combi is de vector se n= Spin i ed FR De ee es Jatt apetciel bl vp ” "Decl baza este artoaormatt, (e, «) = 1 yi rezulth x, (v, «) Prin wrmare oricare se vcan ves agora teat etna sie» = Sie ‘Coordonatle 5, ~(1¢)1= 1,2, nal vedas ss cordon enaene "Froremi 256 "Dac, ce un spain vestrl etinn complex inn B= oven ete oar 1) = $5) ote sn tuen virtua psi t= EP Dement inp)" 8 aty= Sine w= Soy Tate meme Aeros ps ane [Searfina)- EEsmcreo- Banter Eats ey epi ny sama EGGQSeES SORTA Le at oc eg a tet so oem Some cope goes 2, sexyu vecromate 33 Se observ oh $* em opin vectorial lV indepth Sete sas ni snbopafi al Va cal ood Sete wn soba ecto, $* se eumegte ‘Shalem ortogonat a "Pooremt 287. Dect W est un satin vectorial cian si ete os sbopain neiteasonal al ak ¥, atch ¥ = W, © WY. Mai mls, deck we venwem une ete satiefoutl tors ta P ig e "Demonte, Fe B= (sex ns) feet norma a Me ot w = Sloane pee pest y= oe mecon-onn- (Sor: (Zorre$3oe} Sioa! EZateenesp Boar Poawensnn fit we wer y= Wak “Teoves fl Piagorn: [o?'= (w= (0 = wh w+ w= (mo) #2 Cowpea} fa It ie Fun spay vectored, Ne popu a ath odin oe smtine iar depedett Ge veson So Yao pone comsrel o maline ‘noon (allie oopos sect clones te sora 1) Ta bw as fos dims erent cate umes “tm pe eve pce Timgeatnre Gram Sehia "Teoreod 2.88" Dash Ye wo sis vector eosin cx mess, a saaherzate sno a t's oma ‘Selatan rs od Alonso v6) Emme oe oboe Ter penraecae £2 10202.00 = ‘Demonte: Ms nil onium o mle oragpl, si aei ti sorta tent, Mate sna fy mn ao ea Sn Med “) elt m=y3) Se pane my =r +, Veto nate ze dear sunt htt Tlopeden Se dezrmich Fas conic mo fe topos $6 ALGHURK LOWARA, GEOMETRE ANALIICA $1 DUBRENTALA 0) pec Sint, Ora) cme dict vector 48 ej sod in poet i pe 3) Vesa ye Safa pin na 9% a oo sehen ware 2 pa 8 ys lnk peace. Solr Ky sun deurmin din endef ropa ab ga wade ct 0 (vi mi) = bn, Reva = 2, = 05.11) +O 05 w=) =) iin ye MD, po Hand om)” So) seat wens MD yy, CMD, en cw bos dn pei Be 8 "Riyosn schcoaprocecetl plat obfinen ©" muljime de vector ition gee ld th in ot a pone =i, tlle gl 258 i oli cn ch dink Spe sess greets 7 bare: Usa proces Cmca, consi © mine oom, >) math dees toon {is ened 9) y= (,.1,-1) 2 4,1,)-@,2.0 pon BB ne Ort FGA 20 pen Sey, Gd, @,4,9-Ba1.-0-20,2.0 FB Feo an Danton ee Goss) Inpiin ear veer dia brs tages prin noms ot 9 otnem @ Set 2. Sex VECTONALE 51 Beebe ahtr Gee a EFS) Pel eee Sod siete oan eae nn ats nih i, =r) boil genase ce Anas Sis maine (my -) oY cera pope 1) etal tie nog! pe 0 Pre 2) Hone sm)" 53} ii sot ni string abe id eu ft sea Ino eran ne mln cme coment Vesa i My mem mein vas Sew, 1,2, vetoes tet Be) care doves bine pr ese |. vient ac ve! sua costa at {dy oe otoponal cn =, ade eto 6 fn sezand dev teh pe veto oy ‘ein line enna > =) 6 ron Esempls 256, Re Pepa vestarl a tsarer atilorpoiemine re | in Ta oa io) = fv a ai | testi din votort vi) = 17,» = 0, 1, 2p Ortogonaliaind aceasta bank cu i "poeta Ga Ssh obinesplinanl Let, wi) = ws =? —b, 58 ALGHNRA INIARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICK 1 DEBRENTIALA 2. SeaqU VECTORIALE 38 9 S=1A.=G23.02°030 p59 GLa) CRE © Sab =CHL = GHL2}4 CHAD So setie(t hae( S4-(0 ae spew So stiely sharls a hobo 4s 2610. Sise sine car dite eters nba! seal Cs je pend rset Ine npn 1,82 2) (chy ener BAM Fe $= =(2-Di “CMD (G—LNIHE se one a todd lnm m=O de ude onen 3, =4-Fts Oi =e dat y=CE, 26, Probleme propuse 263 Si se ane cb mines starr fro convergent x leet din seu 8) fomazs ox apais veil pase Min po cv nanren s ‘out sa tamale sate se eu en 3 sok ules nue near real de lst CO) ort ecedunre fn mai dine Shin See, ame ck stem dees Soy =ChDon= 1=(-1h0)95 = (20,0) cE merase sip veto apo ei pene acs ub, 2s) Dindvas abate gros dvesoi m= 3,113) ieasahon= (O-lsi) tepasiv U gear devo y= 13,2, (3h 6,2, 62) ab se ate ace spl sun sles st Gs lacoonpunres veces = 00,3) pease pa Tad Sth aed vectors ¥=(0,00) 4" serine bata Ding = (03,2,0.05 = 0.0.0.2) Fie mbeptle vecorise Le(Gga)eR |xty-2=G}cR Ua (Gy) Re9 ose Gtemine L4U,L0U — prceind oie ch scste bp ‘etre sat splenete, spi gis plement abpapnt U. “Zaie Ste gis © Saat nam glo busts Blew bspflor : ‘Hea le Von spa vou eal Pe P20 defini opeaile (oo Car= Guba, v9) (g +100) cmb bu Fa, 24 ee Sse mate ok WP st ‘etna! pat © (cst Spin ume ‘Soopleicatl Pitan 24S. Arili ol mimes eR ee bsp vectorial al fi (ay.2) Rey 42 12166. Fie mince w-( oy eter m0 sts eouece ok ene shepatin vectra al fal M(B) 269. Fe sem! $=) =(4LO)%2 OLD =C.0.)) CR Se oc: deri eal Ink sca Se iar pent; desma dnl) al cdo ip rg ob 15)=189 we steal 5°= (4 = (2.0. 7263. Si ae comer ack yet» = (I, 20,3) nto combine nd a vesriar a= (3,95 2h m= (2,0, 5 (1.2.0 Ue. Siw sled dpensns Eat poy tamale de vec gl az eimai dtr eatin Ins soto Upeninrespestv de veld w= (121) "3D Se Gel) rape ue hte (hd) 5" (10.3) TU yar, Shae nabiease dpensiuae subspaill AC M50) ae fal ° shveecmsovnven Ms 4. deine spleoelsestshp 201 Sooner conte cael «=(0, asvclaate ectshoDaceie hen tehs in taal, i. fo ALoHORA LNUARA, CEOMETRE ANALITICN $1 DIFERENTIALA 2619 Fie sistal S=(4 =(,0,0).% =0,L0)%5 =(,L} CR? se core si se arsig et stoma § este bank penis IR gf escompuneis vevionnl 25) eyo cro bos 8 ‘tan ecm count wrt pL) be (4.0030410,0:91R* peat Fe La((abdeRlanbse, ahesRlER®. 8 sh ae eZ an eh vse i 3} Sica stents mon («GUO m= LD ERS" 02D = toons tan pn eum tie ee a Det $e Bae secepal yom eG) te Se SWS usa. see son de ew ns B= (= 2,3) = QADPER Mm bass Bim (y= G.2hm =@DIER see eee nts sete snd ot Be B= (014(U10)0,01R? a bao B= (03,CL49,0.2.01 2° 11624 Detcmiontsa Blind ob ices de see do In bazn eaten (010). =CO.0 C00) CR, be base Bote a2 2-10 220 {628 Flespai vet nln rl C0) ere prod el se sce inreneva epnncye . xe (0,2) ue4 +3626. ta spotiul ewcidian canonic WR, fie vectoral y = (14, -3, -6) wi ee See iens cote wes) 180 2. spaTH VEcroRALE 61 2421 Ral esol ein en i in 8 oa spch orogens nop post de ete 110 PibpasG. ohn = 0.30 one. 120 Fe spi vol eosan CUO) tae prdal sea ese ett prin pis a) ~[ (g(a Ss nenoraere mins (2.2% etsh, Ga 2629. 880 ante ot epics () HER? Rei prin Goda nts atk I mB I Yes Gummy ure rdeR se wn produ scala pe FE ‘30. In spail voi eucidesn capanis si = ononormeze baz Be fm =010.0) =U O)H5 = CahDPER 26. Pie step vet S=(un(ay,2)fixty-220,224 pte} 8 se gloemsh o tsk moma a bopjnt voor S qt deeming ‘Shoplet onogert yt =O 2A Fle sto cxogen de com ire |x.) 435-424 =0 Due Int =0 oe mines or (3p.830%4) pase sem Je mai us As ot atin veri « OR 9 ght camplenensl rogant a set soap ve one ‘ CAPITOLUL3 APLICATIL LINIARE 3.1. Proprictifi generale "i 79 doo spa etl pste espa K Detaife 31.3. Oundle T:¥ ->¥ exproprietile Teny-TorTO. Varah se “#7, vheK (Veer scum tramfamar ine (apes aar) O estrmae it,» ¥ se amet operator Una. (westrmae nis YK (cap Ke coserat x sui vectra ulinetic ex insane poste K) se mmegt forms ala. "Teoremb Sto Fane TV -+¥¥ et waesormare act gi zumal Teer +b)“ 21) +TH), (WRI K 5 €¥. Demenstral, Duck T V0 ee iit, ati conform denis 1.1 sem, Tee) = Ts) +10) =A (9 +1) ds cei din tare ete ste ‘ecipoe, condi is eoretImprevsi eu ipotens = 1~1 63 Tety)= TG) +T hae tpreenk ev lpotezs I~ OimplichTUS)~ET @ ‘eemple 3:11. FiesplegiaT: °F deta en Tees =(msst md ‘At ob T esto enstrmareit Sot: Sueenv ae Ti) a9) “TE at 9) =H AEP ant ytaat yn) = Geman) nanan AT Ca) FTO CIC 29, 7) ER, Analg, Ti) = Te Pa = aya) ~ AT Ge W KER V 55) RE SAPLICATH LINARE 6 ‘Teoromd 312. FT VW tasfomace aie yTo-a 2) Deck U eat us subpaie veoh ctrl a 5) Dack vector simeats €V sn ner dependent, tas vet Ti, Ths T (a) sutlar epnie Domania. 1 Regi (Es) T (i), (¥) HE, CV) x eV ingle 0) 0 1 Fisne @T (UD) gible K Een sears, ye Vat not =T (9 = =o) tr ai T impli d+ 19 =) + ODT (ete eT (C), De sce (0) ete un sepia vetaral a 2) Atslog Fie L(%, 9) maliaestwucor eaasoraior ive define pe ¥ sco wa fn Egointe tater Unie, adres gamle cw solr 6 eines el fone et 8, TL, W) atu S=Tesuints — (Ise GAT I=SE)*TID, (EE 5 Yap AS CH, (¥RER, (W)xE % Apert ou acerte pei saline L(V, MY sew spi etl poste opal K ‘lemale at L(Y, ¥) se eumeseendonrfme ale i. Spatial veto L (F;H) af tur formelr lite detalte pe ¥ 5 ‘lor eK ae mumeye dull, ‘Teorems 5.13. Fle He 9i W deus sail vectorial peste elmpalK, fe (0, ey) @ tal Wy it rn vse tines din 1 Bret afore ini neh T: y+ W are stsice Tle) my Tui, mach (0) ese uw sbsptic 2) Dee yet, wv st nr Leese, uae nastormre art T cermin de evn le) 1 12 ete ici ‘4 ALGEDRK LINARA, GSOMETUE ANALITICK $1 DIFERENTIALA Demonstrate 1) He xe¥y, aed x = Song. Regn x > TH) Wc opiate Te) =m = Sf ariim ef T esto assformare ner, Penta aes ose eh y=, rZra ams bbe Shs hg ete, ODL ERAT hy = Sresenome San seam oo) Uniebte IT 4 ein cede eau syncs Sxeor= Sinn vetd nee etl = Prey oe paseatS eyo 20 Acct nr npn eter, Wa Me B=, =. CCompanses & Gout raf Lnre, ih Snes wut ar (prad) 0 rz ot earn lard. Edet compen a st como, dr ate soit. ‘Coapunse post f combi cx aentie algerie de ada tomar ck vest {yes A, © sunt tanto nae penis ere a eas A+B,ABLgIBC, sting (¥)h/EK(EA+IB)C= EACSIBC 2h A.B, C eu trasform lnare pects cate as seas A+B, CA 3) CB, anesi (WDE Fe K, C(EA+IB)= KCA+ICB FieT wo codomorn alii. Pinel satus ale iT se defines ndtv REL TeT TY on FleT : 0-+¥ ovensormare nia ject (vera). aves 2a ante deatats S.APLICATH LIMARE 65 54: P Ute oto uanstormare ints Ta pus doch T:U=9 Py SV 9" ont ransforntlinare bie, aul ST +0 te 0 wansformare iia ijn gS oT Toe To ‘0 nasfonar inn bist vam tomorfsm & sui vector, “Teoremi 3.1.4(Spai veetorllelzomorfe) ot spa vesoriae 9k WY pete cml KE, de dimoasan Sit, st eomoris ic ama dach au acco dimeasnn, Demoasraie, Preupusem of Vy st Ma sat ower, adi exis rmastormare linia bijective T Vy > Mi Evident T 0) = 0. Fle B= fo, xo) AF Mines T (8) ~ (16 TD) © Mio ii Independents, pt dove de wmitra i de impli: AT) * Ae) + + ‘NeTla)=0 TUhe he ta ag) = 05 et Bsa = 0 Br anh Peden (pw Me (2)0~ Sonn erat room renus w= $ atleast (semen Bay aeh am Recipe, fe Vy si We Utinind stems de eoordonate f: Fy £1 Woot WY asin es T= ef: > Wr o80 an er. 3.2, Nuslew sf imagine Fie ¥ si W dout spa vecorisle pexe clmpul K, ar TF 9m" 0 oformae ini, Define 321. Moines Kr(T )~ (x ]x2¥,T a) = 0) EV se munege ucla; Naubiags int )=T (CW se umete imagine Tui pri. ‘Teoremh 3.22, FieT © L(H,M), Noel! i Testun subspais vectorial sk ¥, Images ui Vpn este un subsp vector a enostraie. 1) Fes yeKrT, ahs Te) = 0, Ty) ~ 0 Linen Toi T Smpich Ts) =0, () hc K ds katy Ker CV) K. (4_ALunth UNIARS, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA $1 DFERENTIALA 2)Amlog empl 321. Panes T= RP RET (3.2) Cnn sin Kee(= (8) eR Ge, 29-94) = 00})=(OA}. 1 T (0 98.912 RE 13) eas) € Gem 374) = Gu re) (Guar ER? Lit sh Se rr kT et netv arouse, ‘Teoremé 32.3, Dick T:V Ao tansfomare ns, tus vomsourele semi sat eta (0) T exe ines @) T+ T(x ive ©) Keet)= (0) Demonstrate, Eebvlenis dle (1) gf (2) es evden, De acees este sulle st dovedio (1 et ekivalent eu). Fle Kort) (0) ees Te) = To) imround co iat hi T ep Tee -y) = Oath x= y eKeT 3, Asfel = =D aich x= 4 desi T este senerldT (0) 0 implies Kent )~ (0) “Teoreml 3.24 Duc ¥ se ft mensions spl well aT) ce init dimensional in Ket) ax) ~ in ¥. Dimensinea mile Ii T se mumeye defect tui T iar dinensiunes magni ui¥ prin T se sumegte rang iT. Demontrale. Fen di 9p = dim Ke), Cara p= 0 ese sat pests ‘tor, act p 1, alagem © Baa (eG 8) asl at 9) 0 fut ae) Pe syn (9 it =~ Sse «Fat faatty=T )=T (Sa )> Son) aeiT ud ta ahdeoree Te) =O, TG) 0 Rem eT Gu T (gees pe dT), $8 tin i set vx unt line independ (ps) act (6) ein T coe * het 2, APLICATH LAKE 67 par toct A) Ds ai ey ot gy eT a0 apt 4 i Independansbazet da Vinlict Emu" By = ck=0, tn conliic spall vector In(T) ext fn mensional yi = fiml(T} dim din Kes) ‘Hzemple 3.2.3. 1) Pere endomortimalT: RFE dant pein TO) = Gtssttiea ttn tat) = Gm) ave eat )=(aiT @)~ 0). Din) =0 obfsem stem stn te On ta te 0 aes eau cual +) #-)~ 0 ceea ce arith sistema este dubla odeterminat 91 re costa (25,9 = ~~). fn conc oe veer eK) ae forma x= (2-81-15) (160-1) #0, yD. Veto = (0.0.-1) «+=, 11) st in iadependen genre pe Ke ) st omen obi Ke Dei is Kee) =2 in dea snp coed ce vcr dn) ar eordnstele ple oy nt rr dl vec de sesh eline int in dependent. Det (in ox )= 1 vet in tT) ~ in RP in Ken }~3 +2—1 2) Fle spat vectra al ror fanciar rele eontiue pe (6 2] codomachnmal TY > V deity g = TY) uno 0) = f /eosle—nee so, SH dtr Ker(), Anum eana Te) = 0 impli x)= 0 aes Frncose per 0, (¥) sete, HO arnt conde te etre ex (/omelon(fome)arescorensen tena Freres, [stosaat 0 De Ke) ci se fn foe igo ane cos isn. “Teoremi.4.25.Preigunen ch T: V > Meteo easfonare lini, ar 4_ALOEDRA LNIARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA 1 DIFERENTIALA, hin Y%,Aruseluroitonsle fms ran ecient 1) T eswlaetva 2) Dash ty Pst vec tine adept stun iT, (1c Wa veer nr adept 2) dint =m 44) Baek (een) ese oat pen ae! (T(E, T ell ate ask pats 1H. Demonstrais. Cat msi simp jaieare este dovediea implicate (0) 20202020 Adon ci T ee jot, . €V nt veto Tia independent Retain BT (e) # =. + 47 (@) = O implied T (he, + + fy 69) ™ 0, aon fess by © Kex(T) = (0) Del es. Ay = 0 pra arma == hr ARC) > Deel (2) ete adearit (W) p $m ae fees eee 0 Ba Ta, tunel scart Te), Te) sunt ir indopeneos. De acen gi TP) 2 m. Pe leah pate eoemn 24a hin T (Hm, Ree din T (7) =m adi a>o. Fie @) (ow Meet Percale creer tate Soe ett 27 e= Sot bene Me. mean peT (0), Acs impel ou dim T(H) = mpi pie (To Te) esteo beat eT. Dei) = ‘Das () ote advert tac T() = 0 impliet = ~ Og dee! Ka) = (0), tics @) = “Teoems 3.2.6 tasfomaeia iestviT: Vp —> Meee Det Demoostrai, Presper Tete jaca KT) = (0 Relale dim KesT) = 0 im ¥= dim KerT) + dim it ) impli i In ) ‘Aownsa prssk co IT) My impli IT) = My aie Te sect -Exempl, 1) Taosomare ni TR? ei pin .APICATHLINARE 6 Tone on tan nnlsetum ena Be ry aceeuceaa seein ana | pore tem even tobe SRL na sasese ben ot) oes SEIS retocri-ncn sso ose =e eee | uso eye Dest T= Ging m4) Secar tesa een Lana Teanton naar em Payot Eicorcvsvoutea:uyvartnnasa nant? eet Mans japan To.) Su re set tinnayet Ot 0) Coote ery TO at (pinaconunta ong oat me top at Pot Exempla 3.24, Fic trnsformarea nine’ T: 1? FIR? definits prin Ta) G42 504) +.81 4x2), Wea (ay 2a ER ‘5 arse aca time ets itv 9 debi inven 8 IReedvare Pens & asa ci onsforares lint 7: RE +R? ete iene ‘ete mloat sb aim of T ete injcva Dn weajo T(G)=0 se ded sblomul liar exogso fay +50 Jaitty=0-95) 28,245 =0292=0 lsite2=0 ewido lel opin! tine 7, Ker = (0) dest P est bit Pentru # dts taaeormaen aver vom rwola cus T()= yume YeOurys)ER? de unde se deduce sem ar 10 ALGEBRA LEMANS, OEOMETRIE ANALITICA $1 DFERENTIALA, 2. ABLICAT LABEL Inelonenend Soap ent Te Eo [x2+as— 71 ” a sptryey22}xa GOI) 2, re Suet atid = etn P= Pn] ie sie matenls Y= T [tea 9s 1 lxs-Z0ve72-99) ect btna expesiatafoenatl vere 1 ‘emenstraje, Teoma [4 ea ot T exe wie deems de valore T 1 1 Cart ratrdgOr- nt WhgOit72- 2) (ey a Pe de prs Sever T (9) J~fxa, se agen coordoassle rod weowrder? [san pment) epee es we Da Tad Shs renpln 24 Si se deca mags! pet ine JR? Rl] mation: T= [fle creleobane au drpt clemestecroromtele veer Hlab)=a2 #(0-20 +3042, (8) RP TadTladons T (vin rpon subsea (ie me) ind nie determina a hrs wom enpcae a? ite? Ko fule\lad=0 wie g Sor - $s (Ee) 0 -$ Sry retn amet $ satin y= S307, ates ns ate mm te $B Sor min Bs Tr ae numeste maiiea axocotétaeformict Unie Ti rapt co perecins d c onriderate. Vom see P= i), ecemplu 34. Fi spa iad fF? FR dt pon 100) =(5y 4 Dey xy eH Daa Brey DIE Copetaae ERE Sh some matte hi f 8 pa cx B,=(e,=(40,0)42= 0.10, de wode Gafucem ob din =2 deck rng spleen J ete ersten 3.3. Matrices unel transformariinlaré ie Vs i du spat vet Sit dneasionle pest chal K tT Ye Wooten ir ‘orem 341 Dat eur 4} ea 0a Pia, is Wa 9 ‘zh Pato exit © mie sua cm T= dei mn ast cael 545-100, tu cami sin FP Rembare: Deenisin nage wecorr Un Yar ano din RE prin oie in £0,0,0)=(4-10) > fle))=2,-2) +2) 10:40)=2.2,-1)= f(e)=24#22)-¥5 und ea ok mates apne! Sire fe pete tan canal da? fle) fle fe) 102 Ne 12 -3le, 1 a ole Bsouplu3.32, Fe opin Id gi? R? des rn 6 2) seseie men Ig to por exazl B Ms, 2h a2 4-00) Yad) eR? {C,0(0.0) een conch din RE 9 ma cmon B= fe, ~(HO,0\¢; “O.L0), 410.00) da RP. 1) ss man Ig th por cuban: 8 {09,040} tom ee RE 5 bas Be fe, = (0.062 =(L404e5 =ChhD) ai eave: 3) Aven (0,00 =(43,-2,2(0)- tabices ign pa bans 9 bra canna RB, ese (24, de wale sie 0,0) 2.) 1 2)5 eles -| 34 for aie ane sien mace hi gn apart cobunse BY gi B ete Sen 20 a w(t pe Hy FL (%,07, awh tor masta dea Ve 9 © vat K) ski ntl dp nc mene i K. Fane m LK IF) Mu) deta pin T 7 mp en te fata sept, ) sw anna esi vec, Deseo pil vec LW, aedesnsincs moneda ae propia: SST )em(S) (fT ae ses 2) We, xiv ns imal dst (se esi gh (5 minis eV, on soma veel dine! pest cll K i T ‘os tn (ebro. Find bare ie a FT se eos ate Woh 0 sere “Teoremd 332, Matis Al 8, pate een cv comet in K, repeat sev tants aT: VV, dt aa ce o mate asin © itt nt woc4c« Mtices C ee de pt mica de uo Go eben vee ers no Demoastrape Fe (6; (ein de ce pt aoa Soy) dan 74 ALGEBRA LINTARA, GEOMETRIS ANALITICA $1 DIFERENTIALA 2. APLICATU LIIARE 75 ot H,-2M,o cmnoate Nosin cx A [a mia staal iT fa par Soy int 2am, on B = sto ata iT ‘upri bar, ST ( temp cs Smut ae 146) = Sha hoon RAT 6) = “free Balen) HSeale 00 Broh Soe 29=+Ea( See) - BalSas}. mote Seth Favs soa st BAC Rents emplo3.33,F2T , Ts! +R doutendonafane del pa TW) Gs Hm) rapes)" (4,45 454,0,0, ¥= Got tee ERE Sisedecrnin mtsice some T =T6T lnmport cabs detent de vet fr Os 23) ACN, C200), Jo, 00,0) eons Te) = (TT 8) = (aye 04 2th pect asi (10,00), (0, 1.0.0), €)= (0,0, 1.0) 24" (0,0, 3) 01 RE JsimaicetoiT =T,+T, fabens oma eves ete ws 231 43 43-13 2-803) 1-1-2 -2 wavs We 72 Bache: 4c. Cusste totean devin erie ‘soar so guge ds seem mate; gis ae bi + empha 334 St se detemine pla tart f:REFRE ooriaale FC1)=(.3) ah 02) =Cu4) mations ap tia f tn rapt ob cnet in Ressvare: in fp splines rt dedi Pesos) =O SOD, We= G22) 2 109+ FO.D= 09) _, (i 2) (10#2F0.0 = 0.4)” FO. =O. indod expres aad + apie Iie f ese FC) =(4,25 419) ete eit stom { far satsces opi tine f So apo oa bom conic din Rete 10 vm-()) ‘Exempla 235 Swe deduc express aml o opie are sect f £912.34 te ove ncaa mane ms Pte Met ots hl et vt ct og (2) in a9 12 em Legitrn dows matte A qi 4° ete Ga ce mina a= cuit ban ao Tigo toty A aa HIG IG IG Det & {UCP /00-0 Bt egret et eee ma a Sx49),-Br+6)), (9) ERE Yeam+n=(e ya p01) de made deem ok yf =x 2y Dar F053) = fCa2D +1) = 02148 0.1)= = 06-2) +10, 19 + BD +200) = (0,0) + (49.29) = 0-49.38) Talocid pe a, io wlan do ml se deuce express elit « apa (Se 9y.-30 46), ETE 16M (6) pumas semen aia 7 Maile “AC. Aseoanares mutiedar ete 0 lac de Ce MK) al tnt ‘ciao pe Ma (80, see debian erpunsod Inn enero Tank, 1) DeoueceC este nsng macle B gid a eli ang; west mune et pe amped T ) mre epleel Une in apo S.APUCATHE LINARE 7) dex(*AC) = Ba“ dete = ad, ote ale 2) Desarce det = cro cin de ecivalets su sel detemiba Act aber poe enn determina ual endomorfiom a al Vc Sind deceit mai cite iarpotexobus faa, | 34, Endomorfisme particulare etl 34. Fle Pan spi vectra pul K, Edmore PH Vee mamas mori dc se ie. Submolimes tu L (V7) ale earl elements sunt outomorismele foi Vest ott co GL (V7 Ast bmn ou et un subsp vero al pe sal LY) desiree si © dou atomorme poate a ok fe v2 ssromorfism. fo seh GL(V) ste uo gop tn apart cu prodesl (compere) sntonorfmeer. Grapul GL (P se suet ropa Targa Rsampla 341. Dat Fv, + ¥, se popiautenct FFI ama e6e matomora, deve oA a] mate eo Fa pet ob ain Vi. alge FEO ete cebleaeas) eu egulistenmtrcalt ee ee IidpidsciP exon omen. xempla 4.2. Si se dowmine ov pasta rel asl iett ele Taint / 9 , Slebe)=(morb+ca+mbsc,a+b+ me), Wahe) eke 2 oa automo, s+ ns ova uk mA puis 7 mute Mf Ome =m ome me i 2) ee ont amt de Ufa, 20 at [7 #0 Onn 7) 40 MER G2 57 ou a acer glen, 9: YP esos seit ‘etme 3A, Tanta id 1: VY deft prin 3) = 7 (ose, yeV seman aint dT. O wastrel 7 > Yee ntact ct T=T. etn 343.0 cantons ak T¥-> V exe waa ack ates eo ela ae Ty) =f (O #Y. “Tnent A-Trosecmae esT:¥—+ Weneni oct ims dish Wate, veer Penna Das ste sc (i) Gy) (0) Velie porn save (T= To) = Ghee ITP = 9 Tt i eter WaT Yoehshs nent) ri Lonny ts sna) mat iy=ty dedveem [Ip =U0fy sewn =T rea eb maze Tie mp. ca be ornonmats Bt sine Recipe ete evident, Condi a a fs earn ete er vom sn acest sm pin ‘cap unto: ‘empl 343. Fe opentona tae TR 7 det prin Et S]eme s=00. f=00 Pre taf Ligeo-teof Gor, DesT ein “Tearen 34.2. Osetasfrmae wath T: YW ere Demonstrate Died T te war ates [Tv fl De (75 T3)~ (ead uot Ts =0 resi (7 Ta) = Dadi 3) =O cae nie =~0 emits KerT= (0) det ete jos "Teoreml 343 Us eomari T:V> Vas auoadct dick st sums eck steno beotenoms ete sine Demowsrafic Prpunen cb eofomorm T:f,-> Peesteaodnt gave lobath Be(eiejnnes) EM, eeomans penta Ve A [tj] aie iT fam B Find caeule objiem ob ec opera T st n stab aus CObvervafi, Us ederim T :¥,->¥, ete wl dat gi mums act ances ita pr boost ph ener. ‘Exempla 344, Entomol TC? > C dei ps Pea er in wea ee 8 _ALOEORA LINIARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITCA $1 DEERENTALA Tes (eos —x,5ina, x,sa+ x,c052), = (55), @ E102) ete un exdoneeitountardeoaece mation fi T I buns catonet oneal 6. (40), 6, = (0) exenia anadetr r(e Sh wr-[oey Sieern-ff fe cominaeprspuaee i V9 W unt dou pti vole eal esliine leirr pods Seri sain aL Fe :¥> Wontar is Define 3.4.3. Taeformaes iT W/V defeat peta, 7) C2), ‘Wxe M7, Ve semumote ranspus iT TolowortsmalT © L(V; M semuneqe: 2stmeti doe = * 2) amtsimerie dct T =-T * Define S44. Trasimare irs T:V->1 se mney etognal ash pisces prods sea, ac (Fx, (3) W sy event encod, caltal==bx, Ver. Dac admin 4i fk dimesioale gi Secu 5 Gat © bak otonomatt ound wasted Ts F-oK7 fe agent maces Tar iT * ‘mavee Una edomorem simi erp © mise si, i codonorfam salsinati i srupinde © mace asin Ue codon vtgonl corpus o marie sage. Ovseraj. Trsaale sinesice rapesiv aniinecie wt pops sealage sastomirior termine repos anemone, Tensile ‘togonaea propsseage reptile tanto ular rempla 344. Fe manomares nied cER? oR? adnte in ta epedeaneti) mee coe 2). ad tease Unit ee 0 tanfemare Dein 2. AMICATH LIMARE 1 emivare (<>) te un soja vectra suctien capac fn care bara cenoieh B.={4,=C1,0).6; = (0D) te obama). a ee “ur Tete © tssforeare Init oben ser ener D, (2% = is(01)= (40) 10. =(40) Bo eects ea aw y-(” 2) = care eto 0 mae hem de unde reall cd ¢ te © vasfoma tins cat, ‘384, Sts carostne ete din finefie TR? +R? deft prin TO) = CyaeaDoe= Gt) T= (phot) Tod Cpg s+ bER, £20 Tea) =(a, 428-38, 2 4, 17H, +8) sot ene ae 1382, Fle Ry[x] epi vectorial rea al poisomelor de rad < St arate SnaisT: Rx] > [2] Aafia pein Te) = let2) PG, (v) eR ene tanafrmare lie $2 ALOSORA LINIARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA $f DIFERENTIALA 2. APLICATH LINIARE #3 53. Fie sptial veciorist P=Uf{a]-R | fea) }, She arate 1459. ln R? se conse vector» = @2-1).y= (1-20), ~ 0,02). 88 art esto sing frm ie R?--R atl nce €s) 8) = 0, A) =6, Shee determine o bas a subsp ke) $380, Sk ae dstemine maticele ransfirmalor ire T: Rp RO in apart ou bazn format din vector f,= (12.3), fy = Gxl9 fy = Ushld canoe 32 2 1-12] pn-|-10 2-6], yn=|3 -3 6| 2 -6| 2-24 sat mnie tenformror respective fn apr ou taza canon i fay tata =0 prin 9 th ing = eps Vii SSA. Ble fglel-> Rall, F(@)~ pp. ¥ Pe Rabe). ‘Stcunie ct fee un opto aves sh we deine * ‘355, Secomsider apis f=? -> MG (R], deta pia sean}. soane{) sosvl Cem ete apace ais ai 7 356 Fieplexja tines J: > RY deft en : 1 stm —— {7200-000 gras atdamnen 0 seven eines rsa ar Starr Senso eb IR?yi exit oaplainies sR? > R,eupropetin ob S Ker, 35:7, Fle 89 > RD, apical os arn prehon de bare canoe * vtec eet 7 . iy v2 334 244, St edlenine matin if perched bse B= (Ca), (4400009) ‘tse deine Ker f, In feito aspen eae )Car eters ana al f 7 832, Fie T+ endomortiml care tresorns veto 50.1), > lt) y= (Lll) a veto y= (1.2.1), = BAD, 1ws= (irl), Ste determine matric al Tf bazsetonormatt 6 = (10.0, 6 O10, 4 ON. © sas, Fe Ts ROR? endomorSemal deft pein mutrces Races | -[-o0s@ 0 sin 0] 6k mai nd ono Beane PNA {i i i ees enti 8102) PN ce ol ec too 6 Seen — © SSA Fie open i det fR? RP pea M808) (S53) Secu ab se sdize doch est opener iar se ond, yew? Low =k R y= b= 2.0.0 B= (= (4.00000 ALGEBRA LISARA GHOMETRIE ANALITIR $ DFERENPALA 3518. Sud ics opens line T:2R*> R?,ce ae mao V2 32 yz ya mine Go goo RT ee un spa ves mets taser pads ‘eae cna). 86 Fle epicsia Int FRO, Moya=Gta—Be—n—9) Si ve dernise Kerf of matiom spteafel line 1 apace B=(G.0.0,(0,,0)00.)) # B1=(00.9), 3.517. Se conse apleaaf R? f° defin prin Hi(e,3)=(@,-ba+3).Socere sé so ante e8 Heteo splat nin § sauarminai atioea alin Inne i perehil de haze B=(f=23).fo=G.D). B= (4) =(e-L-Dy = .0-Dny= 1.0) ) ein i Rd et on epee 35.8 Shinde matce opine lininre fs? 2? in rporteu basa Bi= (F~(UD.F © (0 per R? respctv baa Boe (5 = Ch. =O, =€,00)} peat RP ese 20 as ( ‘} sto uo pe eesti ry S19 . Fic opemtonil tinar fy: HR? efit prin Soll») =(a(b4 ym (142M), ‘Sie determine Ker, If, (sce daph met) gi sts tering stile if, in ban Canoaied Be CIR, espectv tn haze Bef 0.09 = (4D) “YALORI SI VECTORI PROPRIE 14. Valor sl vectori propril i Yun spas vet pse cpu (Ras €) gid: ¥ => wo endomericn Tea Gta ee [seme Yee er 219 lao lope Feces pest cmopent Sn rt I cn mrcntmasa yc car pent See Antara pen ei a foreach tox cineca ter mm Tryp stad ame some a ep Soren Leer rp AL wor 2) Vest prope computed Ik wae prop dines sunt Tne Independent 5) Muimes (2) ~ (Ar = 2, 2 valor rps, KEK estan subi ctl fn Vane 6 A ack AUS). Ace hpi pose Hat a ‘tints se mime supa propri aac 2 Demonstrate. 1) Fi wr ver propris computor webs prop 1 Ax An Duca xs A* eK, A" A stint Ac Ax, atml Axe ele sin (AA Qe Oi dex cee ete ss 2) ety vest props a a A crespune In aol prope dine | Aeowky Prosi iain ip pNP 7 pee ee viet arc ysl rope it de voor Prepac popes ee S6__ ALGEBRA LINARA GEOMETRIE ANALITICK $1 DIFERENTALA, otal pei pt vei Din ei +s Hat hg tp ty 0 eK, Aden aha bot dt, 0 re eee) ‘Aeesen imck Uh —hy) tot yl Ay Mp 0, re, Spec 0. nent x, = Oat , =0. ipmem de inure, ds Fy y= hp 2) Pet oe. ye (A) 9 eR vem A (et) = AA GMA ) = BA HAy~A (Gs de ESTA) Rem A SA )IESA). Exempla 4.1. ie OUfL}R fe C™) pil inion clas pe (4 Bede $79 7% $ (6) = [7 0 CV)ee 1, sume cpeatorl Sul Si se ok = ae), ne st vale prope at ae a ar f0)=(2 =D" wom einen eve (0! D7, (= Bf). Decide ntl of ambii mere, ullod foomln Lai, gin (a = JEG) + Dang FL (a) tn DAI) = Deas sania 1 AMC), 0 (OF =D ACO =H DRO), Des SCD ~ nr) ut varie propia Punt vet oer =P) {eI eN ost vet prope. Aue dk snort, con ce ate cenit “oor 412 Seep rope oes vale pop tines, some Denpasar ince 2 a SSC) spl roi crept. Duc areca 252, )1U2, mare d= A Aye (y-2,)=0, le Domne ese sb Desist) A)" 4. YANO St VECTOR PROPR 87 A= (0, Jo matic pie oto n# X= [x] ommend id xt ca cenih dncpul AUR sx), Dac exist eat tt AC~2%, ac sesame vetor propel, Sar 7 se nuns valbareprapele pests ‘anja mata (4-201 Dest echivaens cu swan Ini oops, (a ~ A, +08 Fahy =O la + Ag toctaky =O lant Fay 4 Cy —AM, =O re a sli da fu de yA Byrne Oy Penner PA) Ath RD) = ennai | 0 be gly A Detnie 424. Pollomal AU) = ek -1.) s2 mums potsomat caruere ol mati, coms P(A) = de 2.1) = 4 2K, se memes cum oracle ati ‘Vale opi al atic’ Ann wie efi cant Fe 4 ocr pt ede odin 7(A)= de 2.9 ~0 coin carci. Dooce ‘ee ccs ite aan, dr dite ta Ct rake opt fle hi A se dele eo find elowente dia C, fa acs car voter pip copes prince RY not RY “eoreni 42.1.1) Poise cancers exrsn FAYE ABA BAT 4B) ae 6st am miso pip ced a matin 4A 58 _ALOEDRA LNIARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA $1 DERENTIALA .vazow $f vecrou moran 69 2) bout mance assncara uae poi casts ‘Dementrijie 1) Descompunen F(A) = de4-2.1) 2" darnian. Mal te ii rcp on 2 mae 2 mma -* ln Ca en ta avr] [2 gen By Banari) | Ogata PA aL ene tf rasa, ‘slog societal li (1! float i suns nor ier inal de sina 0 in matics 4 ta mums de C)= CofA) ,dooanee PO) ~ don = de = B,, Coole I Aoi dtcompsnem A, Oy Sn 2" dtu fin pri clot, Anam [A aon) fot Somme ‘st ura i A aie 6 = 2) Fe A 8 doo mre eemenes, ales B“C*AC unde C ete © mice wing, Anaeh daB-.D = Ge CAC A) = de] = Taal C" wae 2.0 = de 4-AD. Si prespurem of A sie © mace rel (oxide en compat ei A) si siete (4 clei x wanspus ‘A, ‘Teoremd 4.2.2, Valo opi le we mace eae sere sus rea, Demowsratl. Porm de (1) Ae 1X 4 prin couse complex ein (2) AK FR ta (toma te sng eu "Far (2) trina stbagn ow *X. Ansiog pets. Deere (-2)! pone apres pe ings penile modu cote si) et mata sm mii de xin min 42, Isumirde CG 8 “ S taecnty Rega A =A els "AXA T 9 desi GQ AIA= 0 Deswer CN earner ore — sees (1K #0,riminech 2-7 adie A eR. ft Aeron ‘Bxempte 4.2.2, |) Matricen 7 ee — ale 4 Teta deh ty Bye vdeo pron (8) apn eae D2 Gagonaspincpalt nC? mop dc cof (-8)* a format dn sme (8 _ALGERRA UNUARA, GEONETRI ANALITICA 1 DIFERENTIALA 4 vaon 58 vecrow ova 91 ‘ac pao escent P(A) dee.) ~ (2-1) vale pope 2, = 2 = carneteriee enone A toporianal iV, ->¥., a cl ml alo propia, Dae A ate act n ale prop disiaet, tn! Yet pop coespunsor dt @ 8 "ji V, sisrice A aga iA to prc acta eto ice agra uted tpt lementep diene alone prope i A ‘xempla 4.2. Pst foro A 2? > RB, cara apor cuba cana ata? are mien 40 o a-o 01 jo 12 neem potion canvas BCL) = (2-1 2-4, valle pops A, p= Aya! stt pop compara’, =(1,0D), v= 21). Dia aReLA, e"Eqrpayny] btn stom 255 1s 4555, = By, Noda yo roaes oO rants ll = as ei 200; yD Reauis Alfa 22486 25)=a'(1200}+ [0112]. Dest valet pop 2.00) %.="(03tal seg as -5 | -3 6 1 6 obine: 2) = (2-1"( 24 vo propels = Ay =a root 01-201,» = 0H)» = BA le ¥, a pte vest fn dimensional pat nal KGLAH, Art i eepunt do vest 2) Pea mace Exempla 424 Fit bap vices $= {(6,-2)|a,beR} RSE © tatocte apicais tna FSS, flanb-a)=(e-bb-e+8). SE se deemine vale props vec pop snl epee nie J Remivare: Pe veS=¥=(4b,-a)=a(40,-1)+H0,L0), Wo,beR de uimpeil —voobeil! «Se pentose B=(=CuO—Dhmy =OMO}CS (ee vs vein ob ster # ete ta py sibel 9). Deesmpunen vector f(y), f(y) ta barn Bde ane cipaen eeile f(4)=H1. S0a)=—m +72 ae mains pte! ae F 1 ° splints te ft mpons cu back Be adonortsa Fie an vector ropa al i A i 2. shure rope sci Aces sta li dd Finn ob nV, Notion x 4 mass saith eodomorisn A sea mace clos wap yet x Rein ds =. ete civ ce coin ince A= AX, Fe PCL) = da(4-A) pofsomal exscwrisi al matics! 4. Omid ‘pecolece wnt ol dat ext le prope ae ndomertsml A sun tle EPA to K br vet upelaliA mt oil ori matical 2 D= (0. e de i pte tema 42.2 wa policed (2) = eG ex vat fideo shinbae «bare én Fade ene i PUL) epi de Agen epecemrea pve peat a hi A, Daag auf de mune ‘ming ft Ar auatrl tr se Sumy ws Ae Aces js : ‘ rpon oo ban 8 ete A=L/ ( 7), om tom ance wt 4 VALon $1 vEcTOR mora 95 : nuns: a 0-270 reauld valle prop 29% 616R . Subp de vec ‘rope aso va pee 5 Ooty eS y=(a,b-a) ou prop fO)=l-ver fla-a}=1(ab-a) pe Desi Ae, = 046) Lng Meo Ge see vs eo prop siendomoromai A. epee dak Phe) eo BASF, ort in vst prope ai come rat nie { bet veeRe relat ht nobbe liam et substi vector propel corspusttor vl pop 2 =1 ete Sia (= (.0:~0) 06. Ay Od 43, Forms diagonals ecu mrs vc edomorim 4 :V, >, dep de legen bes ‘mV, prea ates elcid se poate gto ha ie, 8 eae macs cadomofisou el ht fod ct sip Define 43.1, Us endomrtsm 4 :¥, >, se mumegs lagna dct exist Dah (66) stot mates nasa are goat Maciocia ds reno car i oespude codtimull A se aus: mirc agonal, ‘Teoremt 43.1. Un entonrtsm A :V, >, ese dngoalibil dots mai ac exis o bao pati, foot dla vo propel et eadomarsou Demanstraje. Duck A ete diagesizbi, tine exit © bask (Sei) 8 pail ad care mate i ent agonal corspnaior ssp Demenstratie. Fey o venue prope mulls de onal m 61 (2) staal pps corespusator. Notim dim $2) = pon. le (65-8) | S(t asters Compe sons tars ps as In, de fi). I wer 6, fly psi vest prope | comspnaion Is vans prope 2, vem A (6) “2g, 1 Do pA = Sone + Stef dpPhnm Mie bid scat 1M _ ALGEBRA LNIARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICK $1 DIFERENTALA 4. YALonu st VECTOR eROMRI 95 Ay 0.0 Apion 1p. Ata Be B= (6 Cee Pe eco as 00. aunt "sya dep, Ulin indi asp aps dove oh Beste bak ayo tocit polbomal carcertic al i A are forms PLA) ~ da-2.) (4, 2)*A(2), de AC stem eons de ota 7. Ta coochis,A(%)= ips om, ar OC) #0 noi pm De pm ‘Teoremt 433, Un enomodan A :V, >, es dagoaizb e mmi ac plomal caret ot nile i pl pat cae ete at Vt icosnne tetra bap propels te gale enn emit a va opi coesponzions. Demoostraie Adlon kA :¥, >, este lags. eau oh exi o ba (¢-.¢,) nF ft da veo prop pec A fa de eae maton lA te iagnea, Fi PA) (AAPA AY AA) sal 2 eg pt aoe op i ama dingo. Cola 43.1. Duck A, 9, se diagonal ataci V,= 81%) © $12) 8... O54). ‘Pot, peste dngnaizns wi ofomortin AV, >, prsedkm tn cetacean aS enrtestnsentin neste Py rata, Hein] eh ae ae es eee ateanlONes 2) yc exith (Sn) vl prope alee yyy 2y ot tale de pen m, wet nba BEGG mB my a coos, vero (Sjen8q )= SUA) apn soba props corespanzie ler propel e2 ce ses mural or mse a me cel lt on den (2): m Sin $(2). Be dea pan, cofora treme 33, ave di (AS mo conclaie my dm SZ) Aig enc Sn (A) = mh 5 ™ eapctte mom iin anal See mace 4-2. J Io. Dah rang A) = maj oon Bie SU) = dln Kor (AD ete moet de si independent ale siamml ompco (2,24 0, sac (conform tae Boop 4) Acie digelai. “ 6 ALOHA LINIARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA $1 DIERENTIALA 4) Se aol exe p state cringe (1-4 f= 0. Un sso fume de solu) pense un asensoc sen repeat coolosele vestodor prop corepusttoraal ropt A, 15) Mice ei dt pte ars fom da ves pro a a A, ae pe lagna evel Ayal yy ae alae prop £6) Non pi DEM yy) mstce ago ang An por co bara senna vsti propl sa A.Daeh C1 Mye(R) ste mates al cl colons sn tor porcelain ari Vi mato de ect de bail in, (nan aos aR) a baz foma in vst epee D= CAC. ‘xemple 42141) Pen edanerSeuul dR -9 I? dic pin mos 3-1-5 243 122 ve ola casio, M2) ~ (2-1): vie pop, 2,7, 21, nat m3 U-i)=nag] 233 |=2¢mm=39=0 124 ‘ei endomorianl Am dag, 2)Fie opera ie 4, dit ati A GC 4405) —2eet 255 +504) = arty AA) ERE St se deceit © ba a cae penton tir A ae foram cat sagt TRerahars Isao ban canonical Rts te : O28 Tn ce wat epee 4 A)“ AD Ted) Red ae ppd 0, ye #6 Dire Feat ml, hm Deve ng (3) 3 =m = wan x ‘mba (01-2 =m 42 pa i (2) ~2. Vo pe {O20}, % =" 1.0501. Haag (AD = 3 = em 28 tt veto pops oper a pop A= 6 Y= 25). fa casio Ae dingntztt ca matin dgpstiztae ohne vectra prope ='(-10.2.. H1o2 1 o1o coPuromnd= [3 9 100 00 0 | syee|@ 100 SeotineD=cac-l) ) YO pos 8 ALGEBRA LNIARA, GEONETRIE AVALITICA $1 DFERENTALA yest poi si entmararm Ay, esi elite (9) A ete ut nasa inp vector rp 44, Spectral endomorfismetor pe spatil euclidiene Fi Vu potn cuca pestcimpal 4: ->¥'an domo, & (4) G2) ‘Teoremd 4a. Fie V un wis icin couples gi Be A: YOY om exdamocti boan 1) Val rope sn eke 2) La aos ep int corepand vce props toga 5) Dock im Y= state ndomoezulhemikan A 7, +, eit extn sete prop agonal dei da Demonia 1) Saber Bee AD A wy _ GG)” GA 2) Fie A #2 vor prop ale a A V esr papi coespanats. Cen) = Cad = AC) a repetlv A HH I= Oe A YY Oe v4) Aa) Rez (2A) "Oya (0) =O, Ay 5) Dock in V = m tact polo extrisic P(A) adits cst putin © oo 2 (even eit de od cet vl pop i oespunde ce "piu vetor pons. Fie, =.) subsp eagna wpe is Va stati ropes $2). ‘Aone = 8( 2) S, di $,~ dn Bin SA) = Fe de seen A loi pop ale eadonorSsmul A, di potnamal cance (4) a ccdrfomal dy devin pom eraceite PU) al lA. Fie Ay oii cvabarsa ison vetorpropezatatai 2 tn ast coat A fi RCA) C2, pote egal eu sau mm i recon propria copra oy Si? Sy po ha 16S, dock yy Dae ye Vso pop pneu Aa isn determin iver prepa Acar sur ogo Prose contin pa bcos estes Ae, bsp"), 8,4 Cnn $) C8, 08 din, = 1 Polo carter a A Is ae > rn ipl design vl pop 6, Uepespunew vector opis “V5, cae tri isacnior (*) ete ofageoal pe tf vet et nuts fa cana bjt exact vec pope A raga ek ote ‘Corolar 4A. Datos popsstei 3) over eononim berition ese aoc “Observai, 1) Perks us endomorim anthemitan valor prop ut pu + piu sual; vec prope erespunzte a cles ropes ca itn aa emt. 2) Pe spite escliee rel, vl propi sl nl enemas sic ot le far voile prop sl nu cadonoetm ennai ut ul. Dae Ve ste poi evlitias al imesonl ar A Hy => Wy est iti, me A ped m vet pop cate oapsie 0 bask etogunld a al Py, ACES propia nue devs ponte ndosefm anisineie ay rst IAMS; 6B Yo Ay (5): Atme eh xy Sas ttt Wot Bs) A Toe Dei (94) = Mh, 4) =A Maka) = AaB) = (434) 7 0 de unde rend 74 ys wad Ye S} ma Are (SES LExemphi, 44d. Fie spat euidnn complee RY gi As RoR exomoril dt prin main | 19 ALOU LINARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICK 51 DIFERENTALA van gt VECTOR! PRopei01 2) ie 22 2 rao propel x, vt prope espe, Atl 3-10) arte Sy Aed ne) oo 4 (Aap Ana) (Aimy Ay) 2) Eye Coyota) Si atm of A ox boii is detemiot o brat in € ft de care matics, exdomoraras bt form dings, Valor propl sur re = a x st orngcs 5) Se demonsrecl ang oa 3) da forms 5. ee doce el eplten (, =. Bhs hy == 4, ja vector prope copa y= (0), = (80) poms = 4 f= = (41,0), poms 2=2, mnt etogonll diets di Desi A este her, [Nera vetr prope eines zs etosenait ool) teen ee Matices de wee pd Aa) = vy tg) A re) senate rin (4.74) CA 1 1 AGUA Ma Co te) fees Pimple mina 443, Fe A: V,>¥, on eofomacaen boran sl 5 La a Aye 42 = 2A. valle pop le A. Dae Ve un hepa et ua? 0 0) am -c ab ae aM) gp An «min (Yin Py 1 a0 Inova ban ec spateatt D-c'4c=|0 20 = . " ea Do 4 Brahe LZ Soom a Demensrafi, Feo bat ono (ee) lV, peu ene Ae, = ‘Teorems 4.42. Fie Vunspativcelsioncomples (el) gl A: —> Poa sadomorfem ur (regen 1) ack exis, vlore prope le ei A su module x unitate, 2) Lavo pop aasacs crespand veto prop oregon 2 Deck ¥ nek pore vector pre ‘nog di ete dl Demonstrate 1) Fie ZC ylore propre pet eodomorfsmsl enor A whee t= By fe YC Vy bop gent de ver ey. 6 sn Pra conse V, AY, (0}, decree am admis et dim Pym mk Fi xe eh, n¥y visi aem x= Fae, dA Yaa d= complex fm simensons YateoneYasena= Laat Vor Vsi = € VO} vector props orespuator at A, Aver: oes 2202 BARRA, tid A (x An= (is 29 -2Fbed 2a Spm -aapi== Desi woe A gated 22 FEU CY pee A Bt aaetecas tet " vode Te cnn mpc 2. Pia sear euba (2-1 2) = 0. Folge de Yo es egarriey HME EE UE Vy: AtMG = = Decareee (i #)4#0, mts AT-t)=Osau [21 = a Bae deiet isa Lala ete SiaPeay, Renta a6 102 ALGEBRA LINARK, QEOMGTRIE ANALINCK $1 DIERENTIALA 4. YAvon §¢ VECTOR! opm 03 WQ)S2 yah WS Din cele dou neat oben p= gs Re [5 Probleme propuse — [rv ali sat Cp Sm sane romp 42s dn mn cori Soon pop vn ppl leith AV > dei ag =A pon or). ¥e0 . foo 3 3 sv sent a op et prop pn Acme waupinmiiena-[2 2 9). rane Boot dew owanpiomeie A]? 43 la Deoarsce A'4= rer el marina A ete ertopoel;dct edomerfsm A 4 (a.a+b,b)l,beR) pe cae se deionte (2-b2a,0+0). 88 ste otogons 3 vrs are props ale Wi A = > RE a gl cu.unte 9 e vestori prot orespuzitor st rogosh ‘Valorie popi lea Ast soll esi dele.) ~ Oa 2 M5 1B way 15 Brides lal -1 a al Wal ee corspunaiont mit repent ey(—V3AS—VEN, c(t ED, BS). BB, By +E 90) si eg= &. Verrior , sie, lise 113) gi AEB 0) ant ttt hid BB 00) ot " 4, Se eid imei 8,65) = 190,064,996, 649)~0. ora vocal reat! om pot i bem canes ain Sie dtemine 0 bck fa cue mate om ode det forma eaoeie dagen W)*05 (64.7) 0,65 4S6.FeA:R 9B? eafoerSsml ei pie AG) (542,44, 24-2 By Bayh CH) Suse desmie o bark atonomat in Ff care mies enfrorfstml st ‘soit fms canon gral 459 stseuases $= (aio), abe R) ete nop vest alii RO aw dooming din SS se ame ah f2895, Hebe) (a-bb 0+ Bate apc Hoa sw dine aoe sesoprath 7. 4510 Soden $8? +R a as f= ((2, aa) eR aa 4a =, Be? Sts dteine veo vale ep el 4511 ie open! fA? 2? ce ate satinn aoe af: 3 sje sag ca B= (80N880,088) 8 vc i at 0, pi em Te Progen FR BP 2) Cer2p e paren ns Ponte 1. Forme bilinir Defi Su. Fie Pun spits eco pse Empl 0 fit da -9 © sa mes frm ilar pe V ck Abe 4,2) =A 81214 6.2% ACsbytle)=EACS YALE) FE KE. Accestt define spune ct 0 form bili te © futie de out varie ois, part cu ocr vari ‘Exempla 4.1 Prooralsalie defn pe an yh veces 9 format let. Exompls $1.2 Proll dfn yo uns vet compe, ot 9 Fi bin dooce (xy +12) = (Say) + (He) = Bey) + Te) eka 9) 42) "iB (9 mien ato formelr itn pe ¥- Aden Fermi tulires cassis deine ce nei dad € BV; Kh atl Ui A NIE A IEA (A Ne) DE), VEER, Wo 9 eFRY, Inrnporcuacet eperimalimes (Y,K) ee satis vector este ep, Define S12. Fam ini 4:7 P—>K s mune siti ac AG) =A 0.2 Ws yoda AGA Ga), A vem Fre Baars sete, Fi Vamsi vet — dimension pte copul Be Gyo} OUD 4 scent spat. Pen x y eV ~ dee, y= Soepvia WaxVerK 0 106 ALOEBRA LINARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA $1 DIPERENTIA fama po oom A) =A (Sen) —BeSonr, ACsven cence coon a Ys ne eri et sca ok aa es (ede pe bal on a Ape); epttatn de mat ss devine Aeon -LEea0s aes mame expr tale rs if deta cose, ios A=] My) de coe = 4 (eye) ee mann ora ities apes (6) ed ioscan matic cobant = [5)] € MCAD, Y= Lj] MC), sate vector ail expe aii forma inept sri sib firma matical A 3) = ZAY. ‘Bxemph $13. Si s ve ele 9: HI? efit pea eedearya tan yy Weed y=OyrdER eke fom iting, apoi demi! tion foomet bile g tn por ex ba encaist dn RE TRemvare; Voom lsirtatn ta rap x prima vai (kx y.2) = Ch +B +(e tad miley 2a tn ly =n 92-8) =ROCE) HO.) tghy=Ouraht= nese, Vil eT ‘Ansiog se vection Sinise fa rapt eu noua vac baz capi 1 =ChO)e,-(OD}ER din RE, Notin co A mass foe! 5. FORME BILNARE_ St PATRATICE 107 pire tm rapt ou buen croak din Refi wll A= (Oy) ra sate ayy =9l6 6) JU. esi aves ations etenei) ever) -(° 5 ee) ened) La 0) oler.e2)= 9400, (0.9)=0 ewe soires mab lene Dine 9 ee 0 1(n s n van? s(?} ath, -(}r-b,-(25] nc ct tel el dt cent asin tite a ent M0 cei n(n M9 Det en 4 ti (se sc ee dt eon engi rh et ‘tvtime 4) to (eet) ot tates etd be + il si osama Dent A 4 i ea ii a a A= [6] eicn fro ato aah {6-0} 8 ai ave 2, Ae) =A (66) = tyr Ga A='4. Repro, adem ch exist 9 Bz Gey} 8s se ‘uct mations forme A~ [4 ee sinoieh. Anush Wa ye ave A O42) = ams = ware m0Y=AG9. ws ALGEBRA LOEOMETRIE ANALITICA 1 uF ‘Tearemd 5:12, Dash Co{ej]e My(R) ote mice de wncere de Ie bien | (ait) baa ey ae Ay Dine A FoF fp dele do zs, tn reac. B= [b, ]est mati fra Demet bn ogee Sno Bsn em | emt mes SMT =D). iae B=) by = Ae Ad ‘ode ces bar, A 3) "BT ‘eel parte matin cbse XG. ally tne dou bre sat leptin ine XC, YC” apa teat A (3) = CAC). Ress 'XBY' = (CACY ect B~CAC. [Bsempla SIA. Fe form bins g:R? RFR co ait in pot 1 a a tm Fe beetaCLojce® maiee 2-[ Deeoinst ep alte «toms bie @ pri dick ome biti @ ote see Revere: Deon masse i gt pet cx ara exons (B,) cia RP in fa Bothy A Tye A= Oh YB OGY BT ‘unde A’ matricea forme bilniare in raport ox baza eaoodics (2) din IR 2) tes i tn is de ee hn smn (2) = (2 1) msnmpise matics de soso do Ie bass 2 }) mapa mati de sone coon (Bode Ete bam 8° Tay (°, 3) st 6 ra cmosih (B,)dl le Yaz Bie uate se we mation CIC ICI IE I 3) ovr ie anata inne @ et al) Steere vi )eru-() sn st» ti oes = (2 8), tf oe ax AY | ‘lire torpor cu bua canon (B,)ain RF exe sine Delnifie 1.3, Fie 7+ fo bliin sme Muna Ker A = (2714990, Vye 7} se mamas mel frme ‘earena S13. KerA c Vs un bp veil Demonstraie Fl, veKee A. Ariel (40) = 0,4 (1) 0, Wwe Ys dost le Haven, 9) +14(0, 9) Osan d (eh) =O das hr Ker ‘Teoema range 54, Dak 479.9 Keo fa bine sere pe ‘pain ect wines Vath sang A == dice A), 10 ALOENRA tAMARA, GEOMETHIE ANALITICA $1 DFERENTIALA 5 FORME BILINRE st PATRATICE 11 Demonte Fe (2) © bad a i Yew A [0,), 4 Hr, Pesan din = Dae {yn} et att pel wet Va, foros bliniare ix rapor cx aceast bas. Ati Vx, y © Poy Z unc pecs orice = See ave athena sanochertem men Bet Ke, 20-4659 ajo Deel dover atin A ton= SSeS Slax ]p) exe att eter ane A (Ent) b= ‘nDeci Ker esi mln slr acs ten ede lt pate ang A= ang (aj ae gi a A ete el cu ifn it muir aecunneae sicanatl dines spi solr sem ‘Exempln $21 Se dif pleats FRO OR, fl) 2 2p, Ha, TH COLDER (.0)5 = (40,0)} poe fargo co bam B= 2. Forme pitratice emivare: Polis Ii f ete fomna til simeca 9:R xR? -> le ¥ un spi weal poe impel 9A eV 0 form bin soe, Defic S22. Pua Q: Vr K sofia pin eaten OG) =A (ex) umes forma ptr oltre! bare siete; we see form ort a forma deablat al 2. ‘De excl fms pie comps profs lr let pit some ectine 6) = (2) =f sxe. Feamcte pint «Yet =A (21) A ADA GIDEA OLD A Gun A Ga)e2A NA G) HA GID =A) fe 19) Har 9-20-20 samy -Ovrn2DER ner) HAG +) +2 a) +B Man ya) 2a 492K 10)= wetted tne, -yf ark tetra say stinenstansantrs ‘Acs resist pote domi yi mail co autor mac ‘Aca palin ai da se cuoate rma peat Q mc fama bint simatic 4 et pvt tema 112 ALGONA UNGARA, GPOMBETRIE ANALITICK $f DIPERENTIALA 110) a=|1 21] «fone pliace cae ee si matice Some polars to pert. 010 ‘ea baza canonicd din IR? de unde se obfine forma soalticd a formel potsre ° 11 O( (x st 2 a} |a|= 01 dl anc esenne va Maviescorespanaioe ferns pla tn rpot eu bam (=D =0.40)9)=0..0) CRP se eels i frou ay)= XA ATi ATas a Thr = |) | 1 E 5 FORME MIINIARE 5: PATRATICE 115 vr 10) mse mati de ear dee Haen canons (i 06 FO te barn 2 dec fie mies campunete fami pole Sa part co bam B 11 0)f1a 1) (7 6 2) 12 affia ole 52 or glo) 24, nid alii 10g Defias $22 Fie 47% +00 frm bili seri forma pcs ‘Veetrls,y"«Pseauassertgonll aap (ru Od) 0 inte 523 Fle Ua shi etna 1 x} semumes complement rtogonal li Us Vi A “Terem S24. Fie 7x19 of bina imei & 1) 0 este abi vectra 2) Gs (yyy) ee 0 Ba a apes ye ee ecient oe ema (04) =A 4 = A DDB: Demonstrate) Fe Jy 3 6, Asi (3, 91)" 04 (094) 90 Pee K 169, avon AG, 9) +14 (% I)" O m0 ACE) =O. Des ay wo 2) yeU* ip A (990 Vx. U5 I patie A (04,9) 0 Flo BE eouce <0, Redos d( ) =O peoma V xeU dene dst x6 U wen eee ye 1 ALGEBRA EREARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA 81 DUFEENTIALA, Defe 524, Un ver x6Y’ xe nts introp Im rapert ex @ forms ‘nara sete 7 Y=» (en elt fra psoas O) ach ate)= 42,2) 0 [Bempla $21. Pen fem bd A RHR FR, A (9) HF fe pis soit te dei pea QC) = 34. Din Oe) = Ores 2s, 8 ne stor nop lo sa (4) 6 (4g) 8 3, €R Defnia 524 pene of in ver x6V ese atop dat gma che ete gaol aap eient trl lal pull este trdzaus iorp decarece ao)=0. Definite 525. Be A WoxY-+R 0 foot bisa sie. © bea Ay) © Vy smut nak otognal Inport os frm Ada AC.) peta 4 id Je ik vel arogonl do tie do de fom 4 Tampon exo best oteposlt nti frm este gor fay 0 0 0 Oa 0. 0 000.4, side na 2, nme 4 ‘forme pate snc, evn AG) Larne Ob 1,2. mane expres an Acese expe ae une ere eanonee conpizzowe fra bi sinetite 4 prepa fom pStee O nacaet arse pune forma pel Vs-¥> spt fii A) fo ou expres aon. 4 FORME BEARE st PATRATICE U5 ‘53, Reducerea formelor pitratice Ia expresia canonted “eorenl $3. Dae Q: Ve > ete ofa pach pe spl Yo stl ext to Vy Ba etal apr cu, ae oar fj de ae fh expres enone. ‘Demenstatie, Adit ora cod oo ata te nedegeeah Acs escalate redepenrst Vos ls ite pn Penta =1, tan ete format trun vosor ao, Fe = > 1. Deus A ete neepenet, Ker A (0), fc ce aes of exit vet x, Ye of nt A(x) #0. Awe! pin oma a esl A (+ 9,49) 2h AO, 9) nen Des eth un vector 6, 6¥, ap et ACG.) #0, easel = Ye subsp ecto genet de seston, gi U compliment hii tognal fs de A our vein din Wau de frm KER i A(GuA5 mM (44) 20 peta 20 sau ses 4/0 ee salgenc confirm torsos $21. even Vy =U OU! yi viola A) 7+ ete do cert, Acasa who din U= 1 sores pin costae din = 1; pln tes ded, fe U est 6 sd nah (6,848) nope ad esnii AU del ih de A i fe um a fs cont, west 6, st rng dite oi ade des ini depend Ta adv esta Key =O, yo, so implied OAL hg the, + + heath) = HA (86) Ftoon m Rein (eye) #0 conde oy hfs conte fe Scouser cara end. et depron, Kee 4 (0). ost U= Ker WY, sbspajil pian eu Ua U9 W'= (0) 116 ALGEBRA LRSARA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA SL DFERENTIALA, 3 Ye=U OW. Confront ngs avem din U=n—rng A qian! din in Ysa Un Sang Ang cova elven rest 4 ete edegenea, Nota p = den = cag, Conform piu cuz exist o bus Ubvonfg) in gona fit de resin A 9 del ih de 4 Compe ens bm Bed (fpf) ME Uae odpowr baa (foo fpe fed a 1a We onogoans SS (eC Jon, apr hi U~ Ker A saiie colitis A (f.A)™, Re, lk pty sh par, fn abe cau 8 st i baal F, “Teorema $3.2. Das nag, pen ae ocase fz (6) MH ‘orognat Sih de foes ink sinebich A (sau Q) exact pte set Ae 8) OE Door A cavotich a A(t) mul cosSfoe aml te as abue es sang4= 050. Demonstrate. Fis (6 yee, Potash hi Ve orogemls Ae) #0 bm af de Ap et WA G]yq)=0, fathom Ane Beto en d(@0,) <0 cs xls Sve etal 2 Alaa Asada Kee d= Adeoarce A (@.6,) #0 Ke Semen = qplcum din Ker 4=n—p (eos rang 4=p) eh gp Us posed raced consti 6 bt oop deo optic ha, ast ba fn care 5 eee expen can conse to ‘wi Gu ‘Teoreml. 5.55.(estala Gnas, Fie Q : ¥4 -PR fork pat pe spa tri compl Yo. Nt ep cons be (16) 8,} 12 Fotos a apt on 0, deere 9) en expo canon Gy fp ete aml ous 1.) Qe) rt nom ofa ar expen Demonia Fe (vn) ©bma vse rx O6)= Eon, fcc me ome cha De 9 0, Fd Gm om ea ard ipo oes co pe oP em coord 24) oa es J esa ems: dias Q(a)= =Slajxix, tn cae col putin unl daze elonetle ago a7 bun To Me Sh ca cade Jal sunt OOn tat oo 00 1 Fis mire generinien, ple adae ck oy #0 aye tact pute sie O60) si + 2B sh + Sos Attn atten ten pos prt. oie pi frm nie y+ tat a ae 1 O0)=: elt +. in Ses sate Spee) cep Be (Gs in din Be ceordooste ver xe mek ep f= oi + aye + a pkraanice 18 je J 2, em le pon ox sna bt, expr fmm pnts dove 10 ua Ge-lo1 0 loo. Avntitor Q(o) =? —(0+3/28)+233 ae Tet, prin seinen de ven OC) =?" +25 ce ors anni fae Bez, onogonals fd QF de cae am ates daqe: = 125+ Ss ee Ss tet 21 varie aot pont taeda. Mateo geese a ous zk se o oct Inconel, dp cna 1-1 poise 9B (6,06, Foot fe 0, oma pre onde ee em exe pero sn pinto dep <1 me line iets ~ 08 )- aumple $31 Pe om pats Q: FP -9R Geta 10)= 5 yay oy faba cba FE ave y=, = 12,3 Remar: in shinbur de cordon 1G, sb Be ame Fert mason Ge ssee de bean canon in le aan an eae forma unin are fom casa este C= C-C Cy ‘Bxempl $3.2. Fifer pints Q: PR et pin OG) = 9 +6 Hx +125 — HOH 2% = fai exrea ani fo ba Ye ce se realise aca Rebar: Foraid pitts obiem scsse 062) = 1/9695 + 65,555? 36/982 - 25/963 +64 62} Pr, W9(G3,+6%-~5%)? + 282-2 429/95} — 1/9194 +62, ~Ss)° + V2Qs, 5)? ~ 1/283 + 429/92} =1985,+ 65, ~55)° $1225, 449/18 = 1997 41/29! 4489895 (yearn) ER pimbenad 66 $6 6 26,- 6 OW) =16 A128, S% seein Qa) 3-3 ~ Se) -1/407 bra oop ote 6 366 = 1/26 + Garon de cee te 285) a — Bex 1747 wot x ap ALOHA LARA, GHOMITREE ANALITICA 81 DFERENTIALA 5. FORME HILINARE §PATRATICE 12. By Jy Sy oor ba hs 3196+ 124, unde 9) 95, +65 — Sey 4 igen de Q. frmath ain veeonl f 90, f fon 2195, +1024, + 6 ‘Teoremh $344¢nsoda cb), Fe 0:49 Rofo pass A =a) : 5 sate Uf) epee mi pa et TP pase tn acs hd. Maen hi Qt bans Uy far) st etcen B de - emeate by Afi f,)=A nents + Cp6)) = nA vee nA fines *. hey #4 (fuss tm A (fe) 0 pent <1 (rin costae) deduem of by =0 pours / < 4 Di propia de simarte a forms bine re mate nba (6,606) MY Das erin 8, =a, ayn Mdm robe en sxe soi pte Qin 0) = BS amon codon a nace a Demonstrate Chua veel fmf, fms fy a : by 0 si peu J> i In conchie by =0 pears #9 Tn ps, cs j= aun & A Unhd= A Ces t twtened=ey A Une) teun 4 Sem eue+ Gat refy 82k ave AUut))=0, 19eton EA (fne)= 3s wade A este pola fame plaice Sots eon case ei devin Ant) 604 +e +650 =O Sem et a to Tian ed aden = teas be Uhh mm Fes 40) = Lyx, =F xempin 8% Folisd moa lob dean engin aca tar a cae serine es, pepe ERR OR ha) = Sef 460+ 4) —B.—ha [Rerlare: Masses forme ptatce stp siz oon it Cay Amd ER A Gt) ~6uta +680 bot Ce ‘Aces site are oui widens rin pte determi steht chin 4, #0, Repl Cramer &t Minti pni3,sit 12 ALGEBRA LINGARA, GUOMETHIE ANALITICA 1 RERENTIALA 4 FORME BLINIARE gf PATRATICE 125 opi le matics fms, Gu valnte prop ind sere ee eet ete cate’, pak eancete om aycts mnt ers enact plates 3, 1. st oor sa ees bh. ‘Demosstrai Desc aize fomel Qe matice set real, site anal al rope se poste agen. Ati bra a Ujena) oat in eter peopl orononna a moti frm fn acess Cann Lies Sage Bag, D)~ pate Rat ad, xputla stale «forms pole aj fame pce ese AG) = 94 689345 Deva 2eay Dea Bee “ye hie exp oi femal Assman tale prot onan, prin schinbrea X=C.X", swaashy=Opyaa eR? “(shoal #8 oi mei expres canon ‘Bvempl $34, Fis forma pte QR 9R, OG) = 3) +78) +82 Bs, 16 Bag, ER? pe abu Om caacich Slrnd meat vecar props deteminnd 0 ba In nt fe rnin acest. ie 1Noas st B=U, ff} se de weaaltad scsi sere ce fusizezh noose vectra ha 2 ye Ge taza cance dn R att 1 5 fie, A fuayel 50-12 fh Mfse)=0 _ Sa-t=0 a 5 fren eo ee Ant Replvre: ia bara cose da R? mato eel plas exe 1-4-8] [4uj.a)=0 [50-29-20=0 ala 7-4), fine +bey +005 2 | AUues)=02{ 204620 ren lafuesy=t (Bade 54 cue te vale pri Jy 8, 2 9. Ver pope etna ahn=Zarporke cnt B53 lO Be} G8) tnt mato de ten a cert bard te 2130-55] eels 28 20s eck fat oboe Sues 1 hata h “orem $3.5, Fe Psu spin vera eusien. Duct Fane Rete fo pba (ea) sucked Bal {foe at dee 5 aot, 8, at en ha Hat eet yO) 23 us ais "ia taomacea de cordomte X= CX" jem expr can exptsia canocist » forms eve C4) = AR?, unde A, i te) =95)-+967 +957. to tan hy a ao ‘54, Signatura unel forme pitratice reale Desi 5.10 fra pttaes 0: 7 > Rs oumete poi smd (nop endef act Q)» 0 (epetv 8) <0) pent erie xa: Fone ase Qs ames prt el oegaty dea ae Oe) > 0 (reeds fs) <0) pen ove 40a ‘remplu 841. Pods sco define pe wa suis ctrl ral ee 0 fom lini simi pox defi. Observafi. Duck ext x, €V ap init O{s)>0. gh sy eV at ack (0¢;) <0 spasm fap Q ete ede. “Meo 60» permis bj 0 cdl eet sues pen Forma pris: Y4PR. se port dein (spec mga ett). “Teor 5. ec i Syvester. Duck sn iden coil tore ca, act Fema plate O: YP Rese pon efit dak anal das 20,11 2m i ete megniy denis dak 4h sume ek (8, 20, Khoa Demos le Q poi init. Adie ria shad exit wn 4, =, 15.&p $m eemaa tama of umn dn Un ai A, ete 0 combi lini ‘rll, acd exh ue Eyodlyy tt tome mle asd Fay ht ot hy Os FP ak (68) yA (eat) tact hy Agu) =O. ooPr ares A este © fom saP saniod rai eben, Sas 4 beter 00) SS ea hs | a0 = $8 tse 00126. 20)-08 0 Fnconhe Oe)>0, ¥ x4 0, Dash O exe np df, eh onan 0 ‘te psi dei to so reac seed a vodee emacs hl -O en -A=F-6)]. Detaie42. Fesicnss 0) - Sano ps 2-6 nate p const ke pea, gst gp, ard == (Ga) sn ra Triplet, 9. 5 ume slgeatura forme paraeeQ. “Teor $42 (goo de aie a Il Sheer). Signa ferme pete ‘tenant neha Bae gd cae expe monk 126 ALGEBRA LNGARA, GEOMIETRIB ANALITICN 81 DIFERENTEALA 4 FORME BIANIARS 1 PATRATICE 127 Forms pitch Q:¥-¥ Rete pk defi ick gmat dat usa din sansa condi eel: @ siete 0,0, (6) Steriza 8 jst it post, (i) elie propi email A sme pore, Demonstrate. Fe (6,608 Jofenth) Ey Gok bate a Ye Dt ae {oma pte 0:¥, +R arene anole: O10) Soar xe Boxe, vyce Ot0)= Soja Be te cone le oot ast elt By JJ eta #60 -t 00. Ie | ar pten presse (vena pista eaumeroare) pinl pexeeem in 1, woteig set gra adet VV, shaven 55 Probleme propuse ‘ a= $i- Stabe ee 54 es vt fil mabe ipa: Ra] -Pya}-+ tn lp oo 20) Sa2— Slat nna ned 159) | xostone 1)Sbseamect des for bina. 2) Sts determine mans fa bara canon spl pot maton am PLP A PA 1552.50 fn A RU RE 9 Rei pot (3,9) = 54H sigur coepenitowe ink 9.0.4) (Psa) SO cinch p =p 9 =a Si prempunen op 4p" sume ok p> pF U mbit de veo yen HU? spl pte de ite yy ny Sasi dim Up, dim = poten pop" iit in +i U ubsatal UU? mu te smh st de sub dak 0 #0). Fae eUaU, x20 Asai pen p'> a jor aceas ami aay DUE HH IA PA 1) Scented esto fom bili. 2) St oe deere maticescomspunstoe fms tn rape bass B = AGHOO, LOAD, Ho OLOM f= 0.0002 553, Se comida’ foam bila 9:9 Refs pi seit ttyl, Rta tet a name, si +0°e tot Doty Ib (42h) dl glans (*) set (3) =H tab 20 gL xe Ooe a to eden teat sayy = Guxabr=Oy eernini moet frmei balive tm bea B= = (1.0). Sin) poi deck forma iinet ete sit fntaas (ron) eat dn eines (+ 4) rth 0) =—xpy ow XE $0. Din ele deat inegiti deedueom fs) = 0, omen imp seat 0, ee ence fp eh emenes, 20 ayant 1140, Rinne

R, 08) 8B, P= o4 RSL) Sw a fom nel mr ppl em pe ec a nee ne ome eps, B= =C.0)ay = 2) maine “(i BF (m2) po ALOEERA CGsOMETRIE ANALITICK ALA SSS1S Sed forma iinet 9:7 CR” > Re oretnbaza esto 7 foie ge x Bas B= (4D) S16 Reape f(s M0} ela Feo [inet Cyar Sese: pete ino fone mn i nee ed vee me ‘b)sl.se determine matric hi f fn baza B = fx? =1, 3-3, 37}. SSK” Seah 6:R?e Rf i ala smn te[3, 3) min on tu =((,2,(-9} matics ={}_ 9) Shae eps ti ‘ori 9 88 Fle 2 > Roo pli de in So)=39f 45x} + af 4d +8 4g +24 —Gigy +4, unde ¥= (sn DER ‘Stacia forms conoi onsuido art ince a fom canal rapes, S819 Sed fom pinch f pe Rec ata buen B= (1s (0) (4009) 100 care arnsn fo. "S20 Siac react eo frm canons fame plas co ar Inbaacaonit ont Go R? mations A=] 1 0 2 -12 0 os now fen tet i “CAPITOLUL 6 (GEOMETRIE ANALITICA “61 Produse de vectori in ¥5 Spatiol vectorlor Uberi V3 en veer Teen TB se ieege oie ponshe pants A 9B ain sai vA Ho net iin dine uk chp vor ngs ces dtd? api dca ae dep Ue vcr hat Zee cnet pa we dene: deca eel AB) oe AaB) imine de oA eB [Fame 4-2 vector Ze tn pl 2 iar es 9 see st mit (es ver Se nun vs mu) Den ss «dl vec lee ea act pnt apes a 152_ALGEBEA LARA GEOMETRE_ANALINCK St DNERENTALA ‘Atos veo pti fe mM ihe eit eves 0B, feats vetor GH mts on vs ois etc TH Prem desl oy vesal Zc sth ce et in defiic vexoral OB cae ae mre east i [olf], deta bi Gi wont bi Ti dot 090 9 man bi Ti dt a0. [Doi vector! legati AB gi CD sunt echipoleati dacd au aceeasi mitime, Ain st Pe ion tres fin etre oe AB~CB > daca an aceesgi micime, diectie yi sens care va fi 0 relate de lat pe mt hie Defni vector Ter one east de etivkofde vector legal Nose ca Byoovecor ed, ir eu ¥5 wun vecwsor Ubu Orce veer Kher 3 ee eat! ach se an reorsontant ZB ai = (BIC ~ AB Fe vec Ubi 35 din 75 defini sama 245 ea Sind voter leat Gi=OA+06 woke TH exe wn repreanen 0 Wi repeats ot B In wod ssemiitor defain profil dase salen real gi voxel lib F din Wy oat cx ad ce fied vesont lps ai wade OA ete wo repent © 7 3s Olesw m 6 GHOMETRIE ANALITICA 153 ‘Aus maimen vctr Ihe V5 tapes ev penile definite mat es fmessl tn eps vectra peste copal ponerse rae sami spl ‘el al vector ibe ‘Di vos! 3,5 2 st cline dick on ete dei Doi vest TF, set ln depend dak mal dk st colin. Cothis de colirate deus dt ect J.B Vs se see T=0B) ek vesor! 30,7 eV, st cop ck eeprezenan sti prin ssa poet in Soa sut shan acti an. (ei dol vot, B,7 eM mut Kart epee duc faa doc st copia Candis be sopamsiate wei veel 5,8 €P, ssi a 5 on - raaa+ pi. Dede ue vote Uber oeeplear format © ba a W5 ds aint Define 1 Pa wag al ves hes nem 3=0H, 5 =OB ev Injgen shin! @ [4] orm de semiepsele OA gi OB BaP sex el The¥y «maim cx @ onc de in cM pei orogocnlt puns A pe reals OB, sac [Bil -[ailsee we aaope marines pos ropes = Ze 4 oi voor! HB e¥s sont onogonal(a.15) does profs for 795-0 i Sf vector Uber Vy ete un sis echioan fapet cu aes pods) | sealer Fie B=(TJ,E} buza eetcooenat 9 hi Ys ani avem aT eT +R ee ude deduce It _ALOBBRA E2MARA, GEOMIETRIE_ ANALITICA 51 PIPERENTIALA 6 GEOMETII ANALITICA 135 esompla 2 | Ecimue spe cern otonomat pote suit Ey pein B~(0, {JF unde O este uo pane Gxat In epafal Zy(umlt rigbes repeal) fr (TJ.E) ee bok ontosraut a Ys uth baz reyes Prin ax legen o cepa po oe 6 ales o ofan sms pox gi @ cents de tush Fe uo pet © a Ey cape ti axe Os 09,0 (ou lt dot or sexu Ini Or et ler fil ne tsice fps buphiigeeul hi Or eet doses de inne al uns borhia occ ace se lee dinpe Ox spre Oy). Axa Os ate ca vr pe [, wa Oy ae ea vesor pe J respectv ana O: eo overs pe sis amie « posal cake 3B = 9h bs tosh ar snes estan ete eit de a f= Yoh +e +e} cares sana eas « veo 3 ‘Sotga'3 Tie ¥ wn paiva ral att omutine de pact = (0,4,2,€, se unex supose vlan ae eit foc. f+ st ta (948) #18, 0)= 14s Of B,C {a nie pun: #-»Y ei i 8) =O, Bait at "Yeesuaege pte dec desis Yse suns eco recor dome teitse mimes pac, fee umes fel destruct fh Pots ore pet de i re ect FeV ent un sings punt Be stl ict ¥ =f Dien dts fied ness iY omens na nt Be ‘Un spain pnctal cul ‘seme 1 Fis B=R® mules de paste in sul geomet elemeatr, tm (OER? gi comics: snl veal = (ca ete un apis vectra ncdees re) Gein Sign fT) 9 RP dts in [(A,B)=OA-OB care steace conaiile () 8 dln dfs 9. Desi CCooooasle x,y.£ le vest 7 Oia + J +R tw rpet x twea(7,J,F} se mare ctoronatle caraient ale punch Mey i | pr cee caer rtonomet 20,75]. 1 ene un spnia pune! eetidean(care se va not oi Ey sumitsptin pun! eacideas tosis) Definite 4 Ansa =(0, {3B} sense reper carton a Ey nde Oeste un pot fat dn spp pune euclifna Ky munities 3.) ete wba ortonemat «spin diets V a fai By lar (5, Deine 5 Veconl 7-=OHF se umes vector de pois al poss unde pencal Me By Coorontele (2, ns) le vector é& poste OM= Bi tat Bas rete cordonatce carton al puneralat 3 porte repeat Re an ae 6 GBM ANALITICA 137 (oi) =o (x8) 0028 Nn i et DIT i em pa Pf a Pl a be a2 +f 2 Vth alls ad kb» Sr Seana: 3, f=2 [i= Vea? +2 —0n)? + 065-a5?? Dect Mee mile! segment [4B] snc 2 ==> GT +n - 7 + — = Hla 7 #0 ee en er meme Py By sy EE yy ® Date 5 edt rss = nse pode lor vectors ott cu xB, ec defi sti ‘Diwan ne peel pe Za 4) Senate nt opal” psi a cseettos [oxi] fp ffi. 5) eee cite gin ie it dei puna cora evee Z 5. ac Z su B exe vectra aul sauce vec 9B sunt, sul pel vos ete a ‘Eyes ali prods vei eed ea: Defile 4 Fievedanl =a3+h Jee ov '= 73 dein produ sake 77 = (aby — obs) =(a,6, ~ 044 )7+(abe—a2h JR. eo es TITS A a a 8 6) =@h-ab3i-(ab-ah)i-(eh-an)k ee, wart ae 2% ol (Bx), (03) = ros ait al veto ys ae Ik_ALGERAA LINIARA, OEOMETRIE_ANALITICN gL DIERIDCTIALA toners aaceicd 8 prod intern volum panied const cx tot % acs 3-(i225) = 0 ate vec 3, of seep pein ‘Veta ere de va (x91 2)sF=T8 et Ot de aon A eink wat Usaweaeae.man)-1 22 2 Nododee F=(@xB)x2, rena 71 55, det 7 pn pla (mime ne.arI) 2 2 eae cere _ unt aad+pG-2 ele Mies t=T4 st cope da codons sce lan a nA nce ete ob <0 hs ke sere 3 Calas voll parietal ot pecs Ganibee, voasb-2, waa-bis, aod a Bl-Lpl=20]-3. Renin ‘Sind column parlelipipedalobjinut pe vector 98 W este: _ 1a ha nd) o]~ a, = 0056 ior Tent ce at gag “Oye I Ural pend “ respectiv iamulfind sealar cu F rezulth cd Poor eed _— fnse cooroenee (),2) sl (#iy/.z) acai piel MI ce dot epee verfen elie oxy yovet le-aper 1 fecal 0 sechixhure Ge Ia repeal (0, T,JyE} a seperat R=(0, T.7,P) ich ceri © ape de cnt 0 (ee Ya"0,jo0,2p=0),Fakad cout cd In est saz mates db txcure 6& la base 7,7, bs bes 737.2 ese dts ast | os J weals oh PF =eaT-J+0m]:1 on -oos6 esi lean tate So = coromtle (53.2) 51 (2 ee on —yin 41 42 a3\T vetifed rebtile | y=.'sind + cos. T+} ey om ea |T ee? mH on on, 41) Reperul polar in plan este format nto seminnd (Ox) fix lee eapat Inst os orgine 0. Coordnaele pole ale unul panct M din plan vor f formate din cop! oxoast (pp), wie p ete dstanf OM iar, ung seminelor x1 OM; 05 p $9505 9 2n. Legare dite acesecoordonte se iM gi coodanaale sale eatexese (tad oy Lox tn 0) este dat de rei: 100 an soo ait mn 14 ( : ‘p vt te 004 tne, comdomle (5,8) year punt MF ti de ced rma sa 32 preva rie |y=0p2 +0 + Pry baay' tae 1S6_ALOENRK LIMARK, GEOMETRIE_ANALITICA 91 DIFERENTIALA olsen abet acer eee rear eg eretneneore er 2 6 GEOMETRIE AMALIICK 157 64 Conice Fie bs pl cain R={0,4]} ou pen + exer do = 0 sae ey) = + Rape + mg? + Dae + Day + afi Sree Hy ams} aes Cust lrse poate pot mtn genesis 1p B= Debnam cone depen dh aes 3) #2) soem antine ado ape sec th S-dcsebinem mumnness dou dpe prise se muting vie i) 0 bye un pet ns mains 1p Ab obi coi nope nck aver 5) #9 ssofine conic en errs d ip ype ) 6-0 bj lle ip partis 4) 0 9 Ad ebiaes ead ov cers md ip pie [y) S20 q A ed saber malin vl Ie can Ia cre oy =n, 3 =0 o cbjine wn cee. xeup 1, Sie este nat geoul coisor de eaie BeDiay ty -2endys =O. Coordonatelesfrce al al M sunt date de pets oxdona:(, @, 9), nie r= [0 0 = @ROM); @ = <(Gl soz, 520M) MI find prosein ogonal a ui M pe xy, Aver: feareoipsind OS rem o lyrsingsind@ 05 Os cond osp<2e 53) Reperul clings (femipolr fe spi) ese format din ase ee mente ca stepra frie exdeseiten cpr Mae Bxeant en pet (es e. 24 unde p si sunt eoordnatle polar in plan (P) = (x0y) ale poietic orogonale Mp (303), ir zest cot exten a iM pe On. Legit ou cpondonstlcstezions va fi, evident ‘Seige armitowele cara ‘)ne(on-ibAl =) avn <0,6- conics argent dtp parsbolie ain uu (fs] mm cetouyr tone 9 mo EPP 1S8_ALOEMRA LnGARA, GHOMETHIE_ANALITICK $1 DIFERENTIALA yaa A=0,6>0 xn degen ear epcin us pent [Exempla 2, Sie dacealoe eu oie dpeoate di iy wos onl or 22 ay 22013 =0 RezoWare Cai ceinante din fi rea da contac = yates ' ash a] hy rmtcemet ef atten ere rant ait Pours =—1 2-184 deioinenst Left,-Z} 3 ou ep ssn I nt ou ein eon ee: Tip ttgebytedevayede0 2-640 769-960, Rezordd ese ein pe en vari deem (y+) VAEy +3) 2 = ecu ep sce at: 4:21-@-2)y-34 NI. d:20-G4NDy-2-NB =O [Eeneo Coolie en ei conic rem in cai ceunie Zeno Lon payt+20,9426,=0 can soem ar sui dct 6=0 ch om ke vem § <0=> mem conics dgeente eee eines ick 340 aver sont cera {6 GEOMETRE ANALITICN 150 ‘iad tora cae izes taco doa ep ain a mpc cartion 7 neat te po vom ieee ease ub Kr | = sree omni gh Oot oat | ex's +y"c0s9 | cenctcaatoueee dete eel R aolepR=(0,, 7 ecu [poste peceia acooorl (uit mak @ re esa | urmitoare: cceficiconl hui x'y' dia nous ecuate conice fh de repenul Rs fle romp 3, Fie coca det 10x + ey22y°+ Ine y¢2~0. Sse sn omnis ence aor ae epee pat con de 8. Remvare mmc tof® ] scones we fed eile footer voy sifite +3 : Lance | Coorioole cesta coil O, vei sizemal J sic cae 2 9 de ase vor lean 0 es a per f Rei 7} tamper R=, 7,7} eevee BG une sents 2, (e043 ut (2) fe gral Ts vee OF, edt at ede condone pt de econ fe pe ae xaos) on cn! de repel Rt: 103) 6(5)(-265)+2(-243)' +1268) +8[-2453) 10 465429" ~6=0. 160_ALGEDRA UNARA, GEOMETRUE_ANALITICA Sl DIPERENTALA, Roden sel ia jul arg} een gl 0, at acon de fs sper R°-[Q,],J} aoa reper R°=[,7 F} oar roi de ungh in ate [F7XOOT#O oy cnodoaele wot puet dep cos ta not = Xsind Yom per" sat), "oui cone! na per Re: (0c. sind con. 2sn? 0) + +(-20sin cos + 60s? ~ “(t0sia! 8 6sin door 0 +2008" @)"—6=0 ‘Agen gin Osta cain XY din ena coucel st 20> ome -20sind cos 0+6cos*@—Gxn* 0 =0 wu 6(0826)= ia! 0 4sinos8) 2 + 3 isn 20), => og20=2 aco 420 220-72 goo} vg = (eB yo Lg =-3 esi) =p dan Owen te jt cond =F abies ecu canis coi n= Fo cod =F c 114747*—6-0 aw 2 4121-0 conin et sips de semiane 7 -Axcle de mesic au ectaile X= 0, resposiv Y= 0 = o060+}ind =0, respecty ~Fsind + Veosd =0, abi e— Coo + (+ 2pied~0, respective Oa + (+ 26009 =O w> ecu noilor a, adiek OX(¥ = 0) de osha reper Rosie: x +3y +6 ~O, recta ane OY 0) 8 de waco reper R exes Sx + +2 <0 abjiosm repexntize pill a conics ‘6 GOOMETRI ANALITICA 161, “ ‘eu sil oo ements lupo ane vom dacs vale pop ny a on cred mh 8 Op woe eopononoma 6). Yo nia oT mains imal Fe cle cu oat veer pop coor stl nt det = +1 ncn en ere aloe pop, eivon pees cle aaa it (7) 7%) sor prope, ne do deel nolo at, Poa conte nadegenemi ex coms nie oboe firma casi « eoiedor de fma AX" 27+ 162 ALOBHRA LIMARA, GEOMETIE. ANALITICA §1 FERENTIAL 4 GHOMETRIE ANALITICA 163 mms pt snk mtgrws fk te we em eh ae + La ers] Fa ren winter EE soa per R°={0.3 a] dew pt ep csi eve coro P items ¥-22f-B ‘Exempla 4S sis fom cnoi pls se epreine ten cue: F sayy? 35-39 +2=0 Resolare eatin conia in ep 7 ene: 2°33 ona pirat cen 2-1. i 0 Dian tare? 1 ne 1 ba age) st eet st i 32, Fi rere peter 080s dg ad pb ee ee cltoeeren ae tee on 03 en nt cin one see condone shila Suncinnnteppiengmsinnrtssice(! 7) nme ) ote ne formei pitratice x + 4xy-+y* din eeuafia conicel. Vulorile prop le deduce din conor 9) can ve aeua-at,yel7* .? |ag-ay—4-(-2-1)(3-a)> jae” Oom (2x+ 4y-3 te (i) = de 4—Al) {7 ofedear-4-C4-00-4) ie {ee e382 y=} ugroete ss23 pike = Cando (09) aves rp va y op By oF 3 aoe tn ext ma (} VG)-« (j= x=0,y" Vom efectua 0 translajie de vector 0-07 1p AF saies din reperst + pes cartezian canonie ortonormat R=(0,7,j.} In care un 1A ALGHRA LIMARA, GROMMET ANALITICA §1 DFERENTIALK 6 OBOMETRIE ANALITCA 115 punct Mde pe cusdricd sre coordonstele xy.2 vom Pentry Ajs4 objinem subspajiul veotorilor propel ttece tn noul reper cartezian ortonormat R'=(0,T,J.E} ta -aT 10] +a laeR) iar o bazi ortonormaté. acestui se care punctul Mare coordonstele x'y".2"- Eouafil oy subspatiu este ayafi fret pe, penta 25 “obtinem subspativl veetorilor opti sranslatici +. ta nowt reper ccuagin f° spat bias “5, ={v-0F-aF rab laeR) iar © bezd ortonormatt acestul fgebr-hgy ms F-ET+HF, jar pentru 4 =8 wadsicei devine Ses1y2e5eas'yvar'etay'e 2-0, 1 { 3 . yeneenay 5-0. Ina sprinem ——subspatisl! = vectorilor_©——_—proprit continuare determinim o bazi ortonormatk ffi de care |] 5, a{y-aTs2aJ+ak|aeR] iar © baz ortonormati acestui Forma pitratick Ses 7y%452%4.25'y'2e'z442y'2"=Oatagata (hrs 2 zet7] cuadricei ia noul reper va avea forma canonicd.Scricm patie ote a fieeTeRTogF). Resultt oh am sat Aoterminst baza 2)=(5,5,5)) fala de care forma patratica matrices Ce|1 7 1], Determintm valorile proprii din [01 c. canomicn. tm aoest ear mattices de tecere 11s de Ie bara ot tad ‘eoustia carscteristict de(C-Alh)= Osu] 1 7-21 [20 Bk 1 Be GFE) a= FHT) eteTpy =| 0 eT Fi Ve 14 FS ¥ Vom cfectua 9 rotatic astfel din reperul cartezian F) in care punctul M are de unde obfinem 4=4,4,=52,=8.Pentra flecere vatoare proprie determinim subspafiul vectorilor_proprii ‘corespunzatori definiti astfel aeferanatieufel coordonatele x'y'zz" trecem In noul reperul cartezian ortonormat R°=(0,77,E) im care punctul Mare, ‘coordonatele X,¥,Z. Ecuatiile rotajiei sunt 116_ALGEBRA LIGARK, GEOMETRIE ANALIICK $f DEERENTIALA oxo uerwe ANALITICA 171 x x eS pall] me aeons ES ®, Dana air x9.2 ood nena eae lie ‘Atunci ecustia cusdricei im noul reper este > 6,» 2, sin sopra generat 8) O(a, yeh e692) Observatie. In cazul cind curbele seneratoare sunt lini “dconic suprafafe gencrala se numeste suprafats rislata si dup condijiile de genersre, ele pot f: suprafete cilindrice, artysrvad Zao 2242100 care este countia 7 & io 6 ‘unui elipsoid, 6.7 Generis! de supratee 1) Dea eer: S 0 spat) tee de ce ses i ce apie pent: Feat a eeayoe ect wt cw tafora sn tna a i ie cata « enon acon em rn ed t pl pe epi Cl nl! dew ume geen, eatin go dee cite psn pane age ee dude F= 0916 = 0 Dak de emp i eiale Agta) Fayotey) Dit spin (5) tah, a pot alee ls olde com to guime (ie cpl son lie de ube corn ka estos Ines tee eu mle de dlp ree.ae nl eipca sprafe(e conice, conoizi 2) Suprafata cllindrica este objinutt tn cazul efnd | gencratoarele sunt drepte paralele cu o directie dati, de - exemplu cu © éreapts (D) comunlt planelor (P): POx. ys 2) = 0: 06 ¥,2)=0. pea o-# Tn aces az famitia de goneratore va fi(C,) { ‘dounde: (8:0 @,Q)=0 2 S) Blgrtytaztdacrbyrtezetd,)=0 ie%, recunoastem © suprafeys cilindrica prin faptul o& ceuatia ei se poate serie sub forma uncl funeyii de dou polinoame de gradul I, epslati eu zero, ack directia generatoarelor e dati prin parameteit Jirectori (Lym.n), atimei dack M(xy.2) se afld pe generstoare atunci pe aceasta se vor glsi toate punctele M,GHAl, y*Am, ‘2+An), iar coptactul generatoarelor cu directoares conduc ws frermreimeraoce [O(c Aly anata) =O 3 de unde: (S) Hex, y, 2) =0, obfinuta tn urms elimina Yai 2. Dae& tn locul directoarel so cere generatoatelor 35 fie tangente une suprafete: (So) Fo (X. y.2)=0, tangenta la (Se) tnsemnénd intersectie 5a puncte confundate a tui (Se) cu orice gencratoare, deci 4 se va elimina fatre (ene a, \Biceratyetmet ae Or ‘Pxemplu 1 Si se ai cutie spate ids ae ce genemtoa a parses drsp (8): == gare ea gcurl diectoue curbs efter ee-2-0 0 essary ‘Centar lin id purl cu dep da scene eo d= faye te ae ry conti fain de geertore Gy esr pe cu Gretoare (©)=> 1 respect IV sister doducem ob x=, 38.5, tsoesind sscunoretele ta ccna MI a sistomulii de uade deducem relia de comatinte o04(2. sine prin eliminaes tut a ft ecuilegenera-naror 4 ela de onpabists, lick oben arnt (Brae 3 3 Exempla 2. Sis srie cou clindeuliceumsers ice} J's t2 <1, snd oS generator sale sont paraee cu despa a [ontulant pec doin eee 24: f2— 8 Joversectim familia de generatoare cu sfera $i punem condiqia ca intersectia $8 fie tact Des tel feat = peer i ia pimele cui ale stem eden ok =x 0,2 =x— BH Leake SNe bocca is seonsin cote Bonde peta? ep'—1=0. Ponce set vue a ae sng cin trebuie cx A, =0, edict 4(a¢ 8)'-12(a! +p") 0. Eliminind a gi fe ses ae de compen ene peor oem ‘ef cininnrcbounsts dee Aaya) -12(202 49242272) =O. soto sing sole, Elms ind pe y Fey) O(y.2)=0 linda poise sl cucbei(C) pe plant xOz revise la elimina varie in Sema format eu ecuile eabel ens 3 Best © { Se ae girs ein 10 ALGESRA LRSARA, GEOMETRIE_ANALITICR §L DIPERENTIALA, Revslvare Ganon poet nian xy in a Pe |F(ss2)=0" Gte.2)=0 tay§) 0 do wndeobiem aj de pais, seca ei Hla) data = bs an ene pnerstorr giem H(6) = Qc pes co tid pect, Tin sama de moda co ‘oat ou cela (68) = 0 Teele ecnfa elu preetat al curbst {Ch pe pal ee bine rn eliminare ny Ets eee curbs (©), sistemul sree a liminae ny in eae Fay) ~ 3) Suprafata confes are ce generatoure dreptele ce treo printr-un punct fi Mo (virf) gf sprijinite pe © curba datt (@irectoarea). Avid (6,) SEEM, Mon teAd fFona=0 an © (eras | ES ini apotrelje de eliminate: (2,2) = 0, vor even penis sprain cont: (8) (ES. ris omopentte inser, in aportu aie: am ys 5 dvr: Vise 902 Dec na retour se ood engete or a supe (SFo (00.28, vom erie ms coed cui purametric le geertome wir: they 2B, 7. ft eo AEB a Siminre i ks va fee: FOKY.Z)~0 gi 2-0, 6 6 OBOMETRIE ANALITCA 16h ‘Exempla 4. i.e sercexujiampeatifeconoe ou vids punetl ‘W000 sicundirctewe (C): fo teat Rerolvare cuss generatoarel sont Blind x, dn sistem cin conde de compatbiiate 3a? liiniod pe a, f di rlaja de compatbiliate si ccujile genratcare inn cana supa 32° — 5) Surat de rue se ebyin prin stirs une curbe plane (G) nj ai exe (4) din pass. ‘Vom considera tas supra (S) gene e fia de corer Fr, eo nt varibilt x enol pe (A) gi sit n plane P,perpendclare pe = (2) Ave ds oy FRA, w ffenore nm ay.) 0 (rg) [Ora s0-B seo nae +) cemyenc an 3) phe (8) 12_ALGEORA INRA, GEOMETRIE ANALITICA gf DIPERENTIALA panel AC), ip 8). Ipustnd conactu inte (F,) i()=2A 1) = 0 dest Ge ( AD: ll? MyA) He) Iaemypeny fn prt, dct de exempls (84) Or, aim A=O, des: a= B= 6= 0, pine (,):2= A, des supra rotate ven form gsnerat Gu024 OKeHy)-0 e2= ACP. Observatie,Curtele G objate ca poz ale i Gi dere momente le rijei ve sumese meridians supa de roti, iar cere (T,,) parallel ek 6.7 Probleme propuse ‘paralelipipeéului construit pe vectorii i, ¥ gi w. 644 Fe pute (90,0, 20,40),C040,0) sts ss eterise _ Vola ted eerie pantle OABC 5 si severiceogattale:) (axi,ixe,2xa)=(0.5.0) Goes {6 GEOMETRIE ANALITICA 3 Se cue: 1) Si m determine dreapt cae ace prin pant A yi ete paral cu ox. 18) Suse dteminedrespt parle ca deat D itece prin origin ©) 86 se determine sous dept ce tece prin puncele Agi B. { Determinaidstanje de le puncul A i dress. | 6.7. oe coositers puncteleA(0,2.0), B(I,00) $1 CQ.t-1), plea P: 2c speed 0 ida Dy see 2) eu cept ctr pin AB ‘em sept Dy cue too pan piste ppd pe pal Ung dae D sy. Sema deer Bf epost )Dstas dels pal 3 Boma ret Ds crest proiagi dei ppl 64 1 appa veer ie we omit tan cen B= TE) weooml B=T+T +R. Fe allen f2F4%5 desk aia JG)~axk Ka. S0 cae sh so ante ct f ete 0 apse ia spl Seosre: q (siti ote 0 bazh pemira Kerf gi Im f 6 Fe pun M(,23) porte sept cari otonomat On. 1) Si se ale condone i M mporat Io reper) cain tort Owys! jou din reer Oxy pinto tamale Ge vedor Doi -J-2F. 9) Si se af coool ei ME rparat la reper enteian otmoemit rey de mpl Oren pce nie emi ssi Or 6 OEOMETRIE ASALTICA 155 14 _ALGHDEK LIMA, GEOMETHUE ANALITCA §1 DERENTIALA 640 Se considers pute AQ,-21),B(@,LB,C0.30)D0,-2,3) Getemine eR sel Sait puso ADCP a Se coplanar gl datersig engin planuhl (ABC). (611 Si oe diamine cris crea «ple stemipt de dpe fx y=0 = 648. Sis sri ovale perpendicular coborte din punetul (11) pe : 2 pia de eonpi(e) 1 =H sia deci 6) = 7 | 648, Si se ane dock persile de dete (4).() reset (2) yi (4) Sern um pon ar caz elt deri ecujia acesior plane ‘df coe depen st: pest 2y-2-9=0 (20 fap —ay—22—22 = stl Oa 412 Fie til vectorial evan in cae se conser A( plat Prxty-3e—2=0.Secor: 1) Beta pln comin pe (AB) este perpendicular pe, ')Phnal ere ese pn spare x ploul F. B21.) nae +t ten |s= 5421 @ 4620.55 se caloueze ditanis de fa pusctul (LL) lx planul (F) de 16.48, $6 oe sre outs ui plan care ree prin pusctal (1,0) siete fear raea rom eu decoas Ont Pa St se saan pate, 093), 28 ety ysin@)come Sse inp inl pc AL oti scnipoume ne Shel ra ha 9-4665 0, (6.21. epetl (02/2) Hop (de cue iplioul(P) de coun 2 ty +2-+1= 0.Se exe: 1) dctemioaisimetulpunculi Mf de rapt (0). 1 deters siete punctlut Mf, ft de plan). eat 2 A y=2_ 2-2 7 6.22 Fie dreapts (6) de eva roy 422420 Se cee 2) por dep (fi be pla 1) determina unhial dire dreapta(, plant (®) <((@),()) © detent count priest rep (6) pe pla (2. 3. In Esse consider plana P:x+9-2430 si plaul Q:—2y + 3 vapmaeageun mies stnmae EEE, siplanal (P) de cutie frases? a Difyetet Sect 5) Pinu determinate desta D spunea A. 1) Plana eat ee prin Ag ete perpendicular po capt. Pal eae oe rn Ds este perpendicular pe paz P 6) Siatea dept D fi pial F (6.47, $8 se silent ecusilecanonee ale repel) ce tree prin punctal ‘Mc(&2) siete pall ex dopa de ecu: (ae y+ 32-7 = 0 © [re taytetoeo tLL2265 si01000) csr stem cordon. Seco: 1) St sre ecu dreptlor: 16 ALGEBRA LIMARA, GEOMETRIE. ANALITICA 81 DOFSKENTLALA + detriont depanctle AiO 1 de pct Agree parllt eu Dy «fe pct A rem perpendicular pe P 1a ee ecafle plazelr. = elena de ep; este perpendicular pe ‘termine! de pantle AiO ist perpendicular pe Q © ernst de puntos A 9! * pana sta asta 3 de Q. ) Ste calealeze distal ~diaB iQ L@hakD, Sia sre cota perpedictare comme dite Di sis ‘)alel empire exe Dy a unghil te lanl Ps plu Q, precum gi disaaj de sD sD ‘pales simerel ut Ah oF, Seta bi Dy fA de Q gh inet iP ys de. 624 Soe dscate naar ool onieeor da Saad ecu: FAdayedy? +4y4 64300. (625 Fie urmitosrele conic de ecuni: 1) 98 sys 6y 452x—4y~-6=0 2) 48y+7)?—Ge-6y 410 ©) 1624264997 +304—40)=0 oP aay42y*ty-I Seome: ")Stse determine forma caronic a cniclr in Heer oz { Determina esate conelor ae exist); iipReprezeta ate conse 4626 Su ce scie coup planer tngene ls paraboloid aunt parle oy pla —y 22-0 627 Ses ge cue gestae Mpa @ pio 2422-160 par cu pla +t 3e—17= 0 28 Si sesri exuaile genoratouebor rec ale paroloiult hips 94 ay? 62 ce ee rin puns Me(0.3-. BPs cw as 6 OPOMETRIE AVALITICA 67 (629 Soconsiet Esp puncte nt 0,1.) plan ‘Sy-Se-2=0 Secor co sel cots Aq gets (60 Sc coniet ty Expl punta ean sce de ec geal Pay 4etsDeedytGe—2=0 fi pl Prigtet O88 se cme condoms cas de inonce die fsa St plana! {E31 Ss determin casa supe eine eke earbe detoare (© Pa ya2,22e ale cel geertoce sunt perpen pe pal sch drecioa. (652 Sts deminer cid cams silo (222) aif eta ae 9, 653 Ste dtermine coun couh cu vit (62 gale tat retested 222 20. 7 (ot statements {217 -ea8 Pees | poplamx0z este pastas, 635 Fle cunirica oP + 7-451? Gay +2e0—2y2—de+8y—12z414=0 Si fe determine central cindrust gi apoi determina form cnonich « vidios Capitotul 7 ied Geometrie elferenyais te ©) Reusfia vectorial parametricd eure ete imedi, ix momenul 74 Curbe in spatiu eprezentaren ania uel curb, Reue curbl {9 Curbete plan, pot reprezntat, tn particular, de intersect planaht 2 confine curt cu 0 ah supra in care ites in maptere cut ‘Dec inst plana cubs aca ul di ple de caerdonats, de exempt 30), altel ecuje ve Sstuns = 0, pum scr fe) fea © a0 ‘nb upto, se aaa I terse or, adic va deserie cuba: (© (81) CS, uode (1) 2) = 0; (Sab ¥29=0 «2 Keustile implicite ale wns erbe in spain se obtin consti rie perece de ecu, dare eee cel pujin una implicit, reprezeatind ne dia erste posible de spree a cro interes ext cr dai de |) Bind ena proieetant a i (Cpe plana x0y. co) [fer=008) ed pon tia urs (Cems Te geri pati apeion 312)"0 (8) © | szomecia da plan cute! ade in x0y, etd oun ecu ome + nate expel eurbe contin dou din vari ia | (oe find neces pcr (Caf dt nas plan muna deo sng moot ovoe de et: }cemtio: (©) fi 9) ~ Os even, ra skins forme epi, y= 509 vee: (©) x= (0; y=, vet: ©) F= x@)7+ Ts poker © (Deno | Or 9.0)- oe. 4a mudi aceor cube tn spe ete profiel reprezenares lor rome TO ena yO: 2220 | mst tS pri ea esr tr 5 rarest rsin7+x0k, i ur I cae cele dou uprated nese ale cube sun ein pois cube (in cal nostro avin fecre ecastisexpli iar generator przull pralelecu Or, ara cel deal doa paul cu 0). 6) ews parametree ale enrbet le aver, io momontl cd eel soondonete ale pune M ce deserie curb sent exprimte fet de un | clap parame, 3 1. GOOMETRIE_DIFERENTALA 191 Wo ALGEBRA LIMIARA, GEOMETRE ANALITICA St DIFERENTIATA, 1) Blementat de re este prin dete lat yi ca moda diferent & kml senna perpeadiclre fe elo mumte, wnat normals principal, Elst binorml 9) Norma principals alge prin deine deci derivate in apot cx & cul avers Fal tangent, aed vectors: W as rl PO FORO siete toda drei rus) ‘Coston hacen npnes wai 4 aout tafe | 2) Tangent in uct Ms. acre we ea vector etre ecto de por #0) pe ae (este bo F-Z-xeisyojes 0k, ij tl pce tg ae EC, ei fy aM) Fay Zant) 70 ~ 70 ’ 4) Pana normal la ar intra pont M ll Sind peptic pe tangent waves ean Eras -O7O* @-a"0)=0 “ou cee east pt cree rin M se mues aoa ube cst pe “P Pivametrtzarea natural x anel cube flsoe c parame ate sos ents ac adr! Ge un pet fA a utp I pot mee Sry caslerindrse pos od epee deh Ala Ms ie ‘onc pont pect: ce car om Fox ses se concevinten curs dure 7 gi dea acon ointre _) Binormata vf atunc os de- tela deci x mprouk: tangent, seca peta eral oro een eso crgoea ©) Curburs cere strimbe o daducem in semnifcatis modulihit sectoral normals "Aver, din figtul ck: 7 ote veor (adct de mndul comin) LF coW.LF si dae inroducem verso al normale priniat, pum az a a ee (©) FeFs)=x6VF +O] +200 (Oe ee acy 1 7), 7 Fr poll a iipe leat, [Notia prin Q respectiv Q exremitata i 7(@) respect a lu 7 (#3), aie ng aqittetngmme ct crema Orman sia snenglasuitniaemionispemns | Siemaplicee sue mist ')Trledeal hi Frenct et un tied mobil last punctures Mo IaFl=2pe@ [a2 Saa at a ie id Gere! nget nM ae Sus est 797 ‘Rez de ac inconinur,c vom wes: 192 ALGRBRA LIGARA, GSOMBETRIE ANALITICA 81 DIFSRENTALA, 1oBOMerRe DIFERENTALA 183 ‘Observafe. Dis cainartates fe Fe dub peodus verti de mai ss, eat n vestr cstv al normale! pepe tame SEF: FFCO) sector ear oat eleult permite severe eusilor somal principale ish ocelede-s dows mucha ede hi Frent. @) Plaul osclstor sl wnel cube sre ete formst de tanger 5 sormal it M9 oot ot es dou so ued at Front sist iM ‘Feuala planull eseulater se deduce ining rea el confine vert 7g (@F")a", doc vw sven ch normal asa toca vector: PP, care (ate permendicula pe smb vector de mai sus, aed eusi av i= fy =m kok, UR I= By = ky cn: b= & eee de oepntione sea MM imei ul repent aloares cus cube! a M ai: (Sia raza curbs) Poids eric: W=[7| A= #aven: Prima formu a Free =. ap ooh nw Sob Pa ct a ort eH orto a a res 2 ia Hi-Lo 1 FOr OrO. fo esa uni pret onocare (2m cond cu = 1, sven i a Trop ee I avind poriia perpeadicla pe, ve wes cn vector norms pe [97° <7] dei eesti a vectorial vo Gn (@P 9x7 ]-0 CConchate, Vero ried ui Frenet sunt a ordine 7B of sunt dp cu jtorl devotee veto de psi ‘ar dap regula i Gibbs aceasta devine: EOP 1, 7 et & EEE gg BE a rp fo OO OE a shan: PAPO Pak PCP POP oto pee auears| oe Pe ame seo Ct Berger te wis tn as S18 Inv adev, in fp [6 | ~1, rom ray Bas, ra psi din dfs at BP rem: é smtrerronene 4 = 2a gett Proce amlog ca cul port AE, oti ot [a5 ~ Min, de fee unhieftde aor: 9 Br) spate +i py 2. venereal pn £ crt port se ous ste wt ete ft de alec, at Selmiden ates oie ona cease pu yo miu a vital nstantance de abstr ube! de pal scala. ‘Raza de torsine in sce punet se dfinele ca vubaca invert «| ss mame orsanes medic, x beret a ral 32 2 cower ALA 195 ete tgae dt ca vm Sp gt mete sit can ans or cnr sre a a ain aa, — ane Formal a1 af react: aa vom ave exea.ce se muss ener enemas ae Seca eee onal arnt il pe i pia oi sci oveeine 2) etnc Leg, ft at FOG a ae Petes ese params fin ip 1. OEONETRE DUTERENTIALA 157 lot ar at ot el-prr sea noe ml eg 8 seb ine cette duff nine svt xemplu 74. Fe cuba C ce alse recennes partic [rast yee Se exe ') Ss determine verso) wid lai Frenet tn puctal (= 0); 1) Si se sere couile muchlor gi feelor tdr li Feast ta puss A= 0) en at act MO=0 oe Fre E=feE ns ee . . ae SiC ate ae AE REAL Toni ve 2 ei oo ee te Wi+)42k pt d= [| cy