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UNIVERSITATEA DE TIINE AGRONOMICE I MEDICIN VETERINAR BUCURETI

Facultatea de Agricultur

FIA DISCIPLINEI

Biodiversitatea agroecosistemelor
A10S01O101
1. Date despre program
1.1 Instituia de nvmnt superior

UNIVERSITATEA DE TIINE AGRONOMICE I


MEDICIN VETERINAR BUCURETI

1.2 Facultatea

Agricultur

1.3 Departamentul

tiinele plantelor

1.4 Domeniul de studii

Agricultur

1.5 Ciclul de studii

II Masterat

1.6 Programul de studii / Calificarea

Protecia agroecosistemelor i expertiz fitosanitar /


master

2. Date despre disciplin


2.1 Denumirea disciplinei

Biodiversitatea agroecosistemelor

2.2 Titularul activitilor de curs

Berchez Marin

2.3Titularul activitilor de seminar /


laborator / proiect

Berchez Marin

2.4
Anul
studiu

01

de A10

2.5Semestrul

2.6 Tipul
evaluare

de E

2.6
Regimul DS
disciplinei

3. Timpul total estimat


3.1 Numr total de ore pe 2
sptmn

3.1.1 Curs

3.1.2
Seminar/laborator/proiect

3.2 Numr total de


conform
planului
nvmnt

3.2.1 Curs

14

3.2.2
Seminar/laborator/proiect

14

ore 28
de

Distribuia fondului de timp

Ore/spt

Studiul dup manual, suport de curs, bibliografie i notie

0,5

Documentare suplimentar n bibliotec, pe platformele electronice de specialitate i pe teren

0,25

Pregtire seminarii / laboratoare, teme, referate, portofolii i eseuri

0,25

Tutoriat
Examinri

Alte activiti ..........................

0,6

3.3 Total ore studiu individual

4*14 = 56

3.4 Total ore pe semestru

84

3.5 Numrul de credite

4. Precondiii (acolo unde este cazul)


4.1 de curriculum

absolveni de Agricultur, Horticultur, Biologie, Silvicultur, Ecologie

4.2 de competene

Studii de bioecologie ale organismelor duntoare din ecosistemele


paleoarctice..

5. Condiii (acolo unde este cazul)


5.1 de desfurare a cursului

Laborator

5.2 de desfurare a
laboratorului

Laborator specializat;

seminarului /

Competene transversale

Competene profesionale

6. Competene specifice acumulat

expert n: - metodologii clasice i moderne de analiz a biodiversitii din agroecoecosisteme;


- simularea riscurilor de diminuare a biodiversitii agroecoecosistemelor tradiionale i
moderne .

- specialist n :
1) conservarea biodiversitii din ecosisteme i agroecoecosisteme;
2) modelarea restaurrii biodiversitii din agroecoecosisteme;

7. Obiectivele disciplinei (reieind din grila competenelor specifice acumulate)


7.1
Obiectivul
disciplinei

general

al -cunoaterea noiunii de biodiversitate i a metodologiilor de


determinare a biodiversitii din agroecosistemele tradiionale i
moderne;
-cunoaterea
reglementrilor
biodiversitatea.

7.2 Obiectivele specifice

eurocomunitare

privind

-cunoaterea bioindicatorilor biodiversitii din agroecosistemele


moderne ;
-modelarea agrotehnologiilor sustenabile care pot conserva
biodiversitatea n principalele agroecosisteme.

8. Coninuturi
8.1 Curs
Capitolul1.
Biodiversitatea (definiie, scurt istoric, importana);
Monitorizarea biodiversitii n UE i n Romnia

Metode de
predare
Curs
interactiv;
videoproiecii;
prelegeri

Observaii
2 ore

Capitolul 2.

Curs
interactiv;
videoproiecii;
prelegeri

2 ore

Curs
interactiv;
(densitatea, dominana, constana, indicele de semnificaie ecologic,
videoproiecii;
indicele de diversitate, indicele de echitabilitate, indicele de
prelegeri
heterogenitate, indicele de afinitate cenotic, coeficientul de
concordan Kendall, dominana biomasei)

4 ore

Capitolul 4.

Curs
interactiv;
videoproiecii;
prelegeri

2 ore

Curs
interactiv;
Biodiversitatea n agroecosistemele perene (furajere, pomicole,
videoproiecii;
viticole i legumicole )
prelegeri

2 ore

Capitolul 6.

2 ore

Biodiversitatea ancestral;
Biodiversitatea n ecosistemele antropizate i antropice.
Capitolul 3. Metodologii de determinare i apreciere a biodiversitii

Biodiversitatea n agroecosisteme arabile (cultura mare, culturi


furajere, floricole si medicinale)
Capitolul 5.

Biodiversitatea n agroecosisteme speciale (tuneluri, solarii, sere,


culturi hidroponice .)

Curs
interactiv;
videoproiecii;
prelegeri

Bibliografie
Berchez M 2014 Note de curs (format electronic)
Berchez M. 1998, Studiul biologiei i ecologiei entomofaunei duntoare i utile din agroecosistemul
de porumb, teza de doctorat , pag. 30-48, USAMV Bucuresti, Bucuresti
Talmaciu,C., 1995 Studiul faunei carabidelor (Coleotera,Carabidae) insecte prdtoare, din punct de
vedere morfologic, biologic i ecologic n vederea combaterii duntorilor n plantatiile de via de vie
din Moldova, teza de doctorat, rezumat,Univ.Agr.Ion Ionescu de lea Brad, Iai.
Guiau, S., Theodorescu, R - 1965 Matematica i informaii Ed. tiintific, Bucuresti 234-237

8.2 Seminar / laborator

Metode de
predare

Observaii

Tema 1: Metode de colectare a zoofaunei (relevee faunistice,


videoproiecii
capcane Barber, sonda elicoidal de sol, capcane luminoase, capcane ; prelegeri
optice, capcane alimentare, capcane feromonale, filetari,)

3 ore

Tema 2: Determinarea parametrilor ecologici structurali ai


zoocenozei (densitatea, dominana, constana, indicele de
semnificaie ecologic, indicele de diversitate, indicele de
echitabilitate, indicele de heterogenitate, indicele de afinitate
cenotic, coeficientul de concordan Kendall, dominana biomasei)

5 ore

videoproiecii;
prelegeri,
aplicaii
n
teren
i
laborator

Tema 3 Determinarea principalilor bioindicatori ai biodiversitii aplicaii


zoocenozei din agroecosistemul de porumb boabe
teren
laborator

n
i

3 ore

Tema 4 Determinarea principalilor bioindicatori ai biodiversitii aplicaii


zoocenozei din agroecosistemul de mr
teren
laborator

n
i

3 ore

9. Coroborarea coninuturilor disciplinei cu ateptrile reprezentanilor comunitii epistemice, asociaiilor


profesionale i angajatori reprezentativi din domeniul aferent programului
Expert epidemiolog
10. Evaluare
Tip de activitate
10.1 Curs

Criterii de evaluare

Metode de evaluare

Cunotiine, argumentri logice


la modificrile biodiversitii
din agroecosisteme

10.2 Seminar / modelarea


Laborator / Proiect cultur

tehnologiilor

Examen scris

susinere

15%
50%

Semntura titularului de curs


Berchez Marin

Semntura titularului de
seminar / laborator
Berchez Marin

. . 2014
Data avizrii n
departament

35%

de Test; redactare; susinere

10.3
Standard Proiect Analiza biodiversitii
minim
de n agroecosistemele situate n
performan
zona...
Data completrii

Pondere din nota


final

Semntura directorului de
Departament

.......................................
.

FORMULAS

AND METHODS CALCULATED

Shannon Index (sometimes Shannon-Wiener or Shannon-Weaver)

Hill Numbers

Simpson Index

Whittaker Index

Dominance Index

Srensen's Index

Reciprocal Index

Routledge beta-R Index

Berger-Parker Dominance

Jaccard Index

Margalef Richness

Mountford Index

Menhinick Index

Bray curtis

Rnyi Index

Gamma Diversity

Gini Coefficient

Preston Diagrams

Buzas and Gibson's Index

Lorenz Curves

Equitability Index

Rarefaction Curves

DIVERSITY

INDICES:

SHANNON'S

AND

Introduction: A diversity index is a mathematical measure of species diversity in a community. Diversity


indices provide more information about community composition than simply species richness (i.e., the number
of species present); they also take the relative abundances of different species into account (for an illustration
of
this
point,
see
below, or introduction to SIMPSON'S

D
AND E).
Importance:Diversityindicesprovideimportantinformationaboutrarityandcommonnessofspeciesina
community. The ability to quantify diversity in this way is an important tool for biologists trying to
understandcommunitystructure.
Question:Howdowemeasurediversity?
Variables:
H

Shannon'sdiversityindex

total number of species in the community


(richness)

pi

proportionofSmadeupoftheithspecies

EH

equitability(evenness)

Methods:TheShannondiversityindex(H)isanotherindexthatiscommonlyusedtocharacterizespecies
diversityinacommunity.LikeSimpson'sindex,Shannon'sindexaccountsforbothabundanceandevenness
ofthespeciespresent.Theproportionofspeciesirelativetothetotalnumberofspecies(pi)iscalculated,
andthenmultipliedbythenaturallogarithmofthisproportion(lnpi).Theresultingproductissummed
acrossspecies,andmultipliedby1:

Shannon'sequitability(EH)canbecalculatedbydividingHbyHmax(hereHmax=lnS).Equitabilityassumesa
value between 0 and 1 with 1 being complete evenness.

Example:
Thegraphbelowshows H and EH forfourhypotheticalcommunities,eachconsistingof100individuals.
Thecommunitiesarecomposedof5,10,20and50species,respectively.Foreachcommunity H and EH
havebeencalculatedforthecaseinwhichindividualsaredistributedevenlyamongthedifferentspecies
(i.e.,eachspeciesmakesupanequalproportionofS),andforthecaseinwhichonespecieshas90%ofthe
individuals,andtheremainingindividualsaredistributedevenly.Forexample,inacommunitywith10
speciesinwhichthespeciescontainequalnumbersofindividuals,p=0.1foreachspecies.Inacommunity
with10speciesinwhichonespecieshas90%oftheindividuals,p=0.9forthedominantspecies,andp=
0.01fortheotherninespecies.ThediamondsrepresentHandEHvaluesforthefirstcase(equalproportions),
andthetrianglesrepresentvaluesforHandEHforthesecondcase(unequalproportions).

For the first case, EH is always equal to one (complete evenness, or equitability), but H increases
dramaticallyasthenumberofspeciesincreases,aswewouldexpect.Forthesecondcase,inwhichone
speciesmakesup90%ofthecommunity,thepictureisalittledifferent.HerewecanseethatalthoughH
does increase withincreasing numbers ofspecies,it does somuchmore slowlythan inthe firstcase.
Additionally, EH decreasesasspeciesnumberincreases(sinceonespeciesalwaysmakesup90%ofthe
communityinthesecondcaseofthishypotheticalexample,theremainingspeciesmakeupsomefractionof
10%ofthecommunity;asspeciesnumberincreasesthisfractionbecomessmallerandevennessdecreases).
H and EH clearlygivemoreinformationaboutthesecommunitiesthanwouldspeciesnumber(richness)
alone.
ThefollowingtablecontainsdatafromastudyofCostaRicanantdiversity(Rothetal.1994).Theauthors
measureddiversityinfourdifferenthabitatsrangingverylowlevelsofhumandisturbance(primaryrain
forest)toveryhighlevelsofhumandisturbance(bananaplantations)toassesstheimpactsofdifferentlevels
ofdisturbanceonbiologicaldiversity.Foreachhabitatstudiedwewillusedatacollectedfromonesite
withinthathabitat.Thenumbersbelowrepresentrelativeproportionsofeachspecies(fromRothetal.1994
[familynameshavebeenomitted]).

(skip

table

for
Primary
Forest

now)

Abandoned Productive
Banana
cacao
cacao
plantations
plantations plantations

Formicidae
Acromyrmex sp. 1

0.013

A.volcanus

0.006

A.araneoides

0.117

Attacephalotes
Carabarella sp. 1

0.140
0.010

0.004

Cardiocondyla sp. 1
Crematogaster sp. 2

0.011
0.021

0.024

Cyphomyrmex sp. 1

0.011

Erebomyrmanevermanni

0.004

0.021

Pheidole sp. 1

0.021

0.035

0.019

Pheidole sp. 2

0.008

0.045

0.013

Pheidole sp. 3

0.058

0.021

Pheidole sp. 5

0.054

0.010

Pheidole sp. 7

0.006

Pheidole sp. 9

0.021

Pheidole sp. 10

0.004

Pheidole sp. 11

0.024

Pheidole sp. 12

0.004

Pheidole sp. 15

0.163

Pheidole sp. 16

0.003

0.003

Pheidole sp. 19

0.004

Pheidole sp. 22

0.067

0.017

Pheidole sp. 23

0.004

Pheidole sp. 24

0.017

Pheidole sp. 25

0.011
0.157

Pheidole sp. 26

0.005

Pheidole sp. 27

0.003

Pheidole sp. 28

0.003

Pheidole sp. 31

0.010

Pheidole sp. 34

0.005

Pheidole sp. 36

0.125

0.007

P.annectans

0.079

0.028

P.longiscapa

0.050

0.003

0.005

P.punctatissima

0.005

P. nr. subarmata

0.003

P.subarmata
P.fiorii

0.043
0.075

Sericomyrmex sp. 1

0.006

Solenopsis sp. 1

0.004

Solenopsis sp. 3

0.004

Solenopsis sp. 4

0.017

Solenopsis sp. 5

0.004

Solenopsis sp. 6

0.004

0.006
0.077

Solenopsis sp. 7

0.038

Solenopsis sp. 8

0.042

Solenopsis sp. 9

0.035

S.geminata

0.031

0.101

0.830

Tetramorium
bicarinatum

0.005

Trachymyrmex sp. 1

0.003

0.019

Trachymyrmex sp. 2
Trachymyrmex sp. 3

0.004

0.007

Wasmannia sp. 1
W.auropunctata

0.011
0.050

0.021

0.006

0.753

Pseudomyrmex sp. 1
Ectatommagibbum

0.004

E.ruidum

0.004

0.038

0.004

0.010

E.tuberculatum
Gnamptogenys sp. 2
Gnamptogenys sp. 3
Gnamptogenys sp. 4
G.bispinosa
Hypoponera sp. 1
Hypoponera sp. 2

0.007

Hypoponera sp. 3

0.005

Hypoponera sp. 4

0.011

Odontomachusbauri
O.brunneus

0.004

O.chelifer

0.021

O.erythrocephalus

0.017

0.006

O.hastatus
O.laticeps

0.008

0.010

0.043

O.opaciventris
Pachycondylaapicalis

0.017

0.007

P.constricta
P.harpax

0.006
0.0125

P.obscuricornis

0.031

0.013

0.003

0.006

P.villosa
Paraponeraclavata

0.019

Brachymyrmex sp. 1
Brachymyrmex sp. 2
Campanotus sp. 1
Paratrechina sp. 1

0.033

0.063

37

36

Paratrechina sp. 2
Tapinoma
melanocephalum
total#ofspeciespersite:

16

14

(backtotopoftable)
TocalculateShannon'sHfortheprimaryforestsitewecanusetheequationgivenabove:H=(1)*(0.117
*ln0.117)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.021*ln0.021)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.021*ln0.021)+(0.008*ln
0.008)+(0.058*ln0.058)+(0.054*ln0.054)+(0.021*ln0.021)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.004*ln
0.004)+(0.163*ln0.163)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.067*ln0.067)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.017*ln
0.017)+(0.125*ln0.125)+(0.079*ln0.079)+(0.050*ln0.050)+(0.075*ln0.075)+(0.004*ln
0.004)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.017*ln0.017)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.004*ln
0.004)+(0.050*ln0.050)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.004*ln0.004)+(0.004*ln
0.004)+(0.021*ln0.021)+(0.017*ln0.017)+(0.008*ln0.008)+(0.017*ln0.017)+(0.0125*ln
0.0125)+(0.033*ln0.033)=3.1823.EvennessisthenEH=3.1823/ln37=0.8813(37beingS,thetotal
numberofspeciesatthissite).Usingthesameequations,Shannon'sHforthebananaplantationis0.8322,
andEH=0.3153.
Interpretation:Wecanseefromourresultsthatthediversityandevennessinthissitefromtheundisturbed
habitat(primaryrainforest)aremuchhigherthaninthesitefromthehighlydisturbedhabitat(banana
plantation).Theprimaryrainforestnotonlyhasagreaternumberofspeciespresent,buttheindividualsin
thecommunityaredistributedmoreequitablyamongthesespecies.Inthebananaplantationthereare23
fewer species and over 80% of the individuals belong to one species, Solenopsis geminata (the most

commonspeciesintheprimaryrainforest,ontheotherhand,makesupabout16%ofthecommunity
[Pheidolesp.15]).
Conclusions:Differentlevelsofdisturbancehavedifferenteffectsonantdiversity.Ifourgoalistopreserve
biodiversity in a given area, we need to be able to understand how diversity is impacted by different
management strategies. Because diversity indices provide moreinformation than simplythe number of
speciespresent(i.e.,theyaccountforsomespeciesbeingrareandothersbeingcommon),theyserveas
valuable tools that enable biologists to quantify diversity in a community and describe its numerical
structure.
AdditionalQuestions:
1.CalculateHandEHforboththeabandonedandproductivecacaoplantationsites.Aretheymoresimilarto
oneanotherortothemoreorlessdisturbedhabitats?
2.Whatdoyounoticeaboutthespeciescompositionsofthesefourhabitats(i.e.,domostspeciesoccurinall
fourhabitats,inonlyonehabitat,etc.)?
Extracredit:CalculateSimpson'sDandEDfortheprimaryforestandabandonedcacaoplantationsites.Do
thesevaluesleadtothesameconclusionsdrawnfromyourcalculationsofShannon'sindices?
Sources: Begon, M., J. L. Harper, and C. R. Townsend. 1996. Ecology: Individuals, Populations, and
Communities,3rdedition.BlackwellScienceLtd.,Cambridge,MA.
Magurran,A.E.1988.EcologicalDiversityanditsMeasurement.PrincetonUniversityPress,Princeton,NJ.
Rosenzweig,M.L.1995. SpeciesDiversityinSpaceandTime.CambridgeUniversityPress,NewYork,
NY.
Roth,D.S.,I.Perfecto,andB.Rathcke.1994.Theeffectsofmanagementsystemsongroundforagingant
diversityinCostaRica.EcologicalApplications4(3):423436.

Simpson's Diversity Index

Simpson's Diversity Index is a measure of diversity. In ecology, it is often used to quantify the biodiversity of a habitat. It
takes into account the number of species present, as well as the abundance of each species.

The Index of Diversity which AS/A2 level students in the UK need to understand can be found here.
Before looking at Simpson's Diversity Index in more detail, it is important to understand the basic
concepts outlined below.

Biological Diversity - the great variety of life


Biological diversity can be quantified in many different ways. The two main factors taken into account
when measuring diversity are richness and evenness. Richness is a measure of the number of
different kinds of organisms present in a particular area. For example, species richness is the
number of different species present. However, diversity depends not only on richness, but also on
evenness. Evenness compares the similarity of the population size of each of the species present.
1. Richness
The number of species per sample is a measure of richness. The more species present in a sample,
the 'richer' the sample.
Species richness as a measure on its own takes no account of the number of individuals of each
species present. It gives as much weight to those species which have very few individuals as to
those which have many individuals. Thus, one daisy has as much influence on the richness of an
area as 1000 buttercups.
2. Evenness
Evenness is a measure of the relative abundance of the different species making up the richness of
an area.
To give an example, we might have sampled two different fields for wildflowers. The sample from the
first field consists of 300 daisies, 335 dandelions and 365 buttercups. The sample from the second
field comprises 20 daisies, 49 dandelions and 931 buttercups (see the table below). Both samples
have the same richness (3 species) and the same total number of individuals (1000). However, the

first sample has more evenness than the second. This is because the total number of individuals in
the sample is quite evenly distributed between the three species. In the second sample, most of the
individuals are buttercups, with only a few daisies and dandelions present. Sample 2 is therefore
considered to be less diverse than sample 1.
Numbers of individuals
Flower Species

Sample 1

Sample 2

Daisy

300

20

Dandelion

335

49

Buttercup

365

931

Total

1000

1000

A community dominated by one or two species is considered to be less diverse than one
in which several different species have a similar abundance.
As species richness and evenness increase, so diversity increases. Simpson's Diversity Index is a
measure of diversity which takes into account both richness and evenness.
Simpson's Diversity Indices
The term 'Simpson's Diversity Index' can actually refer to any one of 3 closely related indices.
Simpson's Index (D) measures the probability that two individuals randomly selected from a sample
will belong to the same species (or some category other than species). There are two versions of the
formula for calculating D. Either is acceptable, but be consistent.

D=

(n / N)2

n = the total number of organisms of a particular species


N = the total number of organisms of all species
The value of D ranges between 0 and 1
With this index, 0 represents infinite diversity and 1, no diversity. That is, the bigger the value of D,
the lower the diversity. This is neither intuitive nor logical, so to get over this problem, D is often
subtracted from 1 to give:
Simpson's Index of Diversity 1 - D
The value of this index also ranges between 0 and 1, but now, the greater the value, the greater the
sample diversity. This makes more sense. In this case, the index represents the probability that two
individuals randomly selected from a sample will belong to different species.
Another way of overcoming the problem of the counter-intuitive nature of Simpson's Index is to take
the reciprocal of the Index:
Simpson's Reciprocal Index 1 / D

The value of this index starts with 1 as the lowest possible figure. This figure would represent a
community containing only one species. The higher the value, the greater the diversity. The
maximum value is the number of species (or other category being used) in the sample. For example
if there are five species in the sample, then the maximum value is 5.
The name 'Simpson's Diversity Index' is often very loosely applied and all three related indices described above
(Simpson's Index, Simpson's Index of Diversity and Simpson's Reciprocal Index) have been quoted under this blanket
term, depending on author. It is therefore important to ascertain which index has actually been used in any
comparative studies of diversity.

To calculate Simpson's Index for a particular area, the area must first be
sampled. The number of individuals of each species present in the
samples must be noted. (This can be easier said than done! more here)
For example, the diversity of the ground flora in a woodland, might be
tested by sampling random quadrats. The number of plant species within
each quadrat, as well as the number of individuals of each species is
noted. There is no necessity to be able to identify all the species,
provided they can be distinguished from each other.

As an example, let us work out the value of D for a single quadrat sample of ground vegetation in a
woodland. Of course, sampling only one quadrat would not give you a reliable estimate of the
diversity of the ground flora in the wood. Several samples would have to be taken and the data
pooled to give a better estimate of overall diversity. How many samples?
Species

Number (n)

n(n-1)

Woodrush

Holly (seedlings)

56

Bramble

Yorkshire Fog

Sedge

Total (N)

15

64

Putting the figures into the formula for Simpson's Index

D = 0.3 (Simpson's Index)


Then:

Simpson's Index of Diversity 1 - D = 0.7


Simpson's Reciprocal Index 1 / D = 3.3
These 3 different values all represent the same biodiversity. It is therefore important to ascertain
which index has actually been used in any comparative studies of diversity. A value of Simpson's
Index of 0.7, is not the same as a value of 0.7 for Simpson's Index of Diversity.
Simpson's Index gives more weight to the more abundant species in a sample. The addition of rare
species to a sample causes only small changes in the value of D.

D IVERSITY INDEX
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A diversity index is a quantitative measure that reflects how many different types (such as species) there are
in a dataset, and simultaneously takes into account how evenly the basic entities (such as individuals) are
distributed among those types. The value of a diversity index increases both when the number of types
increases and when evenness increases. For a given number of types, the value of a diversity index is
maximized when all types are equally abundant.
When diversity indices are used in ecology, the types of interest are usually species, but they can also be other
categories, such as genera, families, functional types or haplotypes. The entities of interest are usually
individual plants or animals, and the measure of abundance can be, for example, number of individuals,
biomass or coverage. In demography, the entities of interest can be people, and the types of interest various
demographic groups. In information science, the entities can be characters and the types the different letters
of the alphabet. The most commonly used diversity indices are simple transformations of the effective number
of types (also known as 'true diversity'), but each diversity index can also be interpreted in its own right as a
measure corresponding to some real phenomenon (but a different one for each diversity index).[1][2][3][4]

CONTENTS

1 True diversity

2 Richness

3 Shannon- Weaver index


o

3.1 Rnyi entropy

4 Simpson index
o

4.1 Inverse Simpson index

4.2 GiniSimpson index

5 BergerParker index

6 See also

7 References

8 Further reading

9 External links

TRUE

DIVERSITY

True diversity, or the effective number of types, refers to the number of equally abundant types needed for the
average proportional abundance of the types to equal that observed in the dataset of interest (where all types
may not be equally abundant). The true diversity in a dataset is calculated by first taking the weighted
generalized mean of the proportional abundances of the types in the dataset, and then taking the inverse of
this. The equation is:[3][4]

The denominator equals average proportional abundance of the types in the dataset as calculated with the
weighted generalized mean with exponent q 1. In the equation, R is richness (the total number of types in
the dataset), and the proportional abundance of the ith type is . The proportional abundances themselves
are used as the nominal weights. When q = 1, the above equation is undefined, so the corresponding mean is
calculated with the following equation instead:

The value of q is often referred to as the order of the diversity. It defines the sensitivity of the diversity value
to rare vs. abundant species by modifying how the mean of the species proportional abundances is calculated.
With some values of the parameter q, the generalized mean with exponent q 1 gives familiar kinds of mean
as special cases. In particular, q = 0 corresponds to the harmonic mean, q = 1 to the geometric mean and q =
2 to the arithmetic mean. As q approaches infinity, the generalized mean with exponent q 1 approaches the
maximum value, which is the proportional abundance of the most abundant species in the dataset. In
practice, increasing the value of q hence increases the effective weight given to the most abundant species.
This leads to obtaining a larger mean value and a smaller true diversity (qD) value.
When q = 1, the geometric mean of the
values is used, and each species is exactly weighted by its
proportional abundance (in the geometric mean, weights are the exponents). When q > 1, the weight given to
abundant species is exaggerated, and when q < 1, the weight given to rare species is. At q = 0, the species
weights exactly cancel out the species proportional abundances, such that mean equals 1 / R even when all

species are not equally abundant. At q = 0, the effective number of species,


, hence equals the actual
number of species (R). In the context of diversity, q is generally limited to non-negative values. This is
because negative values of q would give rare species so much more weight than abundant ones that
would
[3][4]
exceed R.
The general equation of diversity is often written in the form:[1][2]

The term inside the parentheses is called the basic sum. Some popular diversity indices correspond to the
basic sum as calculated with different values of q.[2]
For diversity of order one, an alternative equation is:[1][2]

where H' is the Shannon index as calculated with natural logarithms (see below).

RICHNESS
Main article: Species richness

Richness R simply quantifies how many different types the dataset of interest contains. For example, species
richness (usually notated S) of a dataset is the number of different species in the corresponding species list.
Richness is a simple measure, so it has been a popular diversity index in ecology, where abundance data are
often not available for the datasets of interest. Because richness does not take the abundances of the types
into account, it is not the same thing as diversity, which does take abundances into account. However, if true
diversity is calculated with q = 0, the effective number of types (0D) equals the actual number of types (R).[2][4]

SHANNON- WEAVER

INDEX

The Shannon index has been a popular diversity index in the ecological literature, where it is also known as
Shannon's diversity index, the ShannonWiener index, the ShannonWeaver index and the Shannon entropy.
The measure was originally proposed by Claude Shannon to quantify the entropy (uncertainty or information
content) in strings of text. [5] The idea is that the more different letters there are, and the more equal their
proportional abundances in the string of interest, the more difficult it is to correctly predict which letter will
be the next one in the string. The Shannon entropy quantifies the uncertainty (entropy or degree of surprise)
associated with this prediction. It is most often calculated as follows:

where is the proportion of characters belonging to the ith type of letter in the string of interest. In ecology,
is often the proportion of individuals belonging to the ith species in the dataset of interest. Then the
Shannon entropy quantifies the uncertainty in predicting the species identity of an individual that is taken at
random from the dataset.
Although the equation is here written with natural logarithms, the base of the logarithm used when calculating
the Shannon entropy can be chosen freely. Shannon himself discussed logarithm bases 2, 10 and e, and these

have since become the most popular bases in applications that use the Shannon entropy. Each log base
corresponds to a different measurement unit, which have been called binary digits (bits), decimal digits
(decits) and natural digits (nats) for the bases 2, 10 and e, respectively. Comparing Shannon entropy values
that were originally calculated with different log bases requires converting them to the same log base: change
from the base a to base b is obtained with multiplication by logba.[5]
It has been shown that the Shannon index is based on the weighted geometric mean of the proportional
abundances of the types, and that it equals the logarithm of true diversity as calculated with q = 1:[3]

This can also be written

which equals

Since the sum of the values equals unity by definition, the denominator equals the weighted geometric
mean of the values, with the values themselves being used as the weights (exponents in the equation).
The term within the parentheses hence equals true diversity 1D, and H' equals ln(1D).[1][3][4]
When all types in the dataset of interest are equally common, all values equal 1/R, and the Shannon index
hence takes the value ln(R). The more unequal the abundances of the types, the larger the weighted geometric
mean of the values, and the smaller the corresponding Shannon entropy. If practically all abundance is
concentrated to one type, and the other types are very rare (even if there are many of them), Shannon entropy
approaches zero. When there is only one type in the dataset, Shannon entropy exactly equals zero (there is no
uncertainty in predicting the type of the next randomly chosen entity).
R NYI

ENTROPY

The Rnyi entropy is a generalization of the Shannon entropy to other values of q than unity. It can be
expressed:

which equals

This means that taking the logarithm of true diversity based on any value of q gives the Rnyi entropy
corresponding to the same value of q.

SIMPSON

INDEX

The Simpson index was introduced in 1949 by Edward H. Simpson to measure the degree of concentration
when individuals are classified into types.[6] The same index was rediscovered by Orris C. Herfindahl in 1950.

The square root of the index had already been introduced in 1945 by the economist Albert O. Hirschman.[8]
As a result, the same measure is usually known as the Simpson index in ecology, and as the Herfindahl index
or the HerfindahlHirschman index (HHI) in economics.
[7]

The measure equals the probability that two entities taken at random from the dataset of interest represent the
same type.[6] It equals:

This also equals the weighted arithmetic mean of the proportional abundances of the types of interest, with
the proportional abundances themselves being used as the weights. [1] Proportional abundances are by
definition constrained to values between zero and unity, but their weighted arithmetic mean, and hence
, which is reached when all types are equally abundant.
By comparing the equation used to calculate with the equations used to calculate true diversity, it can be
seen that 1/ equals 2D, i.e. true diversity as calculated with q = 2. The original Simpson's index hence equals
the corresponding basic sum.[2]
The interpretation of as the probability that two entities taken at random from the dataset of interest
represent the same type assumes that the first entity is replaced to the dataset before taking the second entity.
If the dataset is very large, sampling without replacement gives approximately the same result, but in small
datasets the difference can be substantial. If the dataset is small, and sampling without replacement is
assumed, the probability of obtaining the same type with both random draws is:

where is the number of entities belonging to the ith type and N is the total number of entities in the dataset.
[6]
This form of the Simpson index is also known as the HunterGaston index in microbiology.[9]
Since mean proportional abundance of the types increases with decreasing number of types and increasing
abundance of the most abundant type, obtains small values in datasets of high diversity and large values in
datasets of low diversity. This is counterintuitive behavior for a diversity index, so often such transformations
of that increase with increasing diversity have been used instead. The most popular of such indices have
been the inverse Simpson index (1/) and the GiniSimpson index (1 ).[1][2] Both of these have also been
called the Simpson index in the ecological literature, so care is needed to avoid accidentally comparing the
different indices as if they were the same.
I NVERSE SIMPSON

INDEX

The inverse Simpson index equals:

This simply equals true diversity of order 2, i.e. the effective number of types that is obtained when the
weighted arithmetic mean is used to quantify average proportional abundance of types in the dataset of
interest.
GINI SIMPSON

INDEX

The original Simpson index equals the probability that two entities taken at random from the dataset of
interest (with replacement) represent the same type. Its transformation 1 therefore equals the probability

that the two entities represent different types. This measure is also known in ecology as the probability of
interspecific encounter (PIE)[10] and the GiniSimpson index.[2] It can be expressed as a transformation of true
diversity of order 2:

The GibbsMartin index of sociology, psychology and management studies, [11] which is also known as the
Blau index, is the same measure as the GiniSimpson index.

BERGER PARKER

INDEX

The BergerParker[12] index equals the maximum value in the dataset, i.e. the proportional abundance of the
most abundant type. This corresponds to the weighted generalized mean of the values when q approaches
infinity, and hence equals the inverse of true diversity of order infinity (

SEE

).

ALSO

Species diversity

Species richness

Alpha diversity

Beta diversity

Gamma diversity

Qualitative variation

Isolation index

Relative abundance

Berger-Parker Dominance

Berger-Parker Dominance

Top Previous Next

This window displays the index calculated separately for each chosen sample.

This surprisingly simple index was considered by May (1975) to be one of the best.

It is simple measure of the numerical importance of the most abundant species.

d=N /N
max

where Nmax is the number of individuals in the most abundant species, and N is the total number of

individuals in the sample.

The reciprocal of the index, 1/d, is often used, so that an increase in the value of the index accompanies an
increase in diversity and a reduction in dominance. We plot the dominance index d.

A simple plot of the way the index changes between samples is displayed by clicking on the Graph tab on the
output window.

To compare two indices see Testing for significant differences between indices.

M ARGALEF RICHNESS MARGALEF SPECIES RICHNESS ...


Margalef's richness index: (S-1)/ln(n), where S is the number of taxa, and n is the number of
individuals.
Hi all, this may seem pretty simple to you all, but I admit that when it comes to numbers I struggle.
Please correct me where I (may) be getting this wrong [(S-1)/ln] x n = answer My struggling point is,
what is 'ln' I can't seem to find this anywhere (is it simply 1-n?).Thanks for your help!

Margalef's richness index: (S-1)/ln(n), where S is the number of taxa, and n is the
number
of
individuals.
Hi all, this may seem pretty simple to you all, but I admit that when it comes to numbers I struggle.
Please correct me where I (may) be getting this wrong:[(S-1)/ln] x n = answer My struggling point is, what is
'ln' I can't seem to find this anywhere (is it simply 1-n?).Thanks for your help!(Headbang)

Menhinick Index

Biodiversitatea agroecosistemelor

Capitolul 1.
Biodiversitatea (definiie, scurt istoric, importana);
Monitorizarea biodiversitii n UE i n Romnia
1.1 B IODIVERSITATEA
Biodiversitatea este varietatea formelor de via, de la gene la specii, ulterior s-a extins la scara
ecosistemelor (biological diversity is a measure of the relative diversity among organisms present in
different ecosystems ). Biodiversitatea cuprinde totalitatea genelor, speciilor, ecosistemelor ( totality of
genes, species, and ecosystems of a region) dintr-o regiune . Termenul biologic diversitate a fost utilizat

de Raymond F. Dasman 1968, referindu-se la viaa slbatic n cartea sa A Different Kind of Country .
Thomas Lovejoy n Conservation Biology utilizeaz termenul diversitatea natural biological diversity
1980 preluat de comunitatea tiinific. Biodiversitate a a fost sugerat prima dat ca termen de W.G.
Rosen
n anul 1985, la National Research Council
derulat n anul 1986.
Biodiversitate apare prima dat ca termen n lucrarea Biological Diversity a entomologului E.O.
Wilson aprut n anul 1986

Thomas Lovejoy
E.O. Wilson
Biodiversitatea ca varietate a formelor de via, de la aspectul morfologic la ecosisteme este o noiune extrem
de complex i dinamic, fiind determinat de interaciunile formelor de via pmntean derulate pe
parcursul unei perioade ndelungate ( ~3,5 milioane de ani teretrii).
Biodiversitatea este variat dup opinia majoritii biologilor, cuprinznd urmtoarele trei tipuri :
a) biodiversitatea taxonomic, diversitatea speciilor ( taxonomic diversity ~ species diversity level);
b) biodiversitatea ecologic, diversitatea ecosistemelor (ecological diversity ~ of ecosystem diversity)
c) biodiversitatea morfologic (morphological diversity ~ genetic diversity).
n cursul anului 2003
profesorul englez Anthony Campbel la Cardiff University, UK i cercettor la Darwin Centre, din
Pembrokeshire, a introdus un nou tip de biodiversitate denumit biodiversitatea
molecular.

Anthony Campbel

1.2 Monitorizarea biodiversitii n UE i n Romnia


Monitorizarea biodiversitii n UE
Agricultura i pdurile ocup aprox. 90% din suprafaa EU (farmland, forest land cover 90 % of the EU's land
surface).

DIRECTIVE 2008/105/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16 December 2008
on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directives
82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and amending Directive 2000/60/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council
Biodiversitatea n EU este monitorizat de The European Biodiversity Observation Network (EBONE) afiliat la The
Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network GEO BON coordonat de the Societal Benefit
Area (SBA), Biodiversity of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). GEO BON recunoscut de
the Convention on Biological Diversity, the GEO Work Plan including DIVERSITAS, GBIF, IUCN, NASA, UNEPWCMC
and
others.

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing
environment and development challenges.
Lista roie The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 (redlist@iucn.org)

The proportion of extant (i.e., excluding Extinct) species in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2014.3 assessed in each category for the more comprehensively assessed groups. Taxa are ordered according to
the vertical red lines, which show the best estimate for proportion of extant species considered threatened (CR,
EN, or VU). Best estimates of percentage threatened species (with lower and upper estimates) for each group are:
cycads 63% (63-64%); amphibians 41% (31-56%); chameleons 38% (36-42%); conifers 34% (34-35%); reefforming corals 33% (27-44%); cacti 31% (28-37%); sharks & rays 31% (17-63%); freshwater crabs 31% (1665%); freshwater shrimps 28% (17-55%); mammals 26% (21-36%); groupers 18% (12-43%); birds 13% (1314%); cone snails 8% (6-20%); blennies 7% (6-15%); pufferfishes, etc. 7% (6-20%); wrasses 4% (4-18%);

lobsters <1% (0-35%). The numbers to the right of each bar represent the total number of extant species assessed
for each group. CR - Critically Endangered, EN - Endangered, VU - Vulnerable, NT - Near Threatened, DD Data Deficient, LC - Least Concern.

EuMon stands for EU-wide monitoring methods and systems of surveillance for species and habitats of
Community interest.EuMon focused on four major aspects important for biodiversity monitoring:
-the involvement of volunteers. PMN database contains information volunteer biodiversity monitoring
-coverage and
characteristics
of
monitoring schemes:
Monitoring and Assessment Tool.
database (DaEuMon) on European biodiversity monitoring schemes ; BioMAT - the EuMon integrated Biodiversity
BioMATs module 1 allows extraction of this information and its presentation in tabular or graphical form.
-monitoring
methods,
schemes provide the basis for modules 2 and 3 of BioMAT.
-setting monitoring and conservation prioriies. - methods to develop an efficient network of protected areas
NATURA 2000 network ; -monitoring support tools: BioMAT - the EuMon integrated Biodiversity Monitoring and
Assessment Tool, DaEuMon the database on European biodiversity monitoring schemes
the PMN database that
contains information on organisations that carry out volunteer based biodiversity monitoring. EuMon-home.
MONITORIZAREA BIODIVERSIT II N ROMNIA
n Romnia : Suprafaa agriculturii - 62% S RO (237 500Km2) <><> pdure, vegetaie forestier- 27%.
<><> ape, lacuri, luciu de ap, ci de comunicaii, construcii - 11% ; <><>Arabil- 63% suprafa a agricol ; <><>
puni -23% ; <><>culturi furajere -10%; <><> vii i planta ii viticole- 1,95% ; - altitudinea minim 0,52m o are
uscatul din Delta Dunrii i luncile unor ruri , iar altitudinea maxim, vrful Moldoveanu 2544 m, din Munii
Fgra. Flora are 3.700 specii de plante , 23specii sunt declarate monumente ale naturii, 74 specii extincte, 39 specii
n
pericol,
endangered
,
171
specii
vulnerabile,vulnerable,
i
1253
specii
rare.

Fau

na

33.792

specii

identificate,

33.085

nevertebrate

707

vertebrate.

Capitolul 2.
Biodiversitatea ancestral;
Biodiversitatea n ecosistemele antropizate i antropice.
2.1 Biodiversitatea ancestral
Orogeneza peisajului geografic a cunoscut perioade de transformri profunde, stabilitate, avnd cauzele :
-fluctuaia vitezei de rotaie a Pmntului;
-comprimri ale scoarei terestre;
-laten sau erupie vulcanic;
-deformrile mantalei de roci de suprafa pe vertical;
-modificrile raportului dintre gaze (oxigen, dioxid de carbon, altele..);
-schimbri radicale ale florei i faunei terestre
Modificrile severe, abaterile de la echilibru i de amenajare antropic a Terrei coincid cu ciclicitatea anului galactic
(180-200 milioane de ani).
Reconfigurarea continentelor i fluctuaia energiilor de relief au fost determinate de :
-precesia echinoxurilor adic decalarea anotimpurilor ( la 22-60mii ani );
-modificarea periodic a unghiului de nclinaie a axei de rotaie a Terrei ( la 40-42 mii ani );
-modificarea excentricitii orbitei terestre ( la 92 mii ani).

Naturalistul, geograful prusac Alexander von Humboldt sec. XIX introduce termenul peisaj, realiznd prima
clasificare dup omogenitatea asociaiilor vegetale, fundamentnd biogeografia.
coala francez a adoptat termenul paysage, cea anglo-saxon - landscape, iar cea american landscape
ecology definind un model de organizare natural a componentelor n sens fizic, biologic, social.

Peisajul terestru a parcurs urmtoarele tipuri de peisaj (dup Al. Rou, 1987):
-peisajul primitiv timpuriu (cu 350 milioane ani ICh. , paleozoicul inferior, cambrian, ordovician , silurian, devonian );
-peisajul primitiv trziu ( 300 350 milioane ani ICh., n perioada carbonifer);
-paleopeisajul 300 155 milioane ani ICh din permian-paleozoic pn n jurasic-mezozoic);
-neopeisajul (155 -65 milioane ani ICh., perioada cretacicmezozoic) ;
-peisajul zonal (65-12milioane ICh., n paleogen i neogencainozoic);
-peisajul geografic preactual (12-10.000 milioane ICh., n neogen );
- peisajul geografic actual sau tehnogen, din postglacial.

Flora a ajuns la forma definitiv n cuaternar, iar peisajul geografic actual s-a constituit n holocenneozoic.
Glaciaiunea ncheiat cu 10mii ani ICh. a remodelat mediul geografic, iar nfiarea Pmntului s-a schimbat sever
selectnd speciile vegetale i animale, care au populat biotipurile neocupate de speciile preglaciale.

Europa (dup Strabon , Tacitus ) a avut teritoriul mpdurit (>75% ), iar stepele se situau la nord de Marea Neagr i
n zona Mrii Caspice.
Cmpiile Dunrii de Jos i Brganul au fost acoperite de pduri rare ( Enculescu, 1924).

2.2 Biodiversitatea n ecosistemele antropizate i antropice

Diversitatea peisajelor la suprafaa terestr este determinat de distribuirea inegal a elementelor abiotice i biotice.
Dup frecvena omului i a elementele antropice n ecosisteme se disting: -ecosisteme naturale; -ecosisteme modificate
(antropizate); -ecosisteme amenajate (antropice).
Biomurile terestre sunt: tundra , taigaua, muntele , pdurile, stepele savanele , deerturile , mediul marin i
biomurile limnologice (ape curgtoare, lacurile ).
Tundra este situat n emisfera nordic i sudic, pn la cercul polar; clima-nghe , temperatura lunar medie a
celei mai calde luni rar depete 10 oC, vara solul se dezghea superficial timp de 6-8 sptmni, pn la adncimea
maxim de 35cm, restul profilului rmne ngheat (permafrost); Flora: muchi, licheni, plante anuale efemere cu flori,
ce cresc i se reproduc n scurta var polar ;Fauna : psrii ~ 40 specii migratoare i sedentare (pinguini, ra polar,
bufni polar ..); insecte (diptere, collembole, albine); Mammalia - 60 specii erbivore mici (iepuri polari, lemingi),
carnivore (vulpea polar, lupi albi, ursul polar..).
Taigauasituat la sud de tundr, n nordul Eurasiei, Americii de Nord, constituit din pduri de conifere cu frunze
persistente (zad, brazi, pini, larix), caracteristic zonei reci, dar i sensibile (plopi). Animale:psri granivore,
insectivore, vultur, oim, orecar, oareci, porc spinos, iepuri de vizuin, iepuri de cmp, elan, cprioare), carnivore
(nevstuica, nurca, dihor, linx, lup, urs).
Pdurile sunt asociaiii vegetale diverse, complexe, stratificate. Pdurile pot fi : -pduri cu frunze cztoare
(caduce) din clima temperat (Eurasia, America de Nord) ; -pduri cu frunze persistente de tip mediteranean (bazinul
mediteranean , caraibian ..) ; -pduri ecuatoriale (Indonezia, Malaezia, Africa tropical, America de Sud). Diversitatea
faunistic i floristic este mare (~2000 specii lemnoase distribuite pe 4-5etaje; productivitatea brut a arborilor
ecuatoriali este mare 500-1000 t/an (creterea anual a lemnului 1-5%).
Muntele este un biom format din ecosisteme diverse distribuite pe etaje : -vegetaia forestier > 2 000m ;
-subalpin ~ 3 000 m 4 000 m;-alpin peste 4 000 m ; predomin gramineele, nevertebrate insecte aptere, reptile
-vertebrate).
Punile prerii ( SUA ), savane (Africa tropical), pampas (America de Sud ), stepa (Europa). Stepele sunt
situate n climate cu perioade lungi de secet ; vegetaia este format din graminee: Stipa , Festuca , Andropogon;
Fitomasa hipogeic (subteran) este mai mare dect fitomasa epigeic (suprateran). Diversitatea mare ; mistre, bour,
zimbru, muflon, roztoare mici (oareci de cmp , popndii, hrciogi); psri (dropia, ciocrlia, gaia..),
carnivore( nevstuica, pisica slbatic, vulpea, acalul..); Savanele au covorul vegetal format din graminee , cu cretere

rapid n perioada sezonului ploios, avnd o bioproductivitate primar de 20 t /ha; pe covorul vegetal ierbos se
instaleaz specii arbustoide ; Fauna este format din erbivore foarte mari (girafe, elefani, bivoli) mijlocii (zebre,
impala, gnu), psri, mamiferele carnivore mari (leu, ghepard). Preeriile sunt ecosisteme erbacee nord americane, cu
aspect de step, n care speciile vegetale dominante sunt gramineele; erbivore (bizoni), carnivore (lupii,coioi). Pampas
ecosistem sudamerican erbaceu cu graminee dominante, animale erbivore (lama, alpaca), psri, reptile.
Deerturi-(zone aride ) cu vegetaie xerofit, rar, cu faun xerofil [roztoare, psri alergtoare (stru..) i
nevertebrate (insecte, scorpioni)].
Mediul marin (ap srat ) este divizat n: -platou continental ; -zona abisal (H~zeci, > 6 000 m); -zona hadal
< 6 000m.
Biomurile limnologice (ape dulci curgtoare, lacuri ) pot fi: - litorale ; -sublitorale; -zona profund.

Tip biom alpin

Tip biom: savana

Tip biom: deert

Tip biom: stepa, pajite (grasland)

Tip biom: pdurea tropical

Tip biom: pdurea de foioase din zona temperat

Tip biom: taiga

Tip biom: tundra

Tip biom: preeriee (grasland)

Tip biom chaparral

01. Forts de feuillus humides tropicales et subtropicales


02. Forts de feuillus sches tropicales et
subtropicales
03. Forts de conifres tropicales et subtropicales
04. Forts de feuillus et forts mixtes
tempres
05. Forts de conifres tempres
06. Taga
07. Prairies, savanes et brousses tropicales et
subtropicales
08. Prairies, savanes et brousses tempres
09. Prairies et savanes inondes
10. Prairies et
brousses d'altitude
11. Toundra
12. Forts, zones boises et maquis mditerranens
13. Dserts et
brousses xriques
14. Mangroves
Roche et glace, ou Zones terrestres abiotiques
Pampas
Mangrove

Primary Productivity Table

Cultivated Land, which has generally been forest or tall grassland before its cultivation, now covers 9% of the earth's
land surface. It produces 14% of the land's biomass. Agriculture that supports humans requires at least 20 inches of
rainfall a year, although sometimes, when rainfall is insufficient, the natural rainfall may be supplimented with
irrigation.

Ecosystem Type

Tropical
Forest

Rain

Net Primary
Approximate
Productivity
Kilocalories
(Kilocalories /
per square meter
square meter /
per day
year)
9000

25

Estuary (the place


where a river
meets the sea)

9000

25

Swamps
Marshes

9000

and

Savanna
(grass,
scattered
trees,
little or no winter
snow)
Temperate
Grassland
winters)

(cold

3000

25

365 days

More than
60
.

11%

Marshland
swamps
lakes
streams

3%

8
Grassland

2000

Deciduous
Temperate Forest

6000

16

Boreal

3500

10

Forest

Growing
% of
Season
Rainfall
Type of Earth's
/
Frost per year in
Land
Land
Free
inches
Surface
nights

10-30
>120
days
<

120

30-60
12-33

Prairie and
Savanna

21%

Temperate 22%
Forests

(Evergreen
Coniferous Forest)
Polar Tundra
Desert

days
600

< 10

< 200

< 10

GLOBAL BIOZONE C LASSIFICATION


HOLARCTIC BIOKINGDOM (HOLARCTIS) BY ARMEN TAKHTAJAN
C IRCUMBOREAL BIOR EGION
ARCTIC BIOP ROVINCE
ATLANTIC EUROPEAN BIOP ROVINCE
C ENTRAL EUROPEAN BIOP ROVINCE
BALKAN OR ILLYRIAN BIOP ROVINCE
EUXINE BIOP ROVINCE
C AUCASIAN BIOP ROVINCE
EASTERN EUROPEAN BIOP ROVINCE
NORTHERN EUROPEAN BIOP ROVINCE
WESTERN SIBERIAN BIOP ROVINCE
ALTAI-S AYAN BIOP ROVINCE
MIDDLE S IBERIAN BIOP ROVINCE
T RANSBAIKALIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NORTHEASTERN S IBERIAN BIOP ROVINCE
OKHOTSKE -KAMCHATKAN BIOP ROVINC E
C ANADIAN BIOP ROVINCE
EASTERN ASIATIC BIOR EGION
MANCHURIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S AKHALIN-HOKKAIDO BIOP ROVINCE
JAPANESE-KOREAN BIOP ROVINCE
VOLCANO -BONIN BIOP ROVINCE
R YUKYU OR TAKARA-OKINAWA BIOP ROVINCE
T AIWANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NORTHERN CHINESE BIOP ROVINCE
C ENTRAL CHINESE BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTHEASTERN C HINESE BIOP ROVINCE
S IKANG-YUNNAN BIOP ROVINCE
NORTHERN MYANMAR BIOP ROVINCE
EASTERN HIMALAYAN BIOP ROVINCE
KHASI-M ANIPUR BIOP ROVINCE
NORTH AMERICAN ATLANTIC BIOR EGION
APPALACHIAN BIOP ROVINCE
ATLANTIC AND GULF C OASTAL P LAIN BIOP ROVINCE
NORTH AMERICAN P RAIRIES BIOP ROVINCE
R OCKY MOUNTAINS BIOR EGION
VANCOUVERIAN BIOP ROVINCE
R OCKY MOUNTAINS BIOP ROVINCE
MACARONESIAN BIOR EGION
AZOREAN BIOP ROVINCE
MADEIRAN BIOP ROVINCE
C ANARIAN BIOP ROVINCE
C APE VERDEAN BIOP ROVINCE
MEDITERRANEAN BIOR EGION

Barren ice,
sand
33%
tundra
desert

S OUTH M OROCCAN BIOP ROVINCE


S OUTHWESTERN MEDITERRANEAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTH M EDITERRANEAN BIOP ROVINCE
IBERIAN BIOP ROVINCE
BALEARIC BIOP ROVINCE
LIGURO -T YRRHENIAN BIOP ROVINCE
ADRIATIC BIOP ROVINCE
EAST MEDITERRANEAN BIOP ROVINCE
C RIMEAN -NOVOROSSIYSK BIOP ROVINCE
S AHARO-ARABIAN BIOR EGION
S AHARAN BIOP ROVINCE
EGYPTIAN-ARABIAN BIOP ROVINCE
IRANO -T URANIAN BIOR EGION
MESOPOTAMIAN BIOP ROVINCE
C ENTRAL ANATOLIAN BIOP ROVINCE
ARMENO -IRANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
HYRCANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
T URANIAN OR ARALO -C ASPIAN BIOP ROVINCE
T URKESTANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NORTHERN BALUCHISTANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
WESTERN HIMALAYAN BIOP ROVINCE
C ENTRAL TIEN S HAN BIOP ROVINCE
DZUNGARO -T IEN SHAN BIOP ROVINCE
MONGOLIAN BIOP ROVINCE
T IBETIAN BIOP ROVINCE
MADREAN BIOR EGION
GREAT BASIN BIOP ROVINCE
C ALIFORNIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S ONORAN BIOP ROVINCE
MEXICAN HIGHLANDS BIOP ROVINCE
P ALEOTROPIC BIOKINGDOM (PALEOTROPIS )
GUINEO -C ONGOLIAN BIOR EGION
UPPER GUINEA BIOP ROVINCE
NIGERIAN-C AMEROONIAN BIOP ROVINCE
C ONGOLIAN BIOP ROVINCE
UZAMBARA-ZULULAND BIOR EGION
ZANZIBAR-INHAMBANE BIOP ROVINCE
T ONGOLAND -P ONDOLAND BIOP ROVINCE
S UDANO -ZAMBEZIAN BIOR EGION
ZAMBEZIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S AHELIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S UDANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OMALO -ETHIOPIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTH ARABIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OCOTRAN BIOP ROVINCE
OMANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTH IRANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S INDIAN BIOP ROVINCE
KAROO -NAMIB BIOR EGION
NAMIBIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NAMALAND BIOP ROVINCE
WESTERN CAPE BIOP ROVINCE
KAROO BIOP ROVINCE
S T HELENA AND ASCENSION BIOR EGION

S T HELENA AND ASCENSION BIOP ROVINCE


MADAGASCAN BIOR EGION
EASTERN MADAGASCAN BIOP ROVINCE
WESTERN MADAGASCAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTHERN AND S OUTHWESTERN MADAGASCAN BIOP ROVINCE
C OMORAN BIOP ROVINCE
MASCARENEAN BIOP ROVINCE
S EYCHELLEAN BIOP ROVINCE
INDIAN BIOR EGION
S RI LANKAN BIOP ROVINCE
MALABAR BIOP ROVINCE
DECCAN BIOP ROVINCE
UPPER GANGETIC BIOP ROVINCE
BENGALIAN BIOP ROVINCE
INDOCHINESE BIOR EGION
S OUTH M YANMAR BIOP ROVINCE
ANDAMANESE BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTH C HINESE BIOP ROVINCE
T HAILANDIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NORTH INDOCHINESE BIOP ROVINCE
ANNAMESE BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTH INDOCHINESE BIOP ROVINCE
MALESIAN BIOR EGION
MALAYAN BIOP ROVINCE
BORNEAN (KALIMANTAN) BIOP ROVINCE
P HILIPPINEAN BIOP ROVINCE
S UMATRAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTH M ALESIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S ULAWESIAN (CELEBESIAN) BIOP ROVINCE
MALUKU (MOLUCCAN ) BIOP ROVINCE
P APUAN BIOP ROVINCE
BISMARCKIAN BIOP ROVINCE
F IJIAN BIOR EGION
VANUATU (NEW HEBRIDEAN ) BIOP ROVINCE
F IJIAN BIOP ROVINCE
P OLYNESIAN BIOR EGION
MICRONESIAN BIOP ROVINCE
P OLYNESIAN BIOP ROVINCE
HAWAIIAN BIOR EGION
HAWAIIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NEOCALEDONIAN BIOR EGION
NEOCALEDONIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NEOTROPIC BIOKINGDOM (NEOTROPIS )
C ARIBBEAN BIOR EGION
C ENTRAL AMERICAN BIOP ROVINCE
WEST INDIAN BIOP ROVINCE
C HOCAN BIOP ROVINCE
GALAPAGEAN BIOP ROVINCE
C OCOS ISLAND BIOP ROVINCE
GUAYANA HIGHLANDS BIOR EGION
GUAYANA HIGHLANDS BIOP ROVINCE
AMAZONIAN BIOR EGION
AMAZONIAN BIOP ROVINCE
LLANOS BIOP ROVINCE

BRAZILIAN BIOR EGION


C AATINGA BIOP ROVINCE
C ERRADO BIOP ROVINCE
C HACOAN BIOP ROVINCE
ATLANTIC BIOP ROVINCE
P ARANAN BIOP ROVINCE
ANDEAN BIOR EGION
NORTHERN ANDEAN BIOP ROVINCE
C ENTRAL ANDEAN BIOP ROVINCE
C APE BIOKINGDOM (CAPENSIS)
C APE BIOR EGION
C APE BIOP ROVINCE
AUSTRALIAN BIOKINGDOM (AUSTRALIS)
NORTHEASTERN AUSTRALIAN BIOR EGION
NORTHERN AUSTRALIAN BIOP ROVINCE
QUEENSLANDIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTHEAST AUSTRALIAN BIOP ROVINCE
T ASMANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTHWEST AUSTRALIAN BIOR EGION
S OUTHWEST AUSTRALIAN BIOP ROVINCE
EREMAEAN OR CENTRAL AUSTRALIANBIOR EGION
EREMAEAN OR CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN BIOP ROVINCE
HOLANTARCTIC BIOKINGDOM (HOLANTARCTIS)
F ERNANDEZIAN BIOR EGION
F ERNANDEZIAN BIOP ROVINCE
C HILE -P ATAGONIAN BIOR EGION
NORTHERN CHILEAN-S OUTHERN P ERUVIAN BIOP ROVINCE
C ENTRAL CHILEAN BIOP ROVINCE
P AMPEAN BIOP ROVINCE
P ATAGONIAN BIOP ROVINCE
MAGELLANIAN BIOP ROVINCE
S OUTH S UBANTARCTIC ISLANDS BIOR EGION
T RISTAN-GOUGHIAN BIOP ROVINCE
KERGUELENIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NEOZEYLANDIC BIOR EGION
LORD HOWEAN BIOP ROVINCE
NORFOLKIAN BIOP ROVINCE
KERMEDECIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NEOZEYLANDIC BIOP ROVINCE
C HATHAMIAN BIOP ROVINCE
NEW ZEALAND SUBANTARCTIC ISLANDS BIOP ROVINCE

BALKAN BIOPROVINCE
T HIS B IO P ROVINCE ( AS DEFINED BY A RMEN T AKHTAJAN ) COMPRISES NORTHERN G REECE ( INCLUDING THE P INDOS
M OUNTAINS ), PARTS OF A LBANIA , M ACEDONIA , B OSNIA -H ERZEGOVINA , C ROATIA , S LOVENIA ( INCLUDING THE
K ARAWANKEN AND J ULIAN A LPS ), BUT NOT THE A DRIATIC COASTAL AREAS OF THESE STATES . I TS NORTHEASTERN
BOUNDARY RUNS MOSTLY ALONG THE VALLEY OF THE R IVER S AVA AND CONTINUES ALONG THE D ANUBE R IVER TO
INCLUDE MOST OF B ULGARIA WITH THE EXCEPTION OF ITS NORTHEASTERN STEPPE REGIONS . I N THE SOUTHEAST
IT EXTENDS INTO E UROPEAN T URKEY . A LSO INCLUDED IS THE SO - CALLED P ANNONIC ZONE NAMED AFTER
THE OLD R OMAN PROVINCE OF P ANNONIA , WHICH IS A WESTERN ENCLAVE OF THE STEPPE REGION AND
CENTRED ON THE H UNGARIAN P LAIN BUT ALSO INCLUDES SOUTHERN R OMANIA AND NORTHERN
B ULGARIA . I N FACT , IT FORMS A CORRIDOR OF LOWLANDS ALONG EITHER SIDE OF THE D ANUBE R IVER
TO THE NORTHWESTERN COAST OF THE B LACK S EA . T HE CENTRAL REGION OF THE B IO P ROVINCE LARGELY
CONSISTS OF CRYSTALLINE AND SCHISTOSE ROCKS WITH THE CORE FORMED BY THE MOUNTAIN MASSES OF

R HODOPE , B ELASITZA , P ERIN AND R ILA .

E UXINE-COLCHIC B IOPROVINCE
T HIS B IO P ROVINCE ( AS DEFINED BY A RMEN T AKHTAJAN ) COMPRISES A ZONE ALONG THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE B LACK S EA
MOST OF WHICH IS IN TURKEY BUT EXTENDS WEST ALONG THE B LACK S EA SHORES OF B ULGARIA AS FAR AS THE G ULF
OF B URGAS . T HIS PART HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS THE E UXINIC ZONE . I N THE EAST IT INCLUDES THE WESTERN C AUCASUS
IN WESTERN G EORGIA AND THE COASTAL ZONE AS FAR NORTH AS TUAPSE . T HIS IS THE SO - CALLED C OLCHIC ZONE .
F ROM A GEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE THE AREA IS RELATIVELY YOUNG COMPRISING AN EXPANDING COASTAL PLAIN THAT
BEGAN TO FORM SOME 6000 YEARS AGO IN THE MIDDLE H OLOCENE PERIOD . T HE CLIMATE CAN BE DESCRIBED AS A
SUB -M EDITERRANEAN AND HUMID BUT CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THE HIGHLY HUMID EASTERN OR C OLCHIC ZONE AND THE
LESS HUMID WESTERN OR E UXINIC ZONE .

CENTRAL EASTERN

BIOP ROVINCE

T HIS B IOP ROVINCE ( AS DEFINED BY ARMEN TAKHTAJAN ) EXTENDS EASTWARDS FROM THE EASTERN EDGE OF THE CENTRAL M ASSIF ,
THE WESTERN EDGE OF THE LORRAINE P LATEAU AND THE M ASSIF OF THE ARDENNES , THE EASTERN SHORES OF THE J UTLAND
P ENINSULA AND SOUTHEASTERN SHORES OF N ORWAY. ITS NORTHERN LIMIT EXTENDS TO THE NORTHERN SHORES OF THE GULF OF
F INLAND , THE WESTERN SHORES OF THE KARELIAN ISTHMUS , AND THE ENTIRE WESTERN SHORE OF E STONIA. F URTHER ON , THE
BORDER MOVES SOUTH TO THE WEST OF R IGA, CUTS THROUGH LATVIA, PASSES SOUTH OF VILNIUS , TURNS TOWARDS THE BELOVEZH
F OREST AND WEST TO LVOV . IT THEN PASSES SOUTH OF THE DNIESTER RIVER AND PROCEEDS ALONG THE P RUT R IVER TO THE LOWER
D ANUBE LOWLANDS . IN THE SOUTH IT INCLUDES THE ALPS , THE NORTHERN APPENINES , THE TRANSYLVANIAN ALPS AND THE
C ARPATHIANS . THE GEOLOGY IS COMPLEX BUT THE TERTIARY OROGENIC EPISODE THAT CREATED THE ALPS HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS
THE CLIMAX OF E UROPEAN GEOLOGY .

EASTERN EUROPEAN BIOPROVINCE


THIS BIO P ROVINCE ( AS DEFINED BY ARMEN TAKHTAJAN ) INCLUDES THE EASTERN PARTS OF THE BALTIC REPUBLICS , MOST OF
B ELORUSSIA ( EXCEPT SOME WESTERN PARTS ), MOST OF THE U KRAIN ( EXCEPT THE SOUTHWESTERN PART OF SOUTHERN
C RIMEA ) AND THE LOWER D ANUBE L OWLANDS . I N THE NORTH IT EXTENDS TO THE CONIFER FORESTS OF THE NORTHERN
E UROPEAN B IO P ROVINCE AND IN THE SOUTH IT EXTENDS TO THE NORTHERN SHORES OF THE BLACK S EA ( EXCEPT FOR THE
SOUTHERN SHORE OF THE C RIMEA ) AND INCLUDES THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN SHORES OF THE S EA OF A ZOV . I N THE
SOUTHEAST IT EXTENDS TO THE R IVER V OLGA , BUT FURTHER NORTH IT STRETCHES AS FAR AS THE SOUTHERN U RAL
M OUNTAINS . T HE GEOLOGY IS HUGELY VARIED AND COMPLEX GIVING RISE TO A VARIETY OF LANDSCAPES , WHILE
THE CLIMATE CAN BE GENERALLY DESCRIBED A CONTINENTAL WITH HEAVY SNOW IN WINTER AND HOT SUMMERS .
T HE B LACK S EA INCLUDES TWO OF THE LARGEST DELTAS IN THE W ORLD . T HE D ANUBE D ELTA IS THE SECOND
LARGEST DELTA IN E UROPE , AFTER THE V OLGA D ELTA, AND THE D ANUBE D ELTA B IOSPHERE RESERVE IS THE LARGEST
WETLAND RESERVE IN E UROPE .

REGIUNILE BIOGEOGRAFICE ALE ROMNIEI (ECOREGIUNI)


ALPIN
zona montan: Carpaii Orientali : Carpaii Maramureului i Bucovinei, Carpaii Moldo-Transilvani i
Carpaii de Curbur ), Carpaii Meridionali ( Munii Bucegi, Munii Fgra, Munii Parng i Munii RetezatGodeanu) i Carpaii Occidentali Romneti (Munii Banatului, Munii Poiana Rusc, Munii Apuseni). pajiti alpine
PANONIC - n jumtatea vestic a judeelor Timi i Arad, vestul judeului Bihor i sud-vestul judeului Satu Mare.
PONTIC
-nord-estul
judeului
Constana
i
estul
judeului
Tulcea
pajiti
aride
S TEPIC - n judeele Clrai, Brila, Ilfov, Galai, Constana i Tulcea i sud-estul judeelor Vaslui i Buzu. pajiti
aride
CONTINENTAL - Transilvania, Oltenia, Muntenia, Moldova i estul Banatului. pduri de foioase, conifere, pajiti

Biodiversitatea n ecosistemele antropizate


Omul a dezvoltat n interaciune cu mediul natural, constituindu-i oikumenmediul propriu i autonom, o
consecin a activitilor directe sau indirecte, care a influenat drastic organismele vii i lanurile trofice. Un ecosistem
antropizat se deosebete de ecosistemele naturale prin consumul energetic, de la 1-4Kcal /m 2 /zi (ecosistemele naturale)
la 5 000Kcal/om/zi n era primitiv pn la 200 000Kcal/om/zi n rile puternic dezvoltate.
Ecosistemele antropizate sunt extrem de variate : -agroecosisteme; - forestiere; - acvatice amenajate de om.
Agroecosistemele, adaptate sau amenajate de om, pot fi:
-arabile (arabile propriu-zise, pajiti cultivate, grdini de legume, orezrii, sere, solarii i rsadnie, cpunerii, alte
culturi perene) ;
-puni (puni curate, puni mpdurite, puni cu pomi fructiferi, puni cu tufriuri i mrciniuri);
-fnee(fnee curate, fnee cu pomi fructiferi, fnee mpdurite, fnee cu tufriuri i mrciniuri) ;
-vii (vii nobile, vii hibride, plantaii hamei, plantaii viticole);
-livezi (livezi clasice livezi intensive i superintensive , livezii plantai arbuti, plantaii duzi, pepiniere pomicole).
Ecosistemele forestiere sunt diverse:pduri, perdele de protecie, tufriuri i mrciniuri, rchitrii, pepiniere
silvice.Ecosistemele acvatice modificate, amenajate de om [bazine piscicole, lacuri, heletee, acvacultur (stridii,
crevei, alge macrofite, peti n sistem superintensiv)] .
Antropocenoza este o biocenoz n care plantele sunt cultivate i ngrijite de om, dar i buruieni segetale, iar majoritatea
animalelor sunt domesticite i exploatate de ctre om pentru realizarea propriilor interese.
Omul i-a dezvoltat un mediu propriu, autonom, prin activiti directe sau indirecte, iar lanurile trofice s-au modicat,
dar n majoritatea lor se terminau la prdatorul finalomul. Formarea primului habitat uman a nceput din neolitic (7
0008 000Ch.), cnd omul nomad de Neanderthal din culegtor, vntor, pescar a devenit sedentar, agricultor trind
din cultivarea plantelor, exploatarea animalele domesticite . Dovezi privind modificarea mediului dateaz din jurul
anului 50 000 Ch. cnd o parte din pdurile cu frunze cztoare din clima temperat au fost incendiate pentru a elibera
locul necesar extinderii suprafeelor cu puni destinate hrnirii turmelor de erbivore domesticite (cornute mici, mari).

mpletind ocupaiile mai vechi cu altele noi, mai profitabile grupele de oameni s-au mulplicat rapid, i-au diversificat
modalitile de procurare a hranei , reuind s alunge din grote mamuii i urii. Apar primele ogoare cu unul sau mai
multe cmpuri care a asigurat o cantitate sporit de semine. n concluzie producerea hranei devine sigur, lipsit de
pericole
majore,
iar
timpul
afectat
i
dar
necesar
obinerii
hranei
s-a
micorat.

Primele ogoare semnate de om s-au semnalat n albiile majore ale fluviilor Tigu, Eufrat, Indus, Gange, Nil care
revrsndu-se, deversau periodic mari cantiti de ml bogat n substante accesibile i hrnitoare pentru plante (mei,
gru, orez, hric, ...). Exploataiile agricole din bazinele fluviale (Nil, Tigru, Eufrat, Indus, Gange) au asigurat hrana
pentru apariia, creterea, expansiunea primelor civilizaii antice nfloritoare (Asiria, Babilon, Egipt, Persia, India).

Biodiversitatea n ecosistemele antropice


Ecosisteme
Ecosistemul rural este un ecosistem modificat dominat de un grup de oameni ntemeietori (desclectori,
btinai, indigeni, autohtoni, aborigeni) ajutai de alii (atasai, provenii, venetici, deportai, strmutai ,
coloniti , emigrani ), care i asigur subzistena din exploatarea resurselor naturale primare (pescari, pstori ,

agricultori, forestieri) i din practicarea meteugurilor tradiionale (olari, mcelari, tbcari, ciocnari, cojocari,
blnari, pielari, curelari, lemnari, lingurari, dogari, pietrari, crmidari, fierari, potcovari).

Ecosistemul rural tradiional este constituit : -vatra satului- cuprinde zona ocupat de primele imobile (castru, turnu,
canton , locuinele fondatorilor); -intravilanul suprafaa afectat construciilor de diverse destinaii precum i zonele
funcionale neagricole; - extravilanulrestul teritoriului (agricol, drumuri, neproductiv) din perimetrul administrativ . .

Ecosistemul rural tradiional este constituit din urmtoarele zone distincte: vatra satului, intravilan, extravilan:
-vatra satului- cuprinde zona ocupat de primele imobile (castru, turnu, canton , locuinele fondatorilor);
-intravilanul suprafaa afectat construciilor de diverse destinaii precum i zonele funcionale neagricole;
- extravilanulrestul teritoriului (agricol, drumuri, neproductiv) din perimetrul administrativ al satului .

Aezarea uman este primul ecosistem difereniat din ecosistemele natural, fiind antropizat puternic n zonele
comerciale i centrele de afaceri, ori moderat n zonele destinate agrementului. Modificri eseniale ale biotopului
natural iniial au fost fcute n timp, contient sau incontient, sistematic sau haotic de oameni.

Agroecosi
stemele sunt ecosisteme adiacente ecosistemelor rurale, urbane natural care pot interfera prin componentele ori, dar sunt
diferite prin caracteristici i dinamic. Omul adapteaz , modific majoritatea componentelor geologice, geografice,
climatic i biotice devenind specia cea mai frecvent din ecosfer, principalul component al lanurilor trofice din
biosfer, devenind prdtorul final al majoritii lanurilor trofice ;
Caracteristicile eseniale ale ecosistemului rural sunt bioproductivitatea i exportul de energie biosintetizat n produse
agroalimentare (brute, finite), materii vegetale (fitomateriale) i animaliere (zoomateriale) prelucrabile artizanal,
industrial sau biotehnologic, iar sezonier intrri masive de energie stocat (crbuni i lemne de foc, combustibil,
ngrminte, ap de irigaie i produse fitofarmaceutice i biocide). Biodiversitatea este mic.
Caracteristicile principale ale ecosistemului rural sunt: apariia unor noi lanuri trofice, inexistente n ecosistemele
natural ; reglarea raporturilor interspecifice i intraspecifice este realizat exclusive de om. circulaia energiei este n
circuit aciclic, dezechilibrat, cu importuri energetic discontinue, sezoniere; fluxul informaional are vitez superioar
oricreia nregistrat n oricare ecosistem natural; importul sezonier de substan pentru activiti socio-economice;
densitatea demografic i a speciilor sinantrope utile sau vectoare, parazite este mare; principalul consumator din
ecosistemul rural este specia uman, prin densiti populaionale ridicate, dar i prin comportamentul su alimentar ;

n biotopul rural au fost executate lucrrii de hidroamelioraii i de mbuntiri funciare diverse:regularizarea


cursurilor de ap; asanarea mlatinilor; amenajarea unor bazine piscicole; amenajarea de sisteme de irigaii;
amenajarea antierozional a versanilor; stingerea torenilor din bazinul colector aferent emisarului natural; combaterea
eroziunii solului ( terasarea versanilor; benzi nierbate; cleionaje;..) drenaje; sisteme antigrindin;

Pentru asigurarea unui confort minim au fost construite reele electrice ii de telecomunicaii, sisteme de alimentare cu
ap potabil, reele de canalizare i de distribuie a gazului metan i a altor utiliti .

Ecosistemul rural modernizat sau sistematizat este constituit din:


Intravilanul satului cuprinde: zona administrativ, coala, dispensarul, zona comercial, cultural, zona rezidenial
(locuine, gospodrii personale rurale ),biserica, cimitirul, zona meteugreasc, de mic industrie, zona de agrement.
Extravilanul stesc cuprinde terenuri neproductive / permanent sub/cu luciu de ap, exploataii agricole, petroliere,
forestiere, miniere, rampa de gunoi.
.

Descoperirea de resurse ale subsolului uor accesibile (sare, crbuni, petrol, gaze naturale, minerale, minereuri)
declaneaz i accelereaz urbanizarea ecosistemului natural sau rural, pentru asigurarea cazrii i hrnirii muncitorilor
de la exploataiile miniere, schele petroliere, cariere de marmur, piatr. A aprut demografia, tiina care studiaz
dinamica populaiei umane (efectiv, densitate, rata natalitii, morbiditate, rata mortalitii, coeficientul i rata creterii
numerice, emigrarea, migrarea).

Ecosistemul urban
Ecosistemul urban este constituit din biotopul urban i antropocenoza urban. Biotopul urban a aprut din transformri
radical contiente sau incontiente n biotopul natural, ntr-un proces istoric.
Biotopul urban este
constituit
din factori: staionari (geografici,
geologici,
pedologici)
antropici diveri (cldiri,biserica, cimitir, parc industrial, stadion obor, coli, reele de transport )
Biotopul urban reprezint rezultatul aciunii modelatoare a omului asupra mediului geologic, geografic, desfurat pe
un anumit parcurs istoric, pentru atingerea obiectivelor sociale, economice i financiare.
Factorii staionari sunt factori geografici, geologici i pedologici, determin dezvoltarea unei aezri umane.

Geneza urbei (lat.urbanus=ora) este strns legat de consolidarea unor ceti (ora statTyr, Sidon, Atena..), castre,
limesuri, dezvoltarea meteugurilor (centre meteugreti), intensificarea comerului (trguri), clarificarea spiritual i
consacrarea unor centre spirituale (loc sfnt, templu, oracol, muntele sfnt, relicve...) i de creterea ritmic a
populaiei.
Oraul antic sau medieval se compunea din: zona turnului, a fortului, castrului sau a cetii suprafaa ocupat de
fortificaii, autoriti i garnizoan , intravilanul suprafaa destinat locuinelor, construciilor funcionale neagricole ale
oraului ; extravilanul restul suprafeelor din perimetrul administrativ al oraului.

Ecosistemul urban medieval balcanic s-a format pe ruinele cetilor antice, sau la ntretierea de drumuri comerciale
tradiionale (trguri de ln, sare, oi, cai ..) i pe lng ceti noi sau alte fortificaii militare.

Trgul, ora medieval, burg cuprindea zona militar-administrativ, cazarma cu oastea, hanul, biserica i vadul
comercial.

Cetatea de scaun era reedina domnitorului, regelui ori mpratului (cezar, ar, sultan) i cuprindea : palatul domnesc;
curtea domneasc; turnul i cetatea; obor, trg, coala domneasc, vad comercial, hanuri, biserica; bolnia

Aezarea urban modern este un ecosistem diferit fa de ecosistemele naturale sau rurale fiind structurat pe zone
funcionale puternic antropizate sau antropice , n special platformele (parcurile) industrial , centrele de afaceri, town
center, zone rezideniale multifuncionale, campusuri universitare i de nvmnt special, zone sportive, agrement,
aezminte monahale, spitale Caracteristicile principale ale ecosistemului urban sunt:
-Circulaia energiei este n circuit deschis, dezechilibrat, cu importuri energetice permanente;
-importul sistematic, obligatoriu de substan pentru hran i alte activiti socio-economice;
-Fluxul informaional are vitez foarte mare net superioar oricreia nregistrat n ecosisteme;

Densitatea demografic i a speciilor sinantrope invazive vectoare, parazite este foarte mare;
-Principalul consumator, omul, realizeaz densitii populaionale foarte ridicate;
-Apariia unor lanuri trofice cosmopolite, diferite de cele existente n ecosistemele rurale;
-Biodiversitatea este cea mai mic din ecosistemele azonale;
-Reglarea raporturilor interspecifice i intraspecifice este reglementat de administraia aezrii;

Poluanii urbani sunt noxe comune, majoritatea lor fiind determinate de serii de cause precum:
a) dezvoltarea economic pe criterii neecologice, absena unei baze de dezvoltare durabil;
b) suprapopularea oraelor, extinderea suprafeelor construciilor n detrimental spaiilor verzi;
c)utilizarea de tehnologii energofage, liniare, aciclice, nebazate pe principii ecologice.
d) manufacturarea produselor materiale bazate pe resurse neregenerabile i epuizabile.
e)educaia ecologic deficitar referitoare la identificarea proceselor neprietenoase cu mediul.
f) creterea nivelului de noxe din aer datorit creterii traficului auto de personae i de mrfuri;
g)deficitul de ap dulce va crete n viitor (la Bologna, Italia apa freatic era la adncimea de 12m n anul 1945, iar
acum se afl la 35 m adncime).

Datorit modificrii circulaiei apei n partea subteran a teritoriului, dar i creterea presiunii exercitate de construcii
se pot declana alunecri de teren i distrugerea de suprafee extinse, inclusive a construciilor.
Componenta esenial a ecosistemului urban este antropocenoza urban, iar specia dominant o constitue omul, care prin
aciunile sale influeneaz majoritatea constituenilor biotici i abiotici.Sistemul populaiei umane prezint gradul nalt
de structurare social-economic permindu-i o manipulare unor mari cantiti de materie i energie, dar i puternica
aciune modelatoare a mediului. Mobilitatea mare i viteza sporit de circulaie a informaiei sunt elementele eseniale
antropice pe baza crora omul modeleaz sau deregleaz componentele mediului n funcie de nevoile socio-umane.

Omul inventeaz, fabric i utilizeaz mainii i unelte de putere mare capacitate i randamente ridicate, care-i extind
posibilitile de transformare a componentelor naturii modelnd microrelieful. Atta timp ct mijloacele tehnice folosite
de om erau modeste schimbrile n mediu natural erau minore i lente permind adaptarea organismelor, deoarece
mediul nu era afectat rapid i grav.
Cantitatea de energie introdus de om n ecosistemul urban sub diferite forme(combustibili, energie termic, electric i
biochimic ncorporat n ngrminte, biopesticide, produse fitofarmaceutice), dar i energia de intrare din parcurile i
platformele industrial depete energia solar captat de productorii primari genernd severa antropizare a biotopului
urban. Omul a dezvoltat n interaciune cu mediul natural, constituindu-i oikumenmediul propriu i autonom, o
consecin a activitilor directe sau indirecte, care a influenat drastic organismele vii i lanurile trofice.
Uriaele aciuni antropice modific profund componentele abiotice, iar organismele constituente se adaptapteaz greu,
aprnd frecvent accidente ecologice ireversibile i pe termen lung.
Diferenierile dintre ecosistemelor urbane i naturali sunt:
-Biodiversitatea n ecosistemele urbane comparativ cu aceea din ecosistemele natural este mic.
-Concentrrile mari de populaie uman au baze economice i de natur social i psihologic.
-La nceput omul a vieuit ntr-un mediu cu biodiversitate ridicat, dar speciile concurente, prdtoare agresive, parasite
sau inutile pentru necesitile sociale curente au fost ndeprtate, eliminate.
-Modificarea sever a biotopului natural prin lucrri de hidroamelioraii i de art, culminnd cu realizarea unor aezri
urbane modern din beton , oel i sticl, care reprezint veritabiledeerturi citadinea eliminate majoritatea speciilor
vegetale i animale indigene care populau permanent teritoriul geografic;
-Omul, specia dominant, i desfaoar activitatea dup legitile socio-economice, nu dup legile biologiei.
Ecosistemul natural este un sistem independent ca resurse i funcionare, fiind dependent de energia solar necesar
productorilor primari, plantelor verzi, care stocheaz energia solar prin fotosintez n energie biochimic.
-Ecosistemul urban este un sistem incomplet, dependent unde productorii primari sunt deficitari i nu pot asigura baza
trofic minimal pentru consumatorii din lanurile trofice stabile, determinnd simplificarea sau ntrerupnd circuitele
biogeochimice. Circuitul materiei este afectat, deoarece circuitele natural biogeochimice de substan sunt aclice,
tinznd spre linearizare. Ecosistemele urbane sunt cele mai tinere ecosisteme.
-Funcionarea ecosistemului urban este dependent de fluxurile energetic i substane introduce de om din alte
ecosisteme, necesitnd importul energetic pentru meninerea sistemului economic i socio-uman, dar i pentru
supravieuirea diverselor vegetale decorative i ornamentale i animale de companie de pe teritoriu.
-Hrana necesar locuitorilor urban i metropolitan este produs n agroecosisteme adiacente sau provine din diverse
schimburi comerciale.

Ce biom terestru este ?

Le dsert chaud

Ce biom terestru este ?

La savane arbore

Ce

Ce

biom terestru este ?

biom terestru este ?

Ce biom terestru este ?

La prairie

La taga

La fort tempre de conifres

Ce

biom terestru este ?

La steppe

Ce biom terestru este ? La taga

Ce biom terestru este ?


Ce biom terestru este ?

Ce

biom terestru este ?

fort tempre de feuillus


La garrigue (vgtation mditerranenne

La fort d'altitude

Ce biom terestru este ?

La toundra

Ce biom terestru este ?

Le dsert froid

Ce biom terestru este ?


quatoriale

La fort

Quel est le principal facteur gographique qui est l'origine de la rpartition


zonale des biomes terrestres sur la surface du globe ?

quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? Le dsert chaud

quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La savane arbore

quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La prairie

Quel

biome

terrestre

se

situe

cette

latitude

La

taga

quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La fort tempre


de
conifres
quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ?

La steppe

8. quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La taga

9. quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La fort tempre


de
feuillus

10. quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La garrigue


(vgtation
mditerranenn)

11. quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La fort


d'altitude

12. quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La toundra

13. quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? Le dsert froid

14. quel biome terrestre peut-on associer cette photographie ? La fort


quatoriale

Capitolul 3.
Metodologii de determinare i apreciere a biodiversitii
(densitatea, dominana, constana, indicele de semnificaie ecologic, indicele de diversitate, indicele de
echitabilitate, indicele de heterogenitate, indicele de afinitate cenotic, coeficientul de concordan Kendall,
dominana biomasei

Studiului comunitilor alctuite din numeroi indivizi necesit cercetri pe suprafee reprezentative pentru agroecosistem,
impunnd:alegerea localitilor cu caracteristici pedoclimatice reprezentative pentru agroecosistem;
- folosirea metodelor adecvate grupelor sistematice (comportament, ciclul biologic, cerine fa de factorii de mediu, etc.);
-capturile de material biologic s fie aleatoare pe direcia diagonalei suprafaei delimitate ;
-programarea observaiilor i capturilor reliefnd structurile i procesele biologice cu fidelitate.
Pentru colectarea materialului zoofaunistic metodele specifice cercetrilor biocenotice sunt :
- releveele faunistice de sol ;

-capcanele de tip Barber.

Photo: Debbie Hadley, WILD Jersey

Densitatea

Densitatea sau numrul de indivizi ai unei specii (uniti sistematice) pe o anumit suprafa pe baza formule, care n
final n cifre medii este:
D anti log( log x ) .

Dominana
Dominana este un indicator de evaluare a proprietiilor uneia sau mai multor specii, de expansiune n biotop, n timp i
spaiu.
Formula de calcul a dominanei este:

D0

nx
100 n care:
N

nx numrul de indivizi al unei specii sau grup sistematic ntr-un anumit moment dat (sezon, an);
N numrul de indivizi ai tuturor speciilor capturate pe durata unui ciclu sezonier sau anual.
Exprimarea valorilor de densitate se face procentual, iar scara de interpretare Talmaciu (1995) cu cinci clase de
dominan:
D01 specii subrecedente sub 1,1%;
D02 specii recedente

1,2 2%;

D03 specii subdominante 2,1 5%;


D04 specii dominante

5,1 - 10%;

D05 specii eudominante peste 10%.


Constana
Constana unei specii sau grup sistematic arat repartizarea sau dispersia omogen pe suprafaa culturii ntr-un anumit timp
(sezonal, anual sau multiannual).
Calculul constanei se face conform formulei:

np
100
Np

np probe n care apare specia sau grupul de specii;


Np numrul total de probe colectate.
Exprimarea acestui indice structural se face procentual, iar mrimea i nsemntatea lui ecologic este dat de clasificarea
convenional pe 4 trepte:
C1 specii accidentale 1 25%;
C2 specii accesorii

25,1 50%;

C3 specii constante

50,1 75%;

C4 specii euconstante 75,1 100%.


Indicele de semnificaie ecologic (W)
Indicele de semnificaie ecologic reflect importana real a unei specii n comunitatea de organisme analizate,care se
calculeaz pe baza relaiei:

C D
100

C constana unei specii din zoocenoz;


D0 dominana unei specii din zoocenoz.
Mrimea relaiilor i semnificaia ecologic a lor este conform clasificrii pe trei diviziuni:
W1 specii accidentale sub 0,1%;
W2 specii nsoitoare 1,1 - 10%;
W3 specii edificatoare peste 10%.
Este o clasificare convenional dat de Talmaciu (1995).
Diversitatea speciilor
Diversitatea speciilor, aportul dintre numrul de specii dintr-o biocenoz i al numrului de indivizi repartizai pe aceasta a
constituit o preocupare constant a ecologilor.
n general se folosete funcia H, din teoria informaiei a lui Shannon i Viener (1949), care msoar gradul de nesiguran:
S

H p i log 2 p i , unde:
i 1

pi posibilitatea ntmpltoare a fiecrui eveniment.


Incertitudinea va fi maxim cnd elementele (n) au aceeai probabilitatte ntmpltoare (p I=1/n) i se msoar pn la o
valoare de 0 cnd un singur eveniment este prezent (Shannon, Viener, 1949; Edwards, 1964), citai de Cancela de
Fonseca,1969.
Mc Arthur (1957, 1960) a fost acela care a elaborat expresia, devenit astzi clasic, dup care se calculeaz diversitatea
speciilor dintr-o biocenoz conform relaiei:
S

H p i log 2 p i n care:
i 1

pi proporia unei specii n complexul comunitii.


Mrimea acestui indice de diversitate, exprimat n bit/specie, reflect sintetic relaia dintre numrul de specii i numrul de
indivizi dintr-o comunitate. El ilustreaz o lege important ecologic formulat de Thieneman(1942), citat de Balogh (1958),
potrivit creia ntr-un mediu care ofer condiii favorabile de via se dezvolt numeroase specii cu puini indivizi, iar ntr-un
mediu cu condiii extreme triesc puine specii cu indivizi numeroi.
Diversitatea maxim a speciilor ntr-o cenoz, aa cum am artat mai sus, care corespunde cu probabilitatea (p i=1/n) se
calculeaz dup expresia: H(S)max=Cx log10S unde: C este o constant reprezentnd factorul de conversie din logaritm n
baza 10 n logaritm n baza 2 = 3,32192. Valorile ilogepi sunt din tabelele lui Guiau.

Indicele de echitabilitate
Indicele de echitabilitate elaborat de Lloyd i Gelardi (1964) s-au bazat pe constatarea c n natur niciodat nu se va
ntlni o diversitate maxim a speciilor potrivit creia toate s fie reprezentate de acelai numr de indivizi.

Admind c diversitatea specific este dat de expresia lui Shannon i Viener, ei au determinat valoarea teoretic a
diversitii substituind pi prin r dat de expresia lui Mc Arthur pentru fiecare specie r

1 r
1

S i 1 S i 1

Ei obin o nou valoare aplicnd formula de calcul: M S r log r


r 1

Pe bazele acestea ei propun ca msur a gradului de echilibrare biocenotic indicele de echitabilitate, care reprezint un
raport ntre H(S) i M(S). Pe aceste baze au construit o tabel care n funcie de M(S)=H(S) d valoarea lui S', care
reprezint numrul de specii corespunztoare unei comuniti n echilibru teoretic.
n acest fel gradul de echilibru ecologic al unel comuniti se reduce la raportul dintre numrul de specii teoretic i numrul
de specii nregistrat potrivit relaiei:
S'
S'
100 unde S'- numrul speciilor corespunztoare densitii unei comuniti n echilibru teoretic
sau E 0 0
S
S
M(S') din tabel; S numrul speciilor corespunztoare diversitii comunitii analizate H(S)
E

INDICELE DE HETEROGENITATE EXPRIM DIFERENA STRUCTURAL DINTRE COMUNITILE DE PE DOU


SUPRAFEE DE PROB SAU , N CAZUL ANALIZELOR EFECTUATE , DINTRE COMUNITILE
AMPLASATE N LOCALITI DIFERITE . E STE UN INDICE DAT DE MARGALEF (1956), CALCULAT DUP
FORMULA :

HA HB
2
log e L

H AB

N CARE :

HAB diversitatea comun ambelor comuniti din localitile A i B;


HA diversitatea zoocenozelor din localitatea A;
HB diversitatea zoocenozelor din localitatea B;
logeL logaritmul distanei n metri sau kilometri dintre cele dou localiti. Curent acest indice msoar prin comparaie
diferena de heterogenitate ale condiiilor de mediu ce caracterizeaz cele dou localiti n care s-au fcut cercetrile.
Coeficienii de afinitate (similitudinea) ecologic pot fi clasificai n 2 categorii: una calitativ, care ine seama numai de
prezena sau absena speciilor n dou comuniti analizate i a doua cantitativ, care ine seama pe lng prezena sau
absena speciilor i de abundena indivizilor din aceste specii.
Pentru prima categorie s-a folosit formula dat de Jaccard, potrivit creia:
Ij

C
100 unde:
ABC

C- speciile comune ambelor comuniti analizate;


A speciile existente n localitatea A;
B speciile existente n localitatea B.
Pentru a doua categorie exist 2 metode de calcul, una a lui Kendall (1962), mai greoaie i foarte puin folosit n ecologie
(Gaent ,1963; Greig-Smith 1964; Lebrun 1965; Southwood 1964), respectiv cea de a doua curent uzitat, cunoscut sub
denumirea de coeficientul de corelaie de rang al lui Spearman (rs) (1904).
Valoarea coeficientului este calculat pe baza expresiei:

rs 1

6 D2
6 D2

N3 N
N ( N 2 1)

Dominana biomasei
Biomasa n sens larg este masa total vie sau uscat a indivizilor unei specii raportat la o unitate de suprafa sau de
volum. Pentru o specie anumit (Murphy,1962) este exprimat prin suma mediilor maselor individuale g 1(greutate)
multiplicat cu media densitii m, adic:mg.
Definiia biomasei i exprimarea ei prin calcul dat de Hammen(1952) o completm cu modalitatea de calculare a
dominanei biomasei, care n esen este un raport cantitativ relativ ntre masa indivizilor unei specii(G x) i masa total a
indivizilor tuturor speciilor ce populeaz un biotop (M).
Formula de calcul dat de Mller (1965) este:

DB

Gx
100
M

Determinarea biomasei sau produciei, dup cum o definete Palmgren, contribuie deseori la elucidarea unor aspecte
productive-biologice.
Astfel, biomasa unei specii de animal ofer indicaii n legtur cu cantitatea resturilor care contribuie la formarea humusului
(Mller, 1965).
Equipment & Collecting Methods
D-VAC VACUUM INSECT COLLECTOR BACK-PACK MODEL 24

The basic units come with engine, collecting unit, 1 collecting cone (usually ft2) 4 organdy bags (D401) and 1 sieve bag
(D402). The other heads and replacement parts are available at extra cost.

D-VAC Vacuum Insect Net


Model 24 (Backpack Model)
Nylon organdy bag, muslin cuff

International standard for


insect sampling

DVAC24

each

1,900.00

replacement bag

D401

each

10.00

Medium mesh sieve bag

replacement bag

D402

each

6.50

D203

each

250.00

Optional Accessories
Collecting unit 13.5 in. dia cylinder
Fiberglass Collar

protective collar

D301

each

29.00

Special sampling cone, 1 ft2 opening

ground surface, screened


opening for turf sampling

D302

each

79.00

Collecting cone ft2 opening

D303

each

34.00

Collecting cone 1/3 ft2 opening

D304

each

34.00

Collecting cone ft2 opening

D305

each

34.00

Adapter hose 4 inch dia.

turf samples

D306

each

66.00

Flexhaust hose 8 inch dia,6 ft 8 in long

replacement hose Model


24

D201

each

111.40

The D-VAC Model 24 is a vacuum insect collector powered by a Briggs & Stratton 3.75 H.P. engine. The motor and fan
are mounted on a back-pack carrier. The fan is a Revcor squirrel-cage blower with forward curved blades. A 6-foot 8-inch
length of 8-inch diameter flexible air duct connects from the bottom of the fan to the collecting unit. A 13-inch diameter
fiberglass collecting cylinder is attached by a coated-fabric sleeve to the flexible air duct. A nylon organdy bag fits inside
the collecting cylinder and is held in place by a protective collar. Four organdy bags with muslin cuff, one screen sieve bag
and one collecting cone (No. 304 cone with 1/3 square foot opening) are included with each D-VAC collector.
WARRANTY: The engine is warranted by the Briggs & Stratton Corp. The collecting unit is of lightweight materials
guaranteed against defective workmanship for 90 days by D-VAC Co.
AIRFLOW CAPACITY: 750 cu/ft/mm at collecting head; 2149 cu/ft/min at 8 in. hose opening
TYPE OF . FUEL USED: Regular unleaded gasoline. See manual for fuel and oil recommendations.
TYPE OF STARTER: Recoil with nylon rope
MANUFACTURER OF FAN UNIT: Fan Equipment Co., Las Vegas, NV

Part 1: Equipment & Collecting Methods

P ARAMETRIC INDICES

[5]
The log series index
(see also log-series distributions) is a parameter of the log series model. The
parameter is independent of sample size. describes the way in which the individuals are divided among the
species, which is a measure of diversity. The attractive properties of this diversity index are: it provides a good
discrimination between sites, it is not very sensitive to density fluctuations and it is normally distributed, in this
way confidence limits can be attached to .

The log series takes the form:


,

,...,

is the number of species to have one individual,


those with two individuals, and so on. Since 0< <1 and
and are presumed to be constant, the expected number of species will be the highest in the first abundance class.
is calculated interatively from:

And

can be calculated from the equation:

N ON - PARAMETRIC INDICES
The first two indices are based on information theory. These indices are based on the rationale that the diversity in a
natural system can be measured in a similar way to the information contained in a code or message.

The most widely used diversity index in the ecological literature is the Shannon-Wiener diversity index.[6] [7]

It assumed that individuals are randomly sampled from an infinitely large community, and that all species are
represented in the sample. The Shannon index is calculated from the equation:

is the proportion of individuals found in the ith species.

Where the randomness cannot be guaranteed, for example when certain species are preferentially sampled, the
Brillouin index [8][7] is the appropriated form of the information index. It is calculated as follows:

In which
individuals in the community.

and

the number of individuals in species i and N is the total number of

One of the best known and earliest evenness measures is the Simpson s index[9] which is given by:

is the proportion of individuals found in the ith species This index is used for large, sampled communities. Simpsons
index expresses the probability that any two individuals drawn at random from an infinitely large community belong to
the same species.

The Hill numbers[10] show the relation between the species-richness indices and the evenness-indices. Hill
defined a set of diversity number of different order. The diversity number of order a is defined as:

where
= the proportional abundance of species i in the sample and a = the order in which the index is dependent of
rare species.
The most known are

(exponential of Shannon-Wiener diversity index)

(the reciprocal of Simpsons

)
T AXONOMIC INDICES

If two data-sets have identical numbers of species and equivalent patterns of species abundance, but differ in the
diversity of taxa to which the species belong, it seems intuitively appropriate that the most taxonomically varied data-set
is the more diverse. As long as the phylogeny of the data-set of interest is reasonably well resolved, measures of
taxonomic diversity are possible.

Clarke and Warwicks taxonomic distinctness index[11]which describes the average taxonomic distance
simply the path length between two randomly chosen organisms through the phylogeny of all the species in a
data-set has different forms: taxonomic diversity and taxonomic distinctness.

Taxonomic diversity () reflects the average taxonomic distance between any two organisms, chosen at random from a
sample. The distance can be seen as the length of the path connecting these two organisms through a phylogenetic tree or
a Linnean classification. This index includes aspects of taxonomic relatedness and evenness.

=
Taxonomic distinctness (*) is the average path length between two randomly chosen but taxonomically different
organisms. This measure is measure of pure taxonomic relatedness.

*=
When only presence/absence data is considered both and * converge to the same statistic +, which can be seen as
the average taxonomic path length between any two randomly chosen species.[12]

+=
F UNCTIONAL DIVERSITY
The positive relationship between ecosystem functioning and species richness is often attributed to the greater number of
functional groups found in richer assemblages. Petchey and Gaston [13] proposed a method for quantifying functional
diversity. It is based on total branch length of a dendrogram, which is constructed from species trait values. One
important consideration is that only those traits linked to the ecosystem process of interest are used. Thus a study
focusing on bird-mediated seed dispersal would exclude traits such as plumage color that are not related to this function,

but traits such as beak size and shape should be included With standard clustering algorithms a dendrogram is then
constructed. The method makes sense. For example a community with five species with different traits will have a
higher functional diversity than a community of equal richness but where the species are functional similar.
S PECIES -ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS
[14]

Nearly all diversity and evenness indices are based on the relative abundance of species, thus on estimates of pi in
which:

with Ni the abundance of the i-th species in the sample and

with S the total number of species in the sample.


If one records the abundance of different species in a sample, it is invariably found that some species are rare, whereas
others are more abundant. This feature of ecological communities is found independent of the taxonomic group or the
area investigated. An important goal of ecology is to describe these consistent patterns in different communities, and
explain them in terms of interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment.
Different investigators have visualized the species-abundance distribution in different ways.
1. The rank/abundance plot is one of the best known and most informative method. In this species are ranked in
sequence from most to least abundant along the horizontal (or x) axis. Their abundances are typically displayed in a
log10 format on the y axis, so that species whose abundances span several orders of magnitude can be easily
accommodated on the same graph. In addition proportional and or percentage abundances are often used.
2. The k-dominance plot shows the cumulative percentage (the percentage of the k-th most dominant plus all more
dominant species) in relation to species (k) rank or log species (k) rank.
3. The Lorenzen curve is based on the k-dominance plot but the species rank k is transformed to (k/S) x 100 to
facilitate comparison between communities with different numbers of species.
4. The collectors curve addresses a different problem. When one increases the sampling effort, and thus the number of
the animals N caught, new species will appear in the collection. A collectors curve expresses the number of species as a
function of the number of specimens caught. As more specimens are caught, a collectors curve can reach an asymptotic
value but they often dont due to the vague boundaries of ecological communities: as sampling effort increases, also the
number of different patches increases.
5. The species-abundance distribution plots the number of species that are represented by r = 0,1,2, individuals
against the abundance r. This can only be drawn if the collection is large and contains many species. More often than not
the species are grouped in logarithmic densities classes.

The rank/abundance plot

The k-dominance plot

The Lorenzen curve

The collectors curve

The species-abundance distribution

S PECIES -ABUNDANCE MODELS


[2]

A diverse range of models has also been developed to describe species abundance data. The fitting of a model to field
data is meaningful if the parameter estimates are to be used in further analysis.

1. The niche preemption model or the geometric model.


It assumes that a species preempts a fraction k of a limiting resource, a second species the same fraction k of the
remainder and so on. If the abundances are proportional to their share of the resource, the ranked abundances list is
given by geometric series:
k, k(1-k), , k(1-k)(S-2), k(1-k)(S-1)
where S is the number of the species in the community.
The geometric model gives a straight line on a plot of log abundance against rank (species sequence). It is not very often
found in nature, only in early successional stages or in species poor environments.
2. The broken stick model or the negative exponential distribution.
In this model a limiting resource is compared with a stick, broken in S parts at S-1 randomly located points. The length
of the parts is taken as representative for the density of the S species subdividing the limiting resource. If the species are
ranked according to abundance, the expected abundance of species i, Ni is given by:

The negative exponential distribution is not often found in nature. It describes a too even distribution of individuals over
species to be a good representation of natural communities.
3. The log-series distribution.
Fishers logarithmic series model [5](see also the log series index
species and the number of individuals in those species.

) describes the relationship between the number of

4. The log-normal distribution.


Preston [15]first suggested to use a log-normal distribution for the description of species-abundances distributions. The
distribution is traditionally written in the form:

With S(R) = the number of the species in the Rth octave to the right, and to the left of the symmetric curve; S0 = the
number of the species in the modal octave; and
The
four
main

species-

= the inverse width of the distribution


abundance
models

REFERENCES
1. scales:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity#Measurement_of_biodiversity
2. Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
3. Clifford H.T. and Stephenson W. (1975) An introduction to numerical classification. London: Academic Express.
cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
4. Whittaker R.H. (1977)Evolution of species diversity in land communities. Evolutionary Biol.10, 1-67.cited in
Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
5. Fisher, R. A., Corbet, A. S. and Williams, C. B. 1943 . The relation between the number of species and the
number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecology 12 42 58. Z .
cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
6. Shannon C. E. and Weaver W. (1949) The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, IL: University fo
Illinois Press.cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford,
UK.256 p
7. Pielou E.C. (1975) Ecological diversity. New York: Wiley Interscience. cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004,
Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
8. Pielou E.C. (1969) An introduction to mathematical ecology. New York: Wiley.cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004,
Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
9. Simpson E.H. (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, 688.cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring
biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
10. Hill, M.O. (1973). Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54, 427473 cited
in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
11. Warwick R.M. and Clarke K.R. (2001) Practical measures of marine biodiversity based on relateness of species.
Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 39, 207-231.cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity,
Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
12. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (1998) A taxonomic distinctness index and its statistical properties Journal of Applied
Ecology 35 (4): 523-531cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell Publishing:
Oxford, UK.256 p
13. Petchey OL, Gaston KJ (2002) Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. Ecology
letters Vol. 5 (3), p. 402-411.531cited in Magurran, A. E., 2004, Measuring biological diversity, Blackwell
Publishing: Oxford, UK.256 p
14. Heip, C.H.R.; Herman, P.M.J.; Soetaert, K. (1998). Indices de diversit et rgularit. [Indices of diversity and
evenness].
Ocanis
(Doc.
Ocanogr.)
24(4):
67-87.
15. Preston, F.W. (1948) The commonness and rarity of species. Ecology 29 254-283

O RGANISME INVAZIVE
100 OF THE WORLD 'S WORST INVASIVE ALIEN S PECIES
Species

Type

Common names

Acacia mearnsii

shrub

Black wattle, Australian Acacia

Achatina fulica

mollusc

Giant African land snail, Giant African snail

Acridotheres tristis

bird

Common myna, Calcutta myna, house myna, Indian myna, Martin triste, talking
myna

Aedes albopictus

insect

Asian tiger mosquito, forest day mosquito, tiger mosquito

Anopheles
quadrimaculatus

insect

common malaria mosquito

Anoplolepis gracilipes

insect

Yellow crazy ant, crazy ant, gramang ant, long-legged ant, Maldive ant

Anoplophora
glabripennis

insect

Asian long-horned beetle, starry sky beetle

Aphanomyces astaci

fungus

crayfish plague

Ardisia elliptica

tree

Shoebutton Ardisia

Arundo donax

grass

Giant Cane, arundo grass, bamboo reed, cane, cow cane, donax cane, giant
reed, reedgrass, river cane, Spanish cane, Spanish reed, wild cane

Asterias amurensis

sea star

Northern Pacific seastar, Flatbottom seastar, Japanese Seastar, Japanese


starfish, North Pacific seastar, purple-orange seastar

Species
Banana bunchy
virus (BBTV)

Type
top

Common names

virus

banana bunchy top disease BBTD, abaca bunchy top virus, BBTV, bunchy
top, bunchy top virus

Batrachochytrium
dendrobatidis

fungus

"Bd," chytrid frog fungi, chytridiomycosis, frog chytrid fungus

Bemisia tabaci

insect

cotton whitefly, sweet potato whitefly, sweetpotato whitefly

Boiga irregularis

reptile

Brown catsnake, brown tree snake, brown treesnake

amphibian

cane toad, bufo toad, bullfrog, giant American toad, giant neotropical toad, giant
toad, marine Toad, Suriname toad

Capra hircus

mammal

goat

Carcinus maenas

crustacean

European green crab, European shore crab, green crab, shore crab

Caulerpa taxifolia

alga

killer alga, sea weed

Cecropia peltata

tree

faux-ricin, pumpwood, trumpet tree, snakewood

Cercopagis pengoi

crustacean

fishhook waterflea

Cervus elaphus

mammal

red deer, deer, elk, European red deer

Chromolaena odorata

herb

Siam weed, bitter bush, Christmas bush, devil weed, camfhur grass, common
floss flower, jack in the bush, triffid weed

Cinara cupressi

insect

cypress aphid

Cinchona pubescens

tree

red cinchona

Clarias batrachus

fish

walking catfish, clarias catfish, climbing perch, freshwater catfish, Thailand


catfish

Clidemia hirta

shrub

Koster's curse, faux vatouk, soap bush, soapbush

Coptotermes
formosanus

insect

Formosa termite, Formosan subterranean termite

Corbula amurensis

mollusc

Amur river clam, Amur river corbula, Asian bivalve, Asian clam, brackish-water
corbula, Chinese clam, marine clam

Cryphonectria
parasitica

fungus

chestnut blight

Cyprinus carpio

fish

common carp, European carp, fancy carp, feral carp, German carp, grass carp,
Japanese domesticated carp, king carp, koi, koi carp, leather carp, mirror carp,
Oriental carp, scale carp, wild carp

Dreissena polymorpha

mollusc

Eurasian zebra mussel, wandering mussel, zebra mussel

Eichhornia crassipes

aquatic plant water hyacinth, floating water hyacinth, water orchid

Bufo
marinus
Rhinella marina

Eleutherodactylus coqui amphibian

Caribbean tree frog, common coqui, Coqui, Puerto Rican treefrog

Eriocheir sinensis

crustacean

Chinese mitten crab, big sluice crab, Chinese freshwater edible crab, Chinese
river crab, Shanghai hairy crab

Euglandina rosea

mollusc

Cannibal snail, rosy wolf snail

Species

Euphorbia esula

Type

herb

Common names

leafy spurge, green spurge, spurge, wolf's milk

Fallopia japonica =
shrub
Polygonum cuspidatum

crimson beauty, donkey rhubarb, fleeceflower, German sausage, Japanese


bamboo, Japanese fleece flower, Japanese knotweed, Japanese polygonum,
kontiki bamboo, Mexican-bamboo, peashooter plant, reynoutria fleece flower,
sally rhubarb

Felis catus

mammal

cat, domestic cat, feral cat, house cat

Gambusia affinis

fish

Mosquitofish, guayacon mosquito, Live-bearing tooth-carp, Mosquito fish, pez


mosquito, western mosquitofish, Western mosquitofish

Hedychium
gardnerianum

herb

ginger lily, kahila garland-lily, kahili ginger, wild ginger

Herpestes javanicus

mammal

small Asian mongoose, small Indian mongoose

Hiptage benghalensis

shrub

hiptage

Imperata cylindrica

grass

blady grass, cogon grass, Japanese bloodgrass, speargrass

Lantana camara

shrub

angel lips, big sage, blacksage, flowered sage, largeleaf lantana, prickly lantana,
Spanish Flag, West Indian Lantana, white sage, wild sage

Lates niloticus

fish

Nile perch, African snook, nile perch, Victoria perch

Leucaena leucocephala tree

White Leadtree, false koa, faux mimosa, faux-acacia, horse/wild tamarind,


jumbie bean, lead tree, wild mimosa, wild tamarind

Ligustrum robustum

shrub

bora-bora, Ceylon Privt, Sri Lankan privet, tree privet

Linepithema humile

insect

Argentine ant

Lymantria dispar

insect

Asian gypsy moth, gypsy moth

Lythrum salicaria

herb

purple loosestrife, purple lythrum, rainbow weed, spiked loosestrife

Macaca fascicularis

mammal

crab-eating macaque, long-tailed macaque

Melaleuca
quinquenervia

tree

Paperbark teatree, bottle brush tree, broadleaf paperbark tree, broadleaf


teatree, broad-leaved paperbark tree, five-veined paperbark tree, paper bark tree,
punk tree, white bottlebrush tree

Miconia calvescens

tree

bush currant, purple plague, velvet tree

Micropterus salmoides fish

Largemouth bass, American black bass, bass, black bass, green bass, green
trout, largemouth black bass, northern largemouth bass, stormundet black bass

Mikania micrantha

vine, climber American rope, Chinese creeper, mile-a-minute weed

Mimosa pigra

shrub

bashful plant, catclaw, catclaw mimosa, giant sensitive plant, giant trembling
plant, mimosa

Mnemiopsis leidyi

comb jelly

American comb jelly, comb jelly, comb jellyfish, sea gooseberry, sea walnut,
Venus' girdle, warty comb jelly

Mus musculus

mammal

field mouse, house mouse, wood mouse

Species

Type

Common names

Mustela erminea

mammal

stoat, ermine, short-tailed weasel

Myocastor coypus

mammal

bewerrot, Biberratte, coip, coypu, nutria, ragondin

Morella faya

shrub

candleberry myrtle, fayatree, fire tree, firebush

Mytilus
galloprovincialis

mollusc

bay mussel, blue mussel, Mediterranean mussel

fish

Rainbow trout, Baja California rainbow trout, Coast angel trout, Coast rainbow
trout, Coast range trout, Hardhead, Kamchatka steelhead, Kamchatka trout,
Kamloops, Kamloops trout, Lord-fish, Redband, redband trout, Salmon trout,
Silver trout, Steelhead, Steelhead trout, Summer salmon

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Ophiostoma ulmi sensu


fungus
lato

dutch elm disease

Opuntia stricta

shrub

common prickly pear, Araluen pear, Australian pest pear, common pest pear,
erect prickly pear, gayndah pear, sour prickly pear, spiny pest pear

Oreochromis
mossambicus

fish

Tilapia, common tilapia, Java tilapia, kurper bream, Mozambique cichlid,


Mozambique mouth-breeder, Mozambique mouthbrooder, Mozambique tilapia

Oryctolagus cuniculus mammal

rabbit

Pheidole megacephala

insect

big-headed ant, brown house-ant, coastal brown-ant, lion ant

Phytophthora
cinnamomi

fungus

cinnamon fungus, green fruit rot, heart rot, phytophthora root rot, seedling
blight, stem canker, wildflower dieback

Pinus pinaster

tree

cluster pine, maritime pine

Plasmodium relictum

microorganism

avian malaria

Platydemus manokwari flatworm

New Guinea flatworm, flatworm, snail-eating flatworm

Pomacea canaliculata

mollusc

apple snail, channeled apple snail, golden apple snail, golden kuhol, miracle snail

Prosopis glandulosa

tree

honey mesquite, mesquite, Texas mesquite

Psidium cattleianum

shrub

cattley guava, cherry guava, Chinese guava, purple strawberry guava,


strawberry guava

Pueraria montana var.


vine, climber Japanese arrowroot, kudzu, kudzu vine
lobata
Pycnonotus cafer

bird

red-vented bulbul

Lithobates catesbeianus
amphibian
= Rana catesbeiana

bullfrog, North American bullfrog

Rattus rattus

mammal

black rat, blue rat, bush rat, European house rat, roof rat, ship rat

Rubus ellipticus

shrub

Asian wild raspberry, broad-leafed bramble, Ceylon blackberry, golden evergreen


raspberry, Molucca berry, Molucca bramble, Molucca raspberry, robust
blackberry, wild blackberry, wild raspberry, yellow Himalayan raspberry

Salmo trutta

fish

Brown trout, blacktail, brook trout, galway sea trout, herling, orange fin, orkney

Species

Type

Common names
sea trout, salmon trout, sea trout, trout, whiting, whitling

floating
giant salvinia
aquatic fern

Salvinia molesta

Schinus terebinthifolius tree

Brazilian holly, Brazilian pepper, Brazilian pepper tree, Christmas berry, Florida
holly, Mexican pepper

Sciurus carolinensis

mammal

gray squirrel, grey squirrel

Solenopsis invicta

insect

red imported fire ant RIFA

Spartina anglica

grass

common cord grass, rice grass, townsends grass

Spathodea campanulata tree

African tulip tree, fireball, flame of the forest, fountain tree, Indian Cedar, Santo
Domingo Mahogany

Sphagneticola trilobata herb

creeping ox-eye, Singapore daisy, trailing daisy

Sturnus vulgaris

bird

common starling, English starling, European starling

Sus scrofa

mammal

pig, razorback

Tamarix ramosissima

shrub

salt cedar

Trachemys
elegans

reptile

red-eared slider, red-eared slider terrapin, slider

mammal

brushtail possum

scripta

Trichosurus vulpecula

Trogoderma granarium insect

khapra beetle

Ulex europaeus

shrub

gorse, Irish furze

Undaria pinnatifida

alga

wakame, apron-ribbon vegetable, Asian kelp, Japanese kelp

Vespula vulgaris

insect

common wasp, common yellowjacket

Vulpes vulpes

mammal

red fox, black or cross fox

Wasmannia
auropunctata

insect

cocoa tree-ant, little fire ant, little introduced fire ant, little red fire ant, small fire
ant, West Indian stinging ant

Specii invazive n EU
Europa ~12 000 de specii alogene, iar 15 % devin invazive, care produc pierderi anuale -12 miliarde euro ;
Vespa velutina - efectele fatale ; Fallopia japonica erbacee - daune cldiri; pierderi n agricultur nutrii
Vespa velutina, 2,5 cm.3 cm.

Vespa

velutina,

2,5 cm

(3 cm

colmena

~2.000

viespi

cu

Fallopia japonica erbacee (h ~3 m) frunze alterne (15.2


Planta dioecic, panicule ;Fruct achene negre ; Reproducere rizomi, semine,
Prunus serotina
mlinul american

150

cm)

fundadoras,

(7.6-10

an

cm)

colmenas.

broadly-ovate.
. .

Z EUNERIANA AMPLIPENNIS (BRUNNER VON WATTENWYL, 1882)


urn:lsid:Orthoptera.speciesfile.org:TaxonName:463586

Common name(s): Donau-Beischrecke

Images:

Distribution:

Ecology:
o

Terrestrial.

Brunner von Wattenwyl. 1882. Prodromus der europischen Orthopteren 361 >> Platycleis
amplipennis urn:lsid:Orthoptera.speciesfile.org:TaxonName:2489

Invazive alien plants included in the EPPO A1/A2 Lists


Plant name

EPPO Lists

Data sheets

Pictures

PRA documents

Baccharis halimifolia

A2 in 2013

Final ds

pict

PRA (13-18359) - PRA rep (13-18698)

Crassula helmsii

A2 in 2006

Final ds

PRA (06-12703) - PRA rep (06-12801)

Eichhornia
crassipes
[Workshop 2008]

A2 in 2008

Final ds

pict

PRA (08-14407) - PRA rep (08-14408)

Heracleum persicum

A2 in 2009

Final ds

PRA (08-14472) - PRA rep (09-15076)

Heracleum sosnowskyi

A2 in 2009

Final ds

PRA (08-14471) - PRA rep (09-15075)

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides

A2 in 2005

Final ds

pict

PRA (09-15108) - PRA rep (09-15161)

L. A2 in 2011

Final ds

pict

PRA (11-16827 & 11-16828)


PRA rep (11-17142 & 11-17143)

Parthenium hysterophorus

A2 in 2014

draft ds

PRA (14-19987) - PRA rep (14-19988)

Polygonum perfoliatum

A2 in 2008

draft ds

pict

PRA (07-13387) - PRA rep (07-13604)

Pueraria lobata

A2 in 2006

Final ds

pict

PRA (06-12701) - PRA rep (06-12802)

Solanum
elaeagnifolium A2 in 2006
[Workshop 2006]

Final ds

pict

PRA (06-12702) - PRA rep (07-13607)

Ludwigia peploides
grandiflora

EPPO LIST
Plant name

&

OF INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS

Added in

Data sheets

Pictures

PRA and priorization


documents

Acacia dealbata

2006

Acroptilon repens

2005

draft ds

Ailanthus altissima

2004

draft ds

pict

Alternanthera philoxeroides

2012

mini ds

pict

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

2004

draft ds

pict

PRA

Ambrosia confertiflora

2014

mini ds

priorization

Amelanchier spicata

2004

Amorpha fruticosa

2006

pict

Arctotheca calendula

2014

mini ds

Buddleja davidii

2006

pict

Cabomba caroliniana

2006

draft ds

PRA - PRA rep

Cardiospermum grandiflorum

2013

mini ds

priorization

Carpobrotus acinaciformis

2006

pict

Carpobrotus edulis

2006

pict

Cornus sericea

2012

mini ds

Cortaderia selloana

2006

pict

Cyperus esculentus

2004

draft ds

pict

Delairea odorata

2012

mini ds

Egeria densa

2005

Elodea nuttallii

2004

Fallopia baldschuanica

2012

mini ds

Fallopia japonica

2004

draft ds

Fallopia sachalinensis

2004

Fallopia x bohemica

2004

Gunnera tinctoria

2014

mini ds

priorization

Hakea sericea

2012

mini ds

priorization

Helianthus tuberosus

2004

Heracleum mantegazzianum

2004

ds

PRA

Humulus japonicus

2012

mini ds

Hydrilla verticillata

2012

mini ds

Hygrophila polysperma

2012

mini ds

Impatiens glandulifera

2004

draft ds

Lagarosiphon major

2004

mini ds

pict

Microstegium vimineum

2012

mini ds

pict

Myriophyllum aquaticum

2004

draft ds

Myriophyllum heterophyllum

2012

mini ds

Paspalum distichum

2006

Oxalis pes-caprae

2006

Pennisetum setaceum

2012

mini ds

Pistia stratiotes

2012

mini ds

Prunus serotina

2004

draft ds

Senecio inaequidens

2004

draft ds

PRA

Salvinia molesta

2012

mini ds

Sicyos angulatus

2005

Final ds

pict

PRA - PRA report

Solidago canadensis

2004

draft ds

Solidago gigantea

2004

draft ds

Added in

Data sheets

Pictures

PRA and priorization


documents

Akebia quinata

2012

mini ds

Andropogon virginicus

2014

mini ds

priorization

Araujia sericifera

2012

mini ds

Asparagus asparagoides

2013

mini ds

priorization

EPPO O BSERVATION LIST


Plant name

OF INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS

Azolla filiculoides

2012

Bidens frondosa

2012

Cenchrus incertus

2012

draft ds

Eragrostis curvula

2012

mini ds

Eriochloa villosa

2012

mini ds

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides

2012

mini ds

Limnophila sessiliflora

2013

mini ds

priorization

Lupinus polyphyllus

2012

pict

Lysichiton americanus (A2 in 2005 - deleted in


2009)

2012

Final ds

pict

PRA - PRA report

Rhododendron ponticum

2012

draft ds

Sesbania punicea

2012

mini ds

Solidago nemoralis

2012

mini ds

Stipa trichotoma, S. neesiana and S. tenuissima

2012

mini ds

Verbesina encelioides

2012

mini ds

pict

EPPO Alert List


Invasive alien plants included in the EPPO Alert List (for pests other than invasive alien plants view the full Alert List)
Plant name

Added in

Mini data
sheets

Pictures

PRA documents

Amaranthus palmeri

2014

mini ds

Ambrosia trifida

2014

mini ds

Miscanthus sinensis

2011

midi ds

O THER

DOCUMENTED PLANT SPECIES

Ambrosia psilostachya, A. trifida

Alternanthera pungens

Alternanthera sessilis

Cotula coronopifolia

Cuscuta spp.

Impatiens parviflora

Iva axillaris

Sida spinosa

Solanum carolinense

Solanum rostratum

Solanum triflorum

Spirea alba, S. douglasii, S. tomentosa

Rudbeckia laciniata

Crassulahelmsii

Eichhornia crassipes
Common Name:

(Water Hyacinth)

Species
Name:
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
Common
Name(s):
Water Hyacinth, Common Water Hyacinth,
Waterhyacinth, Floating Waterhyacinth,
Water-Orchid, Jacinthe D'eau
Synonymy:
Eichhornia
cordifolia
Gand.
Eichhornia
crassicaulis
Schltdl.
Eichhornia
speciosa
Kunth
The non-native plant water hyacinth, Heteranthera
formosa
Miq.
Eichhornia crassipes. Photo courtesy UF/IFAS Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Raf.
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. And four more.
Photographer Vic Ramey.
Species
Description:
Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes is a
floating,
invasive
non-native
plant
commonly encountered as dense mats in
Florida
freshwater
habitats.
Several features make E. crassipes easy to
recognize, including rosettes of rounded
and leathery, waxy, glossy green leaves
attached to thick, spongy (often bulbous or
inflated for floatation) petioles (stalks),
dark feathery roots that typically hang
suspended in the water below the floating
plant, and attractive lavender flowers when
the plants are in bloom. The inflorescence
is a distinct aerial spike growing to 30 cm,
the flowers have six stamens, and the fruit
is a 3-chambered seed capsule (Langeland
Dense E. crassipes mats can overtake and and Burks 1998, UF/IFAS 2001).
choke water bodies. Photo courtesy UF/IFAS
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Photographer Ann Murray.

Heracleum persicum
Taxonomy
Family :

Apiaceae

Genus :

Heracleum

Epitheton :

persicum

Author(s) :

Desf.ex Fisch.

Rank :

species

Synonyms :

Heracleum laciniatum auct. Scand. non Hornem.; Heracleum panaces Willd. ex Steven; Heracleum
tromsoensis nom.nud.?; Heracleum cf. pubescens M. Bieb.

EPPO code :

HERPE

Botanical
thesaurus :

Heracleum persicum

Morphology

Overall
Height
(m) :

of

plant

1 - 2 (4)

Roots and stem


Description
stem :

of Each plant often has more than one hollow stem, each stem is purple, 1.5-2 cm thick at the base with large
even areas of purple to purple-red color at the base. It has stiff, white hars, which stand straight out from
the stem.

Fruit and seeds


Description of fruit Flattened and oblong-elliptic, dorsally strongly compressed; with very low dorsal ridges and winged lateral
:
ridges; villous. Fruit splitting in 2 mericarps, each containing 1 seed and with 3-5 elongated vittae, less
than 1 mm wide and swollen at proximal end.
Length

of

fruit 6 - 10

Heracleum persicum
(mm) :
Width
(mm) :

of

fruit

4 - 10

Propagules
Description
propagule :

of

Description
seedling :

of After germination, a strong tap-root is formed which soon contracts to pull the crown downwards. The
first true leaves are small and almost round, replaced in succession by staedily larger leaves, the fifth or
sixth taking the adult form; the established vegetative plant has 3-4 functional leaves at any time.

Propagation is exclusively by seeds.

Leaf
Description
leaf :

of Leaves sheathed and petiolated, pubescent, ternately or pinnately ldivided and incised with very sharp
points with 2-3 pairs of lateral segments and less serrate; upper leaves are progressively smaller. The
whole plant is charcterized by anise odour.

Length
(cm) :

of

leaf

Width
(cm) :

of

leaf

10 - 200
7 - 130

Phyllotaxy :
alternate yes

Flower
Description
inflorescence :

of The inflorescences are convex compound umbels of four orders, terminal and axillary; bracts 0 or
caducous, entire; bracteoles several. The terminal umbel up to 80 cm in diameter with about 100 unequal
hairy rays, each 10-14- cm long; side umbels are rather small in comparison with the main umbel and
often do not develop fruit.

Description
flower :

of Calyx-teeth 5, obscure blunt; corolla zygomorphc to scarcely so. Petals 5, notched with an inflexed point.
Styles with stylopodium.

Color of flower :
white yes
Length
(mm) :

of

petal

Number
stamens :

of

Description
stamens :

of

2 - 12
5
alternating with the petals, inflexed in bud.

Number of styles : 2
Number
ovaries :

of

Heracleum persicum
Description
ovary :

of

inferior, 2-celled, ovules pendulous, solitary in each cell

Number of stigmas
2
:
Additional information
Uses :

As ornamental; Heracleum species are preferred food plants for honeybees.

Similar species :

Heracleum species hybridize easily, thus causing confusion in identification.

Distribution information
Original
distribution :

temperate Asia: Iran, Turkey.

Current
distribution :

Asia: Iran, Iraq, Turkey. Europe: Denmark, Estonia, Hungary ?, Latvia ?, Norway, Finland, Sweden, UK.

Distribution :

Ecology
Life cycle :
perennial yes
Pollination
characteristics :

Pollination by insects is common, but even self-pollination occurs.

Dormancy :

Dormancy of seeds is broken with the cold and wet conditions of autumn and winter, by temperatures of 16C.

Habitat
requirements :

It tolerates shade but for flowering light is required.

Ecological
amplitude :

H. persicum has been reported growing in the montains; it has also been found in coastal habitats.
Disturbed areas, urban areas, wetlands.

Habitat elsewhere : It colonizes similar habitats as H. mantegazzianum: cultural landscapes, areas strongly influenced by
anthropogenic factors, urban areas, grasslands and wetlands.
Habitat in
Netherlands :
Palatability :

the

see: Ecological amplitude


Used as spice in Iranian cooking.

Invasiveness, risk and control


Invasive behavior It has negative impact on biodiversity and on the environment in general, on human health, on native flora
information :
and tourism.
Toxicity :

the leaves of H. persicum contain allopathic substances which may act as growth inhibitors on other plant

Heracleum persicum
as the leaves decompose.
Pathway
introduction :

of

Transport of seed is also assisted by human actviity and by animals.

Heracleum sosnowskyi
Taxonomy
Family :

Apiaceae

Genus :

Heracleum

Epitheton :

sosnowskyi

Author(s) :

Manden

Rank :

species

Vernacular
names :

Sosnowskis hogweed

Factsheet link
Heracleum sosnowskyi factsheet (English)
(English) :
Factsheet
(French) :

link

Factsheet
(Dutch) :

link

Heracleum sosnowskyi factsheet (French)


Heracleum sosnowskyi factsheet (Dutch)

Morphology

Roots and stem


Description
stem :

of "ridged and sparsely hairy with purple blotches;


plant more or less densely hairy "

Fruit and seeds


Description
fruit :

of "oval, with very conspicuous oil ducts that do


not reach the fruit base; unripe densely hairy,

Heracleum sosnowskyi
ripe fruit wings with numerous spines on small
spherical or ovoid swellings"

Propagules
Description
propagule :
Number
propagules
plant :

of

seeds

of
per 0.01 - 40000

Leaf
Description
leaf :

of Upper surface glabrous, lower slightly hairy.


Lower leaves divided into three segments. Leaf
margins with short rounded teeth.

Phyllotaxy :
alternate yes

decussate no

opposite no

whorled no

Flower
Description of slightly convex compound umbels, 30-50 cm
inflorescence : across, with 30--75 rays with only short hairs
(finely scabrous-hairy)
Description
flower :

of

outer petals radiate, 9--10 mm long

Color of flower :
white yes
pink variable
Additional information
Uses :

"highly productive fodder crop for livestock;


sometimes as ornamental and honey plant"

Similar species : Heracleum mantegazzianum (plant generally


taller,
subglabrous
or
slightly
hairy,
inflorescence larger and rays of umbels and
umbellets covered with soft spreading hairs),
see also there
Distribution information
Original
distribution :

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia (Alania,


Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, KabardinoBalkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia), Turkey (NE)

Current

Belarus, Estonia, former German Democratic

Heracleum sosnowskyi
distribution :

Republic (only cultivated), Hungary, Latvia


(1948), Lithuania, Poland, Russia (1947),
Ukraine

Distribution :

Ecology
Life cycle :
annual no
perennial
variable
monocarp
variable
Competitiveness The enormous height and leaf area enable them
:
to overgrow most indigenous plant species and
hence make them strong competitors for light.
Flowering time
in Europe :
January no
February no
March no
April no
May no
June yes

July yes
August yes
September no
October no
November no
December no

Hardiness :

hardy, can thrive in cold climate. New shoots


can survive 4--7 degrees below zero, strating
from the second year they can survive up to 25
degrees below zero and under a snow cover
even down to 45 degrees below zero

Ecological
amplitude :

"light demanding, at beginning of their growth


they do not survive shade. In fresh and slightly
moist neutral soils rich in nutrients; average
value of pHKCl vary from 6.3 to 7.0, base
saturation - from 91 to 98% and C/N ratio from 6 to 9"

Habitat
elsewhere :

Mostly found in artificial habitats (roadsides,


disturbed areas, agricultural fields, abandoned
farm yards and gardens) and seminatural

Heracleum sosnowskyi
habitats (bushes, grasslands, parks, pastures,
abandoned orchards)
Invasiveness, risk and control
Dispersal
mechanism :
wind yes
water yes

endozoochorous no
ectozoochorous no

others yes
Host, diseases Orthops campestris, Orthops kalmi, Orthops
and
pest basalis: imagos and larvae cause feeding
information :
damage, and by sucking sap from buds and then
fruits they can help to reduce fruit germinability
(Wresinska and Wawrzyniak 2005)
Invasive
behavior
information :

Currently, H. sosnowskyi in the Baltic States,


especially in Latvia, has developed stands of
hundreds and thousands of square meters, and
the process of naturalization is intense
(Gavrilova 2003). Rapidly invaded open areas
and spaces along water-basins, roads and
forests. In natural habitats it develops large
stands, e.g. in meadows, river valleys and
fringes of forests as well as on flood-plains of
rivers and lakes. It overwhelms native species in
occupied territory and therefore hogweed
societies are poor in biodiversity. Hybrids are
possible within the genus Heracleum (Gavrilova
2003)

Toxicity :

"photosensitising
furanocoumarins:
cause
burnings of the skin and mucous membrane in
combination with ultraviolet radiation after 15
to 120 minutes; also reported to be carcinogenic
and teratogenic"

Control :

"The most effective control was obtained by the


application of glyphossate after spring regrowth
followed by deep ploughing (Vanaga et al.
2006). Several methods but all require resources
(Nielsen et al. 2005); where herbicides are not
allowed control is more complicated. Integrated
Weed Management Strategy is preferred. Root
cutting, mechanical cutting, chemical control,
grazing, ploughing, mowing "

Pathway
of Introduced as an agricultural crop to Europe
introduction : where its large biomass was ensilaged to
provide fodder for livestock (Nielsen et al.
2005). Plantation schemes where eventually
abandoned in the Baltic States, partly because
the anise scented plants affected the flavour of
the milk from animals to which it was fed and
partly because of the health risk to humans and
cattle.

Heracleum sosnowskyi

Hydrocotyle

ranunculoides.

known commonly as water pennywort or floating pennywort, is an aquatic plant in the family Apiaceae. It is native to North
and South America and parts of Africa. In the United Kingdom it is an invasive alien species which is currently spreading in
waterways.[1][2][3] It is one of five aquatic plants which are to be banned from sale in the UK from April 2014. This is the first
prohibition of its kind in the country.[4] Water pennywort is also a weed in Australia. On the other hand, it is a threatened species
in parts of its native range in the United States. [5]
Water pennywort has stems that spread horizontally and can float on water. [6] Leaves grow on petioles up to 35 cm long, and are
round to kidney-shaped, with 37 lobes and crenate to entire margins.[7] Flowers are small, pale greenish white to pale yellow,
and come in umbels of 513.[6] Fruits are small achenes that can float, helping the seeds to disperse.[6]

Ludwigia peploides, L. peploides, is a species of flowering plant in the evening primrose family known by the common names
floating primrose-willow and creeping water primrose. It is native to many parts of the Americas, but it can be found on many
continents and spreads easily to become naturalized. It is well known as a troublesome aquatic noxious weed that invades water
ecosystems and can clog waterways. This is perennial herb which grows in moist to wet to flooded areas. The stem can creep
over 2 meters long, sometimes branching. It spreads to form mats on the mud, or floats ascending in the water. The leaves are
several centimeters long and are borne in alternately arranged clusters along the stem. The flower has 5 to 6 lance-shaped sepals
beneath a corolla of 5 or 6 bright yellow petals up to 2.4 centimeters long. The fruit is a hard, cylindrical capsule.
DISTRIBUTION
L. peploides are native almost all over the United States. It lives predominately along east and south west coast. States between
Nevada, Washington, Michigan and all states north of New York do have a native species of L. peploides nor are they invasive. A
country that is having a serious problem with the L. peploides are the French. It is considered the most invasive alien aquatic
plants in France. They have spread all across the country at such alarming rates that it has been assigned to the German Black
List of invasive species. Other counties are also wary of this incredibly invasive species so there has been a ban on the trade of L.

peploides in France, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium and the UK. These species cause serious problems in area where they have
been introduced and a ban on trade will hopefully prevent any further damage.

HABITAT, E COLOGY

AND

DISPERSAL

The Ludwigia genus is present world wide. There are 23 sections consisting of 82 species in total. They can be both woody,
herbaceous and aquatic. They have very high levels of reproduction and efficient dispersal capacity which is a large factor in its
amazing ability to take over habitats all across the world. First their reproduction. It is divided into four steps that coincide with
the changing seasons. During the spring, new shoots form buds. If in shallow water, it is form in an erect position, but if in a
drained environment, they will adopt a creeping form. The stems will eventually rise to the waters surface and will then form
rosettes and small round leaves. The next step occurs over the summer where apical and branches begin to form whether the
species formed in an erect or creeping form. After an overall lateral extension of 50 cm flowers can begin to emerge. Between
late June to early October, yellow flowers are produced and reproduction can occur. Unfortunately, the sexual reproduction of
these plants are relatively unknown due to lack of research and can vary from species to species. In autumn, from August to
November fruiting occurs. For the rest of the year, the winter months, the species will break up, dry out and decay but it has been
seen that there are cases where it can survive.
The reason these plants are scattered all over the globe is because Ludwigia can be generated during all seasons just from
fragments of stems or rhizomes. They can be broken as easily by wind, water flow or animals. Lugwigia Peploides have the
ability to double their biomass from their broken particles between 15 to 90 days. This also allows this species to continue to
thrive in habitat and regions where sexual reproduction cannot occur.
The Ludwigia occur predominantly in wetlands and in the transition areas between aquatic and terrestrial environments. As a
result of their high plasticity lugwigia can colonize petty much in anywhere like slow flowing waters, river banks and wet
meadows. They do prefer slow flowing water over water with a higher velocity. Most Lugwigia species where present in stagnant
water, from 1m deep to 0.6m deep. Great depths became a constraint on their development but shoots were still able to form
flower buds. If they are in a low nutrient condition, Ludwigia double their biomass. The only true weakness of this species is
intense levels of salinity in the water they inhabit.
M ORPHOLOGY
L. Peploides is an herbaceous perennial wetland plant usually common along mud or a water surface. L. Peploides sprawl flat
along the mud or waters surface. It is very similar to the Ludwigia Hexapetala and very difficult to tell apart. The leaves are
arranged in clusters and vary in size. The average leaf is approximately 3.5 inches long and can be egg shaped to lance-shaped.
They are hairless and each leafs base tappers off to a stalk that ranges from 1 to 1.5 inches. The stem can grow as long as 9 feet
and can be hairless or slightly hairy but are always have a fleshy texture.
FLOWERS

AND

FRUITS

L. Peploides flowers start from the stem which are floating or lying on the ground. Each flower has five yellow petals 1 to
1.5 cm in length. Each occur on long stalks that on each leaf axils. The fruits and seeds do not have extensive research done so
the details are unclear but there are capsules that contain many seeds. Each seed is approximately 1mm in size.
SOCIETAL IMPACTS
The Ludwigia species cause dense mats which form a perfect protective habitat for mosquitoes. This cause higher rates of the
West Nile Virus and other diseases that mosquitoes commonly spread. They are also a serious nuisance for human activity.
Leisure activities such as hunting, fishing, and boating can be extremely difficult. Flood risk increases due to the decrease in
channel carry capacity. The rapid and uncontrolled growth of water primrose dominates native population and are damaging
irrigation and drainage networks of water bodies. Fish can have a hard time moving through these dense Ludwigia populations,
which then in turn effect the habitat of surface animals such a birds.

Ludwigia grandiflora, large-flower primrose-willow, is an emergent perennial aquatic plant native to South America
and parts of North America. It is officially classified as a noxious weed or invasive plant in North Carolina, South
Carolina and Washington. This species is sometimes broken down into two subspecies, Ludwigia grandiflora ssp.
grandiflora and Ludwigia grandiflora ssp. hexapetala.
Foliage
The leaves L. grandiflora attach alternately to the pubescent stems. In early growth stages the leaves usually have a
rounded shape growing rosette-like around the villous stem. Once L. grandiflora begins to flower, the leaves lengthen,
becoming much more lanceolate to elliptic in shape. Leaves are pilose.
Flowers
L. grandiflora has large yellow flowers that arise from the leaf axils. Each flower has 5-6 petals. Flowers are about 1-2
inches (2-5 cm) in diameter. The floral tube is noticeably shorter than the pedicel.
Fruit
The fruit of L. grandiflora is a cylindrical capsule that is divided into 5 chambers. Fruits have a woody endocarp (inner
layer). The seeds are embedded in the endocarp. Estimates put seed production at 10,000 seeds for every square meter of
L. grandiflora. L. grandiflora also reproduces from plant fragments. The fragments float and are easily spread by the
current or wind blowing along the surface of the water.
Ecological Threat
Ludwigia grandiflora has been introduced to new areas in North America. It has also been introduced to Great Britain,
Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. It grows quickly, covers large areas and forms very dense mats. L. grandiflora is
able to grow in riparian as well as aquatic habitats. This plant can significantly alter habitats it invades by outcompeting
native species, reducing water oxygen levels and blocking light.

Persicaria perfoliata (syn. Polygonum perfoliatum) is a species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae.
Common names include mile-a-minute weed, devil's tail, and giant climbing tearthumb. It is a trailing herbaceous annual
vine with barbed stems and triangular leaves. It is native to most of temperate and tropical eastern Asia. [1]

APPEARANCE
It has a reddish stem that is armed with downward pointing hooks or barbs which are also present on the underside of the leaf
blades. The light green colored leaves are shaped like an equilateral (equal-sided) triangle and alternate along the narrow,
delicate stems. Distinctive circular, cup-shaped leafy structures, called ocreas, surround the stem at intervals. Flower buds, and
later flowers and fruits, emerge from within the ocreas. Flowers are small, white and generally inconspicuous. The fruits are
attractive, metallic blue and segmented, each segment containing a single glossy, black or reddish-black seed.
HABITAT
Persicaria perfoliata weed generally colonizes open and warm areas, along the edges of woods, wetlands, stream banks, and
roadsides, and uncultivated open fields, resulting from both natural and human causes, dense wooded areas where the overstory
has opened up increasing the sunlight to the forest floor. Natural areas such as stream banks, parks, open space, road shoulders,
forest edges and fence lines are all typical areas to find P. perfoliata. It also occurs in environments that are extremely wet with
poor soil structure. Available light and soil moisture are both integral to the successful colonization of this species. It will tolerate
shade for a part of the day, but needs a good percentage, 63-100% of the available light. The ability of P. perfoliata to attach to
other plants with its recurved barbs and climb over the plants to reach an area of high light intensity is a key to its survival. It
can survive in areas with relatively low soil moisture, but demonstrates a preference for high soil moisture.
INTRODUCTION

IN THE

UNITED STATES

Persicaria perfoliata is an invasive species


The first records of Persicaria perfoliata in North America are from Portland, Oregon (1890) and Beltsville, Maryland (1937).
Both of these sites were eliminated or did not establish permanent populations of the species. However, the introduction of
P. perfoliata somewhere between the late 1930s and 1946 to a nursery site in Stewartstown, York County, Pennsylvania did
produce a successful population of this plant. It is speculated that the seed was spread with Rhododendron stock. The owner of
the nursery was interested in the plant and allowed it to reproduce; subsequent efforts to eradicate it were not successful. The
distribution of P. perfoliata has radiated from the York County site into neighboring states. Fifty-five years after its introduction,
the range for this plant in the United States had extended as far as 300 miles (480 km) in several directions from the York
County, Pennsylvania site.
REPRODUCTION

AND PROPAGATION

Persicaria perfoliata is primarily a self-pollinating plant (supported by its inconspicuous, closed flowers and lack of a detectable
scent), with occasional outcrossing. Fruits and viable seeds are produced without assistance from pollinators. Vegetative
propagation from roots has not been successful for this plant. It is a very tender annual, withering with a slight frost, and
reproduces successfully until the first frost. Persicaria perfoliata is a prolific seeder, producing many seeds on a single plant
over a long season, from June until October in Virginia, and a slightly shorter season in more northern geographic areas. It can
cover as much as 30 feet (9.1 m) in a single season, maybe even more in the southern United States.
Birds are probably the primary long-distance dispersal agents of P. perfoliata. Transport of seeds short distances by native ant
species has been observed. This activity is probably encouraged by the presence of a tiny white food body (elaiosome) on the tip
of the seed that may be attractive to the ants. These seed-carrying ants may play an important role in the survival and

germination of the seeds of P. perfoliata. Local bird populations are important for dispersal under utility lines, bird feeders, fence
lines and other perching locations. Other animals observed eating its fruits are chipmunks, squirrel and deer.
Water is also an important mode of dispersal. Its fruits can remain buoyant for 79 days, an important advantage for dispersing
seed long distances in stream and river environments. The long vines frequently hang over waterways, allowing fruits that
detach to be carried away in the water current. During storm events the potential spread of this plant is greatly increased
throughout watersheds.
C ONTROL
Hand removal of seedlings throughout the growing season is the most effective traditional control, though hardly practical for a
wide-range program. Broad-spectrum herbicides, though effective, are not practical in many infested areas due to close
involvement of native vegetation. A non-systemic herbicidal soap is the preferred chemical treatment, but must be reapplied
throughout the season to staunch new growth.
In 2004 the USDA approved the rearing and release of Rhinoncomimus latipes, a tiny stem-feeding weevil from China. In
several Persicaria-infested release sites in New Jersey heavy defoliation of the targets occurred in the space of a few years postrelease. The weevil has since been found feeding on Persicaria throughout the state, even at sites intended for new releases.

Pueraria montana is a species of plant in the botanical family Fabaceae. At least three sub-species (alternatively called varieties)
are known. It is closely related to other species in the genus Pueraria (P. edulis and P. phaseoloides) and the common name
kudzu is used for all of these species and hybrids between them. The morphological differences between them are subtle, they
can breed with each other, and it appears that introduced kudzu populations in the United States have ancestry from more than
one of the species.[3][4]
DESCRIPTION
IT IS AN

SEASONAL CLIMBING PLANT , GROWING HIGH WHERE SUITABLE SURFACES ( TREES, CLIFFS, WALLS) ARE

AVAILABLE , AND ALSO GROWING AS GROUND COVER WHERE THERE ARE NO VERTICAL SURFACES. I T IS A PERENNIAL
VINE WITH TUBEROUS ROOTS AND ROPE- LIKE, DARK BROWN STEMS TO
YEAR AND CAN ACHIEVE A GROWTH HEIGHT OF

30

20

(65

FT ) LONG . I T GROW UP TO

20

M PER

M. I T HAS MARKEDLY HAIRY HERBACEOUS STEMS.

Pueraria montana is native to Southeast Asia, primarily subtropical and temperate regions of China, Japan, and Korea,[5][6] with
trifoliate leaves composed of three leaflets.[7][8] Each leaflet is large and ovate with two to three lobes each and hair on the
underside.[7][9] The leaves have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, which can supply up to 95% of leaf nitrogen to the plant in
poor soils.[7] Along the vines are nodes, points at which stems or tendrils can propagate to increase support and attach to
structures.[7] As a twining vine, kudzu uses stems or tendrils that can extend from any node on the vine to attach to and climb
most surfaces.[5][7][10] In addition, the nodes of the kudzu vine have the ability to root when exposed to soil, further anchoring the
vine to the ground. [5][7] The roots are tuberous and are high in starch and water content, and the twining of the plant allows for
less carbon concentration in the construction of woody stems and greater concentration in roots, which aids root growth. [7] The
roots can account for up to 40% of total plant biomass. [5]

Close-up on flowers of Pueraria montana var. lobata


Flowers are reddish-purple and yellow, fragrant, similar to pea flowers, about 2025 millimetres (0.790.98 in) wide and are
produced at the leaf axis in elongated racemes about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long. The flowering period extends from July
through October. The fruit is a flat hairy pod about 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long with three seeds.
Kudzus primary method of reproduction is asexual vegetative spread (cloning) which is aided by the ability to root wherever a
stem is exposed to soil. [7] For sexual reproduction, kudzu is entirely dependent on pollinators. [7]
Although kudzu prefers forest regrowth and edge habitats with high sun exposure, the plant can survive in full sun or partial
shade.[5][7] These attributes of kudzu made it attractive as an ornamental plant for shading porches in the Southeastern United
States, but they facilitated the growth of kudzu as it became a structural parasite of the southern states, [7] enveloping entire
structures when untreated [9] and often referred to as the vine that ate the south. [1

Silver-leaved Nightshade or Silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium, is a common weed of western North America
and also found in South America. Other common names include Prairie Berry, Silverleaf Nettle, White Horsenettle or Silver
Nightshade. In South Africa it is known as Silver-leaf bitter-apple or satansbos ("Satan's Bush" in Afrikaans). More
ambiguous names include "bull-nettle", "horsenettle" and the Spanish "trompillo".[1]
DESCRIPTION

AND ECOLOGY

It is a perennial 10 cm[2] to 1 m in height. The stems are covered with short spines, ranging from very few on some plants to very
dense on others. Leaves and stems are covered with downy hairs that lie against and hide the surface, giving a silvery or grayish
appearance. [3]

Closeup of S. elaeagnifolium flower

Closeup of S. elaeagnifolium berries


The leaves are up to 15 cm long and 0.5 to 2.5 cm wide, with shallowly waved edges, which distinguish it from the closely
related Carolina Horsenettle (S. carolinense), which has wider, more deeply indented leaves. The flowers, appearing from April
to August, have five petals united to form a star, ranging from blue to pale lavender or occasionally white; five yellow stamens
and a pistil form a projecting center. The plant produces glossy yellow, orange, or red berries that last all winter and may turn
brown as they dry.[3] Its range is from Kansas south to Louisiana, and west through the Mexican-border states of the United
States into Mexico, as well as Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile[4]. It may have originated in North America and was accidentally
introduced to South America [5] or the reverse[4]. It can grow in poor soil with very little water. It spreads by rhizomes as well as
seeds, and is common in disturbed habitats. It is considered a noxious weed in 21 U.S. states and in countries such as Australia,
Egypt, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, South Africa, and Zimbabwe[6]. It is toxic to livestock and very hard to control, as root stocks
less than 1 cm long can regenerate into plants [7]. However, some gardeners encourage it as a xeriscape ornamental.
The Pima Indians used the berries as a vegetable rennet, and the Kiowa used the seeds together with brain tissue to tan leather.[5]

MODELE DE CRETERE A POPULAIILOR

P(t ) = P0 ert
Exponentiate both P ( t ) = eC e kt condition P(0) = P0

P ( t ) = Poe kt

dP/ dt = kP;
Integrat dP / P = k dt +
The Malthusian Law (Laws Of Population Ecology", Paul Haemig, 2005.

ln|P|=

kt

The Rule of 70 is a useful rule of thumb that roughly explains the time periods involved in exponential growth at a constant
rate. For example, if growth is measured annually then a 1% growth rate results in a doubling every 70 years. At 2% doubling
occurs every 35 years. The number 70 comes from the observation that the natural log of 2 is approximately 0.7, by multiplying
this by 100 we obtain 70. To find the doubling time we divide the natural log of 2 by the growth rate.

= e r,

r = ln .

If = 1 then the population number is constant: r = ln = ln (1) = 0. =1 When the value of is supraunitara, their
population grows, and when is less, the population size decreases. value can not be negative or zero.
Nt = 2N0

Since r = ln , where t 2 = 0.69 / r. So a population with a geometric growth rate is not equal to unity and the number will
double again as ln (a) is undefined, while a population with a rate r = 2 doubles their number in a year or within a generation
unit of time according to taken into account.
T. R. Malthus -englez, teolog, economist ( 1766-1834 ), n Eseu asupra legii populaiei , 1798 afirma orice specie tinde s-i
mreasc efectivul dup o serie geometric 1834 .

Creterea exponenial pornind de la numr limitat de indivizi este mic, deoarece fecunditatea indivizilor n reproducere
rmne constant n orice moment. Fiecare exemplar al populaiei va genera un numr R de indivizi, iar efectivul
populaiei N, pentru generaiile (t)=0,1,2,3..,va fi:

N1 = N0 R ;
Nt = N0 R t ;
t = timpul (ani ; generaii);
e = 2,718 , numrul natural .
Nt = efectivul populaiei la timpul t ;
r
=
rata
intrinsec
de
cretere
a
Rata creterii populaiei(r)= [reproducerea (n,b)+ imigraia (i)] [mortalitatea (m ,d)+emigraia (e)].

populaiei;

r = (n+i) (m+e)

Pot
aprea
urmtoarele
situaiile
:
A
-declinul
efectivului
(
scderea
populaiei
),
r
<
0
(negativ);
B
-efectivul
staionar
,
nemodificat
(stagnarea
populaiei
),
r
=
0(nul);
Cefectivul
crete
exponenial
(populaia
se
nmulete
exploziv),
r
>
0
(pozitiv).
Modelul creterii populaiei presupune c procesul reproducerii este continuu, dar n realitate exist multe specii, care se
nmulesc o dat / an sau o dat /civa ani .
Estimarea ratei creterii n dou momente diferite i calcularea ratei intrinsece a creterii:

sau r = ( ln Nt- ln No ) / t
a) la populaiile cu reproducere continu ( afide, acarieni)
b) la speciile anuale, monovoltine prelevarea probelor poate surprinde eronat tendina creterii efectivului populaiei
(pot apare rate negative ale creterii populaiei, dar n realitatea efectivul populaiei este n cretere i invers..).
Evitarea unor erori menionate const n :
a) realizarea eantionajului n aceleai momente ale anului;
b)
un
eantionaj
repetat
i
calcularea
ratei
medii
a
creterii.
Ordonnd statistic datele dup modelul de cretere geometric, asemntor cu modelul creterii exponeniale ecuaia
creterii populaiei este

= e r, r = ln .

If = 1 then the population number is constant: r = ln = ln (1) = 0. =1 When the value of is supraunitara, their
population grows, and when is less, the population size decreases. value can not be negative or zero.
Nt = 2N0 Since r = ln , where t 2 = 0.69 / r. So a population with a geometric growth rate is not equal to unity and the number
will double again as ln (a) is undefined, while a population with a rate r = 2 doubles their number in a year or within a
generation unit of time according to taken into account.
Remarcm c o populaie :
-cu o r = 1 nu-i va dubla niciodat
efectivul, deoarece
ln(1)
este
nedefinit ;
-cu o rata r = 2 i dubleaz efectivul n decursul unui an sau al unei generaii [ functie de etalonul de timp, (unitatea de
timp considerat)]. Parametrul r este denumit diferit :parametrul malthusian; rata intrinsec a creterii; rata
instantanee a creterii naturale ; rata creterii populaiei ; rat a creterii populaiei , dei pentru modelele logistice, r
este denumit rata intrinsec a creterii populaiei , r = rata creterii populaiei la o valoare foarte mic a densitii

Utilizarea modelului exponenial n studiul creterii efectivului populaiei necesit ndeplinirea


urmtoarelor
condiii:1)procesul de reproducere este considerat continuu; 2)-toate organismele populaiei sunt absolut identice;3)efectul presiunii mediului nconjurtor este constant, neavnd un caracter limitativ
.
Modelul exponenial este aplicabil, cu o precizie bun n realitate, cnd se ndeplinesc parial condiiile, indivizii
populaiei pot diferi ca vrst, supravieuire sau mortalitate, dar la o populaie cu numr mare de indivizi, ratele
reproducerii
i
mortalitii
(valori
medii)
pot
direciona
i
detalia
creterea
populaiei
.
Modelul exponenial se aplic n: microbiologie, piscicultur, domeniul conservrii i restaurrii populaiilor naturale ..
M2 . Modelul logistic al creterii populaiei - P. Verhulst , 1838
Logistic function or logistic curve, sigmoid curve, 1844, 1845 Pierre Franois Verhulst "S-shaped" curve , S-curve growth of
some
population
P
.

Versiunea continu a modelului logistic este descris de ecuaia diferenial

unde este parametrul malthusian (rata de cretere a populaiei maxim) i


este capacitatea de aa-numita deinerea
(de exemplu, populaia maxim durabil). Divizarea de ctre ambele pri i definirea
d ecuaia diferenial

care este cunoscut sub numele de ecuaia logistic i are soluie

Funcia

este, uneori, cunoscut sub numele de funcia sigmoid .

n timp ce este, de obicei, constrns s fie pozitiv, terenuri de soluie de mai sus sunt prezentate pentru diferite valori
pozitive i negative ale i condiiile iniiale
variind de 0.00 - 1.00, n pai de 0,05.
Versiunea discret a ecuaiei logistice ( 3 ), este cunoscut sub numele de harta logistic .

Curba
(
4

obinute de la ( 3 ) este uneori cunoscut sub numele de curba logistic. n mod similar, o form normalizat de ecuaia (3)
, este frecvent utilizat ca o distribuie statistic cunoscut sub numele de distribuie logistic

Modelul se bazeaz pe ideea rata creterii populaiei ar fi limitat de factori sau procese, chiar densitatea populaiei,
rata
creterii
populaiei
:
r
=
r0
(1-N/K)
n
care:
,
r

rata
de
cretere
intrinsec
a
populaiei;
ro

rata
intrinsec
iniial
de
cretere
a
populaiei;
N

efectivul
populaiei;
K - capacitatea de suport (limita maxim a creterii populaiei ), la densitati foarte mici ale populaiei, rata creterii populaiei
este maxim i este egal cu ro, parametru care reprezint rata creterii populaiei fr s in cont de competiia intraspecific .
Rata creterii populaiei descrete cu valoarea efectivului populaiei N devenind 0 (nul) cnd N = K.
Parametrul K - limita superioar a creterii populaiei sau capacitatea de suport (cantitatea de resurse, exprimat prin numrul
de organisme suportate de resurse). Cnd efectivul populaiei este mai mare depsind valoarea parametrului K, atunci rata
creterii
populaiei
devine
negativ
i
efectivul
populaiei
descrete.
Dinamica
populaiei
pote
fi
descris
de
ecuaia
diferenial:
dN/dt=r0
N(1N/k)
(-r t)
Nt
=
N0
K
/
No
+(K-N0)
0
Exist
3
posibile
cazuri
ale
modelului
logistic:
1)
N0
<
K,
populaia
crete
iar
efectivul
atinge
un
plafon
maxim,
devine
stabil
;
2
)
N0
>
K,
populaia
descrete
pn
la
o
valoare
la
care
se
stabilizeaz ;
3)
N0
=
K
sau
N0
=
0,
populaia
rmne
neschimbat
Modelul se bazeaz pe ideea rata creterii populaiei ar fi limitat de factori sau procese, chiar densitatea populaiei,
rata
creterii
populaiei:
r
=
r0
(1N/K)
n
care:
,
r

rata
de
cretere
intrinsec
a
populaiei;
ro

rata
intrinsec
iniial
de
cretere
a
populaiei;
N

efectivul
populaiei;
K - capacitatea de suport (limita maxim a creterii populaiei ), la densiti foarte mici ale populaiei, rata creterii populaiei
este maxim i este egal cu ro parametru care reprezint rata creterii populaiei fr s in cont de competiia intraspecific .
Rata creterii populaiei descrete cu valoarea efectivului populaiei N devenind 0 (nul) cnd N = K. Parametrul K - limita
superioar a creterii populaiei sau capacitatea de suport (cantitatea de resurse, exprimat prin numrul de organisme
suportate de resurse). Cnd efectivul populaiei este mai mare depsind valoarea parametrului K, atunci rata creterii populaiei
devine
negativ
i
efectivul
populaiei
descrete.
Dinamica
populaiei
pote
fi
descris
de
ecuaia
diferenial:
dN/dt=r0
N(1-N/k)
(-r t)
Nt
=
N0
K
/
No
+(K-N0)
0
Exist
3
posibile
cazuri
ale
modelului
logistic:
1)
N0
<
K,
populaia
crete
iar
efectivul
atinge
un
plafon
maxim,
devine
stabil
;
2
)
N0
>
K,
populaia
descrete
pn
la
o
valoare
la
care
se
stabilizeaz ;
3) N0 = K sau N0 = 0, populaia rmne neschimbat.

Modelul
logistic
are
dou
cazuri
de
a)
N
=
0
;
echilibrul
instabil
(o
deviere
mic
va
determina
b) N = K, echilibrul stabil, dup o dereglare nesemnificativ, populaia revine la echilibru.

echilibru
creterea
populaiei

:
.

Timpul
necesar
populaiei
pentru
dublarea
efectivului
(t2),
necesit
calcul
laborios
:
t2
=
ln[(K-2No)/
2(K-No)].1/r
.
Calculul perioadei de timp necesare populaiei pentru a atinge capacitatea de suport (valoarea maxim a efectivului, N ),
care nu se atinge printr-o funcie continu, este practic inutil,dar se poate calcula timpul necesar populaiei pentru a
atinge
o
anumit
proporie
din
capacitatea
de
suport
(tx):
tX
=
ln
{
[
K-No(
1-x
)
]
/
[
x
(
K-N o)
]
}
1/
r
Valoarea maxim posibil a ratei creterii populaiei , ro este efectul proceselor de reproducere i de mortalitate, neconsidernd
densitatea populaiei . Organismele care se reproduc rar , la intervale mari de timp , au valoarea maxim a ratei creterii
populaiei sczut, n timp ce organismele ce se reproduc des , frecvent (nevertebrate , n special insecte ) au valoarea maxim
posibil
a
ratei
creterii
populaiei
foarte
ridicat
.
Modelul logistic are parametrul ro controleaz rata creterii populaiei i rata descreterii (N > K ), neclar ca semnificaie
biologic
pentru c organismele cu rata reproducerii redus au
rata mortalitii de regul redus.
n realitate la unele populaii sunt procese lente (reproducerea) sau rapide (mortalitatea), iar modelul logistic este inaplicabil.
Semnificaia biologic a parametrului K pentru populaiile, care interacioneaz ntre ele i prin indivizii implicai n procesul
reproducerii, prin interrelaii de teritorialism, nu numai competiia pentru hran, spaiu, lumin, ali factori de mediu .
La populaiile de insecte dinamica este determinata de raportul reproducere / mortalitate, parametrul K nu are o semnificaie
clar pentru c echilibrul densitii populaiei nu depinde doar de resursele disponibile, ci i de mortalitatea produs de
prdtori, principalii factori limitativi ai creterii populaiei naturale, care tind spre mrirea efectivului .
Populaia cu cretere exponenial ar realiza teoretic efective maxime n intervale scurte de timp, determinate de condiiile de
mediu favorabile activitilor biologice, iar
rata natalitii depete de cteva ori rata mortalitii.
Exist
procese
biologice
(natalitatea
i
mortalitatea)
care
depind
de
factorii
de
mediu.
Factorii independeni de densitate populaiei sunt : modificri normale ale temperaturii , precipitaiilor, unele evenimente de
tip catastrofal (inundaii, erupii vulcanice , alunecri de teren ) pot crete rata mortalitii , respectiv diminuarea ratei natalitii
pentru numeroase specii epigee n special. Factorii sunt independeni de densitatea populaiei pentru c acioneaz neselectiv ,
indiferent
de
efectivul
existent
la
populaia
supus
agresiunii
sau
aciunii
nefaste
.
Factorii dependeni de densitatea populaiei. n habitat exista resurse (trofice, adpost, reproducere ) pentru un numr limitat
de specii i un anumit efectiv al speciei , dar poate atinge un numr mare de indivizi superior numrului maxim suportat de
biotop, situaie in care rata mortalitii crete, iar rata natalitii scade, diminund efectivul populaiei. Populaiile cu densitate
ridicat atrag numeroi prdtori, favorizeaz diseminarea rapid a ectoparaziilor i /sau endoparaziilor, restrngerea
locurilor bune (reproducere i creterea puilor, care pot determina creterea ratei mortalitii, scderea natalitii,
(mecanisme de reglare a efectivului populaiei).

M3. Modelul lui Leslie

Dintre modele aplicabile la populaiile structurate pe clase de vrst, modelul Leslie descrie fidel reproducerea, dezvoltarea i
mortalitatea organismelor utiliznd algebra liniar (rata creterii exponeniale sau rata intrinsec a creterii ; proporia fiecrei
clase de vrst ntr-o populaie cu distribuie stabil a vrstelor).
Modelul lui Leslie descrie trei tipuri de procese bioecologice: dezvoltarea, mortalitatea specific vrstei i reproducerea
specific vrstei :
Nx,t = numrul de organisme de vrsta x la timpul t, utiliznd aceeai unitate de msur pentru vrst i intervalul de timp;
sx = supravieuirea organismelor n intervalul de vrst x pn la x+1;
mx = numrul mediu de indivizi de sex feminin produs prin reproducere de o femel n intervalul x pn la x+1 (valoare ce
include mortalitatea genitorilor i a descendenilor).
N x+1, t+1 = N x,t Sx
dezvoltarea, mortalitatea, specificnd numrul organismelor pe clase de vrst.
N 0,2
= nx=0 Nx 1. mx = N0
+1
descrie procesul de reproducere specificnd numrul de indivizi din prima clas de vrst.

descrie

m0

N1

mx

* n ecuaie, numrul de indivizi de vrst x+1 la momentul t+1 este egal cu numrul indivizilor de vrsta x nmulit cu rata
specific de supravieuire pentru intervalul, sx.

** n a doua ecuaie, numrul de indivizi aparinnd descendenei (N0,t+1) egaleaz numrul femelelor care au participat la
reproducere (Nx,t) dac acesta din urma este nmulit cu numrul mediu de descendeni realizai de o femel (mx).
<> Combinnd ecuaiile ntr-o ecuaie matriceal Nt+1 = A Nt , n care Nx este vectorul distribuiei vrstelor n populaie la
timpul t, iar A este matricea de tranziie:

Produsul unei matrice cu un vector (nmulirea oricrei valori din prima linie a matricei cu fiecare numr din coloana vectorului
(se face suma tuturor produselor), continund cu a doua linie a matricei, suma produselor devenind al doilea element al
vectorului rezultat , completnd toate elementele vectorului rezultat . Modelul matriceal, prin fiecare coloan specific starea
organismelor la un anumit stadiu. Modelele matriceale repetabile facil n timp, deoarece pornind de la matricea de tranziie o
nmulim cu vectorul descriptor al claselor de vrst vom ilustra distribuia momentan pe clase de vrst a populaiei:
Nt+2 = A (A Nt )= A2 Nt
Nt=At N0
M4. Durata dezvoltrii (Rata dezvoltrii )
Dezvoltarea organismelor este un proces biologic determinat i de variabile externe, dintre care mai importante sunt
factorii
de
mediu
.
Factorul esenial pentru creterea i dezvoltarea multor categorii de organisme vegetale i animale l reprezint
temperatura mediului ambiant. Mediu cuprinde totalitatea componentelor abiotice i biotice, existente n apropierea unei
entiti
biotice:
organism,
individ).
Organismele poikiloterme (heteroterme, ca plantele, ciupercile, bacteriile sunt vegetale heteroterme; animale cu snge rece
precum nevertebratele, amfibienii, reptilele i petii), se dezvolt dependent de temperatura mediului.
Organismele homeoterme (animale cu snge cald) i automenin temperatura corpului constant (mamiferele) prin
mecanisme
de
termoreglare
de
tip
feed-back
(cibernetice).
Rata dezvoltrii este msurat prin inversul numrului de uniti de timp necesare dezvoltrii complete a unei categorii
de organisme (ciclu ontogenetic integral) sau pentru dezvoltarea pn la un stadiu specific .
Aplicaie : n 16 zile embrionul viabil al unei specii ajunge la ecloziune (timpul se msoar din momentul fecundrii), iar rata
dezvoltrii embrionare V = 1/16 ( zile) = 0,0625. Aplicaie cu corelaia dintre temperatur, durata dezvoltrii i rata
dezvoltrii
TEMPERATURA (C)

DURATA DEZVOLTRII
(T - ZILE )

RATA DEZVOLTRII
(V=1/T)

Stagnare

0,000

180

0.0055

16

100

0.001

20

50

0.02

25

40

0.025

30

25

0.04

35

35

0.028

(T )

n intervalul de temperatur 100C300C, rata dezvoltrii se modific proporional cu creterea temperaturii, dar la
temperaturi > 100C dezvoltarea se oprete,stagneaz (are valoarea nul), iar la plaje termice superioare dezvoltarea se
tempereaz .

M5. Modelul temperaturii efective (sin: grade-zile)


Rata dezvoltrii este considerat funcie liniar (linearizat) cu variabil real,temperatura, pe intervalul termic moderat ,
disjuns din plaja termic specific din care s-au omis valorile extreme (minime i maxime ).
Utilizarea modelului grade-zile pentru simularea dezvoltrii organismelor n plaja termic moderat este precis, cnd se
respect
condiiile:
1) temperatura limit inferioar (tmin) sau t0
temperatura zero a dezvoltrii, pragul biologic inferior ;
2) temperatura efectiv, diferena dintre temperatura la momentul dat tmd i temperatura zero t0: t ef = tmd t0 ;
3) numrul de grade-zile ( ), ca produsul dintre temperatura efectiv i numrul total de zile necesar pentru realizarea
dezvoltrii
temperatura zero a dezvoltrii i numrul de grade-zile pot fi estimate pornind de la linia de regresie a ratei dezvoltrii
i
temperatur,
ecuaia
de
regresie:
v
=
a
+
bt,
n
care
:
a
valoarea
ordonatei
b
rata
modificrii
unghiului
fcut
de
linia
de
regresie
cu
abscisa ,
atunci:
a
+
b
tmin
=
0,
pentru
c
temperatura
zero
a
dezvoltrii
este:
tmin
=
a
/
b
Aplicaie
:a=
0,25;
b=0,03125
temperatura
zero
a
dezvoltrii
tmin
=
80C.
Timpul
necesar
dezvoltrii
[
durata
dezvoltrii](T
)
este
inversul
ratei
de
dezvoltare
:
T
=
1/,
de
unde
rezult
ca
numrul
de
grade
zile
poate
fi
calculat
dup
relaia:

=
1/b
=
T
(t-tmin)=
(t+
a/b)
/
(
a
+bt)
=
1/b
Numrul de grade-zile nu depinde de temperatur , principala caracteristic a modelului grade-zile.
Cnd dezvoltarea este rapid se schimb unitatea de timp , ora n loc de zi, respectiv modelul grade-ore.
Deoarece modelul grade-zile este independent de temperatur se utilizeaz pentru prognozarea duratei de dezvoltare cnd
temperatura este variabil, prin acumularea zilnic de grade-zile, rezultnd suma gradelor efective de temperatur . Cnd t0 a
dezvoltrii, tmin = 8oC, iar numrul grade-zile este = 120 , numrul de grade zile nsumeaz 102 grade-zile dup 10 zile,
deci durata dezvoltrii complete este de 11 zile.
Relaia dintre temperatura efectiv i numrul de grade-zile.
TEMPERATURA

TEMPERATURA

NR. GRADE-ZILE

MEDIE ZILNIC

ACUMULATE

(TMZ)

EFECTIV
(TMZ- T0)

11

21

13

17

NR. ZILE

()

22

14

31

24

16

47

19

11

58

20

12

70

15

77

28

20

97

10

25

17

104

11

28

20

124

12

15

131

M6 . TIMPUL FIZIOLOGIC
Timpul biologic dezvoltrii organismelor poikiloterme, similar ceasornicului biologic, este durata obligatorie derulrii unor
stadii , faze , etape distincte din ciclul biologic. Procesele fiziologice se bazeaz pe reacii biochimice care afirm viteza
reaciilor chimice crete, respectiv se dubleaz la fiecare cretere a temperaturii cu 10 o C .
Pentru organismele poikiloterme, timpul fiziologic se scurge rapid la temperaturi ambientale ridicate i mai lent la
temperaturi ambientale reduse . Rata dezvoltrii este timpul fiziologic / durata(timp calendaristic ), adic valorificarea
fiziologic a timpului fizic. Cnd rata dezvoltrii embrionare la o specie - 0,09/zi, iar timpul fiziologic necesar parcurgerii
stadiului embrionar egal cu 100% , embrionul crete zilnic (timpul fiziologic s-a mrit ) cu 9% / zi. Determinarea duratei
dezvoltrii
rezult
prin
cumularea
ratelor
de
dezvoltare
.
Dezvoltarea complet se realizeaz la suma ratelor de dezvoltare de 100% = 1, descris matematic prin ecuatia integral:

care:
v(t)
=
rata
dezvoltrii
n
funcie
de
temperatur
t;
t(x)
=
temperatura
n
funcie
de
timpul
x;
T
=
durata
dezvoltrii.
Dac temperatura este reprezentat n funcie de timp, n fiecare moment, rata dezvoltrii este estimat ca o funcie neliniar de
timp.
Integrala funciei v(t(x)), care reprezint aria de sub traiectoria temperaturii, n intervalul (0, T) trebuie sa fie egal cu unitatea .

Ecuaia
integral
se
poate
rescrie:
Inexistena unui instrument pentru msurarea direct a timpului fiziologic, este substituit prin indicatori fiziologici specifici
unei
anumite
faze,
stadiu,
[
concentraia
de
hormoni,
metabolii
(dioxid
de
carbon)....]
.
Cuantificarea timpului fiziologic este relativ , dar folosind organisme cu vrst fiziologic caracteristic, meninndu-le n
condiii standard de dezvoltare :temperatura constant, umiditate, diet pentru perioade calendaristice, de timp fizic . Modelul
timp fiziologic n comparaie cu modelul grade-zile neavnd presupuneri arbitrare referitoare la funcia (linear, logistic,
distribuie normal ) care descrie rata dezvoltrii n raport de temperatur poate analiza i influena exercitat de ali factori
fluctuani ca hrana (calitatea i cantitatea hranei etc.) , umiditatea .

M7. Prdtorism i parazitism


Prdtorismul i parazitismul sunt relaii antagoniste n care o specie profit de alt specie. Prdtorii omoar violent i
consum o alt specie,numit prad (sursa de hran), iar paraziii utilizeaz pentru hrnire i adpost (habitat) o alt specie,
numit gazd, debilitnd-o sistematic (treptat), producnd moartea speciei care l-a acceptat, l-a gzduit .
Independent
A.J.Lotka
(1925)
i
V.
Volterra
(1926}

propun
un
model
simplificat,
care
descrie
interaciunile
prad
/
prdtor
:
dH
/
dt
=
rH

aHP
i
dP
/
dt
=
bHP
-mP
n
care:
H
=
densitatea
przii;
P
=
densitatea
prdtorilor;
r
=
rata
intrinsec
a
creterii
populaiei
ce
constituie
prada;
a
=
coeficientul
ratei
prdtorismului;
b
=
rata
reproducerii
prdtorilor
pe
unitatea
de
prad
consumat;
m
=
rata
mortalitii
prdtorilor.
Variabilele
modelului
sunt:
densitatea
przii
(H)
densitatea
prdtorilor
(P
).
Celelalte
valori
sunt
parametri
care
trebuie
stabilii.
Pentru
estimarea
parametrilor
trebuie
realizate
cteva
experimente,
cronologic
:
1) pstrarea populaiei prad n afara aciunii prdtorilor i estimarea ratei intrinsece a creterii populaiei prad ( r);
2) meninerea unui individ din specia prdtoare n incinte cu diferite densiti ale przii i estimarea ratei mortalitii przii i
valoarea
corespunztoare
k
n
fiecare
caz
n
parte
( k = limita superioar a creterii populaiei (capacitatea de suport), fiind egal cu rata instantanee a mortalitii nmulit cu
timpul).
Rezult c rata prdtorismului (a ) este egal cu valoarea k raportat la timp (durata experimentului).
Estimarea parametrilor m i b se realizeaz pstrnd densitatea przii constant, estimnd rata intrinsec a creterii
populaiei de prdtori (rp), dup care se reprezint grafic rata intrinsec a creterii populaiei prdtoare n funcie de
densitatea przii H. Regresia liniar este rp = bH m, permind calculul parametrilor m si b.
Implicaii
funcionale
i
cantitative
ale
relaiei
prad-prdtor
Studierea relaiilor prad-prdtor au demonstrat rata prdtorismului crete odat cu creterea densitii populaiei prad
(Holling,
1959)
fiind
rezultatul
a
dou
efecte:
-tendina natural a fiecrui prdtor de a crete rata consumului de hran, cnd exist o abunden crescut a hranei (creterea
densitii
numerice
sau
cantitative
a
przii);
-densitatea
prdtorilor
crete
odata
cu
creterea
densitii
przii.
Aceste efecte sunt de fapt dou tipuri de rspuns ale populaiei prdtoare la modificarea densitii przii: creterea ratei
consumului de hran este un rspuns cu semnificaie funcional, n timp ce creterea densitii prdtorilor are valene
numerice (cantitative).
Modelarea
rspunsului
funcional
Modelul propus de Holling(1959) a fost i este unul din cele mai utilizate modele n studiul ecologic, numit i ecuaia disc,
[
iniial
discurile
de
hrtie
simulau
arealul
prdtorilor
].
Modelul Prdtorism i parazitism focalizeaz principiul bugetului de timp n ecologia comportamental a prdtorului
(etologie).
Modelul presupune c un rpitor i petrece timpul realiznd dou feluri principale de activiti zilnice :
a)
cutarea
przii,
cu
durata
Ts;
b)
activitatea
de
capturare,
ucidere,
devorare
i
digestie
a
przii
capturate
(durata
Th)
.
Timpul petrecut de prdtor n cele dou tipuri de activiti poate fi diferit. Dac prada este suficient de abundent, tipul
consumat cu cutarea przii poate fi mai scurt. Oricum, timpul total necesar pentru a cuta i consuma prada este dat de suma
perioadelor
de
timp
consumate
pentru
cele
dou
tipuri
de
activiti:
T
=
Ts
+
Th
Presupunnd ca un prdtor captureaz un numr Ha de animale (przi) pe durata intervalului de timp T, atunci timpul necesar
consumului i metabolizarea przii (Th) va fi proporional cu numrul exemplarelor prad capturate: Th =HaTh1 n care: Th1
este
timpul
petrecut
cu
uciderea
i
consumul
unui
exemplar
din
populaia
prad.
Procesul de capturare a przii este aleator.innd cont de parametrul a, rata cutrii przii i de perioadele de timp definite

anterior se poate calcula numrul de przi capturate de prdtor : Ha= a H Ts din care, rezult c timpul necesar cutrii przii
va fi Ts=Ha / aH. Se poate calcula bugetul de timp ce caracterizeaz activitatea prdtorului : T= Ts + Th= HaTh1 + Ha / aH de
unde rezult ca numrul de indivizi ai populaiei prad atacai de prdtor va fi: Ha = a H T / [1+ a HaTh1]
Graficul rspunsului funcional corespunztor ecuaiei Ha = a H T / [1+ a HaTh1] este:

Variaia numrului de indivizi ai populaiei prad capturai de prdtori n funcie de densitatea przii
Funcia arat numrul de indivizi, din populaia care reprezint prada, animale capturate de un animal prdtor la diferite
valori ale densitii przii - forma (tipic) rspunsului funcional pentru mai multe specii prdtoare. n cazul unor densiti
sczute ale populaiei prad, prdtorii irosesc marea parte a timpului cutnd prada, n timp ce la densiti mari ale przii
timpul destinat cutarii este mai redus, crescnd ponderea intervalului de timp necesar uciderii, consumului i digestiei przii.

Sunt luate n consideratie trei tipuri ale rspunsului funcional al populaiei prdtoare la variaia densitii populaiei prad:
tip 1 caracteristic prdtorilor de tip pasiv (ce ateapt prada s ajung n raza lor de aciune, nainte de a ataca), care nu caut
hrana (Ts = 0 ), iar numrul de indivizi capturai este proporional cu densitatea przii,deci mortalitatea populaiei prad
datorat
prdtorismului
este
constant.
tip 2 este tipic prdtorilor activi care caut prada constant, la densitatea mare a przii, rata cutrii przii este constant,
sectorul orizontal al curbei corespunde saturaiei prdtorilor, iar mortalitatea przii descrete cu densitatea przii.
tipul 3 - prdtorii i intensific cutarea przii odat cu creterea densitii przii. n acest caz, mortalitatea przii crete
odat cu creterea densitii przii, dup care mortalitatea przii descrete

Reprezentarea

grafic

rspunsului

funcional

al

populaiei

prdtoare

la

variaia

densitii

przii

Dac densitatea prdtorilor este constant, prdtorii pot regla densitatea przii prin intensificarea cutrii i uciderii mai
multor przi, deci mortalitatea przii crete simultan cu creterea densitii przii. Efectul de reglare a densittii przii de
populaia prdtoare este limitat la intervalul valorilor densitii przii n care mortalitatea przii crete. Dac densitatea przii
depete limita superioar a intervalului, mortalitatea datorat prdtorismului ncepe s descreasc, iar fenomenul de
prdtorism va determina o conexiune invers (feed-back) pozitiv. Numrul indivizilor din popula ia prad care vor scpa
controlului prdtorilor va crete pn cnd i al i factori nefavorabili, precum reducerea resurselor trofice, vor opri creterea
efectivului populaiei prad, fenomen observat de Takahashi, denumit evadare de sub aciunea dumanilor naturali .
Pentru a stabili parametrii modelului care aproximeaz rspunsul func ional este necesar efectuarea unor experimente
specifice.
Acesta
pot
fi
realizate
innd
cont
de
urmtoarele
aspecte:
a) prdtorii se in individual n incinte largi, ncptoare, limitnd capacitatea de cutare a prdtorului ;
b) se introduc n incinte diferite densiti ale przii;numerose experimente la densit i reduse ale przii comparativ cu cazurile
cu densiti crescute ale przii, deoarece precizia estimrii mortalit ii depinde de efectivul
przii;
c) experimentele se realizeaz pentru perioade fixe de timp;
Estimarea parametrilor rspunsului funcional
Pentru a stabili parametrii modelului rspunsului func ional se vor efectua experimente specifice, innd cont de aspectele :
a) prdtorii vor fi inui individual n incinte largi, deoarece capacitatea de cutare a prdtorului trebuie limitat;
b) se introduc n aceste incinte diferite densit i ale przii;
c) trebuie realizate mai multe experimente cu densitati reduse ale prazii dect cu densitati crescute ale acesteia, deoarece
eroarea estimarii mortalitatii depinde de numarul total al przii;
d) experimentele se vor realiza pentru perioade fixe de timp;
e) la sfritul experimentelor, prada va fi numrat n fiecare incint.
Prezentam n continuare un exemplu de prelucrare a datelor obtinute n urma unui experiment de acest tip.

Prezentarea tabelar a datelor experimentului.


NR.
EXEMPLARE

NR.
NR. TOTAL DE NR.EXEMPLARE
REPETRI
PRZI
PRAD

1/HA

1/(HT)

PRAD/

CAPTURATE DE
EXPERIMENT

UCISE DE
PRDTOR

20

50

2.5

0.400

0.1000

10

10

40

4.0

0.250

0.0500

20

55

7.9

0.127

0.0250

40

45

0.111

0.0125

80

38

12.6

0.079

0.0062

160

35

11.6

0.086

0.0031

INCINT
(H)

UN PRDTOR
(HA )

Suprafata incintelor este de 10 m 2, iar durata experimentului (T) este de 2 zile. Plecnd de la aceste valori ecuatia lui Holling
poate fi adusa la o forma liniara:

daca,

ecuatia liniara va fi de forma:

iar regresia liniara va avea urmatorii coeficienti:


y = 3,43x + 0.0612
Th = 0,0612 T = 0,1224 zile
a = 1: 3,43 = 0,29 incinte = 2,9 m2
Forma graficului este prezentata n figura 54.

Reprezentarea ecuatiei lui Holling sub forma liniara pentru un caz particular.
Rspunsul cantitativ
Raspunsul numeric presupune cresterea efectivului populatiei pradatoare ca rezultat al maririi densitatii prazii. Semnificatia
raspunsului numeric poate fi oarecum neclara, deoarece raspunsul numeric poate avea doua cauze:

cresterea ratei reproducerii atunci cnd prada este abundenta;

atractia pe care o exercita asupra pradatorilor agregarea prazii.

Rata reproducerii populatiei pradatoare depinde de rata pradatorismului, n sensul ca o densitate crescuta a prazii, presupune o
energie disponibila mai mare care poate fi alocata de populatia pradatoare procesului de reproducere.
Raspunsul agregational reprezinta fenomenul de aglomerare (agregare) a pradatorilor ca efect al cresterii densitatii prazii.
Acest fenomen este foarte important pentru numeroase sisteme prada-pradator, avnd de obicei calitatea de a creste stabilitatea
sistemelor prada-pradator distribuite spatial.
Modelul prada-pradator
Pentru realizarea unui model prada-pradator care sa includa att raspunsul functional ct si raspunsul numeric, se
porneste de la populatia prada. Rata pradatorismului va fi simulata utiliznd ecuatia lui Holling care reprezinta
matematic raspunsul functional:

Ecuatia care descrie dinamica populatiei prada este:

Presupunnd ca n lipsa pradatorilor densitatea populatiei prada creste dupa modelul logistic, dinamica populatiei
pradatoare va fi descrisa de o ecuatie de forma:

.
Aceasta ecuatie descrie de fapt raspunsul numeric al populatiei pradatoare la modificarea densitatii prazii.
Rezultatele unor simulari utiliznd acest model sunt prezentate sub forma celor trei grafice din figura 55. Se poate
observa ca acest tip de model, care include raspunsurile functionale si numerice, poate evidentia mai multe si mai diverse
regimuri ale dinamicii dect modelul clasic de tip Lotka-Volterra.
rH=0,2
K=500
a=0,001
Th=0,5
rP=0,1
k = 0,2

Nu exista oscilaii

rH = 0.2
K = 500Oscilatii din ce n ce mai mici care
a = 0.1converg spre un
Th = 0.5
rP = 0.1echilibru stabil
k = 0.2
rH = 0.2
K = 500
a = 0.3
Ciclu limit
Th = 0.5
rP = 0.1
k = 0.2

Modele functionale complexe ale relatiei prada-pradator.

Acest model poate fi utilizat pentru a simula combaterea biologica a daunatorilor att n ecosistemele naturale ct si n
cadrul culturilor agricole.
Modelul gazda-agent patogen
Modelul gazda-agent patogen este similar modelului prada-pradator sau modelului gazda-parazit. Prezentam n
continuare modelul realizat de Anderson (1980) si May (1981).Populatia gazda este interpretata ca avnd doua componente:
o parte a populatiei susceptibila de a fi infectata, dar care este formata din indivizi sanatosi si restul populatiei care este
reprezentata de indivizii infectati de agentul patogen. Modelul descrie schimbarile probabile n densitatea organismelor
receptive (susceptibile) de a contracta mbolnavirea (S), n densitatea organismelor infectate (I) si a agentilor patogeni
(P).

n care:r rata reproducerii organismelor infectate si a celor susceptibile de a fi infectate dar care nu transmit infectia
descendentilor; coeficientul de transmitere a infectiei; b rata naturala a mortalitatii organismelor infectate; rata
mortalitatii datorate infectiei cu agentul patogen; rata naturala a scaderii infectiozitatii; rata cu care organismele
infectate emit patogeni. Acest tip de model este capabil sa simuleze, de asemenea, cicluri epidemice, ceea ce l face util pentru
studii legate de strategiile evolutive ale agentilor patogeni.
. Modele functionale complexe ale relatiei prada-pradator.
Acest model poate fi utilizat pentru a simula combaterea biologica a daunatorilor att n ecosistemele naturale ct si n cadrul
culturilor agricole.
Modelul gazda-agent patogen
Modelul gazda-agent patogen este similar modelului prada-pradator sau modelului gazda-parazit. Prezentam n continuare
modelul realizat de Anderson (1980) si May (1981). Populatia gazda este interpretata ca avnd doua componente: o parte a
populatiei susceptibila de a fi infectata, dar care este formata din indivizi sanatosi si restul populatiei care este reprezentata de
indivizii infectati de agentul patogen. Modelul descrie schimbarile probabile n densitatea organismelor receptive (susceptibile)
de a contracta mbolnavirea (S), n densitatea organismelor infectate (I) si a agentilor patogeni (P).

n care:
r rata reproducerii organismelor infectate si a celor susceptibile de a fi infectate dar care nu transmit infectia descendentilor;
coeficientul de transmitere a infectiei;
b rata naturala a mortalitatii organismelor infectate;
rata mortalitatii datorate infectiei cu agentul patogen;
rata naturala a scaderii infectiozitatii;
rata cu care organismele infectate emit patogeni.
Acest tip de model este capabil sa simuleze, de asemenea, cicluri epidemice, ceea ce l face util pentru studii legate de strategiile
evolutive ale agentilor patogeni.

Capitolul 4.
Biodiversitatea n agroecosisteme arabile
(cultura mare, culturi furajere, floricole si medicinale)

Capitolul 5.
Biodiversitatea n agroecosistemele perene (furajere, pomicole, viticole
i legumicole)

ANEXE
Anexa1

redlist@iucn.org

Figure 3. The proportion of extant (i.e., excluding Extinct) species in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2014.3 assessed in each category for the more comprehensively assessed groups. Taxa are ordered according to the vertical
red lines, which show the best estimate for proportion of extant species considered threatened (CR, EN, or VU). Best
estimates of percentage threatened species (with lower and upper estimates) for each group are: cycads 63% (63-64%);
amphibians 41% (31-56%); chameleons 38% (36-42%); conifers 34% (34-35%); reef-forming corals 33% (27-44%);
cacti 31% (28-37%); sharks & rays 31% (17-63%); freshwater crabs 31% (16-65%); freshwater shrimps 28% (17-55%);
mammals 26% (21-36%); groupers 18% (12-43%); birds 13% (13-14%); cone snails 8% (6-20%); blennies 7% (6-15%);
pufferfishes, etc. 7% (6-20%); wrasses 4% (4-18%); lobsters <1% (0-35%). The numbers to the right of each bar
represent the total number of extant species assessed for each group. CR - Critically Endangered, EN - Endangered, VU Vulnerable, NT - Near Threatened, DD - Data Deficient, LC - Least Concern.

Anexa
2
Version
1.0:
Mace
and
Lande
(1991)
The first paper discussing a new basis for the categories, and presenting numerical criteria especially relevant
for large vertebrates.
Version 2.0: Mace et al. (1992)
A major revision of Version 1.0, including numerical criteria appropriate to all organisms and introducing the
non-threatened categories.
Version 2.1: IUCN (1993)
Following an extensive consultation process within SSC, a number of changes were made to the details of the
criteria, and fuller explanation of basic principles was included. A more explicit structure clarified the
significance of the non-threatened categories.
Version
2.2:
Mace
and
Stuart
(1994)
Following further comments received and additional validation exercises, some minor changes to the criteria

were made. In addition, the Susceptible category present in Versions 2.0 and 2.1 was subsumed into the
Vulnerable
category.
A
precautionary
application
of
the
system
was
emphasised.
Version
2.3:
IUCN
(1994)
IUCN Council adopted this version, which incorporated changes as a result of comments from IUCN members,
in December 1994. The initial version of this document was published without the necessary bibliographic
details,such as date of publication and ISBN number, but these were included in the subsequent reprints in 1998
and 1999. This version was used for the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (Baillie and Groombridge
1996), The World List of Threatened Trees (Oldfield et al 1998) and the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species (Hilton-Taylor 2000).
Version 3.0: IUCN/SSC Criteria Review
Working
Group
(1999)
Following comments received, a series of workshops were convened to look at the IUCN Red List Criteria
following which, changes were proposed affecting the criteria, the definitions of some key terms and the
handling of uncertainty.
Version 3.1: IUCN (2001)
The IUCN Council adopted this latest version, which incorporated changes as a result of comments from the
IUCN and SSC memberships and from a final meeting of the Criteria Review Working Group, in February
2000.
All new assessments from January 2001 should use the latest adopted version and cite the year of publication
and version number.
3. In the rest of this document, the proposed system is outlined in several sections.
4. Section II, the Preamble, presents basic information about the context and structure of the system, and the
procedures that are to be followed in applying the criteria to species.
5. Section III provides definitions of key terms used.
6. Section IV presents the categories, while
7. Section V details the quantitative criteria used for classification within the threatened categories.
Annex I provides guidance on how to deal with uncertainty when applying the criteria;
8. Annex II suggests a standard format for citing the Red List Categories and Criteria;
9.

Annex III outlines the documentation requirements for taxa to be included on IUCN's global Red Lists.
It is important for the effective functioning of the system that all sections are read and understood to ensure that
the definitions and rules are followed.

10. (Note: Annexes I, II and III will be updated on a regular basis.)


II. PREAMBLE
The information in this section is intended to direct and facilitate the use and interpretation of
the categories (Critically Endangered, Endangered, etc.), criteria (A to E), and subcriteria
(1, 2, etc.; a, b, etc.; i, ii, etc.).
1. Taxonomic level and scope of the categorization process
The criteria can be applied to any taxonomic unit at or below the species level. In the following information, definitions
and criteria the term 'taxon' is used for convenience, and may represent species or lower taxonomic levels, including
forms that are not yet formally described. There is sufficient range among the different criteria to enable the appropriate
listing of taxa from the complete taxonomic spectrum, with the exception of micro-organisms. The criteria may also be
applied within any specified geographical or political area, although in such cases special notice should be taken of
point 14. In presenting the results of applying the criteria, the taxonomic unit and area under consideration should be
specified in accordance with the documentation guidelines (see Annex 3). The categorization process should only be
applied to wild populations inside their natural range, and to populations resulting from benign introductions. The latter

are defined in the IUCN Guidelines for Re-introductions (IUCN 1998) as... an attempt to establish a species, for the
purpose of conservation, outside its recorded distribution, but within an appropriate habitat and eco-geographical area.
This is a feasible conservation tool only when there is no remaining area left within a species' historic range'.
2. Nature of the categories
Extinction is a chance process. Thus, a listing in a higher extinction risk category implies a higher expectation of
extinction, and over the time-frames specified more taxa listed in a higher category are expected to go extinct than those
in a lower one (without effective conservation action). However, the persistence of some taxa in high-risk categories
does not necessarily mean their initial assessment was inaccurate. All taxa listed as Critically Endangered qualify for
Vulnerable and Endangered, and all listed as Endangered qualify for Vulnerable. Together these categories are described
as 'threatened'. The threatened categories form a part of the overall scheme. It will be possible to place all taxa into one
of the categories (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Structure of the categories.


3. ROLE OF THE DIFFERENT CRITERIA
F OR LISTING AS C RITICALLY ENDANGERED , ENDANGERED OR VULNERABLE THERE IS A RANGE OF
QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA; MEETING ANY ONE OF THESE CRITERIA QUALIFIES A TAXON FOR LISTING AT
THAT LEVEL OF THREAT. E ACH TAXON SHOULD BE EVALUATED AGAINST ALL THE CRITERIA. E VEN
THOUGH SOME CRITERIA WILL BE INAPPROPRIATE FOR CERTAIN TAXA (SOME TAXA WILL NEVER QUALIFY
UNDER THESE HOWEVER CLOSE TO EXTINCTION THEY COME ), THERE SHOULD BE CRITERIA APPROPRIATE
FOR ASSESSING THREAT LEVELS FOR ANY TAXON . T HE RELEVANT FACTOR IS WHETHER ANY ONE
CRITERION IS MET , NOT WHETHER ALL ARE APPROPRIATE OR ALL ARE MET . BECAUSE IT WILL NEVER BE
CLEAR IN ADVANCE WHICH CRITERIA ARE APPROPRIATE FOR A PARTICULAR TAXON , EACH TAXON SHOULD
BE EVALUATED AGAINST ALL THE CRITERIA, AND ALL CRITERIA MET AT THE HIGHEST THREAT CATEGORY
MUST BE LISTED .
4. DERIVATION OF QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA
T HE DIFFERENT CRITERIA (A-E) ARE DERIVED FROM A WIDE REVIEW AIMED AT DETECTING RISK FACTORS
ACROSS THE BROAD RANGE OF ORGANISMS AND THE DIVERSE LIFE HISTORIES THEY EXHIBIT . T HE
QUANTITATIVE VALUES PRESENTED IN THE VARIOUS CRITERIA ASSOCIATED WITH THREATENED
CATEGORIES WERE DEVELOPED THROUGH WIDE CONSULTATION , AND THEY ARE SET AT WHAT ARE
GENERALLY JUDGED TO BE APPROPRIATE LEVELS , EVEN IF NO FORMAL JUSTIFICATION FOR THESE VALUES
EXISTS .

THE LEVELS FOR DIFFERENT CRITERIA WITHIN CATEGORIES WERE SET INDEPENDENTLY BUT
AGAINST A COMMON STANDARD . BROAD CONSISTENCY BETWEEN THEM WAS SOUGHT .
5. CONSERVATION ACTIONS IN THE LISTING PROCESS

T HE CRITERIA FOR THE THREATENED CATEGORIES ARE TO BE APPLIED TO A TAXON WHATEVER THE
LEVEL OF CONSERVATION ACTION AFFECTING IT. IT IS IMPORTANT TO EMPHASISE HERE THAT A TAXON
MAY REQUIRE CONSERVATION ACTION EVEN IF IT IS NOT LISTED AS THREATENED . C ONSERVATION
ACTIONS WHICH MAY BENEFIT THE TAXON ARE INCLUDED AS PART OF THE DOCUMENTATION
REQUIREMENTS (SEE

ANNEX 3).

6. DATA QUALITY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF INFERENCE AND PROJECTION


T HE CRITERIA ARE CLEARLY QUANTITATIVE IN NATURE . HOWEVER , THE ABSENCE OF HIGH-QUALITY
DATA SHOULD NOT DETER ATTEMPTS AT APPLYING THE CRITERIA, AS METHODS INVOLVING ESTIMATION ,
INFERENCE AND PROJECTION ARE EMPHASISED AS BEING ACCEPTABLE THROUGHOUT . INFERENCE AND
PROJECTION MAY BE BASED ON EXTRAPOLATION OF CURRENT OR POTENTIAL THREATS INTO THE FUTURE

(INCLUDING THEIR RATE OF CHANGE ), OR OF FACTORS RELATED TO POPULATION ABUNDANCE OR


DISTRIBUTION (INCLUDING DEPENDENCE ON OTHER TAXA), SO LONG AS THESE CAN REASONABLY BE
SUPPORTED . S USPECTED OR INFERRED PATTERNS IN THE RECENT PAST, PRESENT OR NEAR FUTURE CAN
BE BASED ON ANY OF A SERIES OF RELATED FACTORS, AND THESE FACTORS SHOULD BE SPECIFIED AS
PART OF THE DOCUMENTATION .
T AXA AT RISK FROM THREATS POSED BY FUTURE EVENTS OF LOW PROBABILITY BUT WITH SEVERE
CONSEQUENCES (CATASTROPHES ) SHOULD BE IDENTIFIED BY THE CRITERIA (E . G. SMALL DISTRIBUTIONS ,
FEW LOCATIONS ). S OME THREATS NEED TO BE IDENTIFIED PARTICULARLY EARLY, AND APPROPRIATE
ACTIONS TAKEN , BECAUSE THEIR EFFECTS ARE IRREVERSIBLE OR NEARLY SO (E . G., PATHOGENS , INVASIVE
ORGANISMS, HYBRIDIZATION ).
7. PROBLEMS OF SCALE
C LASSIFICATION BASED ON THE SIZES OF GEOGRAPHIC RANGES OR THE PATTERNS OF HABITAT
OCCUPANCY IS COMPLICATED BY PROBLEMS OF SPATIAL SCALE . T HE FINER THE SCALE AT WHICH THE
DISTRIBUTIONS OR HABITATS OF TAXA ARE MAPPED , THE SMALLER THE AREA WILL BE THAT THEY ARE
FOUND TO OCCUPY , AND THE LESS LIKELY IT WILL BE THAT RANGE ESTIMATES (AT LEAST FOR 'AREA OF
OCCUPANCY ': SEE DEFINITIONS , POINT 10) EXCEED THE THRESHOLDS SPECIFIED IN THE CRITERIA.
MAPPING AT FINER SCALES REVEALS MORE AREAS IN WHICH THE TAXON IS UNRECORDED . C ONVERSELY,
COARSE -SCALE MAPPING REVEALS FEWER UNOCCUPIED AREAS, RESULTING IN RANGE ESTIMATES THAT
ARE MORE LIKELY TO EXCEED THE THRESHOLDS FOR THE THREATENED CATEGORIES . T HE CHOICE OF
SCALE AT WHICH RANGE IS ESTIMATED MAY THUS , ITSELF, INFLUENCE THE OUTCOME OF R ED LIST
ASSESSMENTS AND COULD BE A SOURCE OF INCONSISTENCY AND BIAS. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PROVIDE
ANY STRICT BUT GENERAL RULES FOR MAPPING TAXA OR HABITATS; THE MOST APPROPRIATE SCALE WILL
DEPEND ON THE TAXON IN QUESTION , AND THE ORIGIN AND COMPREHENSIVENESS OF THE DISTRIBUTION
DATA.
8. UNCERTAINTY
T HE DATA USED TO EVALUATE TAXA AGAINST THE CRITERIA ARE OFTEN ESTIMATED WITH CONSIDERABLE
UNCERTAINTY . S UCH UNCERTAINTY CAN ARISE FROM ANY ONE OR ALL OF THE FOLLOWING THREE
FACTORS: NATURAL VARIATION , VAGUENESS IN THE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS USED , AND MEASUREMENT
ERROR . T HE WAY IN WHICH THIS UNCERTAINTY IS HANDLED CAN HAVE A STRONG INFLUENCE ON THE
RESULTS OF AN EVALUATION . D ETAILS OF METHODS RECOMMENDED FOR HANDLING UNCERTAINTY ARE
INCLUDED IN ANNEX 1, AND ASSESSORS ARE ENCOURAGED TO READ AND FOLLOW THESE PRINCIPLES .
IN GENERAL, WHEN UNCERTAINTY LEADS TO WIDE VARIATION IN THE RESULTS OF ASSESSMENTS , THE
RANGE OF POSSIBLE OUTCOMES SHOULD BE SPECIFIED . A SINGLE CATEGORY MUST BE CHOSEN AND THE
BASIS FOR THE DECISION SHOULD BE DOCUMENTED ; IT SHOULD BE BOTH PRECAUTIONARY AND
CREDIBLE .
W HEN DATA ARE VERY UNCERTAIN , THE
CATEGORY OF 'DATA DEFICIENT ' MAY BE ASSIGNED . H OWEVER , IN THIS CASE THE ASSESSOR MUST
PROVIDE DOCUMENTATION SHOWING THAT THIS CATEGORY HAS BEEN ASSIGNED BECAUSE DATA ARE
INADEQUATE TO DETERMINE A THREAT CATEGORY . IT IS IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE THAT TAXA THAT ARE
POORLY KNOWN CAN OFTEN BE ASSIGNED A THREAT CATEGORY ON THE BASIS OF BACKGROUND
INFORMATION CONCERNING THE DETERIORATION OF THEIR HABITAT AND/ OR OTHER CAUSAL FACTORS;

'DATA DEFICIENT ' IS DISCOURAGED .


9. IMPLICATIONS OF LISTING
LISTING IN THE CATEGORIES OF NOT EVALUATED AND DATA DEFICIENT INDICATES THAT NO ASSESSMENT
OF EXTINCTION RISK HAS BEEN MADE , THOUGH FOR DIFFERENT REASONS. UNTIL SUCH TIME AS AN
THEREFORE THE LIBERAL USE OF

ASSESSMENT IS MADE , TAXA LISTED IN THESE CATEGORIES SHOULD NOT BE TREATED AS IF THEY WERE
NON -THREATENED . IT MAY BE APPROPRIATE (ESPECIALLY FOR

DATA DEFICIENT FORMS ) TO GIVE THEM

THE SAME DEGREE OF ATTENTION AS THREATENED TAXA, AT LEAST UNTIL THEIR STATUS CAN BE
ASSESSED .

10.
DOCUMENTATION
ALL ASSESSMENTS SHOULD BE DOCUMENTED . THREATENED CLASSIFICATIONS SHOULD STATE THE
CRITERIA AND SUBCRITERIA THAT WERE MET . N O ASSESSMENT CAN BE ACCEPTED FOR THE IUCN R ED
LIST AS VALID UNLESS AT LEAST ONE CRITERION IS GIVEN . IF MORE THAN ONE CRITERION OR
SUBCRITERION IS MET , THEN EACH SHOULD BE LISTED . IF A RE -EVALUATION INDICATES THAT THE
DOCUMENTED CRITERION IS NO LONGER MET , THIS SHOULD NOT RESULT IN AUTOMATIC REASSIGNMENT
TO A LOWER CATEGORY OF THREAT (DOWNLISTING ). INSTEAD , THE TAXON SHOULD BE RE -EVALUATED
AGAINST ALL THE CRITERIA TO CLARIFY ITS STATUS. T HE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR QUALIFYING THE
TAXON AGAINST THE CRITERIA, ESPECIALLY WHERE INFERENCE AND PROJECTION ARE USED , SHOULD BE
DOCUMENTED (SEE ANNEXES 2 AND 3). T HE DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS FOR OTHER CATEGORIES
ARE ALSO SPECIFIED IN ANNEX 3.
11. THREATS AND PRIORITIES
T HE CATEGORY OF THREAT IS NOT NECESSARILY SUFFICIENT TO DETERMINE PRIORITIES FOR
CONSERVATION ACTION . T HE CATEGORY OF THREAT SIMPLY PROVIDES AN ASSESSMENT OF THE
EXTINCTION RISK UNDER CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES , WHEREAS A SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING PRIORITIES
FOR ACTION WILL INCLUDE NUMEROUS OTHER FACTORS CONCERNING CONSERVATION ACTION SUCH AS
COSTS , LOGISTICS , CHANCES OF SUCCESS , AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBJECT .

12. R E -EVALUATION
R E -EVALUATION OF TAXA AGAINST THE CRITERIA SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT AT APPROPRIATE INTERVALS.
T HIS IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT FOR TAXA LISTED UNDER NEAR THREATENED , DATA DEFICIENT AND FOR
THREATENED TAXA WHOSE STATUS IS KNOWN OR SUSPECTED TO BE DETERIORATING .
13. TRANSFER BETWEEN CATEGORIES
T HE FOLLOWING RULES GOVERN THE MOVEMENT OF TAXA BETWEEN CATEGORIES:
13.1 A TAXON MAY BE MOVED FROM A CATEGORY OF HIGHER THREAT TO A CATEGORY OF LOWER
THREAT IF NONE OF THE CRITERIA OF THE HIGHER CATEGORY HAS BEEN MET FOR FIVE YEARS OR MORE .
13.2 IF THE ORIGINAL CLASSIFICATION IS FOUND TO HAVE BEEN ERRONEOUS , THE TAXON MAY BE
TRANSFERRED TO THE APPROPRIATE CATEGORY OR REMOVED FROM THE THREATENED CATEGORIES
ALTOGETHER , WITHOUT DELAY (BUT SEE

P OINT 10 ABOVE ).
13.3 TRANSFER FROM CATEGORIES OF LOWER TO HIGHER RISK SHOULD BE MADE WITHOUT DELAY .
14. USE AT REGIONAL LEVEL
T HE IUCN R ED LIST CATEGORIES AND CRITERIA WERE DESIGNED FOR GLOBAL TAXON ASSESSMENTS .
HOWEVER , MANY PEOPLE ARE INTERESTED IN APPLYING THEM TO SUBSETS OF GLOBAL DATA,
ESPECIALLY AT REGIONAL, NATIONAL OR LOCAL LEVELS . T O DO THIS IT IS IMPORTANT TO REFER TO
GUIDELINES PREPARED BY THE IUCN/SSC R EGIONAL APPLICATIONS WORKING GROUP (E . G.,
GRDENFORS ET AL. 2001). WHEN APPLIED AT NATIONAL OR REGIONAL LEVELS IT MUST BE RECOGNIZED
THAT A GLOBAL CATEGORY MAY NOT BE THE SAME AS A NATIONAL OR REGIONAL CATEGORY FOR A
PARTICULAR TAXON .

F OR EXAMPLE , TAXA CLASSIFIED AS LEAST C ONCERN GLOBALLY MIGHT BE

C RITICALLY ENDANGERED WITHIN A PARTICULAR REGION WHERE NUMBERS ARE VERY SMALL OR
DECLINING , PERHAPS ONLY BECAUSE THEY ARE AT THE MARGINS OF THEIR GLOBAL RANGE .
C ONVERSELY, TAXA CLASSIFIED AS VULNERABLE ON THE BASIS OF THEIR GLOBAL DECLINES IN NUMBERS
OR RANGE MIGHT BE LEAST C ONCERN WITHIN A PARTICULAR REGION WHERE THEIR POPULATIONS ARE
STABLE . IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT TAXA ENDEMIC TO REGIONS OR NATIONS WILL BE
ASSESSED GLOBALLY IN ANY REGIONAL OR NATIONAL APPLICATIONS OF THE CRITERIA, AND IN THESE
CASES GREAT CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO CHECK THAT AN ASSESSMENT HAS NOT ALREADY BEEN

R ED LIST AUTHORITY (RLA), AND THAT THE CATEGORIZATION IS AGREED WITH THE
RLA (E . G., AN SSC S PECIALIST GROUP KNOWN TO COVER THE TAXON ).
III. DEFINITIONS
1. POPULATION AND P OPULATION S IZE (CRITERIA A, C AND D)
T HE TERM 'POPULATION ' IS USED IN A SPECIFIC SENSE IN THE R ED LIST C RITERIA THAT IS DIFFERENT TO
ITS COMMON BIOLOGICAL USAGE. P OPULATION IS HERE DEFINED AS THE TOTAL NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS
UNDERTAKEN BY A
RELEVANT

OF THE TAXON .

F OR FUNCTIONAL REASONS , PRIMARILY OWING TO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LIFE FORMS ,

POPULATION SIZE IS MEASURED AS NUMBERS OF MATURE INDIVIDUALS ONLY. IN THE CASE OF TAXA
OBLIGATELY DEPENDENT ON OTHER TAXA FOR ALL OR PART OF THEIR LIFE CYCLES , BIOLOGICALLY
APPROPRIATE VALUES FOR THE HOST TAXON SHOULD BE USED .

2. SUBPOPULATIONS (CRITERIA B AND C)


S UBPOPULATIONS ARE DEFINED AS GEOGRAPHICALLY OR OTHERWISE DISTINCT GROUPS IN THE
POPULATION BETWEEN WHICH THERE IS LITTLE DEMOGRAPHIC OR GENETIC EXCHANGE (TYPICALLY ONE
SUCCESSFUL MIGRANT INDIVIDUAL OR GAMETE PER YEAR OR LESS ).
3. MATURE INDIVIDUALS (CRITERIA A, B, C AND D)
T HE NUMBER OF MATURE INDIVIDUALS IS THE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS KNOWN , ESTIMATED OR
INFERRED TO BE CAPABLE OF REPRODUCTION . WHEN ESTIMATING THIS QUANTITY , THE FOLLOWING
POINTS SHOULD BE BORNE IN MIND :
3.1 M ATURE INDIVIDUALS THAT WILL NEVER PRODUCE NEW RECRUITS SHOULD NOT BE COUNTED (E . G.
DENSITIES ARE TOO LOW FOR FERTILIZATION ).
3.2 IN THE CASE OF POPULATIONS WITH BIASED ADULT OR BREEDING SEX RATIOS, IT IS APPROPRIATE TO
USE LOWER ESTIMATES FOR THE NUMBER OF MATURE INDIVIDUALS , WHICH TAKE THIS INTO ACCOUNT .
3.3 WHERE THE POPULATION SIZE FLUCTUATES , USE A LOWER ESTIMATE . IN MOST CASES THIS WILL BE
MUCH LESS THAN THE MEAN .
3.4 R EPRODUCING UNITS WITHIN A CLONE SHOULD BE COUNTED AS INDIVIDUALS, EXCEPT WHERE SUCH
UNITS ARE UNABLE TO SURVIVE ALONE (E . G. CORALS).
3.5 IN THE CASE OF TAXA THAT NATURALLY LOSE ALL OR A SUBSET OF MATURE INDIVIDUALS AT SOME
POINT IN THEIR LIFE CYCLE , THE ESTIMATE SHOULD BE MADE AT THE APPROPRIATE TIME , WHEN MATURE
INDIVIDUALS ARE AVAILABLE FOR BREEDING .
3.6 R E -INTRODUCED INDIVIDUALS MUST HAVE PRODUCED VIABLE OFFSPRING BEFORE THEY ARE
COUNTED AS MATURE INDIVIDUALS .
4. GENERATION (CRITERIA A, C AND E)
GENERATION LENGTH IS THE AVERAGE AGE OF PARENTS OF THE CURRENT COHORT (I. E . NEWBORN
INDIVIDUALS IN THE POPULATION ). G ENERATION LENGTH THEREFORE REFLECTS THE TURNOVER RATE OF
BREEDING INDIVIDUALS IN A POPULATION . G ENERATION LENGTH IS GREATER THAN THE AGE AT FIRST
BREEDING AND LESS THAN THE AGE OF THE OLDEST BREEDING INDIVIDUAL, EXCEPT IN TAXA THAT
BREED ONLY ONCE . WHERE GENERATION LENGTH VARIES UNDER THREAT, THE MORE NATURAL, I. E . PRE DISTURBANCE , GENERATION LENGTH SHOULD BE USED .
5. REDUCTION (CRITERION A)
A REDUCTION IS A DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF MATURE INDIVIDUALS OF AT LEAST THE AMOUNT (%)
STATED UNDER THE CRITERION OVER THE TIME PERIOD (YEARS) SPECIFIED , ALTHOUGH THE DECLINE
NEED NOT BE CONTINUING . A REDUCTION SHOULD NOT BE INTERPRETED AS PART OF A FLUCTUATION
UNLESS THERE IS GOOD EVIDENCE FOR THIS. T HE DOWNWARD PHASE OF A FLUCTUATION WILL NOT
NORMALLY COUNT AS A REDUCTION .
6. C ONTINUING DECLINE
(CRITERIA B AND C)
A CONTINUING DECLINE IS A RECENT , CURRENT OR PROJECTED FUTURE DECLINE (WHICH MAY BE
SMOOTH , IRREGULAR OR SPORADIC ) WHICH IS LIABLE TO CONTINUE UNLESS REMEDIAL MEASURES ARE
TAKEN . F LUCTUATIONS WILL NOT NORMALLY COUNT AS CONTINUING DECLINES , BUT AN OBSERVED
DECLINE SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED AS A FLUCTUATION UNLESS THERE IS EVIDENCE FOR THIS.
7. EXTREME FLUCTUATIONS (CRITERIA B AND C)
EXTREME FLUCTUATIONS CAN BE SAID TO OCCUR IN A NUMBER OF TAXA WHEN POPULATION SIZE OR
DISTRIBUTION AREA VARIES WIDELY, RAPIDLY AND FREQUENTLY, TYPICALLY WITH A VARIATION GREATER
THAN ONE ORDER OF MAGNITUDE (I. E . A TENFOLD INCREASE OR DECREASE ).
8. SEVERELY FRAGMENTED (CRITERION B)
T HE PHRASE 'SEVERELY FRAGMENTED ' REFERS TO THE SITUATION IN WHICH INCREASED EXTINCTION
RISK TO THE TAXON RESULTS FROM THE FACT THAT MOST OF ITS INDIVIDUALS ARE FOUND IN SMALL AND
RELATIVELY ISOLATED SUBPOPULATIONS (IN CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES THIS MAY BE INFERRED FROM
HABITAT INFORMATION ).

THESE SMALL SUBPOPULATIONS MAY GO EXTINCT , WITH A REDUCED


PROBABILITY OF RECOLONIZATION .
9. EXTENT OF OCCURRENCE (CRITERIA A AND B)

EXTENT OF OCCURRENCE IS DEFINED AS THE AREA CONTAINED WITHIN THE SHORTEST CONTINUOUS
IMAGINARY BOUNDARY WHICH CAN BE DRAWN TO ENCOMPASS ALL THE KNOWN , INFERRED OR
PROJECTED SITES OF PRESENT OCCURRENCE OF A TAXON , EXCLUDING CASES OF VAGRANCY (SEE F IGURE
2). THIS MEASURE MAY EXCLUDE DISCONTINUITIES OR DISJUNCTIONS WITHIN THE OVERALL
DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAXA (E . G. LARGE AREAS OF OBVIOUSLY UNSUITABLE HABITAT) (BUT SEE 'AREA OF
OCCUPANCY ', POINT 10 BELOW ). E XTENT OF OCCURRENCE CAN OFTEN BE MEASURED BY A MINIMUM
CONVEX POLYGON (THE SMALLEST POLYGON IN WHICH NO INTERNAL ANGLE EXCEEDS 180 DEGREES AND
WHICH CONTAINS ALL THE SITES OF OCCURRENCE ).
10. AREA OF OCCUPANCY (CRITERIA A, B AND D)
AREA OF OCCUPANCY IS DEFINED AS THE AREA WITHIN ITS 'EXTENT OF OCCURRENCE ' (SEE POINT 9
ABOVE ) WHICH IS OCCUPIED BY A TAXON , EXCLUDING CASES OF VAGRANCY . T HE MEASURE REFLECTS
THE FACT THAT A TAXON WILL NOT USUALLY OCCUR THROUGHOUT THE AREA OF ITS EXTENT OF
OCCURRENCE , WHICH MAY CONTAIN UNSUITABLE OR UNOCCUPIED HABITATS. IN SOME CASES (E . G.
IRREPLACEABLE COLONIAL NESTING SITES , CRUCIAL FEEDING SITES FOR MIGRATORY TAXA) THE AREA OF
OCCUPANCY IS THE SMALLEST AREA ESSENTIAL AT ANY STAGE TO THE SURVIVAL OF EXISTING
POPULATIONS OF A TAXON .

THE SIZE OF THE AREA OF OCCUPANCY WILL BE A FUNCTION OF THE SCALE

AT WHICH IT IS MEASURED , AND SHOULD BE AT A SCALE APPROPRIATE TO RELEVANT BIOLOGICAL


ASPECTS OF THE TAXON , THE NATURE OF THREATS AND THE AVAILABLE DATA (SEE POINT

7 IN THE
P REAMBLE ). TO AVOID INCONSISTENCIES AND BIAS IN ASSESSMENTS CAUSED BY ESTIMATING AREA OF
OCCUPANCY AT DIFFERENT SCALES, IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO STANDARDIZE ESTIMATES BY APPLYING A
SCALE -CORRECTION FACTOR . IT IS DIFFICULT TO GIVE STRICT GUIDANCE ON HOW STANDARDIZATION
SHOULD BE DONE BECAUSE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TAXA HAVE DIFFERENT SCALE -AREA RELATIONSHIPS .

Figure 2. Two examples of the distinction between extent of occurrence and area of occupancy.
(A) is the spatial distribution of known, inferred or projected sites of present occurrence.
(B) shows one possible boundary to the extent of occurrence, which is the measured area within this boundary.
(C) shows one measure of area of occupancy which can be achieved by the sum of the occupied grid squares.
11. Location (Criteria B and D)
The term 'location' defines a geographically or ecologically distinct area in which a single threatening event can rapidly
affect all individuals of the taxon present. The size of the location depends on the area covered by the threatening event
and may include part of one or many subpopulations. Where a taxon is affected by more than one threatening event,
location
should
be
defined
by
considering
the
most
serious
plausible
threat.
12. Quantitative analysis (Criterion E)
A quantitative analysis is defined here as any form of analysis which estimates the extinction probability of a taxon
based on known life history, habitat requirements, threats and any specified management options. Population viability
analysis (PVA) is one such technique. Quantitative analyses should make full use of all relevant available data. In a
situation in which there is limited information, such data as are available can be used to provide an estimate of
extinction risk (for instance, estimating the impact of stochastic events on habitat). In presenting the results of
quantitative analyses, the assumptions (which must be appropriate and defensible), the data used and the uncertainty in
the data or quantitative model must be documented.

IV. THE CATEGORIES


A REPRESENTATION OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CATEGORIES IS SHOWN IN F IGURE 1.
EXTINCT (EX)
A TAXON IS EXTINCT WHEN THERE IS NO REASONABLE DOUBT THAT THE LAST INDIVIDUAL HAS DIED . A
TAXON IS PRESUMED E XTINCT WHEN EXHAUSTIVE SURVEYS IN KNOWN AND/ OR EXPECTED HABITAT, AT
APPROPRIATE TIMES (DIURNAL, SEASONAL, ANNUAL), THROUGHOUT ITS HISTORIC RANGE HAVE FAILED TO
RECORD AN INDIVIDUAL. S URVEYS SHOULD BE OVER A TIME FRAME APPROPRIATE TO THE TAXON 'S LIFE
CYCLE AND LIFE FORM .
EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW)
A TAXON IS EXTINCT IN THE WILD WHEN IT IS KNOWN ONLY TO SURVIVE IN CULTIVATION , IN CAPTIVITY
OR AS A NATURALIZED POPULATION (OR POPULATIONS ) WELL OUTSIDE THE PAST RANGE . A TAXON IS
PRESUMED E XTINCT IN THE WILD WHEN EXHAUSTIVE SURVEYS IN KNOWN AND/ OR EXPECTED HABITAT,
AT APPROPRIATE TIMES (DIURNAL, SEASONAL, ANNUAL), THROUGHOUT ITS HISTORIC RANGE HAVE FAILED
TO RECORD AN INDIVIDUAL. S URVEYS SHOULD BE OVER A TIME FRAME APPROPRIATE TO THE TAXON 'S
LIFE CYCLE AND LIFE FORM .
CRITICALLY
ENDANGERED (CR)
A TAXON IS C RITICALLY ENDANGERED WHEN THE BEST AVAILABLE EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT IT MEETS
ANY OF THE CRITERIA A TO E FOR C RITICALLY E NDANGERED (SEE S ECTION V), AND IT IS THEREFORE
CONSIDERED TO BE FACING AN EXTREMELY HIGH RISK OF EXTINCTION IN THE WILD .
ENDANGERED (EN)
A TAXON IS ENDANGERED WHEN THE BEST AVAILABLE EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT IT MEETS ANY OF THE
CRITERIA A TO E FOR E NDANGERED (SEE S ECTION V), AND IT IS THEREFORE CONSIDERED TO BE FACING
A VERY HIGH RISK OF EXTINCTION IN THE WILD .
VULNERABLE (VU)
A TAXON IS VULNERABLE WHEN THE BEST AVAILABLE EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT IT MEETS ANY OF THE
CRITERIA A TO E FOR VULNERABLE (SEE S ECTION V), AND IT IS THEREFORE CONSIDERED TO BE FACING
A HIGH RISK OF EXTINCTION IN THE WILD .
NEAR THREATENED (NT)
A TAXON IS NEAR THREATENED WHEN IT HAS BEEN EVALUATED AGAINST THE CRITERIA BUT DOES NOT
QUALIFY FOR C RITICALLY E NDANGERED , E NDANGERED OR VULNERABLE NOW , BUT IS CLOSE TO
QUALIFYING FOR OR IS LIKELY TO QUALIFY FOR A THREATENED CATEGORY IN THE NEAR FUTURE .
LEAST CONCERN (LC)
A TAXON IS LEAST CONCERN WHEN IT HAS BEEN EVALUATED AGAINST THE CRITERIA AND DOES NOT
QUALIFY FOR C RITICALLY E NDANGERED , E NDANGERED , VULNERABLE OR N EAR T HREATENED .
WIDESPREAD AND ABUNDANT TAXA ARE INCLUDED IN THIS CATEGORY .
DATA DEFICIENT (DD)
A TAXON IS DATA DEFICIENT WHEN THERE IS INADEQUATE INFORMATION TO MAKE A DIRECT , OR
INDIRECT , ASSESSMENT OF ITS RISK OF EXTINCTION BASED ON ITS DISTRIBUTION AND/OR POPULATION
STATUS. A TAXON IN THIS CATEGORY MAY BE WELL STUDIED , AND ITS BIOLOGY WELL KNOWN , BUT
APPROPRIATE DATA ON ABUNDANCE AND/ OR DISTRIBUTION ARE LACKING. D ATA DEFICIENT IS
THEREFORE NOT A CATEGORY OF THREAT. L ISTING OF TAXA IN THIS CATEGORY INDICATES THAT MORE
INFORMATION IS REQUIRED AND ACKNOWLEDGES THE POSSIBILITY THAT FUTURE RESEARCH WILL SHOW
THAT THREATENED CLASSIFICATION IS APPROPRIATE . IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAKE POSITIVE USE OF
WHATEVER DATA ARE AVAILABLE . IN MANY CASES GREAT CARE SHOULD BE EXERCISED IN CHOOSING
BETWEEN

DD AND A THREATENED STATUS. IF THE RANGE OF A TAXON IS SUSPECTED TO BE RELATIVELY

CIRCUMSCRIBED , AND A CONSIDERABLE PERIOD OF TIME HAS ELAPSED SINCE THE LAST RECORD OF THE
TAXON , THREATENED STATUS MAY WELL BE JUSTIFIED .

NOT EVALUATED (NE)


A TAXON IS NOT EVALUATED WHEN IT IS HAS NOT YET BEEN EVALUATED AGAINST THE CRITERIA.
N OTE : AS IN PREVIOUS IUCN CATEGORIES , THE ABBREVIATION OF EACH CATEGORY (IN PARENTHESIS )
FOLLOWS THE ENGLISH DENOMINATIONS WHEN TRANSLATED INTO OTHER LANGUAGES (SEE ANNEX 2).
V. THE CRITERIA FOR CRITICALLY ENDANGERED, ENDANGERED AND VULNERABLE
CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)

A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria (A
to E), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild:
A. Reduction in population size based on any of the following:
1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 90% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible AND understood AND
ceased, based on (and specifying) any of the following:
(a) direct observation
(b) an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon
(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation
(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
2. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 80% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood
OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.
3. A population size reduction of 80%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations,
whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years), based on (and specifying) any of (b) to (e) under A1.
4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of 80% over any 10 year or three
generation period, whichever is longer (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future), where the time period must include
both the past and the future, and where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR
may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.
B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) OR B2 (area of occupancy) OR both:
1. Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 100 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a-c:
a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location.
b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(iv) number of locations or subpopulations
(v) number of mature individuals.
c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) number of locations or subpopulations
(iv) number of mature individuals.
2. Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 10 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a-c:
a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location.

b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:


(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(iv) number of locations or subpopulations
(v) number of mature individuals.
c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) number of locations or subpopulations
(iv) number of mature individuals.
C. Population size estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals and either:
1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 25% within three years or one generation, whichever is longer, (up to a
maximum of 100 years in the future) OR
2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals AND at least one of the
following (a-b):
(a) Population structure in the form of one of the following:
(i) no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 50 mature individuals, OR
(ii) at least 90% of mature individuals in one subpopulation.
(b) Extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals.
D. Population size estimated to number fewer than 50 mature individuals.
E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 50% within 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years).
ENDANGERED (EN)
A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria (A to E), and
it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild:
A. Reduction in population size based on any of the following:
1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 70% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible AND understood AND
ceased, based on (and specifying) any of the following:
(a) direct observation
(b) an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon
(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation
(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.

2. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 50% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood
OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.
3. A population size reduction of nbsp;50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years), based on (and specifying) any of (b) to (e) under
A1.
4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of 50% over any 10 year or three
generation period, whichever is longer (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future), where the time period must include
both the past and the future, and where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR
may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.
B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) OR B2 (area of occupancy) OR both:
1. Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5000 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a-c:
a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(iv) number of locations or subpopulations
(v) number of mature individuals.
c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) number of locations or subpopulations
(iv) number of mature individuals.
2. Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a-c:
a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(iv) number of locations or subpopulations
(v) number of mature individuals.
c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy

(iii) number of locations or subpopulations


(iv) number of mature individuals.
C. Population size estimated to number fewer than 2500 mature individuals and either:
1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, (up to a
maximum of 100 years in the future) OR
2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals AND at least one of the
following (a-b):
(a) Population structure in the form of one of the following:
(i) no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 250 mature individuals, OR
(ii) at least 95% of mature individuals in one subpopulation.
(b) Extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals.
D. Population size estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals.
E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 20% within 20 years or five
generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years).
VULNERABLE (VU)
A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria (A to E), and
it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild:
A. Reduction in population size based on any of the following:
1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 50% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are: clearly reversible AND understood AND
ceased, based on (and specifying) any of the following:
(a) direct observation
(b) an index of abundance appropriate to the taxon
(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation
(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
2. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of 30% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood
OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.
3. A population size reduction of 30%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations,
whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years), based on (and specifying) any of (b) to (e) under A1.
4. An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of 30% over any 10 year or three
generation period, whichever is longer (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future), where the time period must include
both the past and the future, and where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR
may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.
B. Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) OR B2 (area of occupancy) OR both:
1. Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 20,000 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a-c:

a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than 10 locations.


b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(iv) number of locations or subpopulations
(v) number of mature individuals.
c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) number of locations or subpopulations
(iv) number of mature individuals.
2. Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 2000 km2, and estimates indicating at least two of a-c:
a. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than 10 locations.
b. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(iv) number of locations or subpopulations
(v) number of mature individuals.
c. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(i) extent of occurrence
(ii) area of occupancy
(iii) number of locations or subpopulations
(iv) number of mature individuals.
C. Population size estimated to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals and either:
1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 10% within 10 years or three generations, whichever is longer, (up to a
maximum of 100 years in the future) OR
2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals AND at least one of the
following (a-b):
(a) Population structure in the form of one of the following:
(i) no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 1000 mature individuals, OR
(ii) all mature individuals are in one subpopulation.

(b) Extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals.


D. Population very small or restricted in the form of either of the following:
1. Population size estimated to number fewer than 1000 mature individuals.
2. Population with a very restricted area of occupancy (typically less than 20 km2) or number of locations (typically five
or fewer) such that it is prone to the effects of human activities or stochastic events within a very short time period in an
uncertain future, and is thus capable of becoming Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a very short time period.
E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 10% within 100 years.
ANNEX 1: UNCERTAINTY
The Red List Criteria should be applied to a taxon based on the available evidence concerning its numbers, trend and
distribution. In cases where there are evident threats to a taxon through, for example, deterioration of its only known
habitat, a threatened listing may be justified, even though there may be little direct information on the biological status
of the taxon itself. In all these instances there are uncertainties associated with the available information and how it was
obtained. These uncertainties may be categorized as natural variability, semantic uncertainty and measurement error
(Akakaya et al. 2000). This section provides guidance on how to recognize and deal with these uncertainties when
using the criteria.
Natural variability results from the fact that species' life histories and the environments in which they live change over
time and space. The effect of this variation on the criteria is limited, because each parameter refers to a specific time or
spatial scale. Semantic uncertainty arises from vagueness in the definition of terms or lack of consistency in different
assessors' usage of them. Despite attempts to make the definitions of the terms used in the criteria exact, in some cases
this is not possible without the loss of generality. Measurement error is often the largest source of uncertainty; it arises
from the lack of precise information about the parameters used in the criteria. This may be due to inaccuracies in
estimating the values or a lack of knowledge. Measurement error may be reduced or eliminated by acquiring additional
data. For further details, see Akakaya et al. (2000) and Burgman et al. (1999).
One of the simplest ways to represent uncertainty is to specify a best estimate and a range of plausible values. The best
estimate itself might be a range, but in any case the best estimate should always be included in the range of plausible
values. When data are very uncertain, the range for the best estimate might be the range of plausible values. There are
various methods that can be used to establish the plausible range. It may be based on confidence intervals, the opinion
of a single expert, or the consensus opinion of a group of experts. Whichever method is used should be stated and
justified in the documentation.
When interpreting and using uncertain data, attitudes toward risk and uncertainty may play an important role. Attitudes
have two components. First, assessors need to consider whether they will include the full range of plausible values in
assessments, or whether they will exclude extreme values from consideration (known as dispute tolerance). An assessor
with a low dispute tolerance would include all values, thereby increasing the uncertainty, whereas an assessor with a
high dispute tolerance would exclude extremes, reducing the uncertainty. Second, assessors need to consider whether
they have a precautionary or evidentiary attitude to risk (known as risk tolerance). A precautionary attitude will classify
a taxon as threatened unless it is certain that it is not threatened, whereas an evidentiary attitude will classify a taxon as
threatened only when there is strong evidence to support a threatened classification. Assessors should resist an
evidentiary attitude and adopt a precautionary but realistic attitude to uncertainty when applying the criteria, for
example, by using plausible lower bounds, rather than best estimates, in determining population size, especially if it is
fluctuating. All attitudes should be explicitly documented.
An assessment using a point estimate (i.e. single numerical value) will lead to a single Red List Category. However,
when a plausible range for each parameter is used to evaluate the criteria, a range of categories may be obtained,
reflecting the uncertainties in the data. A single category, based on a specific attitude to uncertainty, should always be
listed along with the criteria met, while the range of plausible categories should be indicated in the documentation (see
Annex 3).

Where data are so uncertain that any category is plausible, the category of 'Data Deficient' should be assigned.
However, it is important to recognize that this category indicates that the data are inadequate to determine the degree of
threat faced by a taxon, not necessarily that the taxon is poorly known or indeed not threatened. Although Data
Deficient is not a threatened category, it indicates a need to obtain more information on a taxon to determine the
appropriate listing; moreover, it requires documentation with whatever available information there is.
ANNEX 2: C ITATION OF THE IUCN R ED LIST C ATEGORIES AND CRITERIA
In order to promote the use of a standard format for citing the Red List Categories and Criteria the following forms of
citation are recommended:
1.

The Red List Category may be written out in full or abbreviated as follows (when translated into other languages, the
abbreviations should follow the English denominations):

Extinct,
Extinct
Critically
Endangered,
Vulnerable,
Near
Least
Data
Not Evaluated, NE

in

the
Endangered,

Wild,

Threatened,
Concern,
Deficient,

EX
EW
CR
EN
VU
NT
LC
DD

2. Under Section V (the criteria for Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) there is a hierarchical
alphanumeric numbering system of criteria and subcriteria. These criteria and subcriteria (all three levels) form
an integral part of the Red List assessment and all those that result in the assignment of a threatened category
must be specified after the Category. Under the criteria A to C and D under Vulnerable, the first level of the
hierarchy is indicated by the use of numbers (1-4) and if more than one is met, they are separated by means of
the '+' symbol. The second level is indicated by the use of the lower-case alphabet characters (a-e). These are
listed without any punctuation. A third level of the hierarchy under Criteria B and C involves the use of lower
case roman numerals (i-v). These are placed in parentheses (with no space between the preceding alphabet
character and start of the parenthesis) and separated by the use of commas if more than one is listed. Where
more than one criterion is met, they should be separated by semicolons. The following are examples of such
usage:
EX
CR
VU
EN
B1ac(i,ii,iii)
EN
A2c;
VU
CR
A2c+3c;
B1ab(iii)
CR
VU
EN
B2ab(i,ii,iii)
VU
C2a(ii)
EN
A1c;
B1ab(iii);
C2a(i)
EN
B2b(iii)c(ii)
EN
B1ab(i,ii,v)c(iii,iv)+2b(i)c(ii,v)
VU
B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
EN A2abc+3bc+4abc; B1b(iii,iv,v)c(ii,iii,iv)+2b(iii,iv,v)c(ii,iii,iv)
ANNEX 3: DOCUMENTATION R EQUIREMENTS FOR TAXA INCLUDED ON THE IUCN R ED LIST

A1cd
A2c+3c
D
D1+2
D
D2

The following is the minimum set of information, which should accompany every assessment submitted for
incorporation into the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

Scientific name including authority details

English common name/s and any other widely used common names (specify the language of each name supplied)

Red List Category and Criteria

Countries of occurrence (including country subdivisions for large nations, e.g. states within the USA, and overseas
territories, e.g. islands far from the mainland country)

For marine species, the Fisheries Areas in which they occur should be recorded (see
http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sis/faomap.htm for the Fisheries Areas as delimited by FAO, the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations)

For inland water species, the names of the river systems, lakes, etc. to which they are confined

A map showing the geographic distribution (extent of occurrence)

A rationale for the listing (including any numerical data, inferences or uncertainty that relate to the criteria and their
thresholds)

Current population trends (increasing, decreasing, stable or unknown)

Habitat preferences (using a modified version of the Global Land Cover Characterization (GLCC) classification which
is available electronically from http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sis/authority.htm or on request from redlist@iucn.org ).

Major threats (indicating past, current and future threats using a standard classification which is available from the SSC
web site or e-mail address as shown above)

Conservation measures, (indicating both current and proposed measures using a standard classification which is
available from the SSC web site or e-mail address as shown above)

Information on any changes in the Red List status of the taxon, and why the status has changed

Data sources (cited in full; including unpublished sources and personal communications)

Name/s and contact details of the assessor/s

Before inclusion on the IUCN Red List, all assessments will be evaluated by at least two members of a Red List
Authority. The Red List Authority is appointed by the Chair of the IUCN Species Survival Commission and is usually a
sub-group of a Specialist Group. The names of the evaluators will appear with each assessment.

In addition to the minimum documentation, the following information should also be supplied where appropriate:

If a quantitative analysis is used for the assessment (i.e. Criterion E), the data, assumptions and structural equations
(e.g., in the case of a Population Viability Analysis) should be included as part of the documentation.

For Extinct or Extinct in the Wild taxa, extra documentation is required indicating the effective date of extinction,
possible causes of the extinction and the details of surveys which have been conducted to search for the taxon.

For taxa listed as Near Threatened, the rationale for listing should include a discussion of the criteria that are nearly
met or the reasons for highlighting the taxon (e.g., they are dependent on ongoing conservation measures).

For taxa listed as Data Deficient, the documentation should include what little information is available.

Assessments may be made using version 2.0 of the software package RAMAS Red List (Akakaya and Ferson 2001).
This program assigns taxa to Red List Categories according to the rules of the IUCN Red List Criteria and has the
advantage of being able to explicitly handle uncertainty in the data. The software captures most of the information

required for the documentation above, but in some cases the information will be reported differently. The following
points should be noted:

If RAMAS Red List is used to obtain a listing, this should be stated.

Uncertain values should be entered into the program as a best estimate and a plausible range, or as an interval (see the
RAMAS Red List manual or help files for further details).

The settings for attitude towards risk and uncertainty (i.e. dispute tolerance, risk tolerance and burden of proof) are all
pre-set at a mid-point. If any of these settings are changed this should be documented and fully justified, especially if a
less precautionary position is adopted.

Depending on the uncertainties, the resulting classification can be a single category and/or a range of plausible
categories. In such instances, the following approach should be adopted (the program will usually indicate this
automatically in the Results window):
o

If the range of plausible categories extends across two or more of the threatened categories (e.g. Critically
Endangered to Vulnerable) and no preferred category is indicated, the precautionary approach is to take the
highest category shown, i.e. CR in the above example. In such cases, the range of plausible categories should
be documented under the rationale including a note that a precautionary approach was followed in order to
distinguish it from the situation in the next point. The following notation has been suggested e.g. CR* (CRVU).

If a range of plausible categories is given and a preferred category is indicated, the rationale should indicate
the range of plausible categories met e.g. EN (CR-VU).

The program specifies the criteria that contributed to the listing (see Status window). However, when data are
uncertain, the listing criteria are approximate, and in some cases may not be determined at all. In such cases,
the assessors should use the Text results to determine or verify the criteria and sub-criteria met. Listing criteria
derived in this way must be clearly indicated in the rationale (refer to the RAMAS Red List Help menu for
further guidance on this issue).

If the preferred category is indicated as Least Concern, but the plausible range extends into the threatened
categories, a listing of 'Near Threatened' (NT) should be used. The criteria, which triggered the extension into
the threatened range, should be recorded under the rationale.

Any assessments made using this software must be submitted with the RAMAS Red List input files (i.e. the
*.RED files).

New global assessments or reassessments of taxa currently on the IUCN Red List, may be submitted to the IUCN/SSC
Red List Programme Officer for incorporation (subject to peer review) in a future edition of the IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. Submissions from within the SSC network should preferably be made using the Species
Information Service (SIS) database. Other submissions may be submitted electronically; these should preferably be as
files produced using RAMAS Red List or any of the programs in Microsoft Office 97 (or earlier versions) e.g. Word,
Excel or Access. Submissions should be sent to:
IUCN/SSC Red List Programme, IUCN/SSC UK Office, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, United
Kingdom. Fax: +44-(0)1223-277845; Email: redlist@iucn.org.
For further clarification or information about the IUCN Red List Criteria, documentation requirements (including the
standards used) or submission of assessments, please contact the IUCN/SSC Red List Programme Officer at the address
shown above.
R EFERENCES
Akakaya, H.R. and Ferson, S. 2001. RAMAS Red List: Threatened Species Classifications under Uncertainty. Version
2.0. Applied Biomathematics, New York.
Akakaya, H.R., Ferson, S., Burgman, M.A., Keith, D.A., Mace, G.M. and Todd, C.A. 2000. Making consistent IUCN
classifications under uncertainty. Conservation Biology 14: 1001-1013.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Burgman, M.A., Keith, D.A. and Walshe, T.V. 1999. Uncertainty in comparative risk analysis of threatened Australian
plant species. Risk Analysis 19: 585-598.
Fitter, R. and Fitter, M. (eds). 1987. The Road to Extinction. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Grdenfors, U., Hilton-Taylor, C., Mace, G., and Rodrguez, J.P., 2001. The application of IUCN Red List Criteria at
regional levels. Conservation Biology 15: 1206-1212.
Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and
Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1993. Draft IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland.
IUCN. 1996. Resolution 1.4. Species Survival Commission. Resolutions and Recommendations, pp. 7-8. World
Conservation Congress, 13-23 October 1996, Montreal, Canada. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 1998. Guidelines for Re-introductions. Prepared by the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN/SSC Criteria Review Working Group. 1999. IUCN Red List Criteria review provisional report: draft of the
proposed changes and recommendations. Species 31-32: 43-57.
Mace, G.M., Collar, N., Cooke, J., Gaston, K.J., Ginsberg, J.R., Leader-Williams, N., Maunder, M. and MilnerGulland, E.J. 1992. The development of new criteria for listing species on the IUCN Red List. Species 19: 16?22.
Mace, G.M. and Lande, R. 1991. Assessing extinction threats: toward a re-evaluation of IUCN threatened species
categories. Conservation Biology 5: 148?157.
Mace, G.M. and Stuart, S.N. 1994. Draft IUCN Red List Categories, Version 2.2. Species 21-22: 13-24.
Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press,
Cambridge.

Convenia de la Berna

LEGEA nr. 13 din 11 martie 1993


pentru aderarea Romniei la Conventia privind conservarea vietii salbatice si a habitatelor naturale din Europa,
adoptata la Berna la 19 septembrie 1979
EMITENT:
PUBLICATA IN: MONITORUL OFICIAL NR. 62 din 25 martie 1993

PARLAMENT

ARTICOL
UN
Romania adera la Conventia privind conservarea vietii salbatice si a habitatelor naturale din Europa, adoptata la Berna la 19 septemb
1979.
Traducerea Conventiei privind conservarea vietii salbatice si a habitatelor naturale din Europa

Cuprins
PREAMBUL
CAP.
1
Dispozitii
generale
CAP.
2
Protectia
habitatelor
CAP.
3
Conservarea
speciilor
CAP.
4
Dispozitii
speciale
privind
speciile
migratoare
CAP.
5
Dispozitii
suplimentare
CAP.
6
Comitetul
permanent
CAP.
7
Amendamente
CAP.
8
Reglementarea
diferendelor
CAP.
9
Dispozitii
finale
ANEXA
1
SPECII
DE
FLORA
STRICT
PROTEJATE
ANEXA
2
SPECII
DE
FAUNA
STRICT
PROTEJATE
ANEXA
3
SPECII
DE
FAUNA
PROTEJATE
ANEXA 4 - MIJLOACE SI METODE DE VINATOARE SI ALTE FORME DE EXPLOATARE INTERZISE

PREAMBUL

Statele
membre
ale
Consiliului
Europei
si
ceilalti
semnatari
ai
prezentei
conventii,
considerind ca obiectivul Consiliului Europei este de a realiza o mai strinsa uniune intre membrii sai,
luind in considerare dorinta de cooperare a Consiliului Europei cu alte state in domeniul conservarii naturii
recunoscind ca flora si fauna salbatica constituie un patrimoniu natural de valoare estetica, stiintifica, culturala, recreativa, economica
intrinseca,
care
trebuie
protejat
si
transmis
generatiilor
viitoare,
recunoscind
rolul
esential
al
florei
si
faunei
salbatice
in
mentinerea
echilibrului
ecologic,
constatind diminuarea efectivelor a numeroase specii de flora si fauna salbatica si pericolul nimicirii care le ameninta pe unel
constienti ca, conservarea habitatelor naturale este unul dintre elementele esentiale ale protectiei ocrotirii florei si faunei salbatic
recunoscind ca, conservarea florei si faunei salbatice ar trebui luata in considerare de catre guverne in obiectivele si programele lor nation
si ca o cooperare internationala ar trebui sa se instaureze pentru ocrotirea in special a speciilor migratoare
constienti de numeroasele cereri de a actiona in comun facute de guvern si instante internationale, in special cele exprimate la Conferi
Natiunilor Unite asupra mediului din 1972 si de catre Adunarea Consultativa a Consiliului Europei,
dorind sa urmeze, in special in domeniul conservarii vietii salbatice, recomandarile Rezolutiei nr. 2 a celei de-a doua Conferinte ministeri
europene
asupra
mediului,
au
cazut
de
acord
asupra
urmatoarelor:
CAP.

Dispozitii

generale

ART.
1. Prezenta conventie are ca obiect asigurarea conservarii florei si faunei salbatice si habitatelor lor naturale, in special a speciilo
habitatelor a caror conservare necesita cooperarea mai multor state, si promovarea unei astfel de cooperari
2. O atentie deosebita este acordata speciilor, inclusiv speciilor migratoare, amenintate cu nimicirea si vulnerabile
ART.
Partile contractante vor lua masurile necesare pentru mentinerea sau adaptarea populatiilor de flora si fauna salbatice la un n
corespunzator mai ales exigentelor ecologice, stiintifice si culturale, tinind cont de exigentele economice si recreationale si de nevo
subspeciilor,
varietatilor
sau
formelor
amenintate
pe
plan
local.
ART.
1. Fiecare parte contractanta va lua masurile necesare pentru punerea in aplicare a politicilor nationale de conservare a florei si fau
salbatice si habitatelor naturale, acordind o atentie deosebita speciilor amenintate cu nimicirea si vulnerabile, mai ales speciilor endemic
habitatelor
amenintate,
in
conformitate
cu
dispozitiile
prezentei
conventii.
2. Fiecare parte contractanta se angajeaza ca, in politica sa de amenajare si de dezvoltare si in masurile de lupta contra poluarii, sa ia
considerare
conservarea
florei
si
faunei
salbatice.
3. Fiecare parte contractanta va incuraja procesul educational si difuzarea informatiilor generale privind necesitatea conservarii speciilor
flora
si
fauna
salbatice
ca
si
a
habitatelor
lor.
CAP.
ART.

Protectia

habitatelor

1. Fiecare parte contractanta va lua masurile legislative si administrative potrivite si necesare pentru protejarea habitatelor speciilor salba
de flora si fauna, in special a acelora enumerate in anexele nr. I si II si pentru salvgardarea habitatelor naturale amenintat
2. Partile contractante vor tine cont, in politicile lor de amenajare si de dezvoltare, de necesitatea conservarii zonelor protejate avute in ved
la paragraful precedent, in scopul de a evita sau reduce la maximum orice degradare a unor astfel de zone
3. Partile contractante se angajeaza sa acorde o atentie deosebita protectiei zonelor care au importanta pentru speciile migratoare enumer
in anexele nr. II si III si care sint situate intr-un mod adecvat in raport cu caile de migratie ca: zone de iernare, de aglomerare, de hranire,
reproducere
sau
de
napirlire.
4. Partile contractante se angajeaza sa-si coordoneze eforturile in functie de necesitati pentru protejarea habitatelor naturale avute in ved
de prezentul articol in cazul in care acestea sint situate in regiuni care se intind de o parte si de alta a frontiere
CAP.

Conservarea

speciilor

ART.
Fiecare parte contractanta va lua masurile legislative si administrative adecvate si necesare pentru asigurarea conservarii, in specia
speciilor
de
flora
salbatica
enumerate
in
anexa
I.
Vor fi interzise culegerea, recoltarea, taierea sau dezradacinarea intentionata a plantelor avute in vedere. Fiecare parte contractanta
interzice,
la
nevoie,
detinerea
sau
comercializarea
acestor
specii.
ART.
Fiecare parte contractanta va lua masurile legislative si administrative adecvate si necesare pentru a asigura conservarea, in specia
speciilor de fauna salbatica enumerate in anexa nr. II. Se va interzice, in special, pentru aceste specii
a)
orice
forma
de
capturare
intentionata,
de
detinere
si
de
ucidere
intentionata;
b)
degradarea
sau
distrugerea
intentionata
a
locurilor
de
reproducere
sau
a
zonelor
de
repaus;
c) perturbarea intentionata a faunei salbatice, mai ales in perioada de reproducere, de dependenta si de hibernare in asa fel incit perturba
sa
aiba
un
efect
semnificativ
in
ce
priveste
obiectivele
prezentei
conventii;
d)
distrugerea
sau
culegerea
intentionata
a
oualor
in
natura
sau
detinerea
lor,
chiar
goale;
e) detinerea sau comercializarea interna a acestor animale vii sau moarte, inclusiv a animalelor naturalizate, si a oricarei parti sau produ
lor, usor identificabil, obtinut din animal, cind aceasta masura contribuie la eficacitatea dispozitiilor prezentului artico
ART.
1. Fiecare parte contractanta va lua masurile legislative si administrative adecvate si necesare pentru protejarea speciilor de fauna salba
enumerate
in
anexa
nr.
III.
2. Orice exploatare a faunei salbatice enumerate in anexa nr. III va fi reglementata in vederea mentinerii acestor populatii in afara orica
pericol,
tinind
cont
de
dispozitiile
art.
2.
3.
Aceste
masuri
vor
cuprinde
in
special:
a)
instituirea
perioadelor
de
prohibitie
si/sau
alte
masuri
reglementare
de
exploatare;
b) interzicerea temporara sau locala a exploatarii, daca este cazul, pentru a permite populatiilor existente sa revina la un nivel satisfacat
c) reglementarea, daca este cazul, a vinzarii, detinerii, transportului sau ofertei in scop de vinzare a animalelor salbatice, vii sau moar
ART.
In privinta capturarii sau uciderii speciilor de fauna salbatica enumerate in anexa nr. III si in cazurile in care se fac derogari conform art. 9
ce priveste speciile enumerate in anexa nr. II, partile contractante vor interzice utilizarea tuturor mijloacelor neselective de capturare si
ucidere si a mijloacelor susceptibile sa duca pe plan local la disparitia sau sa tulbure grav linistea populatiilor unei specii, in specia
mijloacelor
enumerate
in
anexa
nr.
IV.
ART.
1. Cu conditia sa nu existe o alta solutie satisfacatoare si derogarea sa nu dauneze supravietuirii populatiei implicate, fiecare pa
contractanta poate sa faca derogari de la dispozitiile art. 4, 5, 6, 7 si de la interdictia de utilizare a mijloacelor avute in vedere la art.
in
interesul
protectiei
florei
si
faunei;
- pentru a preveni producerea de pagube importante culturilor agricole, septelului, padurilor, fondului piscicol, apelor si altor forme
proprietate;
in
interesul
sanatatii
si
securitatii
publice,
securitatii
aeriene
sau
altor
interese
publice
prioritare;
in
scopuri
de
cercetare
si
de
educatie,
de
repopulare,
de
reintroducere
ca
si
pentru
crestere;
- pentru a permite, in conditii strict controlate, pe o baza selectiva si intr-o anumita masura, capturarea, detinerea sau orice alta exploat
judicioasa
a
anumitor
animale
si
plante
salbatice
in
numar
redus.
2. Partile contractante vor prezenta Comitetului permanent un raport bianual asupra derogarilor facute in virtutea paragrafului precede
Aceste
rapoarte
trebuie
sa
mentioneze:
- populatiile care fac obiectul sau au facut obiectul derogarilor si, daca este posibil, numarul specimenelor implicate
mijloacele
autorizate
de
ucidere
sau
de
capturare;
conditiile
de
risc,
circumstantele
de
timp
si
de
loc
in
care
au
intervenit
aceste
derogari;
- autoritatea abilitata sa declare ca aceste conditii au fost indeplinite, sa ia decizii referitoare la mijloacele care pot fi aplicate, la limitele
si
la
persoanele
insarcinate,
cu
exceptia
acestora;
controalele
operate.

CAP.

Dispozitii

speciale

privind

speciile

migratoare

ART.
1. Pe linga masurile indicate prin art. 4, 6, 7 si 8, partile contractante se angajeaza sa-si coordoneze eforturile pentru conservarea speci
migratoare enumerate in anexele nr. II si III si a caror arie de repartitie se intinde pe teritoriul lor
2. Partile contractante vor lua masuri in vederea asigurarii ca perioadele de prohibitie si/sau alte masuri reglementare de exploatare institu
in virtutea paragrafului 3 lit. a) al art. 7 sa corespunda necesitatilor speciilor migratoare enumerate in anexa nr. II
CAP.

Dispozitii

suplimentare

ART.
1.
In
aplicarea
dispozitiilor
prezentei
conventii,
partile
contractante
se
angajeaza:
a) sa coopereze de fiecare data cind va fi necesar, mai ales cind aceasta cooperare ar putea spori eficacitatea masurilor luate, conform a
articole
ale
prezentei
conventii;
b) sa incurajeze si sa coordoneze activitatile de cercetare in functie de obiectivele acestei conventii.
2.
Fiecare
parte
contractanta
se
angajeaza:
a) sa incurajeze reintroducerea speciilor indigene de flora si fauna salbatica daca aceasta masura ar putea sa contribuie la conservarea u
specii amenintate cu nimicirea, cu conditia de a se proceda in prealabil, si tinind cont de experienta celorlalte parti contractante, la un stu
pentru
a
stabili
daca
o
astfel
de
reintroducere
ar
fi
eficace
si
acceptabila;
b)
sa
controleze
strict
introducerea
speciilor
neindigene.
3. Fiecare parte contractanta va informa Comitetul permanent asupra speciilor care beneficiaza de o protectie totala pe teritoriul sau si c
nu
figureaza
in
anexele
nr.
I
si
II.
ART.
Partile contractante pot adopta pentru conservarea florei si faunei salbatice si a habitatelor lor naturale masuri mai riguroase decit c
prevazute
in
prezenta
conventie.
CAP.

Comitetul

permanent

ART.
1.
Se
constituie,
in
scopul
prezentei
conventii,
un
Comitet
permanent.
2. Orice parte contractanta poate fi reprezentata in cadrul Comitetului permanent printr-unul sau mai multi delegati. Fiecare delegatie
dispune de un singur vot. In limitele competentelor sale, Comunitatea Economica Europeana isi exercita dreptul de vot cu un numar de vo
egal numarului statelor sale membre care sint parti contractante ale prezentei conventii; Comunitatea Economica Europeana nu-si va exer
dreptul de vot in situatiile in care statele membre implicate si-l exercita pe al lor si reciproc.
3. Orice stat membru in Consiliul Europei care nu este parte contractanta la conventie poate fi reprezentat in comitet printr-un observat
Comitetul permanent poate, in unanimitate, sa invite orice stat nemembru al Consiliului Europei care nu este parte contractanta la conve
sa
fie
reprezentat
printr-un
observator
la
una
dintre
reuniunile
sale.
Orice organism sau orice institutie calificata tehnic in domeniul protectiei, conservarii sau gestionarii florei si faunei salbatice si a habitate
lor,
si
apartinind
uneia
din
categoriile
urmatoare:
a) organisme sau institutii internationale, fie guvernamentale fie nonguvernamentale sau organisme sau institutii nationale guvernamenta
b) organisme sau institutii nationale nonguvernamentale care au fost desemnate in acest scop de catre statul in care sint stabilite pot infor
Secretarul general al Consiliului Europei, cel putin cu 3 luni inainte de reuniunea comitetului, despre intentia lor de a fi reprezentate la a
reuniune prin observatori. Ele sint admise cu exceptia cazului cind, cu cel putin o luna inaintea reuniunii, o treime dintre partile contracta
au
informat
secretarul
general
ca
se
opun
la
aceasta.
4. Comitetul permanent este convocat de catre secretarul general al Consiliului Europei. El isi va tine prima reuniune in termen de un
incepind de la data intrarii in vigoare a conventiei. In continuare, el se va reuni cel putin o data la 2 ani si oricind majoritatea parti
contractante
o
solicita.
5. Majoritatea partilor contractante formeaza cvorumul necesar pentru tinerea unei reuniuni a Comitetului permanent
6. Sub rezerva dispozitiilor prezentei conventii, Comitetul permanent isi va stabili propriul regulament interior
ART.
1. Comitetul permanent este insarcinat sa urmareasca aplicarea prezentei conventii. El poate, in special:
- sa revizuiasca in mod permanent prevederile prezentei conventii, inclusiv anexele sale, si sa examineze modificarile care s-ar impun
- sa faca recomandari partilor contractante asupra masurilor care trebuie luate pentru aplicarea prezentei conventii
- sa recomande masuri adecvate pentru asigurarea informarii publicului asupra lucrarilor intreprinse in cadrul prezentei convent
- sa faca recomandari Comitetului Ministrilor cu privire la invitarea statelor nemembre ale Consiliului Europei sa adere la preze
conventie;
- sa faca orice propunere in scopul imbunatatirii eficacitatii prezentei conventii si cuprinzind propuneri de incheiere, cu state care nu s
parti contractante la conventie, de acorduri care sa sporeasca eficacitatea conservarii speciilor sau grupelor de speci
2. Pentru indeplinirea misiunii sale, Comitetul permanent poate, din proprie initiativa, sa organizeze reuniuni de grupuri de exper
ART.

Dupa fiecare dintre reuniunile sale, Comitetul permanent va transmite Comitetului de Ministri al Consiliului Europei un raport asu
lucrarilor
si
functionarii
conventiei.
CAP.

Amendamente

ART.
1. Orice amendament la articolele prezentei conventii, propus de o parte contractanta sau de Comitetul de Ministri, este comun
secretarului general al Consiliului Europei si transmis prin grija sa cu cel putin doua luni inainte de reuniunea Comitetului perman
statelor membre ale Consiliului Europei, fiecarui semnatar, fiecarei parti contractante, fiecarui stat invitat sa semneze prezenta conven
conform dispozitiilor art. 19 si tuturor statelor invitate sa adere la aceasta, conform dispozitiilor art. 20
2. Orice amendament propus, conform dispozitiilor paragrafului precedent, va fi examinat de catre Comitetul permanent, car
a) pentru amendamentele la art. 1-12, supune textul adoptat cu o majoritate de trei sferturi din voturile exprimate acceptarii part
contractante;
b) pentru amendamentele la art. 13-24, supune textul adoptat cu o majoritate de trei sferturi din voturile exprimate aprobarii Comitetului
Ministri.
Acest
text
este
comunicat,
dupa
aprobarea
sa,
partilor
contractante
in
vederea
acceptarii.
3. Orice amendament va intra in vigoare in cea de-a treizecea zi dupa ce toate partile contractante l-au informat pe secretarul general ca el
au
acceptat.
4. Prevederile paragrafelor 1, 2 a) si 3 ale prezentului articol sint aplicabile si in cazul adoptarii de noi anexe la prezenta convent
ART.
Orice amendament la anexele prezentei conventii, propus de catre o parte contractanta sau de catre Comitetul de Ministri va fi comun
secretarului general al Consiliului Europei si transmis prin grija sa cu cel putin doua luni inaintea reuniunii Comitetului permanent state
membre ale Consiliului Europei, fiecarui semnatar, fiecarei parti contractante, fiecarui stat invitat sa semneze prezenta conventie, confo
dispozitiilor
art.
19,
si
tuturor
statelor
invitate
sa
adere
la
aceasta,
conform
dispozitiilor
art.
20.
2. Orice amendament propus conform dispozitiilor paragrafului precedent va fi examinat de catre Comitetul permanent, care-l poate ado
cu o majoritate de doua treimi dintre partile contractante. Textul adoptat va fi comunicat partilor contractante
3. La expirarea unei perioade de 3 luni de la adoptarea de catre Comitetul permanent, si cu exceptia cazului in care o treime dintre par
contractante au notificat obiectii, orice amendament intra in vigoare pentru acele parti contractante care nu au notificat obiect
CAP.

Reglementarea

diferendelor

ART.
1. Comitetul permanent se va stradui sa faciliteze rezolvarea amiabila a oricaror dificultati pe care aplicarea conventiei le-ar putea gene
2. Orice diferend intre partile contractante cu privire la interpretarea sau aplicarea prezentei conventii, care nu s-a rezolvat pe b
dispozitiilor paragrafului precedent sau pe calea negocierii intre partile in diferend, si cu exceptia cazului in care partile convin altfel, este
cererea uneia dintre ele, supusa arbitrajului. Fiecare dintre parti va desemna un arbitru si cei doi arbitri vor desemna un al treilea arbi
Daca, sub rezerva dispozitiilor paragrafului 3 al prezentului articol, intr-un interval de 3 luni, socotite de la cererea de arbitraj, una din
parti nu si-a desemnat arbitrul, presedintele Curtii Europene a Drepturilor Omului va proceda, la cererea celeilalte parti, la desemnarea
intr-un nou interval de 3 luni. Aceeasi procedura se va aplica si in cazul in care cei doi arbitri nu se pot pune de acord asupra alegerii ce
de-al
treilea
arbitru,
intr-un
interval
de
3
luni
socotite
de
la
desemnarea
primilor
doi
arbitri.
3. In cazul diferendului intre doua parti contractante, dintre care una este un stat membru al Comunitatii Economice Europene, ea in
parte contractanta, cealalta adreseaza cererea de arbitraj simultan acestui stat membru si comunitatii, care-i va notifica concomitent, intr
interval de doua luni de la primirea cererii, daca statul membru sau comunitatea sau statul membru si comunitatea impreuna se consti
parte la diferend. In lipsa unei astfel de notificari in intervalul numit, statul membru si comunitatea sint considerate o singura si aceeasi p
la diferend in vederea aplicarii dispozitiilor care guverneaza constituirea si procedura Curtii de arbitraj. Acelasi lucru cind statul membru
comunitatea
se
constituie
impreuna
parte
la
diferend.
4. Curtea de arbitraj isi va stabili propriile norme procedurale. Hotaririle se vor lua cu majoritate de voturi. Sentinta sa este definitiv
obligatorie.
5. Fiecare parte la diferend suporta cheltuielile arbitrului pe care l-a desemnat si partile suporta, in mod egal, cheltuielile celui de-al tre
arbitru
ca
si
celelalte
cheltuieli
antrenate
de
arbitraj.
CAP.

Dispozitii

finale

ART.
1. Prezenta conventie este deschisa pentru semnare statelor membre ale Consiliului Europei si statelor membre care au participat
elaborarea
sa,
ca
si
Comunitatii
Economice
Europene.
Pina la data intrarii sale in vigoare, ea va fi, de asemenea, deschisa pentru semnare oricarui alt stat invitat de catre Comitetul de Minist
Conventia va fi supusa ratificarii, acceptarii sau aprobarii. Instrumentele de ratificare, acceptare sau aprobare vor fi depuse pe li
Secretariatul
General
al
Consiliului
Europei.
2. Conventia va intra in vigoare in prima zi a lunii care urmeaza expirarii unei perioade de 3 luni dupa data la care cinci state, dintre care
putin patru state membre ale Consiliului Europei, isi vor exprima consimtamintul de a se supune conventiei conform dispoziti

paragrafului
precedent.
3. Ea va intra in vigoare fata de orice stat semnatar sau al Comunitatii Economice Europene, care-si vor exprima ulterior consimtamintul
a se supune ei, in prima zi a lunii care urmeaza expirarii unei perioade de 3 luni dupa data depunerii instrumentelor de ratificare, accep
sau
aprobare.
ART.
1. Dupa intrarea in vigoare a prezentei conventii, Comitetul de Ministri al Consiliului Europei va putea, dupa consultarea part
contractante, sa invite sa adere la conventie orice stat nemembru al consiliului care, invitat sa o semneze conform prevederilor art. 19, n
va
fi
facut
inca,
si
oricare
alt
stat
nemembru.
2. Pentru orice alt stat care adera, conventia va intra in vigoare in prima zi a lunii care urmeaza expirarii unei perioade de trei luni dupa d
depunerii
instrumentelor
de
aderare
pe
linga
Secretarul
general
al
Consiliului
Europei.
ART.
1. Orice stat poate, in momentul semnarii sau in momentul depunerii instrumentului sau de ratificare, acceptare, aprobare sau aderare
precizeze
teritoriul
sau
teritoriile
in
care
se
va
aplica
prezenta
conventie.
2. Orice parte contractanta poate, in momentul depunerii instrumentului de ratificare, acceptare, aprobare sau aderare, sau in orice
moment care urmeaza sa extinda aplicarea prezentei conventii prin declaratie adresata secretarului general al Consiliului Europei si la
teritoriu desemnat in declaratie si caruia-i asigura relatiile internationale sau pentru care ea este abilitata sa o stipuleze
3. Orice declaratie facuta in virtutea paragrafului precedent va putea fi retrasa, in ceea ce priveste orice teritoriu desemnat in acea
declaratie, prin notificare adresata secretarului general. Retragerea va deveni efectiva incepind cu prima zi a lunii care urmeaza expirarii u
perioade
de
sase
luni
dupa
data
primirii
notificarii
de
catre
secretarul
general.
ART.
1. Orice stat poate, in momentul semnarii sau in momentul depunerii instrumentului sau de ratificare, acceptare, aprobare sau aderare
formuleze una sau mai multe observatii cu privire la anumite specii enumerate in anexele nr. II si III si/sau pentru unele dintre aceste sp
care vor fi indicate in observatia sau observatiile, cu privire la anumite mijloace sau metode de vinatoare si alte forme de exploat
mentionate
in
anexa
nr.
IV.
Observatiile
cu
caracter
general
nu
sint
admise.
2. Orice parte contractanta care extinde aplicarea prezentei conventii la un teritoriu mentionat in declaratia prevazuta in paragraful 2 al
21 poate sa formuleze una sau mai multe observatii conform dispozitiilor paragrafului precedent pentru teritoriul respecti
3.
Nici
o
alta
observatie
nu
este
admisa.
4. Orice parte contractanta care a formulat o observatie in virtutea paragrafelor 1 si 2 ale prezentului articol o poate retrage in totalitate
partial, adresind o notificare secretarului general al Consiliului Europei. Retragerea va deveni efectiva la data primirii notificarii de ca
secretarul
general.
ART.
1. Orice parte contractanta poate, in orice moment, sa denunte prezenta conventie adresind o notificare secretarului general al Consiliu
Europei.
2. Denuntarea va deveni efectiva in prima zi a lunii care urmeaza expirarii unei perioade de 6 luni dupa data primirii notificarii de ca
secretarul
general.
ART.
Secretarul general al Consiliului Europei va notifica statelor membre ale Consiliului Europei, fiecarui stat semnatar, Comunitatii Econom
Europene
semnatare
a
prezentei
conventii
si
fiecarei
parti
contractante:
a)
orice
semnare;
b)
depunerea
oricarui
instrument
de
ratificare,
acceptare,
aprobare
sau
aderare;
c)
orice
data
de
intrare
in
vigoare
a
prezentei
conventii
conform
art.
19
si
20;
d)
orice
informatie
comunicata
in
virtutea
prevederilor
paragrafului
3
al
art.
13;
e)
orice
raport
stabilit
in
aplicarea
art.
15;
f) orice amendament sau noua anexa adoptata conform art. 16 si 17 si data la care acest amendament sau aceasta noua anexa intra in vigoa

g)
orice
declaratie
facuta
in
virtutea
paragrafelor
2
si
3
ale
art.
21;
h)
orice
observatie
formulata
in
virtutea
dispozitiilor
paragrafelor
1
si
2
ale
art.
22;
i)
retragerea
oricarei
observatii
exprimate
in
virtutea
dispozitiilor
paragrafului
4
al
art.
22;
j) orice notificare facuta in virtutea dispozitiilor art. 23 si data la care denuntarea va deveni efectiva
Drept
care,
subsemnatii
autorizati
in
acest
scop,
au
semnat
prezenta
conventie.
Redactata la Berna, la 19 septembrie 1979, in limbile franceza si engleza, ambele texte fiind identice si alcatuind un singur exemplar care
fi
depus
in
arhivele
Consiliului
Europei.
Secretarul general al Consiliului Europei va transmite copii certificate fiecaruia dintre statele membre ale Consiliului Europei, fiecarui s
precum si Comunitatii Economice Europene semnatare ca si fiecarui stat invitat sa semneze prezenta conventie sau sa adere la ea.
ANEXA 1 - SPECII DE FLORA STRICT PROTEJATE
PTERIDOPHYTA
ASPLENIACEAE

CRUCIFERAE
Alyssum akamasicum

B.

L.

PAEONIACEAE
Burtt Paeonia
cambessedesii

(Willk.)

Asplenium
hemionitis
L.
Asplenium jahandiezii (Litard.) Rouy
BLECHNACEAE
Woodwardia
radicans
(L.)
Sm.
DICKSONIACEAE
Culcita
macrocarpa
C.
Presl
DRYOPTERIDACEAE
Dryopteris
corleyi
Fraser-Jenk.
Polystichum drepanum (Swartz) C. Presl
HYMENOPHYLLACEAE
Hymenophyllum
maderensis
Trichomanes
speciosum
Willd.
ISOETACEAE
Isoetes
azorica
Darieu
ex
Milde
Isoetes
boryana
Durieu
Isoetes malinverniana Ces. & De Not.
MARSILEACEAE
Marsilea
azorica
Launert
Marsilea
batardae
Launert
Marsilea
quadrifolia
L.
Marsilea
strigosa
Willd.
Pitularia minuta Durieu ex Braun
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE
Botrychium
simplex
Hitchc.
Ophioglossum polyphyllum A. Braun
SALVINIACEAE
Salvinia
natans
(L.)
All.
GYMNOSPINACEAE
Abies
nebrodensis
(Lojac.)
Mattei
ANGIOSPERMAE
AGAVACEAE
Dracaena
draco
(L.)
L.
ALISMATACEAE
Alisma wahlenbergii (O. R. Holmb) Juz.
Caldesia
parnassifolia
(L.)
Parl.
Luronium
natans
(L.)
Raf.
AMARYLLIDACEAE
Leucojum
nicaeense
Ard.
Narcissus
longispathus
Pugsley
Narcissus
nevadensis
Pugsley
Narcissus
scaberulus
Henriq.
Narcissus
triandrus
L.
Narcissus
viridiflorus
Schousboe
Sternbergia candida B. Mathew & Baytop
APOCYNACEAE
Rhazya orientalis (Decaisne) A. DC.
ARACEAE
Arum
purpureospathum
Boyce
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Aristolochia
samsunensis
Davis
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Caralluma burchardii N. E. Brown
Ceropegia
chrysantha
Svent.
BERBERIDACEAE
Berberis
maderensis
Lowe
BORAGINACEAE
Alkanna
pinardii
Boiss.
Anchusa crispa Viv. (inclu. A. litoreae)
Echium gentianoides Webb ex Coincy
Lithodora nitida (H. Ern) R. Fernandes

Alyssum pyrenaicum Lapeyr. (Ptilotrichum


pyrenaicum
(Lapevr.)
Boiss.)
Arabis
kennedyae
Meikle
Biscutella
neustriaca
Bonnet
Boleum
asperum
(Pers.)
Desvaux
Brassica
glabrescens
Poldini
Brassica
hilarionis
Post
Brassica
insularis
Moris
Brassica
macrocarpa
Guss.
Braya
purpurasceus
(R.Br.)
Bunge
Coincya rupestris Rouy (Hutera rupestris P.
Porta)
Coronopus navasii Pau Crambe arborea
Webb
ex
Christ
Crambe
laevigata
DC.
ex
Christ
Crambe sventenii B. Petters. ex Bramw. &
Sunding
Diplotaxis ibicensis (Pau) Gomez - Campo
Diplotaxis
siettiana
Maire
Erucastrum
palustre
(Pirona)
Vis.
Iberis arbuscula Runemark Ionopsidium
acaule
(Desf.)
Reichemb.
Ionopsidium savianum (Caruel) Ball ex
Arcang.
Murbeckiella
sousae
Rothm.
Parolinia
schizogynoides
Svent.
Sisymbrium cavanillesianum Valdes &
Castroviejo
(S. matritense P. W. Ball & Heywood)
Sisymbrium
confertum
Stev.
Sisymbrium
supinum
L.
Thlaspi
cariense
A.
Carlstrom
CYPERACEAE
Eleocharis
carniolica
Koch
DIOSCOREACEAE
Borderea chouardii (Gaussen) Heslot
DIPSACACEAE
Dipsacus cephalarioides Mathews &
Kupicha
DROSERACEAE
Aldrovanda
vesiculosa
L.
ERICACEAE
Erica scoparia L. subsp. azorica (Hochst.)
A.
D.
Webb
EUPHORBIACEAE
Euphorbia
handiensis
Burchard
Euphorbia
lambii
Svent.
Euphorbia margalidiana Kuhbier &
Lewejohann
Euphorbia nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter
Euphorbia stygiana H. C. Watson
GENTIANACEAE
Centaurium
rigualii
Esteve
Chueca
Centaurium
somedanum
Lainz
Gentiana ligustica R. de Vilm. Chopinet
Gentianella anglica (Pugsley) E. P. Warburg
GERANIACEAE
Erodium astragaloides Boiss. & Reuter
Erodium chrysanthum L'Herit. ex DC.
Erodium paularense Fernandez - Gonzalez

Paeonia clusii F. C. Stern subsp.rho


(Stearn)
Tzanouda
Paeonia
parnassica
Tzanouda
PALMAE
Phoenix
theophrasti
Greu
PAPAVERACEAE
Papaver lapponicum (Tolm.) Nor
Rupicapnos
africana
(Lam.)
Po
PITTOSPORACEAE
Pittosporum coriaceum Dryander ex Ai
PLUMBAGINACEAE
Armeria pseudarmeria (Murray) Mansf
Armeria
rouyana
Dav
Armeria
soleirolii
(Duby)
God
Armeria velutina Welv. ex Boiss. & Reu
Limonium
anatolicum
He
Limonium arborescens (Brouss.) Ku
Limonium
dendroides
Sve
Limonium spectabile (Svent.) Kunkel
Sunding

Limonium sventenii Santos & Fernan


Galvan

Limonium
tamaricoides
Bokh
POLEMONIACEAE
Polemonium
boreale
Ada
POLYGONACEAE
Polygonum praelongum Coode & Cu
Rumex
rupestris
Le
G
PRIMULACEAE
Androsace
cylindrica
D
Androsace
mathildae
Lev
Androsace
pyrenaica
La
Cyclamen
mirabile
Hild
Lysimachia minoricensis J. D. Rodrig
Primula
apennina
Widm
Primula
egaliksensis
Worm
Primula
glaucescens
Mor
Primula
palinuri
Peta
Primula
spectabilis
Tr
Soldanella
villosa
Darr
RANUNCULACEAE
Aconitum
corsicum
Ga
Adonis cyllenea Boiss., Heldr. & Or
Adonis
distorta
T
Aquilegia
bertolonii
Sch
Aquilegia
kitaibelii
Sch
Aquilegia ottonis subsp. taygetea
(Orp
Strid
Aquilegia
pyrenaica
DC.sub
cazorlensis (Heywood) Galiano &
Ri
Martinez (Aquilegia cazor len
Heywood)
Consolida
samia
P.
H.
Da
Delphinium
caseyi
B.
L.
Bu
Pulsattila
patens
(L.)
Mi
Ranunculus
fontanus
C.
P
Ranunculus
kykkoensis
Mei
Ranunculus
weyleri
Ma
RESEDACEAE
Reseda
decursiva
Forssk.
Gibra

Myosotis
azorica
H.
C.
Watson
Myosotis
rehsteineri
Wartm.
Omphalodes
kuzinskyana
Willk.
Omphalodes
littoralis
Lehm.
Onosma halophilum Boiss & Heldr.
Onosma
proponticum
Aznav.
Onosma
troodi
Kotschy
Solenanthus albanicus (Degen et al.)
Degen
&
Baldacci
Symphytum
cycladense
Pawl.
CAMPANULACEAE
Asyneuma giganteum (Boiss.) Bornm.
Azorina vidalii (H. C. Watson) Feer
Campanula
damboldtiana
Davis
Campanula lycica Sorger & Kit Tan
Campanula
morettiana
Reichenb.
Campanula
sabatia
De
Not.
Jasione
lusitanica
A.
DC.
Musschia
aurea
(L.
f.)
DC.
Musschia
wollastonii
Lowe
Physoplexis
comosa
(L.)
Schur
Trachelium asperuloides Boiss. & Orph.
CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Sambucus
palmensis
Link
CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Arenaria nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter
Arenaria
provincialis
Charter
Halliday
Dianthus
rupicola
Biv.
Gypsophila
papillosa
P.
Porta
Herniaria
algarvica
Chaudri
Herniaria
maritima
Link
Moehringia
fontqueri
Pau
Moehringia
tommasinii
Marches.
Petrocoptis
grandiflora
Rothm.
Petrocoptis montsicciana O. Bolos Rivas
Mart.
Petrocoptis pseudoviscosa Fernandez Casas
Saponaria halophila Hedge & Hub. - Mor.
Silene furcata Raf. subsp. angustiflora
(Rupr.)
Walters
Silene haussknechtii Heldr. ex Husskn.
Silene
hifacensis
Rouy
ex
Wilk.
Silene holzmanii Heldr. ex Boiss.
Silene
mariana
Pau
Silene
orphanidis
Boiss.
Silene pompeiopolitana Gay ex Boiss.
Silene
rothmaleri
Pinto
da
Silva
Silene
salsuginea
Hub.
Mor
Silene
sangaria
Coode
&
Cullen
Silene velutina Pourret ex Loisel.
CHENOPODICEAE
Beta adanensis Pamuk. apud Aellen
Beta trojana Pamuk. apud Aellen
Kalidiopsis
wagenitzii
Aellen
Kochia
saxicola
Guss.
Microcnemum coralloides (Loscos & Pardo)
subsp.
anatolicum
Wagenitz
Salicornia veneta Pignatti & Lausi
Salsola
anatolica
Aellen
Suaeda
cucullata
Aellen

&
Izco
Erodium
rupicola
Boiss.
Geranium
maderense
Yeo
GESNERIACEAE
Jankaea
heldreichii
(Boiss.)
Boiss.
Ramonda
serbica
Pancic
GRAMINEAE
Avenula
hackelii
(Henriq.)
Holub
Bromus
bromoideus
(Lej.)
Crepin
Bromus
grossus
Desf.
ex
DC.
Bromus interruptus
(Hackel)
Druce
Bromus psammophilus P. M. Smith
Coleanthus
subtilis
(Tratt.)
Seidl
Eremopoa
mardinensis
R.
Mill
Gaudinia hispanica Stace & Tutin
Micropyropsis tuberosa Romero - Zanco
Cabezudo
Puccinellia
pungens (Pau)
Paunero
Stipa
austroitalica
Martinovsky
Stipa bavarica Martinovsky & H. Scholz
Stipa
styriaca
Martinovsky
Trisetum subalpestre (Hartm.) Neuman
GROSSULARIACEAE
Ribes
sardoum
Martelli
HYPERICACEAE
Hypericum
aciferum
(Greuter)
N.
K.
B.
Robson
Hypericum salsugineum Robson & Hub. Mor.
IRIDACEAE
Crocus abantensis T. Baytop & Mathew
Crocus
cyprius
Boiss.
&
Kotschy
Crocus
etruscus
Parl.
Crocus
hartmannianus
Holmboe
Crocus robertianus C. D. Brickell
Iris
marsica
Ricci
&
Colasante
LABIATAE
Dracocephalum
austriacum
L.
Micromeria
taygetea
P. H.
Davis
Nepeta dirphya (Boiss.) Heldr. ex Halacsy
Nepeta
sphaciotica
P.
H.
Davis
Origanum cordifolium (Auch. & Montbr.)
Vogel
(Amaracus
cordifolium
Montr.
&
A)
Origanum
dictamnus
L.
Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr.
Phlomis
brevibracteata
Turrill
Phlomis
cypria
Post
Rosmarinus tomentosus Huber - Morath &
Maire
Salvia
crassifolia
Sibth.
&
Smith
Sideritis
cypria
Post
Sideritis
cystosiphon
Svent.
Sideritis discolor (Webb ex de Noe) bolle
Sideritis incana L. ssp. glauca (Cav.)
Malagarriga
Sideritis
infernalis
Bolle
Sideritis
javalambrensis
Pau
Sideritis
marmorea
Bolle
Sideritis
serrata
Cav.
ex
Lag.

ROSACEAE
Bencomia
brachystachya
Sve
Bencomia
sphaerocarpa
Sve
Chamaemeles
coriacea
Lin
Crataegus
dikmensis
Poj
Dendriopoterium
pulidoi
Sve
Potentilla delphinensis Gren. & God
Pyrus
anatolica
Brow
RUBIACEAE
Galium globuliferum Hub. - Mor. & Re
Galium
litorale
Gu
Galium viridiflorum Boiss. & Reu
RUTACEAE
Ruta
microcarpa
Sve
SANTALACEAE
Kunkeliella
subsucculenta
Kamm
Thesium
ebracteatum
Ha
SAPOTACEAE
Sideroxylon marmulano Banks ex Lo
SAXIFRAGACEAE
Saxifraga berica (Beguinot) D. A. W
Saxifraga cintrana Kuzinsky ex W
Saxifraga
florulenta
Mor
Saxifraga
hirculus
Saxifraga
portosanctana
Bo
Saxifraga
presolanensis
En
Saxifraga tombeanensis Boiss. ex E
Saxifraga
valdensis
DC.
Saxifr
vayredana
Lu
SCROPHULARIACEAE
Antirrhinum
charidemi
La
Euphrasia
azorica
H.
C.
Wat
Euphrasia
grandiflora
Hoc
Euphrasia marchesetti Wettst. ex March
Isoplexis chalcantha Svent. & O'Shanah
Isoplexis isabelliana (Webb & Berth
Masferrer
Linaria
algarviana
Ch
Linaria
ficalhoana
R
Linaria
flava
(Poiret)
D
Linaria
hellenica
Tu
Linaria
ricardoi
Co
Linaria tursica B. Valdes & Cabez
Lindernia procumbens (Krocker) Phil
Odontites
granatensis
Bo
Verbascum afyonense Hub. - M
Verbascum basivelatum Hub. - M
Verbascum cylleneum (Boiss. & Hel
Kuntze
Verbascum
degenii
H
Verbascum stepporum Hub. - M
Veronica oetaea L. - A. Gustavs
SELAGINACEAE
Globularia ascanii D. Bramwell & Kun
Globularia
sarcophylla
Sve
Globularia stygia Orph. ex Bo
SOLANACEAE
Atropa
baetica
Wi
Mandragora
officinarum
Solanum
lidii
Sund

CISTACEAE
Helianthemum alypoides Losa & Rivas
Goday
Helianthemum bystropogophyllum Svent.
Helianthemum
caput-felis
Boiss.
Tuberaria major (Willk.) Pinto da Silva &
Roseira
COMPOSITAE
Anacyclus latealatus Hub. - Mor.
Anthemis glaberrima (Rech. f.) Greuter
Anthemis halophila Boiss. & Bal.
Argyranthemum
lidii
Humphries.
Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L. F.) Lowe
subsp. succulentum (Lowe) Humphries
Argyranthemum
winterii
(Svent.)
Humphries
Artemisia
granatensis
Boiss.
Artemisia
insipida
Vill.
Artemisia
laciniata
Willd.
Artemisia
pancicii
(Janka)
Ronn.
Aster pyrenaeus Desf. ex DC. France.
Aster sibiricus L. Atractylis arbuscula Svent.
&
Michaelis
Atractylis
preauxiana
Schultz
Bip.
Carduus myriacanthus Salzm. ex DC.
Carlina diae (Rech. f.) Meusel & Kastener
Centaurea alba L. subsp. heldreichii
(Halacsy)
Dostal
(Centaurea
heldreichii
Halacsy)
Centaurea alba L. subsp. princeps (Boiss. &
Heldr.)
Gugler (Centaurea princeps Boiss. &
Heldr.)
Centaurea attica Nyman subsp. megarensis
(Halacsy & Hayek) Dostal (Centaurea
megarensis
Halacsy
&
Hayek)
Centaurea balearica J. D. Rodriguez
Centaurea borjae Valdes - Berm. & Rivas
Goday
Centaurea
citricolor
Font
Quer
Centaurea
corymbosa
Pourret
Centaurea
hermannii
F.
Hermann
Centaurea
horrida
Badaro
Centaurea kalambakensis Freyn & Sint.
Centaurea
kartschiana
Scop.
Centaurea
lactiflora
Halacsy
Centaurea
niederi
Heldr.
Centaurea peucedanifolia Boiss. & Orph.
Centaurea
pinnata
Pau
Centaurea pulvinata (G. Blanca) G. Blanca
Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fich. & Mey.
Crepis crocifolia
Boiss. & Heldr.
Crepis granatensis (Willk.) G. Blanca & M.
Cueto
Crepis purpurea Willd. Bieb. Erigeron
frigidus
Boiss.
ex
DC.
Helichrysum
gossypinum
Webb
Helichrysum
sibthorpii
Rouy
Hymenostemma pseudanthemis (Kunze)
Willd.

Teucrium
charidemi
Sandwith
Teucrium
lepicephalum
Pau
Teucrium turredanum Losa & Rivas Goday
Thymus
aznavourii
Velen.
Thymus camphoratus Hoffmanns. & Link
Thymus
carnosus
Boiss.
Thymus
cephalotos
L.
LEGUMINOSAE
Anagyris latifolia Brouss. ex Willd.
Anthyllis hystrix Cardona, Contandr. & E.
Sierra
Austragalus algarbiensis Coss. ex Bunge
Astragalus
aquilanus
Anzalone
Astragalus centralpinus Braun - Blanquet
Astragalus macrocarpus DC. subsp.
lefkarensis Agerer - Kirchoff & Meikle
Astragalus
maritimus
Moris
Astragalus
tremolsianus
Pau
Astragalus
verrucosus
Moris
Cytisus
aeolicus
Guss.
ex
Lindl.
Dorycnium spectabile Webb & Berthel.
Genista
dorycnifolia
Font
Quer
Genista holopetala (Fleischm. ex Koch)
Baldacci
Glycyrrhiza
iconica
Hub.
Mor.
Lotus
azoricus
P.
W.
Ball
Lotus callis-viridis D. Bramwell & D. H.
Davis
Lotus kunkelii (E. Chueca) D. Bramwell et
al.
Ononis
maweana
Ball
Oxytropis deflexa (Pallas) DC. ssp.
norvegica
Nordh.
Sphaerophysa
kotschyana
Boiss.
Teline rosmarinifolia Webb & Berthel.
Teline salsoloides Arco & Acebes.
Thermopsis turcica Kit Tan. Vural &
Kucukodu
Trifolium
pachycalyx
Zoh.
Trifolium
saxatile
All.
Trigonella arenicola Hub. - Mor.
Trigonella
halophila
Boiss.
Trigonella polycarpa Boiss. & Heldr.
Vicia
bifoliolata
J.
D.
Rodriguez
Vicia
dennesiana
H.
C.
Watson
LENTIBULARIACEAE
Pinguicula crystallina Sibth. & Sm.
Pinguicula nevadensis (Lindb.) Casper
LILIACEAE
Allium
grosii
Font
Quer
Allium
vuralii
Kit
Tan
Androcymbium europaeum (Lange) K.
Richter
Androcymbium
psammophilum
Svent.
Androcymbium
rechingeri
Greuter
Asparagus
lycaonicus
Davis
Asphodelus bento-rainhae Pinto da Silva
Chionodoxa
lochiae
Meikle
Chionodoxa
luciliae
Boiss.
Colchicum arenarium Waldst. & Kit.

THYMELAEACEAE
Daphne
petraea
Leyb
Daphne
rodriguezii
Texi
Thymelea
broterana
Coutin
TRAPACEAE
Trapa
natans
TYPHACEAE
Typha
minima
Fu
Typha shuttleworthii Koch & Son
ULMACEAE
Zelkova
abelicea
(Lam.)
Bo
UMBELLIFERAE
Angelica
heterocarpa
Ll
Angelica palustris (Besser) Hoffm
Apium
bermejoi
Llorens
Api
repens
(Jacq.)
L
Athamanta
cortiana
Ferra
Bunium
brevifolium
Lo
Bupleurum capillare Boiss. & Hel
Bupleurum
dianthifolium
G
Bupleurum handiense (Bolle) Kun
Bupleurum
kakiskalae
Greu
Eryngium
alpinum
Eryngium
viviparum
G
Ferula
halophila
H.
Pesm
Ferula
latipinna
San
Laserpitium
longiradium
Bo
Naufraga balearica Constance & Can
Oenanthe
conioides
La
Petagnia
saniculifolia
Gu
Rouya polygama (Desf.) Coincy Se
intricatum
Bo
Thorella verticillatinundata (Thore) B
VALERIANACEAE
Centranthus trinervis (Viv.) Begui
VIOLACEAE
Viola
athois
W.
Bec
Viola
cazorlensis
Gando
Viola
cryana
Gi
Viola
delphinantha
Bo
Viola
hispida
L
Viola jaubertiana Mares & Vigin
BRYOPHYTA
BRYOPSIDA:
ANTHOCEROT
ANTHOCEROTACEAE
Notothylas orbicularis (Schwein.) S
BRYOPSIDA:
HEPATIC
AYTONIACEAE
Mannia
triandra
(Scop.)
Gr
CEPHALOZIACEAE
Cephalozia
macounii
(Aust.)
A
CODONIACEAE
Petalophyllum ralfsii (Wils.) Nees
Gott.

ex

Le

FRULLANIACEAE
Frullania
parvistipula
Ste
GYMNOMITRIACEAE
Marsupella
profunda
Lin
JUNGERMANNIACEAE
Jungermannia handelii (Schiffn.) Am

Hypochoeris oligocephala ( Svent. & D.


Bramwell)
Lack
Jurinea
cyanoides
(L.)
Reichenb.
Jurinea
fontqueri
Cuatrec.
Lactuca
watsoniana
Trelease
Lamyropsis microcephala (Moris) Dittrich
&
Greuter
Leontodon
boryi
Boiss.
ex
DC.
Leontodon microcephalus (Boiss. ex DC.)
Boiss.
Leontodon siculus (Guss.) Finch & Sell
Ligularia
sibirica
(L.)
Cass.
Onopordum
carduelinum
Bolle
Onopordum
nogalesii
Svent.
Pericallis
hadrosomus
Svent.
Picris willkommii (Schultz Bip.) Nyman
Santolina
elegans
Boiss.
ex
DC.
Senecio
elodes
Boiss.
ex
DC.
Senecio nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter
Sonchus
erzincanicus
Matthews
Stemmacantha
cynaroides
Sventenia
bupleuroides
Font
Quer
Tanacetum ptarmiciflorum (Webb) Schultz
Bip.
Wagenitzia lancifolia (Sieber ex Sprengel)
Dostal
CONVOLVULACEAE
Convolvulus
argyrothamnos
Greuter
Convolvulus
caput-medusae
Lowe
Convolvulus
lopez-socasi
Svent.
Convolvulus
massonii
A.
Dietr.
Convolvulus
pulvinatus
Sa'ad.
Pharbitis
preauxii
Webb
CRASSULACEAE
Aeonium
gomeraense
Praeger
Aeonium saundersii Bolle

Colchicum
corsicum
Baker
Colchicum
cousturieri
Greuter
Colchicum
micranthum
Boiss.
Fritillaria
conica
Boiss.
Fritillaria drenovskii Degen & Stoy.
Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix
Fritillaria euboeica (Rix Doerfler) Rix
Fritillaria gussichiae (Degen & Doerfler)
Rix
Fritillaria
obliqua
Ker
Gawl.
Fritillaria rhodocanakis Orph. ex Baker
Fritillaria tuntasia Heldr. ex Halacsy
Muscari
gussonei
(Parl.)
Tod.
Ornithogalum
reverchonii
Lange
Scilla
morrisii
Meikle
Scilla
odorata
Link
Tulipa
cypria
Stapf
Tulipa
goulimya
Sealy
&
Turrill
Tulipa
praecox
Ten.
Tulipa
sprengeri
Baker
LYTHRACEAE
Lythrum
flexuosum
Lag.
Lythrum
thesioides
M.
Bieb.
MALVACEAE
Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (L.) Ledeb.
MYRICACEAE
Myrica
rivas-martinezii
Santos.
NAJADACEAE
Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & W. L.
Schmidt
Najas tenuissima (A. Braun) Magnus
ORCHIDACEAE
Cephalanthera cucullata Boiss. & Heldr.
Comperia comperiana (Steven) Aschers. &
Graebner
Cypripedium
calceolus
L.
Dactylorhiza chuhensis Renz & Taub.
Goodyera
macrophylla
Lowe
Liparis
loeselii
(L.)
Rich.
Ophrys
argolica
Fleischm.
Ophrys
isaura
Renz
&
Taub.
Ophrys kotschyi
Fleischm. & Soo
Ophrys
lanulata
Parl.
Ophrys
lycia
Renz
&
Taub.
Orchis
scopulorum
Summerh.
Platanthera obtusata (Pursh) Lindl. subsp.
oligantha
(Turcz.)
Hulten
Spiranthes aestivalis (Poiret) L. C. M.
Richard

RICCIACEAE
Riccia
breidleri
Jur.
ex
Ste
RIELLACEAE
Riella
helicophylla
(Mont.)
Ho
SCAPANIACEAE
Scapania massalongi (K. Muell.) K. Mu
BRYOPSIDA:
MUS
AMBLYSTEGIACEAE
Drepanocladus vernicosus (Mitt.) Warn
BRUCHIACEAE
Bruchia
vogesiaca
Schwae
BUXBAUMIACEAE
Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & D
Brid.
ex
Moug.
&
Ne
DICRANACEAE
Atractylocarpus alpinus (Schimp. ex Mil
Lindb.
Cynodontium suecicum (H. Arn. &
Jens.)
I.
H
Dicranum viride (Sull. & Lesq.) Lin
ECHINODIACEAE
Echinodium
spinosum
(Mitt.)
J
FONTINALACEAE
Dichelyma capillaceum (With.) M
FUNARIACEAE
Pyramidula
tetragona
(Brid.)
Br
HOOKERIACEAE
Distichophyllum carinatum Dix. & N
MEESIACEAE
Meesia
longiseta
He
ORTHOTRICHACEAE
Orthotrichum
rogeri
Br
POTTIACEAE
Bryoerythrophyllum machadoanum (Ser
M.
H
SPHAGNACEAE
Sphagnum
pylaisii
B
SPLACHNACEAE
Tayloria rudolphiana (Garov.) B. S.
THAMNIACEAE
Thamnobryum fernandesii Sergio

ANEXA 2 - SPECII DE FAUN STRICT PROTEJATE

Vertebrate
Mamifere
INSECTIVORA
Erinaceidae
Erinacus
(Aethechinus)
Soricidae

COLUMBIFORMES
Pteroclididae
Toate
Columbidae
Columba
Columba
algirus CUCULIFORMES
Cuculidae

OPHIDIA
Colubridae
speciile Coluber
Coluber
bollii Coluber
junoniae Coluber
Coluber
Elaphe

hippocre
najad
viridifla
gemonen
jugula
sit

Crocidura
Crocidura
Crocidura
Talpidae

ariadne Clamator
cypria STRIGIFORMES
canariensis Toate
CAPRIMULGIFORMES
Caprimulgidae
Toate
Desmana pyrenaica (Galemys pyrenaicus) APODIFORMES
MICROCHIROPTERA
Apodidae
Toate
speciile,
cu
excepia : Apus
Pipistrellus
pipistrellus Apus
RODENTIA
Apus
Sciuridae
Apus
Sciurus
anomalus CORACIIFORMES
Citellus
citellus Alcedinidae
Pteromys volans (Sciuropterus russicus) Alcedo
Cricetidae
Ceryle
Cricetus
cricetus Halcyon
Microtidae
Meropidae
Pitymys bavaricus (Microtus bavaricus) Merops
Zapodidae
Coraciidae
Sicista
betulina Coracias
Sicista
subtilis Upopidae
Hystricidae
Upopa
Hystrix
cristata PICIFORMES
CARNIVORA
Toate
Canidae
PASSERIFORMES
Canis
lupus Alaudidae
Alopex
lagopus Calandrella
Ursidae
Calandrella
Toate
speciile Melanocorypha
Mustelidae
Melanocorypha
Lutreola
(Mustela)
lutreola Melanocorypha
Lutra
lutra Melanocorypha
Gulo
gulo Galerida
Felidae
Chersophilus
Felis
silvestris
(catus) Eremophila
Lynx
pardina
(pardellus) Hirundinidae
Panthera
pardus Toate
Panthera
tigris Motacilidae
Odobenidae
Toate
Odobenus
rosmarus Pycnonotidae
Phocidae
Pycnonotus
Monachus
monachus Laniidae
ARTIODACTYLA
Toate
Cervidae
Bombycillidae
Cervus
elaphus
corsicanus Bombycilla
Bovidae
Cinclidae
Capra
aegagrus Cinclus
Capra
pyrenaica
pyrenaica Troglodytidae
Rupicapra
rupicapra
ornata Troglodytes
Ovibos
moschatus Prunellidae
CETACEA
Toate
Delphinidae
Muscicapidae
Orcinus
orca Turdinae
Pseudoroa
crassidens Saxicola
Grampus
griseus Saxicola
Globicephala
melaena Saxicola
Delphinus
delphis Oenanthe
Tursiops
truncatus
(tursio) Oenanthe
pleschanka
Lagenorhynchus
acutus Oenanthe

glandarius Elaphe
quatuorline
Elaphe
longissi
speciile Natrix
tessall
Coronella
austri
Telescopus
fal
speciile Viperidae
Vipera
urs
Vipera
lat
pallidus Vipera
ammody
melba Vipera
xanth
caffer Vipera
lebet
unicolor Vipera
kaznak
Amfibieni
CAUDATA
atthis Salamandridae
rudis Salamandra
a
smyrnensis Salamandra
(Mertensiella)
lusch
Salamandrina
terdigit
apiaster Chioglossa
lusitan
Euproctus
as
garrulus Euproctus
monta
Euproctus
platycepha
epops Triturus
crista
Triturus
montand
speciile Triturus
itali
Triturus
carni
Triturus
dobrogi
brachydactyla Triturus
karel
rufescens Plethodontidae
bimaculata Hydromantes
ge
calandra Hydromantes
fla
leucoptera Hydromantes
supramon
yeltoniensis Hydromantes
imperi
theklae Hydromantes
itali
duponti Proteidae
alpestris Proteus
angui
ANURA
speciile Discoglossidae
Bombina
varieg
speciile Bombina
bomb
Discoglossus
pic
barbatus Discoglossus
galga
Discoglossus
sar
speciile Discoglossus
jeann
Alytes
obstetric
garrulus Alytes
cistern
Alytes
muleten
cinclus Pelobatidae
Pelobates
cultri
troglodytes Pelobates
fus
Pelobates
syria
speciile Pelodytes
caucasi
Bufonidae
Bufo
calam
rubetra Bufo
vir
torquata Hylidae
dacotiae Hyla
arbo
oenanthe Hyla
meridion
(leucomela) Hyla
sa
hispanica Ranidae

Lagenorhynchus
albirostris
Steno
bredanensis
Stenella
coeruleoalba
Phocaenidae
Phocaena
phocaena
Ziphiidae
Hyperoodon
rostratus
Mesoplodon
mirus
Mesoplodon
bidens
Ziphius
cavirostris
Balaenopteridae
Sibbaldus
(Balaenoptera)
musculus
Megaptera
novaengliae
(longimana,
nodosa)
Balaenidae
Eubalaena
glacialis
Balaena
mysticetus
Psri
GAVIIFORMES
Gaviidae
Toate
speciile
PODICIPEDIFORMES
Podicipedidae
Podiceps
griseigena
Podiceps
auritus
Podiceps
nigricollis
(caspicus)
Podiceps
ruficollis
PROCELLARIIFORMES
Hydrobatidae
Toate
speciile
Procellariidae
Bulweria
bulwerii
Procellaria
diomedea
Puffinus
puffinus
Puffinus
assimilis
bareli
Pterodroma
madeira
Pterodroma
feae
PELECANIFORMES
Phalacrocoracidae
Phalocrocorax
pygmaeus
Pelecanidae
Toate
speciile
CICONIIFORMES
Ardeidae
Ardea
purpurea
Casmerodius
albus
(Egretta
alba)
Egretta
garzetta
Ardeola
ralloides
Bulbucus
(Ardeola)
ibis
Nycticorax
nycticorax
Ixobrychus
minutus
Botaurus
stellaris
Cicomidae
Toate
speciile
Threskiornithidae
Toate
speciile
Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus
ruber
ANSERIFORMES
Anatidae

Oenanthe
isabellina Rana
arv
Oenanthe
leucura Rana
dalmat
Oenanthe
finschii Rana
lata
Cercotrichas
galactotes Rana
iber
Monticola
saxatilis Rana
ita
Monticola
solitarius Peti
Turdus
torquatus ACIPENSERIFORMES
Phoenicurus
ochruros Acipenseridae
Phoenicurus
phoenicurus Acipenser
nacc
Erithacus
rubecula SALMONIFORMES
Luscinia
megarhynchos Umbridae
Luscinia
luscinia Umbra
kram
Luscinia
(Cyanosylvia)
svecica ATHERINIFORMES
Tarsiger
cyanurus Cyprinodontidae
Irania
gutturalis Valencia
hispan
Sylviinae
PERCIFORMES
Toate
speciile Percidae
Regulinae
Zingel
as
Toate
speciile Nevertebrate
Muscicapinae
Artropode
Toate
speciile INSECTA
Timaliinae
Mantodea
Panurus
biarmicus Apteromantis
apt
Paridae
Odonata
Toate
speciile Calopteryx
syri
Sittidae
Sympecma
brau
Toate
speciile Coenagrion
fr
Certhiidae
Coenagrion
mercuri
Toate
speciile Aeshna
vir
Emberizidae
Stylurus
(=
Gomphus)
flavi
Emberiza
citrinella Gomphus
grasl
Emberiza
leucocephala Ophiogomphus
cec
Emberiza
cirlus Lindenia
tetraphy
Emberiza
cineracea Cordulegaster
trinacri
Emberiza
caesia Oxygastra
cur
Emberiza
cia Macromia
splend
Emberiza
schoeniclus Brachythemis
fuscopalli
Emberiza
melanocephala Leucorrhinia
albifr
Emberiza
aureola Leucorrhinia
caud
Emberiza
pusilla Leucorrhinia
pector
Emberiza
rustica Orthoptera
Plectrophenax
nivalis Baetica
ustul
Calcarius
lapponicus Saga
p
Fringillidae
Coleoptera
Carduelis
chloris Carabus
olymp
Carduelis
carduelis Dytiscus
latissim
Carduelis
spinus Graphoderus
bilinea
Carduelis
flavirostris Osmoderma
erem
Carduelis
cannabina Buprestis
splend
Carduelis
flammea Cucujus
cinnaberi
Carduelis
hornemanni Cerambyx
ce
Serinus
citrinella Rosalia
alp
Serinus
serinus Lepidoptera
Serinus
pusillus Papilio
hospi
Loxia
curvirostra Papilio
alexa
Loxia
pityopsittacus Zerynthia
polyx
Loxia
leucoptera Parnassius
apo
Loxia
scotica Parnassius
mnemos
Pinicola
enucleator Apatura
m
Carpodacus
erythrinus Fabriciana
e

Cygnus
cygnus Rhodopechys
Cygnus
bewickii
(columbianus) Coccothraustes
Anser
erythropus Fringilla
Branta
leucopsis Ploceidae
Branta
ruticollis Petronia
Tadorna
tadorna Montrifringilla
Tadorna
ferruginea Sturnidae
Marmaronetta
(Anas)
angustirostris Sturnus
Somateria
spectabilis Sturnus
Polysticta
stelleri Oriolidae
Histrionicus
histrionicus Oriolus
Bucephala
islandica Corvidae
Mergus
albellus Perisoreus
Oxyura
leucocephala Cyanopica
FALCONIFORMES
Nucifraga
Toate
speciile
Pyrrhocorax
GALLIFORMES
Pyrrhocorax
Tetraonidae
Reptile
Tetrao
urogallus
cantabricus TESTUDINES
GRUIFORMES
Testudinidae
Turnicidae
Tesdudo
Turnix
sylvatica Testudo
Gruidae
Testudo
Toate
speciile Emydidae
Rallidae
Emys
Porzana
porzana Mauremys
Porzana
pusilla Dermochelyidae
Porzana
parva Dermochelys
Crex
crex Cheloniidae
Porphyrio
porphyrio Caretta
Fulica
cristata Lepidochelys
Otitidae
Chelonia
Toate
speciile Eretmochelys
CHARADRIIFORMES
SAURIA
Charadriidae
Gekkonidae
Hoplopterus
spinosus Tarentola
Charadrius
hiaticula Tarentola
Charadrius
dubius Tarentola
Charadrius
alexandrinus Tarentola
Charadrius
leschenaulti Phyllodactylus
Eudromias
morinellus Cyrtodactylus
Arenaria
interpres Agamidae
Scolopacidae
Agama
Gallinago
media Chamaeleontidae
Numenius
tenuirostris Chamaeleo
Tringa
stagnatilis Lacertidae
Tringa
ochropus Algyroides
Tringa
glareola Algyroides
Tringa
hypoleucos Algyroides
Tringa
cinerea Algyroides
Calidris
minuta Ophisops
Calidris
temminckii Lacerta
Calidris
maritima Lacerta
Calidris
alpina Lacerta
Calidris
ferruginea Lacerta
Calidris
alba Lacerta
Limicola
falcinellus Lacerta
Recurvirostridae
Lacerta
Toate
speciile Lacerta
Phalaropodidae
Lacerta

githaginea Euphydryas
(Eurodryas)
auri
coccothraustes Melanargia
a
teydea Erebia
chr
Erebia
sude
petronia Erebia
calca
nivalis Coenonympha
h
Coenonympha
oedip
unicolor Lopinga
ach
roseus Lycaena
dis
Maculinea
ar
oriolus Maculinea
tele
Maculinea
nausith
infaustus Plebicula
gol
cyanus Hypodryas
matu
caryocatactes Eriogaster
ca
pyrrhocorax Hyles
hippoph
graculus Proserpinus
prosperp
ARACHNIDA
Arancae
Macrothele
calpeia
hermanni Molluses/Mollusques
graeca GASTROPODA
marginata Srylommatophora
Leiostyla
abbrevi
orbicularis Leiostyla
cass
caspica Leiostyla
corneocost
Leiostyla
gi
coriacea Leiostyla
lamell
Geomalacus
maculo
caretta Caseolus
calcu
kempii Caseolus
commi
mydas Caseolus
sphaer
imbricata Discula
leacockia
Discula
tabell
Discula
testudin
delalandii Discula
turric
boettgeri Geomitra
monizia
angustimentalis Helix
subplic
gomerensis Discus
guerinia
europaeus Discus
deflora
kotschyi Elona
quimperia
BIVALVIA
stellio Unionoida
Margaritifera auricularia
chamaeleon
nigropunctatus
moreoticus
fitzingeri
marchi
elgans
lepida
parva
princeps
viridis
schreiberi
trilineata
agilis
monticola
bedriagae

Toate
Burhinidae
Burhinus
Glareolidae
Toate
Laridae
Pagophila
Larus
Larus
Larus
Larus
Larus
(Xenia)
Chlidonias
Chlidonias
Chlidonias
Gelochelidon
Hydroprogne
Sterna
Sterna
paradisaea
Sterna
Sterna
Sterna sandvicensis

speciile Lacerta
horvathi
Lacerta
graeca
oedicnemus Lacerta
dugesi
Gallotia
(Lacerta)
simonyi
speciile Gallotia
galloti
Gallotia
stehlini
eburnea Podarcis
muralis
audouinii Podarcis
lilfordi
melanocephalus Podarcis
filfolensis
genei Podarcis
pityusensis
minutus Podarcis
tiliguerta
sabini Podarcis
wagleriana
niger Podarcis
melisellensis
leucopterus Podarcis
taurica
hybrida Podarcis
erhardii
nilotica Podarcis
peloponnesiaca
caspia Podarcis
milensis
hirundo Anguidae
(macrura) Ophisaurus
apodus
dougallii Scincidae
albifrons Ablepharus
kitaibelii
Chalcides
ocellatus
Chalcides
bedriagai
Chalcides
viridianus
Chalcides
sexlineatus
Chalcides
occidentalis
Ophiomorus punctatissimus

ANEXA 3 - SPECII DE FAUN PROTEJATE


Vertebrate
Mamifere
INSECTIVORA
Erinaceidae
Erinaceus
Soricidae
Toate
MICROCHIROPTERA
Vespertilionidae
Pipistrellus
DUPLICIDENTATA
Leporidae
Lepus
Lepus
capensis
RODENTIA
Sciuridae
Sciurus
Marmota
Castoridae
Castor
Gliridae
Toate
Microtidae
Microtus
ratticeps
Microtus
nivalis
Microtus

europaeus
speciile

pipistrellus

timidus
(europaeus)

vulgaris
marmota
fiber
speciile
(oeconomus)
(lebrunii)
cabrerae

Peti
PETROMYZONIFORMES
Petromyzonidae
Eudontomyzon
Eudontomyzon
Eudontomyzon
Lampetra
Lampetra
Lampetra
Petromyzon
ACIPENSERIFORMES
Acipenseridae
Acipenser
Acipenser
Acipenser
Huso
CLUPEIFORMES
Clupeidae
Alosa
Alosa
Alosa
SALMONIFORMES
Coregonidae
Coregonus
Toate
Thymallidae

hellenicus
mariae
vladykovi
fluviatilis
planeri
zanandreai
marinus

ruthenus
stellatus
sturio
huso

alosa
fallox
pontica

speciile

SILURIFORMES
Siluridae
Siluris
Siluris
ATHERINIFORMES
Cyprinodontidae
Aphanius
Aphanius
GASTEROSTEIFORMES
Syngnathidae
Syngnathus
Syngnathus
Gasterosteidae
Pungitius
Puntitius
SCORPAENIFORMES
Cottidae
Cottus
Myoxocephalus
PERCIFORMES
Percidae
Gymnocephalus
Gymnocephalus
Stizostedion
Zingel
Zingel

aristot
gla

fascia
ibe

aba
nigrolinea

helleni
platyga

poecilo
quadricor

bal
schrae
volge
zin
stre

CETACEA
Toate speciile care nu sunt menionate in
anexa
nr.
II
CARNIVORA
Mustelidae
Meles
meles
Mustela
erminea
Mustela
nivalis
Putorius
(Mustela)
putorius
Martes
martes
Martes
foina
Vormela
peregusna
Viverridae
Toate
speciile
Felidae
Lynx
lynx
Phocidae
Phoca
vitulina
Pusa
(Phoca)
hispida
Pagophilus
groenlandicus
(Phoca
groenlandica)
Erignathus
barbatus
Halichoerus
grypus
Cystophora
cristata
ARTIODACTYLA
Suidae
Sus
scrofa
meridionalis
Cervidae
Toate
speciile
Bovidae
Ovis
aries
(musimon,
ammon)
Capra
ibex
Capra
pyrenaica
Rupicapra
rupicapra
Psri
Toate speciile care nu sunt menionate in
anexa
nr.
II,
cu
excepia :
Larus
marinus
Larus
fuscus
Larus
argentatus
Columba
palumbus
Passer
domesticus
Sturnus
vulgaris
Garrulus
glandarius
Pica
pica
Covus
monedula
Corvus
frugilegus
Corvus corone (corone and /et cornix)
Reptile
Toate speciile care nu sunt menionate in
anexa
nr.
II
Amfibieni
Toate speciile care nu sunt menionate in
anexa nr. II

Thymallus
Salmonidae
Hucho
Salmo
salar
CYPRINIFORMES
Cyprinidae
Abramis
Abramis
Abramis
Alburnoides
Alburnus
Aspius
Barbus
Barbus
Barbus
Barbus
Barbus
Barbus
Barbus
Barbus
Chalcalburnus
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Chondrostoma
Gobio
Gobio
Gobio
Leucaspius
Leucaspius
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Leuciscus
Pachychilon
Pelecus
Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
Pseudo
phoxinus
Pseudophoxinus
Rhodeus
Rutilus
Rutilus
Rutilus
Rutilus
Rutilus
Rutilus
Rutilus
Rutilus

thymallus Blenntidae
Blennius
fluviat
hucho Gobiidae
*) Gobius
fluviat
Gobius
kess
Gobius
nigric
ballerus Gobius
ophiocepha
sapa Gobius
syrm
vimba Gobius
thressa
bipunctatus Padogobius
paniz
albidus Padogobius
marte
aspius Pomatoschistus
canest
bocagei Pomatoschistus
micr
comiza Pomatoschistus
minu
meridionalis Proterorhinus
marmora
microcephalus Nevertebrate
peloponensis Artropode
plebejus INSECTA
sclateri Coleoptera
steindachneri Lucanus
cer
chalcoides Lepidoptera
genei Graellsia
isabel
kneri CRUSTACEA
lemingi Decapoda
lusitanicum Astacus
asta
nasus Austropotamobius
paili
phoxinus Austropotamobius
torrenti
polylepis Molute
soetta GASTROPODA
toxostoma Srylommatophora
willkommi Helix
poma
albipinnatus BIVALVIA
kessleri Unionoida
uranoscopus Margaritifera
margaritif
delineatus Unio
clongatu
stymphalicus Microcondylaea
compre
illyricus Annelids/Annelides
lucumotis HIRUDINEA
microlepis Arhynchordellae
polylepis Hirudo
medicin
pyrenaicus *) Prevederile din aceasta anexa nu vo
soufia aplicate la aceasta specie din apele mari
svallize
turskyi
ukliva
pictum
cultratus
adspersus
hispanicus
marathonicus
stymphalicus
sericeus
alburnoides
arcasii
frisii
graecus
lemmingii
macedonicus
macrolepidotus
pigus

Rutilus
Rutilus
Cobitidae
Cobitis
Cobitis
Cobitis
Cobitis
Cobitis
Cobitis
Misgurnis
Sabanejewia
Sabanejewia calderoni

racovitzai
rubilio
elongata
hassi
larvata
paludicola
taenia
trichonica
fossilis
aurata

ANEXA 4 - MIJLOACE SI METODE DE VNTOARE I ALTE FORME DE EXPLOATARE INTERZISE


Mamifere
Lanuri
Animale vii utilizate ca apelan i, orbite sau
mutilate
nregistratoare
de
sunete
Aparate electrice capabile s ucid
Surse
luminoase
artificiale
Oglinzi
i
alte
obiecte
orbitoare
Dispozitive de ochire cuprinzind un
convertizor de imagine sau un amplificator de imagine electronic pentru tirul de
noapte
Exploziv
^1)
Fileuri
^2)
Curse
sau
capcane
^2)
Otrava si momeala otravite sau tranchilizante
Cazare
si
afumare
Arme semiautomate sau automate al caror
incarcator
poate
contine
mai
mult
de
doua
cartuse
Avioane
Vehicule automobile in deplasare

Psri
Lanuri
^3)
Cleiuri
Crlige
Psri vii utilizate ca apelante, orbite sau
mutilate
nregistratoare
Aparate electrice capabile sa ucid
Surse
luminoase
artificiale
Oglinzi
i
alte
obiecte
orbitoare
Dispozitive pentru iluminarea intelor
Dispozitive de ochire cuprinznd un
convertizor de imagine sau un amplificator de imagine electronic pentru tirul de
noapte
Exploziv
Fileuri
Curse
sau
capcane
Otrava si momeala otravite sau tranchilizante
Arme semiautomate sau automate al caror
incarcator
poate
contine
mai
mult
de
doua
cartuse
Avioane
Vehicule automobile in deplasare

---------------------------------^1) Exceptat pentru vinatoarea balene


^2) Daca se aplica pentru capturarea
uciderea
masiva
sau
neselectiva.
^3) Face exceptie Lagopus la nord
latitudinea de 58 GR.

.
1. Concepts of Biodiversity

2. From Species Values to Biodiversity Values


o

2.1 Species Values and Triage

2.2 Species as Equal Units and SMS

3. Alternatives to Unit-species
o

3.1 The Shift from Elements to Processes

3.2 Option Value and Hierarchy of Variation

4. Integrating Process and Elements Perspectives

5. Biodiversity and Growth of Knowledge


o

5.1 Phylogenetic Hypotheses

5.2 Species Hypotheses

5.3 Biodiversity and DNA barcoding

6. Conclusions

Bibliography

Academic Tools

Other Internet Resources

Related Entries

CONCEPTS

OF

BIODIVERSITY

The sequel to that first biodiversity book, naturally titled Biodiversity II (Reaka-Kudla et al. 1997),
documents the rapid rise of the term "biodiversity" in importance and influence. But it also traces the study of
aspects of biodiversity back as far as Aristotle. To some extent, biodiversity merely offers a new, emotive,
term for some older ideas and programs. In fact, "biodiversity" is now used sometimes to mean "life" or
"wilderness" or other conservation values. "Biodiversity" also has served on occasion as a catch-all for
"conservation" itself.
The scientific literature illustrates how most any conservation activity might use the label "biodiversity". On
the one hand, workers taking advantage of the acknowledged importance of the term have expanded its
meaning to capture concerns at a fine scale, such as that focussing on a favourite single species. This focus
might be referred to more accurately as one of "biospecifics".

FROM SPECIES VALUES


S PECIES VALUES

AND

TO

BIODIVERSITY VALUES

T RIAGE

In developing ideas about the overall value of biodiversity it has been natural to draw on existing arguments
about values of individual species (for review, see World Conservation Union 1980; Norton 1988).
Commodity value and other direct use values have intuitive appeal because they reflect known values. But a
key problem is that species need to be preserved for reasons other than any known value as resources for
human use (Sober 1986). Callicott (1986) discusses philosophical arguments regarding non-utilitarian value
and concludes that there is no easy argument to be made except a moral one. Species have some "intrinsic
value" reflecting the idea that a species has a value "in and for itself" (Callicott 1986, p.140) and there
is an ethical obligation to protect biodiversity.
A philosophical issue is whether such species values depend on a human-centered perspective. The
environmental ethics entry notes that assessments of issues concerned with biodiversity allow for
"commitment either to a purely anthropocentric or purely non-anthropocentric ethic". Regan (1986) argues
that we need "duties that are independent of out changeable needs and preferences." Callicott (1986) sees the
intrinsic value of species as not independent of human values, because such values can be linked to Hume's
theory of moral values. Norton (1986) sees all species as collectively embraced by an environmental ethic that
is anthropocentric.

Randall (1988, p. 218) has argued that preference is the basis for value and that it is possible to treat all
species values as preferences of humans. Preferences-based approaches to valuation can provide economic
(dollar) estimates of value. This valuation process may include methods for assessing and quantifying option
values. A claimed advantage of such approaches is that the only good way to protect species is to place an
economic value on them. Randall argues that such quantification is advantageous because the species
preservation option will fare well when the full range of values is included in conservation priority setting.
The context for many of these arguments has been a consideration of various criteria for placing priorities
among species for conservation efforts. These considerations have led to debates about the role of "triage"
based on species prioritization. Triage recalls the medical context in which priorities are set for investments in
saving patients. Applied to conservation, individual species are differentially valued and assessed relative to
differential opportunity costs. The best conservation package is to be found through a process of calculating
costs and benefits of protection of individual species.
2.2 SPECIES

AS

EQUAL UNITS

AND

SMS

Many biologists have rejected the idea of triage and argue that we must try to save all species (Takacs 1996).
Philosophical issues arise in the debate as to whether biodiversity should be approached through the process
of differentially valuing species, so that choices could be made in the face of a budget, or regarding species as
the fundamental unit and trying to protect them all. The latter option is arguably more holistic and in accord
with a focus on all of biodiversity (the individual species focus is sometimes viewed as the first of three
phases of growth in biological resources assessment; see the section on The Shift from Elements to
Processes).
If one nominated a "prequel" to Biodiversity (1988) it might be The Preservation of Species (Norton
1986). The title suggests a species focus, but the book's subtitle refers to biological diversity. This book
documents an attempt to move from values of species to some overall value of biodiversity, rejecting typical
triage arguments based on benefits versus costs for individual species. Here, Norton criticizes the "benefit
cost" approaches as piecemeal because every species must exhibit actual or potential use to justify itself. He
argues that every species arguably has utilitarian value and that species perceived values are hard to estimate.
For this reason, trying to place dollar values is "doomed to failure" (1986, p. 202). Norton concludes that we
can't try to sum up values (in accord with his general advocacy of no aggregation of biodiversity values). It is
argued that we should abandon the "divide and conquer" approach and look at total diversity, with species as
a unit: "each species in an area can be viewed as a unit of total diversity." Ehrenfeld's (1988) position is even
more sharply defined: "value is an intrinsic part of biodiversity; it does not depend on the properties of the
species in question."
This perspective demands some alternative to species-based triage that will still accommodate the reality of
limited resources. The idea of a "safe minimum standard" (SMS) for biodiversity has been proposed as a
suitable alternative to triage. Norton advocates an SMS based on unit-species, interpreted to mean that all
species are saved unless costs are intolerable; he argues for "preservation of species as a general policy".
Wilson (1992, p. 310) also has advocated an SMS in which all species are to be protected unless costs are too
high. He argues that we "treat each as an irreplaceable resource for humanity". This is directly in preference
to a cost-benefit approach, characterized as examining single species and their properties and deciding how
much to invest.
The SMS leaves the idea of "too high a cost" open to different interpretations. These vary with philosophical
perspectives about the nature of values. For example, "deep ecology", where biodiversity is independent of
human value, responds differently to "utilitarianism", where biodiversity might be preserved to extent that
measurable benefits to humans exceed costs (see The Preservation of Species). Randall's (1986, p. 103)
utilitarian position considers intrinsic or option value of unit-species in conjunction with any recognized

utilitarian value: all species not already distinguished in having recognised human-use values "would be
treated as having a positive but unknown expected value; implicitly all would be treated as equally valuable."
Despite difficulties in actual implementation, the ideal of an SMS based on species as units of biodiversity has
remained popular from the 1986 The Preservation of Species through at least to Takacs' review (1996). In
the latter book, objections to attempts to differentiate and prioritize among species are extended to take into
account approaches developed in the early 90's that quantify taxonomic distinctions among species. These
methods address the idea that a species that is taxonomically (or phylogenetically) distinctive may deserve a
higher priority for biodiversity conservation (see World Conservation Union 1980). Takacs (1996; p. 61) cites
early proposals of this kind for a "calculus" of biodiversity, and objects to the resulting "intricate" calculations
to prioritize species based on taxonomic distinctiveness. He claims that "we can avoid tedious mathematical
calculations of relative species value by switching to biodiversity". Takacs joins others in arguing that we do
not know enough about species to assign different values (for further review, see Faith 1994). As an
alternative to such a triage approach, an SMS-style approach again is advocated based on the number of unitspecies saved within a budget.
In conclusion, the SMS is compatible with an all-of-biodiversity perspective that views species collectively,
avoiding the seemingly arbitrary "bits and pieces" approaches to individual species priorities that arguably are
poorly justified given our poor knowledge. The SMS approach, however, arguably suffers from a doublebarrelled arbitrariness of its own, in the choice of a level of variation (species) and the choice of a threshold
on costs. Alternative approaches are considered in the next section.

3. ALTERNATIVES

TO

UNIT-SPECIES

We can recognize two alternatives to the use of species as equal-weight units for an SMS. One of these (see
the section on The Shift from Elements to Processes) consciously moves further away from units or items of
any kind. Here, the valuation of species is seen as problematic, with arbitrary solutions. Valuation is to
encompass all of biodiversity but through a functional perspective, shifting the focus to ecosystems processes
(Norton 1994, 2001).
The other alternative [see the section on Option Value and Hierarchy of Variation] might be viewed as going
to the other extreme. Units or elements of biodiversity are seen (at least implicitly) at every level of biological
variation, and the quantification of variation is to provide relative valuations (e.g. of different places) for
priority setting.
These two perspectives provide different responses to the issues concerning taxonomic distinctiveness
valuations on species so providing one benchmark for comparisons. In the ecosystem processes case, this
has provided a prototype example of problems with attempts to value species-units. In the hierarchical
variation case, it has provided a prototype example of the quantification of unknown variation and option
value at one nominated scale of biodiversity.
3.1 T HE SHIFT

FROM

ELEMENTS

TO

PROCESSES

Norton (2001) summarizes the development of the process perspective on biodiversity by describing three
phases of growth in "biological resources" conservation over the past years. The first was the focus on
individual species. The second phase was a "problematic" perception of biodiversity as all about protection of
"objects" merely expanding the list of "items" from the first phase. Here, Norton (2001) objects to an
"atomistic" bias of western culture towards objects. He argues that biodiversity has been wrongly focussed on
"inventory" of species, genes, ecosystems and has neglected processes that create and maintain natural values.
This inventory perspective is described as "static", not dynamic (see also Frankel and Soule 1981; Takacs
1996).

Norton argues that the inadequacy of this second phase, being "ill-suited" to an emerging process orientation,
has lead to the third phase based on ecosystem processes. Here, values are not to be attached to objects;
instead, we should value (or "abhor") processes. This approach is characterised as more dynamic in its
perspective, as systems oriented, and therefore more "holistic". The focus is on maintaining functions of
healthy ecosystems, such as provision of clean air and water. This process orientation is compatible with
much recent work internationally on ecosystem services [Takacs 1996; Millennium Ecosystem Assessment].
The term "biodiversity" is used in this context largely as an assumed foundation for ecosystem processes.
Norton (2001) sees the process focus as replacing, not complementing, the "increasingly obsolete"
inventory/items perspective of biodiversity, arguing that we "will likely move away from the inventory-ofobjects approach altogether". The processes perspective is to determine how we look at biodiversity: "
applied to biodiversity policy, we can focus on the processes that have created and sustained the species and
elements that currently exist, rather than on the species and elements themselves" (2001; p. 90). Further, "it is
reasonable to interpret advocates of biodiversity protection as valuing natural processes for their capacity to
maintain support and repair damage to their parts" (2001; p. 91).
Related arguments are found in the advocacy of "biological integrity" (Karr 1991), in preference to
biodiversity, as a focus for conservation management. Biological integrity is primarily concerned with the
persistence of biogeographic, evolutionary, and ecosystem processes, such as those relating to energy flows.
For Angermeier and Karr (1994), "integrity is reflected in both the biotic elements and the processes that
generate and maintain those elements, whereas diversity describes only the elements." They conclude that
"resource policy would be most effective if based on the more comprehensive goal of protecting biological
integrity." Biological integrity is discussed further in the section Integrating Process and Elements
Perspectives.
3.2 OPTION VALUE

AND

HIERARCHY

OF

VARIATION

The other alternative to the unit-species approach departs from it by increasing not decreasing our focus on
items or elements. The unit-species perspective has been justified through option values and a response to a
lack of knowledge we do not know enough to differentially value species. But consideration of option
values also has been used to justify a move away from a species-as-units approach, to embrace a whole
hierarchy of possible units. Suppose, for example, that the units of interest are features of species (a feature
might be some morphological characteristic shared by all members of that species). These features in general
have unknown future values. It follows that total option value would be increased by having more features
protected. If we apply the rationale that all these features should be treated as units of equal value, then some
species (those that are phylogenetically distinctive; see below) will make larger contributions to the overall
feature diversity represented by a set of species. thus, equal value at the fine scale among features leads to
differential values at the coarse scale among species. We see that the same argument used to justify species as
equal-value units can be used to justify differential valuation of species (Faith 1994).
Feature diversity can provide a basis for valuation, but it raises measurement challenges. Not only do we not
know, in general, the future value of different features, but also we cannot even list the features for most
species. Phylogenetic pattern provides one way to estimate and quantify variation at the feature level. A
species complements others in representing additional evolutionary history (Faith 1994), as depicted in the
branches of an estimated phylogeny. The degree of complementarity reflects the relative number of additional
features contributed by that species. For example, given some subset of species that are well-protected, and
two species in that taxonomic group that are endangered, the priority for conservation investment may
depend on the relative gains in feature diversity (the complementarity values) expected for each species. We
do not know in practice what all the actual features are, but can make a prediction about relative gains and
losses. The predicted total feature diversity of a set of species is referred to as its "phylogenetic diversity"
(PD; Faith 1994).

In practice, PD calculations may be integrated with species' estimated extinction probabilities ("probabilistic
PD"; see Witting and Loescke, 1995). Priorities for conservation efforts for endangered species then can
respond to both threat and the potential loss of PD. One such conservation program, attracting much
attention, is the EDGE program (evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered; for discussion see Faith
(2007)).
A nice illustration of the contrast between biodiversity assessments at the species and features levels is found
in the recent study of Yesson and Culham (2006). They showed that, while many cyclamen plant species are
likely to be impacted by expected climate change, the expected loss of cyclamen PD nevertheless would be
relatively low. The set of cyclamen species resistant to climate change would retain high PD because they are
dispersed throughout the phylogenetic tree. Such a potential retention of feature diversity, and corresponding
evolutionary potential (for discussion, see Forest et al., 2007), suggests that future climate change impacts
studies may focus on PD as an important complement to species-level studies. This link from option values to
processes is discussed further below in the section Integrating Process and Elements Perspectives.
This phylogenetic diversity perspective can be reconciled with the rejection (Takacs 1996) of "intricate"
calculations of phylogenetically based valuations of species. Some proposed taxonomic distinctiveness
methods indeed simply have been species-based attempts to assign differential values. But when the focus is
on biodiversity units at a lower level, it is not an attempt to apply differential values to species as fundamental
units of biodiversity, but equal values to those lower-level units. The focus on these units rather than
conventional species is highlighted by the fact that for subsequent priority setting on places, species
sometimes are ignored altogether (Faith 1994). We return to this issue below, in discussing ways to side-step
contentious species designations in DNA barcoding (see the section on Biodiversity and DNA barcoding).
A conclusion is that a taxonomic/phylogenetic distinction among species is not a fruitless distraction from
"biodiversity" it is all about biodiversity. Features of species quantified in this way are just one part of a
whole hierarchy of variation. Sarkar and Margules (2002) emphasize that, when we speak of genes, species,
and ecosystems, it is not that these form the specific entities of interest but instead are benchmarks for the full
hierarchy of variation: "there is heterogeneity at every level" (2002, p. 301).
The value of all of biodiversity is in this full hierarchy of variation measuring one measures the other.
These values may also encompass intrinsic values of biodiversity. Callicott (1989) and others have followed
Aldo Leopold's (1949) work in arguing that all levels of biological organization (species, biotic communities,
ecosystems) have intrinsic value. This suggest that any calculus of relative option values (indicating relative
value contributions made by species, places, etc) is also a calculus of relative intrinsic values.
For conservation priority setting, each new place (for example) adds some biodiversity to the total for a set of
places. This open-endedness means we must consider costs; there is no possible policy position that can ask
to "save all the pieces". However, this comparison among places is arguably made easier also because we only
require complementarity marginal gains in variation rather than total amounts. Sarkar and Margules
(2002, p. 302) argue that, if we are considering conservation actions in different places, then "an absolute
concept or measure of biodiversity is not needed," and "the relative concept of biodiversity built into the
definition of complementarity has the level of precision needed to undertake conservation planning."
This perspective, while useful, may be too narrow. Sarkar and Margules (2002) describe biodiversity as
rooted in place, but this is just one scale of decision making. We can apply the same complementarity
principle to species not places, as in the example of complementarity values at the underlying feature level
estimated from phylogenetic pattern (a general conceptual model for complementarity at different levels of
biodiversity is found in Faith 1994).
Sarkar and Margules describe the use of a relative concept of biodiversity based on complementarity as
"philosophically uncharted territory." At issue are the empirical and "conventional" elements involved in

estimating complementarity values. These issues are addressed in the section on Biodiversity and Growth of
Knowledge.
An appealing property of unit-species approaches was that quantification of option values allowed the
political process to balance these with other values of society. A full hierarchical perspective suggests a
continuum of variation rather than a countable number of objects. The relative complementarity value (say, of
a place) is not the relative number of different species but the relative amount of the hierarchy of variation
gained in that place. Thus, quantifying complementarity values provides the ability to balance these with other
kinds of values, through the political process and the use of tools such as multi-criteria analyses [e.g., see A
Biodiversity Conservation Plan for Papua New Guinea Based on Biodiversity Trade-offs Analysis] that work
with values naturally expressed in different measurement units. This capacity potentially helps integrate option
values with process-based values, as discussed in the next section.

4. INTEGRATING PROCESS

AND

ELEMENTS PERSPECTIVES

The functional/process (see the section on The shift from Elements to Processes) and elements/inventory
perspectives (see the section on Option Value and Hierarchy of Variation) each try capture all of biodiversity,
but have different emphases. Consideration of biodiversity option/intrinsic values will not in general capture
all important considerations about processes.
The two alternatives, presented as dichotomous above, may be viewed as partly overlapping, and not
mutually exclusive. An option value approach based on units does not neglect process. The descriptor,
"static", has been used to describe this so-called "inventory" approach (e.g. Norton 2001), with clear negative
connotations relative to the desirability of "dynamic" approaches. But the biodiversity measures based on
phylogeny, for example, capture evolutionary processes that support future variation. Consideration of a
hierarchy of elements of biodiversity can be expected to include diversity of processes (following Noss 1990;
but see Angermeier and Karr 1994). Further, "static" entities of biodiversity typically are protected using
dynamic approaches to biodiversity conservation, as in methods that set conservation priorities on different
places taking climate change into account. Such links between what we protect and how we protect it suggest
that concerns about biological integrity (see the section on The Shift from Elements to Processes) may be
reconciled with biodiversity goals. Management focussed on biological integrity will be critical for the
persistence of biodiversity in those places recognised as having high complementarity values.
While process considerations clearly support biodiversity conservation, the maintenance of option values
based on elements of biodiversity also ensures processes and services. For example, Turner (1999), using the
similar term "insurance value" rather than "option value", observes that "the number of species serves as a
valuable index of ecosystem reliability. These results support the hypothetical insurance value of biodiversity,
that is, insurance against the failure of ecosystems to provide goods and services." This is one way in which
biodiversity option or insurance values apply at the "local" scale.
The perception of conflict between process and elements perspectives appears sometimes as a tension
between global and local aspects of biodiversity. For example, Vermeulen and Koziell (2002) see global
biodiversity values as ignoring important local values of biodiversity, relating to ecosystem services. They
argue that treating biodiversity as one composite property corresponding to global values is not helpful, and is
a consequence of the fact that "the global consensus is that of wealthy countries" (2002, p. 89). They
recommend the consideration of biodiversity in terms of services derived from it, and not as an end in itself.
Thus, the claim is that "the most useful biodiversity assessments are those based locally" (2002, p. 83).
An alternative to a proposed preference for local values of "biodiversity" is to pursue balanced trade-offs (and
synergies) among local and global values. As long as local values and opportunities, whatever their source,
are given weight in these trade-offs, there is no need to try to define (or re-define) the "important" values of
biodiversity as local not global. Apparent conflict is resolved also by realizing that often the local values and

opportunities have little to do with the biodiversity (biotic variation per se) of the place (though they
typically will link to its "biospecifics").
A trade-offs perspective based on complementarity suggests that there is good capacity for balancing different
values in setting priorities in a given region. Every place has biodiversity, but its contribution to the global
option values of biodiversity is indicated by its complementarity value, not its total diversity. It is the
comparison of the place's current complementarity value to the other values/opportunities in that place that
matters when considering trade-offs at a regional scale. There may be apparent high conflict in a region, in
that places with high biodiversity have high values for some other land use opportunity, but in such cases the
region may well be able to satisfy both needs. Trade-offs applications based on complementarity have
suggested that other values can be integrated without much penalty to biodiversity goals [an example is A
Biodiversity Conservation Plan for Papua New Guinea Based on Biodiversity Trade-offs Analysis]. The
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [Millennium Ecosystem Assesment web pages] emphasized trade-offs of
this kind to find a balanced provision of the various ecosystem services provided by the world's ecosystems.
The assessment also called for further work on developing a calculus of biodiversity, so that these trade-offs
approaches could integrate the biodiversity gains from a wide range of conservation instruments (protected
areas; payments to private land owners; control of invasive species, etc.)
Recent work has suggested that the most effective pathway to achieving the 2010 biodiversity target for a
significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss [see 2010 Biodiversity Target] is to find balanced
trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and other needs of society. (See Actions for the 2010
biodiversity target in Europe: How does research contribute to halting biodiversity loss?) The Global
Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) has a major campaign to address the 2010 target, based on
mobilising extensive museum species collections data to form the biodiversity calculus needed for exploring
trade-offs and synergies in different regions [see GBIF 2010 Campaign]
In conclusion, a possible resolution of the conflict between elements-based and processes-based
interpretations of biodiversity may be part operational, part conceptual. Operationally, trade-offs processes
can balance different values, whatever their labels. Conceptually, biodiversity may retain its original
connotation of biotic variation at all levels. This does not deny that attention to processes is a good way to
protect biodiversity, nor that ecosystem services represent important values of society, including provision of
resources. It is interesting that Takacs (1996) points to Ehrenfeld and others as making early attempts to
move beyond the "resource" school in valuing biodiversity as a whole. Yet Norton (2001) and others, in
linking "biodiversity" to maintenance of ecosystem processes, move back to the resource perspective as
evidenced in Norton's reference to three phases of "biological resources", not "biodiversity", protection.
An earlier section (Concepts of Biodiversity) referred to a call for "post-positivism" and greater focus on
advocacy in the context of a biodiversity concept seen as properly value-laden. Such a perspective has some
compatibility with trade-offs; advocacy and society's values may determine how well biodiversity
conservation fares in the course of trade-offs. But a "new positivism" may be required also, in trying to better
estimate and quantify unknown aspects of biodiversity in order to better inform the inevitable trade-offs
processes. The final section of this SEP entry addresses this problem of growth of knowledge, which itself has
raised philosophical issues.

5. BIODIVERSITY

AND

GROWTH

OF

KNOWLEDGE

The sections above highlighted the role of complementarity the additional contribution made by a place (or
other entity, such as a species) to the overall representation of the hierarchy of variation that makes up
biodiversity. But the true biodiversity complementarity of a place inevitably is unknown and must be
estimated using some known, "surrogate", information. We may not know enough in a particular case to
consider surrogates that are to reflect a fine scale of variation. For example, at a whole country scale, to a

first approximation all species may be judged equal in comparing biodiversity contributions of different
places. A whole country study may not focus directly on variation at the genetic or even species scales, but
might use ecosystem types or similar as the surrogates to assess representativeness of its protected areas
system. If the assessment reveals that a whole ecosystem type is not represented, then this directs priorities
for land acquisition. If all types are already represented, then variation within these can be the focus, perhaps
as indicated by representation of species.
Sarkar and Margules (2002) discuss the role of biodiversity surrogates, arguing that even the relative concept
of complementarity has a "conventional" element built into it because it relies on "estimator" surrogates (say,
a set of butterfly species) for "true" surrogates (say, the use of species as the basis for assessing
complementarity of places). Whereas estimator surrogates, they argue, are subject to empirical justification,
true surrogates are still dependent on convention. They defend this conventional element: "a philosophical
point, widely appreciated by philosophers of science, but often not explicitly acknowledged by scientists,
deserves to be noted in relation to this: conventional elements almost always enter into theoretical reasoning
in science (Nagel 1961; Sarkar 1998). But conventional does not mean arbitrary: it means that there were
choices to be made, no single option was dictated by the facts at hand, and a choice was justified
instrumentally by its ability to achieve the purpose for which it was intended" (2002, p. 307).
The empirical approaches for determining effective "estimator" surrogates for biodiversity have raised
philosophical issues as well. There are plenty of observations about the congruence (or not) of surrogates
with other components of biodiversity (for review, see Faith 2003), but what constitutes good evidence for an
effective biodiversity surrogate?
Popperian corroboration provides one pathway to assess evidence for such hypotheses. Corroboration is
attractive because it does not attempt to assign probabilities of truth to hypotheses (Popper 1982, p. 346), but
instead focuses on the evaluation of the particular evidence at hand. Proposals have focussed on the idea that
corroboration assessment asks whether apparent good evidence for an hypothesis is "improbable" without the
hypothesis it cannot easily be explained away by other explanations (possible explanations suggested by
our "background knowledge"). Popperian background knowledge is assigned an important role in this
interpretation the investigator is obligated to try to discover any background knowledge that would
suggest that the evidence is probable even without the hypothesis (for discussion, see Faith and Trueman
2001; Faith 2006).
The interest in the role of corroboration in biodiversity studies has prompted debates about its role and
meaning. As background to these issues, it is revealing to examine one of Popper's own examples of
falsification/corroboration, as presented in the entry on Karl Popper. This example, based on the discovery of
the planet Neptune, effectively highlights the limited prospects for actual falsification, but may be underappreciated as an example of corroboration. The hypothesis of interest in this example is Newton's theory,
and the evidence is the observation of the new planet, in a position predicted by this hypothesis. Popper
(1982, p. 247) argues that "a moving star, planet, would have been significant, because unexpected." Popper
argues, "the unexpectedness of an event can be identified with a low probability, in the sense of the calculus
of probability, on the background knowledge" and that the "predictions which lead to the discovery of
Neptune, were such a wonderful corroboration of Newton's theory because of the exceeding improbability
that an as yet unobserved planet would, by sheer accident, be found in that small region of the sky where their
calculations had placed it". Corroboration was achieved because "the success of the prediction could hardly
be due to coincidence or chance".
This example supports the idea that Popperian corroboration for a biodiversity hypothesis arises only if the
evidence is judged to be improbable in spite of attempts to identify background knowledge that suggests
that the evidence is probable even without the hypothesis. For biodiversity surrogates, a common hypothesis
is that the pattern of species "turnover" over different geographic areas for one taxonomic group will indicate

the pattern for all biodiversity. Good evidence for the surrogacy hypothesis is typically claimed when the
pattern for the surrogate taxonomic group is congruent with that of some target set of taxa. However, on
many occasions such evidence can be explained away as probably arising simply because of a shared bias in
the geographic sampling of the surrogate and target taxonomic groups (for review, see Faith 2003). The
evidence based on congruence can be explained away as a probable result even without the hypothesis. Based
on such evidence, corroboration for the surrogacy hypothesis is low.
The following sections address the potential role of such corroboration assessments in two other areas of
biodiversity assessment: phylogenetic inference and species inference (discussion of corroboration assessment
in the context of biodiversity monitoring can be found in Downes et al. 2002). The section, Biodiversity and
DNA barcoding, then links all these issues to the controversies surrounding an emerging area of biodiversity
assessment, called DNA barcoding.
5.1 PHYLOGENETIC H YPOTHESES
The problem of inferring phylogenetic patterns within a taxonomic group from character data has long raised
philosophical issues. Popperian falsification has been used to argue for the justification of one inference
method over others (one out of many ways of measuring goodness-of-fit of characters to phylogenetic trees is
claimed as uniquely capturing the idea of falsification; for review, see Faith and Trueman 2001). An alternative
perspective is that Popperian corroboration embraces all inference methods in phylogenetics. In this
interpretation, the Popperian evidence for a phylogenetic tree hypothesis is a measure of the goodness-of-fit
(as defined by any given inference method) of observed character data to that hypothesis. Degree of
corroboration of a phylogenetic tree hypothesis is given by improbability of that goodness-of-fit that is, the
difficulty in explaining fit that good by other factors, including elements of chance, that make up our
"background knowledge". This reflects the obligation to try to explain-away evidence through identification
of some background knowledge that implies that the evidence was probable anyway (Faith and Trueman,
2001; Faith, 2006). The goal of the search is a high probability of the evidence given only background
knowledge, even while the desired outcome may be a low probability.
5.2 SPECIES H YPOTHESES
Testing an hypothesis that a set of populations is a single species is important to conservation management.
Also, sets of recognised species often form the basis for surrogates for geographic priority setting.
Corroboration may play a role in the ongoing debates about the definition of a species and how species status
is to be determined. The entry on species discusses the issue of species pluralism the idea that there is not
just one correct species concept. While twenty or more different concepts have been identified (some based
on a designated species discovery process), a possible emerging consensus (e.g. see Claridge et al. 1997;
Mayden 1997) is that all of these may be unified under an evolutionary lineage concept. This is based on the
idea of an evolutionary species, defined as: "a single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations which
maintains its identity from other such lineages and which has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical
fate." (Wiley 1981, p. 25).
This "primary" concept arguably is compatible with most other proposed species concepts (for discussion, see
Mayden 2002). However, a difficulty is that this seems to simply produce many so-called "secondary
concepts", corresponding to all the previously proposed ways of detecting and/or defining species. For
example, Mayden (1997) refers to these as "operational concepts" that are "tools" for discovering all the
different ways to realize the primary concept. The unconstrained use of these tools suggests a "grab-bag" that
amounts to reliance as much as ever on expert opinion. An issue therefore is whether a unified species
concept can be matched by some unified operational framework for identifying species. Mayden (2002) does
claim that there is Popperian "testability" and possible "falsification" for species hypotheses. He argues that
the typical process is one in which we do not reject species status if there is no falsification.

Corroboration assessment may be an important missing element in this framework. In much the same role it
plays for phylogenetic hypotheses, it can allow many different kinds of evidence (suggested by different
secondary concepts), all brought to bear on a single species concept. Evidence for a species hypothesis will be
some fit of observations to the hypothesis, and corroboration will depend on the improbability of such
goodness-of-fit without the hypothesis (Faith and Trueman 2001; Faith, 2004). This supports a unified species
concept as something more than just a shifting of the pluralism problem down one level the inevitable
pluralism now properly reflects the various kinds of evidence that may bear on the same concept. There are
no a priori restrictions on the form of the evidence for species hypotheses, but assessment of improbability
of evidence is important in avoiding an arbitrary, grab-bag, approach. Further, over time, experience in
corroboration assessment in different contexts for example, for different kinds of organisms may have
lessons about the context-dependent pitfalls of certain kinds of evidence. This process will help evaluate new
kinds of evidence, such as that from DNA barcoding, discussed below in the section on Biodiversity and DNA
barcoding.
BIODIVERSITY

AND

DNA

BARCODING

The philosophical issues concerning biodiversity surrogacy, phylogenetic inference, and species inference are
all relevant to a new, and controversial, source of biodiversity information DNA barcoding. A DNA
barcode refers to a short region of a gene that changes over evolutionary time at a rate that results in
measurable distinctions among species (analogous to the barcodes on products in stores). The Consortium for
the Barcode of Life [see CBOL]
the barcode of life ("a short DNA sequence from standardized portions of the genome, used as an aid in
identifying species"; see the Consortium for the Barcode of Life CBOL),

CONCLUSIONS
There is a nice parallel to be found in the debates about the definitions/concepts of species and the broader
definitions/concepts of biodiversity. In both cases, an unnecessary pluralism has developed because
operational issues have become intertwined with definitions (for species the meaning sometimes is to
include information about the process of species detection; for biodiversity - the meaning sometimes is to
include information about the process of biodiversity protection). In both cases, there is perhaps a good case
for monism regarding the concept, with pluralism welcomed at the operational level (for species many
kinds of evidence for hypotheses; for biodiversity many kinds of protection strategies and many kinds of
values of society to be traded-off).
Despite a wide range of usage, biodiversity remains a concept strongly linked to the idea of biological
variation that is largely unknown in its extent, and its future values. Any "calculus" of biodiversity providing
quantitative estimates of this unknown variation automatically provides at the same time a measure of those
values that link to the need to maintain variety option values and intrinsic values. Such values broadly
reflect values of elements of biodiversity having unknown present value. These quantified values typically will
not be in conventional units (e.g. dollars), but nevertheless can be balanced with other values of society.
Decision making (for example, deciding whether we should invest in conservation of area A or area B) may
require only estimates of relative gains in represented variation offered by different places (their
"complementarity" values). Complementarity helps integrate biodiversity option values with other values
attributed to biodiversity, and with values of society more generally. This integrative process, together with
processes for the growth of knowledge about components of biodiversity, provide an alternative to the "postpositivism" perspective that sees biodiversity conservation as predominantly value-laden.
The perspective that biodiversity reflects option and intrinsic values, to be balanced with other values,
appears to be compatible with the broader discipline of conservation biology: "the field is rooted in a
philosophy of stewardship rather than one of utilitarianism or consumption. The latter has been the basis of

traditional resource conservation, that is, conserving resources solely for their economic use and human
consumption"
(Meffe
2000).