Sunteți pe pagina 1din 11

Grammar: Modal Verbs

A. Verbele modale sunt un tip special de verbe auxiliare. Ca i celelalte verbe auxiliare, ele sunt ntotdeauna folosite mpreun cu un verb principal (predicat) ns verbele modale exprim atitudinea vorbitorului fa de ceea ce spune (fa de aciunea verbului). Ele pot exprima c t de sigur sau nesigur este vorbitorul n le!tur cu aciunea, c t de doritor sau nedoritor este s fac ceva de exemplu, dac aciunea trebuie fcut sau, dimpotriv, este nenecesar. Verbele modale cele mai utili"ate in lima en!le" sunt# can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would. $. Caracteristici speciale# Verbele modale sunt urmate ntotdeauna de forma de ba" a verbului principal (infinitivul scurt)# e.!. % might go. &ou could rent a car. '(e) might be having dinner. Verbele modale nu primesc nici un fel de terminaii# nu primesc s la persoana a *+ a, sau ,ing ori ,ed. Verbele modale nu primesc auxiliare. -e!ativul se formea" prin adu!area lui not. e.!. &ou can't go in t(ere. %t might not rain after all. .ntrebrile sunt formate invers nd subiectul propo"iiei cu modalul. /odalele sunt de asemenea folosite n ntrebri dis0unctive. e.!. Must )ou ma1e t(at noise2 May % come in2 Verbele modale nu au form de infinitiv. Alte expresii trebuie folosite n locul lor. e.!. (can) 3ill )ou be able to (elp me2 (must) %4m !oin! to have to leave. Verbele modale nu au form de trecut, alte expresii trebuind folosite n loc. e.!. (must) % had to c(an!e t(e t)re. (can) Were )ou able to find a ban12 Did )ou manage to find a ban12

ermisiune, !osibilitate, abilitate


"an#"ould (could este forma de trecut a lui can) $orma: % & can#could & vb. & ...

'tili(are: can se folosete# a. pentru a cere, acorda, sau a refu"a !ermisiunea, similar cu may, dar mai puin formal. e.!. &ou can at 56 in t(e 78. "an % borro9 )our pen, please2 % (ave left mine at (ome. &ou cannot !o (untin! out of season. b. pentru a face referire la abilitate sau )ndem*nare n pre"ent, trecut sau condiional. e.!. :(e is a !reat secretar); s(e can t)pe <= 9ords a minute. 3(en s(e 9as )oun! s(e could stud) all ni!(t 9it(out sleep. '(is compan) could emplo) >= people in t(e !ood old da)s. -o9 it can onl) !ive 9or1 to ?=. %f (e studied (arder, (e could pass t(e course. (dac ar nva mai mult ar trece examenul) c. de asemenea i pentru a vorbi despre o abilitate viitoare adesea cu nuan de voin+ !ersonal. e.!. "an 9e meet toni!(t2 % can !ive )ou a lift tomorro9, if )ou li1e. d. pentru a face referire la !osibilitate, !robabilitate sau im!osibilitate n pre"ent, trecut sau la condiional. e.!. %t cannot be bad for )ou. '(e locals drin1 it all t(e time. '(e sea can be ver) rou!( on t(e c(annel crossin!. $ill can't be driving (is car; (e (as bro1en (is le!. @et4s tr) (is office; (e could be t(ere. 8en could not be building t(e (ouse b) (imself. (%t is impossible. %t is too muc( 9or1) Ao(n can't have stolen t(e mone). (% 1no9 (e is an (onest bo).) (-u se poate s fi furat banii.) e. se folosete could & infinitiv perfect (have & vb.,orma a ---.a) pentru referire la o aciune care nu a avut loc, sau pentru a exprima o nuan de re!ro/ fa de cineva care a omis s fac ceva necesar(e5). e.!. &ou could have hurt )our bac1 liftin! t(at (eav) table. (Buteai s+i rneti spatele ...) Cave )ou seen m) umbrella2 Dad could have ta0en it. &ou could have warned me about t(e fact t(at (e 9as sleepin!. % 9ould not (ave disturbed (im. (e5)

:(e could have le,t a note to tell us t(at 9e (ad to !o.(e5)

1o be able to Exprim abilitatea. Este o alternativ formal pentru can#could n pre"ent, trecut sau condiional. Bentru toate celelalte timpuri putem folosi numai to be able to. e.!. '(e students will be able to spea1 En!lis( 9ell at t(e end of t(is intensive course. (viitor) % have been able to finis( all t(e 9or1. (pre"ent perfect) Dr. :amuels had been able to visit all (is patients b" t(e end of t(at da). (trecut perfect) 'od 9ants to be able to fl) b) (imself. (infinitiv) :e folosete to be able to pentru referire la un exemplu specific de abilitate, n timp ce could este folosit numai pentru referire la abilitate !eneral n trecut. "ouldn't se refer at t la abilitate specific c t i !eneral. e.!. @uc1il) % was able to find a taxi. % could drive 9(en % 9as 5>. % couldn't drive till % 9as ?>. %4m afraid, % couldn't find a taxi. May#Might $orma: % & may#might & vb. &... 'tili(are: se folosete# a. cu referire la evenimente sau aciuni !osibile n pre"ent, adesea cu sens de viitor. Might poate fi folosit pentreu a sublinia o foarte redus posibilitate. e.!. '(ere4s a blac1 cloud above us. %t may rain. % may !o do9n to t(e cinema toni!(t. Do )ou 9ant to come2 %f )ou tr) (ard enou!(, )ou might convince (im to come. 21345-366 Aici poate fi folosit i ,orma continu pentru a ne referi la o aciune care n acest moment sau ntr+un viitor foarte apropiat s.ar !utea s ,ie )n curs de des,/urare# e.!. Call me after E % might be wor0ing late toni!(t. (maymight & be & vb.&ing7 Ce might not be !re(enting (is ne9 campai!n at t(e conference, after all.

'(e) may be listening to t(e ne9s, t(at is 9() t(e) don4t ans9er t(e p(one. b. pentru a cere sau a refu"a !ermisiunea politicos. e.!. May % open t(e 9indo92 %t is ver) (ot in t(is office. &ou may !o in to see t(e doctor no9. &ou may not smo1e in m) car. c. trecut. e.!. $ill is not in (is office, (e may have gone (ome earl). % may have le,t m) 1e)s in t(e car. d. urmat de infinitivul perfect pentru a face referire la ceva care s+ar fi putut petrece n trecut dar nu s+a petrecut# se poate folosi numai might. e.!. A lot of people 9(o might have been saved, died 9(en t(e 'itanic san1. /) landlord might have warned me before (e evicted me. &ou s(ouldn4t (ave drun1 t(at 9ine. %t might have been poisoned. (no9 % 1no9 it 9as not poisoned). De re+inut6 Ca form alternativ pentru may se folosete to be allowed to sau to be !ermitted to pentru sensul de permisiune, i to be li0ely pentru sensul de posibilitate. e.!. % will be allowed to pa) in cas( for t(e car next 9ee1. '(e 9eat(er will li0ely be bad t(is autumn. :(e was not allowed to !o to parties 9(en s(e 9as 5>. urmat de infinitivul perfect (have & vb.---7 pentru referire la o presupunere n

8bliga+ie /i necesitate
Must, 4eed, %hould, 8ught to sunt verbe modale defective, avnd: timpuri lips persoana a %%%+a sin!ular fr ,s fr verbe auxiliare la intero!ativ i ne!ativ urmate de in,initiv fr to e.!. '(e doctor must see t(e patient immediatel). %hould :ara( si!n t(e documents, too2 Alan ought to 9or1 (arder, if (e 9ants to earn more mone). 4eed 9e tell (is brot(er about 9(at (appened2

4819 4eed ca verb modal este folosit la pre"ent, n !eneral la ne!ativ i intero!ativ. e.!. 3e need not 9orr) about /ar1 4eed % continue 9it( t(is2 1oate tim!urile care li!sesc sunt )nlocuite cu verbe normale: 18 :2V3 18 sau 18 433D 18 $orma: % & must & vb. &... 'tili(are: a. se folosete pentru a ne referi la obliga+ie. :ave to se folosete pentru obliga+ie sau necesitate adesea cu sens de viitor. e.!. % must p(one m) (usband before (e leaves t(e office. Do )ou have to (ave a visa to visit t(e 7:A2 3e must !o s(oppin! tomorro9. '(ere is not(in! in t(e (ouse. '(e builders have to finis( t(e 9or1 before 9inter sets in. 3e reall) must go no9; it is !ettin! late. :am4s (earin! is !ettin! bad. Ce has to see a secialist. -. D3 ;35-4'16 Must se folosete de obicei c nd obli!aia vine din partea vorbitorului, care+i exprim propriile sentimente. :ave to se folosete c nd obli!aia vine din partea unei a treia persoane. "om!ara+i: &ou must tid) up )our room before )ou !o out. ( .i ordon) &ou have to drive on t(e left in Freat $ritain. (E le!ea)

%%. @a forma ne!ativ must i have to au sensuri complet diferite. Must not nseamn c eti obligat s nu ,aci ceva. Do not have to nseamn c nu este necesar. &ou must not ma1e too muc( noise or )ou4ll 9a1e t(e bab). %f % tell )ou, )ou mustn't tell an)bod) else. &ou mustn't exceed t(e speed limit on t(e motor9a). Dar &ou don't have to ma1e an appointment to see (im. &ou don't have to eat if )ou are not (un!r". Dad doesn't have to come and pic1 me up. % can 9al1 (ome. b. se folosete pentru deduc+ii !o(itive n pre"ent. Must & have & vb.--- (infinitivul perfect) se refer la deducii po"itive n trecut. e.!. Gic(ard is a la9)er and drives a Gollr Go)ce. Ce must be ric(.

'(e bab) is cr"in!. :(e must be (un!r). Cis fat(er !ro9s (is o9n ve!etables. Ce must save a lot of mone". /r. & 9as a sales repre"entative for *= )ears, but no9 (e is retired. Ce must have travelled a lot. &ou must have been terrified 9(en )ou (eard about t(e accident. '(ere 9as no repl). Ce must have been wor0ing in t(e !arden. (Aspectul cotinuu la trecut esta de asemenea foarte folosit# must & have & been & vb.ing ). 4eed Este considerat at t verb propriu+"is c t i auxiliar. a. ca verb propriu+"is, urmea" formele verbelor re!ulate normale i este folosit pentru a exprima necesitatea. e.!. :(e needs a ne9 coat. Cer old one is 9orn out. % do not need to see a doctor. % feel fine. Do )ou need an) mone), or (ave )ou !ot enou!(2 3e didn't need to boo1 t(e restaurant. '(ere 9as plent) of room. b. need ca modal are aceeai form pentru toate persoanele. Boate fi folosit la pre"ent mai ales n construcii ne!ative sau intero!ative. 8bserva+ie: need not este similar cu don't have to. Ambele exprim absen+a unei obliga+ii sau necesit+i. e.!. 3e need not rus(. '(ere is plent) of time. % need not !o to 9or1 tomorro9. %t is :unda). 4eed Emil) !o on ta1in! (er medicine, or is s(e better2 c. fi necesar. m)self. % needn't have dressed smartl). 3(en % !ot t(ere ever)one 9as in 0eans. Ce needn't have wor0ed toda) but nobod) called to tell (im. D3 ;35-4'16 4eed not & in,initiv !er,ect difer de did not need to # did not have to. Comparai# Aac1 need not have gone to t(e dentist. (:+a dus dar nu era necesar) Aac1 did not need to go to t(e dentist. (-+a fost necesar i nu s+a dus.) need not & in,initiv !er,ect se refer la o aciune trecut care s+a petrecut, fr a e.!. '(at is ver) 1ind of )ou; )ou needn't have bought a ca1e. % (ave made one

8ught to # %hould 8ught to i should au sens identic i pot fi folosite la fel. 'tili(are: a. cu referire la o obliga+ie sau )ndatorire e.!. &ou should do )our (ome9or1 before )ou !o out toni!(t. '(ose bo)s oughtn't to be (ere. '(e) should be at sc(ool. b. pentru a cere i da s,aturi e.!. Do )ou t(in1 % should (ave m) (air cut s(ort2 &ou should stop smo1in!. %t is bad for )ou. 3(at time do )ou t(in1 % ought to p(one $arbara2 c. cu referire la o nt mplare !robabil <intersc(imbabil cu must.deduc+ie logic7 e.!. %t is onl) 55 o4cloc1. 3e should !et t(ere in time. '(e) should be driving (ome no9, if t(e) (ave not arrived )et. % told (im several times, so (e ought to remember. d. urmat de infinitivul perfect pentru referire la ceva ce urma s se petreac n trecut, dar nu s+a petrecut. :au cu referire la ceva ce a constituit o !reeal. e.!. '(e plane should have arrived at 6, but it 9as dela)ed because of t(e fo!. % shouldn't have gone to t(at part) last ni!(t. % feel so tired toda). 8ughtn't 9e to have !honed eac( ot(er last ni!(t2

3=3;"-5--. 1ranslate into 3nglish using could or was/were able. oint out the cases where either ,orms can be used. 5. C nd era t nr era foarte re"istent; putea lucra toat "iua i dansa toat noaptea. ?. Autoturismul a c"ut n ap; oferul a putut s ias afar, dar pasa!erii s+au necat. *. H@una trecut am avut un accident la munte.I HAi putut s mer!i sau a trebuit s te duc cu tar!a2I J. -+aveam c(eie, aa c n+am putut nc(ide ua. >. Dup ce ne+au reparat maina, am putut s ne continum cltoria.

--. 'se the !er,ect in,initive o, the verbs in brac0ets with the a!!ro!riate modal verb. 1he !hrases underlined should not be re!eated but their meaning should be e>!ressed by modal & !er,ect in,initive: e.!. % found t(is bab) bird at t(e foot of t(e tree. %t (fall) from a nest K %t must (ave fallen from a nest. 5. % used to visit (er and % al9a)s 9ondered 9() s(e (ad t(ose dreadful pictures on t(e 9alls. %t is possible t(at s(e (li1e) t(em. ?. Durin! t(e storm t(e captain 9as on t(e brid!e t(e 9(ole time. Ce (be) ex(austed after9ards. *. &ou (send) a tele!ram, 9(ic( 9as Luite unnecessar); a letter 9ould (ave done. J. %t is possible t(at % (be) mista1en. >. &ou (leave) a note. (K%t 9as inconsiderate of )ou not to do so) M. % (ad m) umbrella 9(en % came out but % donNt (ave it no9. &ou (leave) it on t(e bus. 6. %Nve brou!(t t9o bottles of mil1. &ou (bu)) mil1. 3e (ave (eaps in t(e (ouse. E. % p(oned )ou at nine t(is mornin! but !ot no ans9er. %Nm sorr). % (be) in t(e !arden. <. Ber(aps (e s9am across. -o, (e (do) t(at; (e canNt s9im. 5=. &ou (9arn) (im t(at t(e ice 9as dan!erous, but )ou didnNt. ---. ;e!hrase the ,ollowing sentences so that they !reserve the meaning !rinted be,ore them. 5. %t 9ould be preferable for )ou to !o to (ospital. &ouO ?. %t4s certain (e is 1iddin! CeO *. Alice is certain to (ave finis(ed (er (ome9or1. Alice must O J. %t4s Luite possible t(at (e (as (ad an accident. Ce ma) O >. % can4t (ear an) noise in t(is room so % suppose (e is sleepin!. Ce mustO M. Ce paid more t(an 9as necessar) for t(at 'V set. CeO -V. Insert may or might in the following sentences:

5. ...... % borro9 )our car2 ?. % ...... never see )ou a!ain. *. %t ...... rain, )ouNd better ta1e a coat. J. %f 9e 9ave to (im (e ...... !ive us a lift. >. H...... % come in2I HBlease do.I M. Ce ...... be on t(e next train. 6. H...... % !ive )ou some advice2I H%f )ou must.I

E. %f )ou sa) t(at, (e ...... be ver) offended. <. &ou ...... be ri!(t, but % donNt t(in1 )ou are. 5=. 3eNd better be earl); t(ere ...... be a cro9d. 55. H% canNt t(in1 9(at to do.I H...... % ma1e a su!!estion2I 5?. % donNt t(in1 %Nll succeed but % ...... as 9ell tr). V. Translate into English using could for polite requests or conditionals: 5. HAs putea vorbi cu D+l '(omson2I H-u e n birou n acest moment. Ati putea suna mai t r"iu2I ?. HAi putea sP a0un!i la raftul de sus dacP te sui pe umerii mei2I H-u cred ca as putea.I *. DacP soseste vreo scrisoare pentru mine, ai putea sP mi+o trimiti la noua adresP2 J. Ati putea sP+mi spuneti c t e ceasul2 >. HDacP ar trebui, ai putea re"ista fPrP m ncare o sPptPm nP2I HCred cP as putea, dacP as avea suficientP apP.I M. HAi putea sP+mi mprumuti douP "eci de lire2I H-u, n+as putea.I 6. DacP am fi avut o masinP, i+am fi putut salva viata. E. .mi spune cP l+a vP"ut nec ndu+se, dar nu l+a putut a0uta deoarece nu poate nota. <. DacP as fi avut sculele necesare, as fi putut repara masina. V-. Fill the blank spaces with must or the present, future or past tense form of have to: 5. Ce sees ver) badl); (e ...... 9ear !lasses all t(e time. ?. :(e felt ill and ...... leave earl). *. /r. :mit( ...... coo1 (is o9n meals. Cis 9ife is a9a). J. % never remember (is address; % al9a)s ...... loo1 it up. >. &ou ...... read t(is boo1. %tNs reall) excellent. M. % (adnNt enou!( mone) so % ...... pa) b) c(eLue. 6. '(e buses 9ere all full. % ...... !et a taxi. E. 'ell (er t(at s(e ...... be (ere at six. % insist on it. <. % !ot lost and ...... as1 a policeman t(e 9a). 5=. %f )ou bu) t(at television set, )ou ...... bu) a licence for it. 55. 3(en % c(an!ed m) 0ob % ...... move to anot(er flat. 5?. 3(enever t(e do! 9ants to !o out % .....!et up and open t(e door. 5*. Bassen!ers ...... cross t(e line b) t(e footbrid!e. 5J. '(e s(ops (ere 9onNt deliver. &ou.....carr) ever)t(in! (ome )ourselves. 5>. Qarmers ...... !et up earl). V--. Translate into English using must not or need not#do not have to to e press prohibition or absence of obligation:

5. -u trebuie sP conduci asa repede; avem destul timp. ?. -u+i voie sP conduci asa repede; este o limitare de vite"P aici. *. -u+i nevoie sP suni. Am eu c(eie. J. -u+i voie sP bei asta; e otravP. >. -u trebuie sP+i scrii; ne+a anuntat cP vine el m ine aici. M. -u+i voie sP spui minciuni. 6. -u trebuie sP faci tot exercitiul; "ece propo"itii este destul. E. -u+i nevoie sP aprin"i lumina. Bot vedea destul de bine. <. -u+i voie sP vorbesti cu alti candidati n timpul examenului. 5=. -u trebuie sP mai faci senviciuri. Acum avem destule. 55. -u trebuie sP citesti textul ncP odatP ca sP+l putem discuta. 5?. -u trebuie sP iei medicamentele prescrise de doctor. 5*. -u spune asa ceva despre elR C(iar dacP a !resit nu trebuie sP te rP"buni pe el. V---. Fill in the blank spaces with should or would: 5. ...... li1e anot(er cup of tea2 ?. '(at (at doesnNt suit )ou; )ou ...... bu) anot(er one. *. ...... )ou please (elp me 9it( t(is2 J. '(e) left Baris on t(e ?.>J train so t(e) .....be (ere an) moment no9. >. Ber(aps )ou ...... be 1ind enou!( to let us 1no9 about t(is. M. 3(at are )ou doin! (ere2 &ou ...... be in bed. 6. % 9is( )ou ...... not as1 so man) Luestions. E. &ou ...... not ar!ue 9it( )our fat(er; )ou ...... obe) (im. <.I :(all % (elp )ou2I H%f )ou ...... % ...... be most !rateful.I -=. Translate using the correct modals.

5. Autobu"ele sunt foarte a!lomerate. /P vPd obli!at sP iau un taxi. ?. /+am rPtPcit si n+am avut ncotro si am ntrebat un politist cum se poate a0un!e la !arP. *. -+are nici un rost sP cari tu pac(etele sin!ur. /a!a"inul ti le va trimite. J. Vreau sP bati aceastP scrisoare la masinP dar nu trebuie s+o faci a"i. :i m ine e bine. >. .ti pot mprumuta cartea dar trebuie sP mi+o aduci napoi sPptPm na viitoare. M. Sare trebuie sP raportPm accidentul la politie2 6. :tii destulP en!le"P ca sP poti sP ceri un bilet la !arP2 -u trebuie sP spui nimic. Boti sP ti+l cumperi de la un automat. E. -+a trebuit sP mer!em pe 0os. -e+a dus el cu masina. <. Am vP"ut accidentul dar din fericire nu a trebuit sP depun mPrturie pentru cP au mai fost multi martori. 5=. Avem destul timp; nu+i nevoie sP ne !rPbim. 55. Am nt r"iat ieri la operP. A trebuit sP astepti p na la terminarea primului act ca sP+ti !Psesti locul2

5?.Ai citit despre asta n "iare2 -u, trebuie cP eram ncP n strPinPtate. 5*. -u se poate sP fi mers pe 0os de aici p nP la @ondra n douP ore. :unt mai mult de "ece mile. 5J. /i+a spus cP a udat florile n fiecare "i. -u se poate sP le fi udat. -u s+ar fi uscat dacP ar fi fPcut+o. 5>. %+am vorbit n en!le"P foarte rar. -u era nevoie sP+i vorbesti asa rar. El ntele!e en!le"a bine. 5M. :P+mi scriu adresa pe spatele cererii2 56. Ce sP mai spun2 Qaptul e consumat. 5E. .mi pare rPu de acest incident. -u se va mai nt mpla, te asi!ur. 5<. -u vei nt r"ia, nu+i asa2 ?=. Ai vrea sP vii cu noi sau ai prefera sP stai aici2 ?5. :unt prea multe accidente. @umea ar trebui sP fie mai atentP. ??. :ub nici o formP nu poate fi adevPrat ceea ce spui. ?*. @+am vP"ut pe stradP, dar nu s+a oprit sP+mi vorbeascP. Brobabil cP era foarte !rPbit. ?J. -u era nevoie sP+ti fi cerut scu"e. -u tu ai !resit. ?>. :tiu cP era acasP fiindcP am au"it radioul, dar nu mi+a desc(is. Boate cP nu a au"it soneria. ?M. Ar fi trebuit sP le multumesti. ?6. :e prea poate sP se fi dus la teatru. ?E. El pleacP totdeauna linistit de acasP. :ustine cP usa de la casa lui nu poate fi distrusP dec t cu toporul. .mi pare rPu cP trebuie sP ti spun dar s+ar putea sP fi fost de0a distrusP de (uli!ani. ?<. AcasP nu mPn nc niciodatP dimineata. :e prea poate dar aici esti la noi acasP si vei m nca. (! "ractical English #rammar with E ercises, /i(ai /. Tdren!(ea, Anca @. Freere)

?ibliogra,ie: @as"lo $udai, Gramatica Englez, editura 'eora, 5<<E /i(aela C(ilrescu, Constantin Baidos, Proficiency in English, %nstitutul European, 5<<M /oravec+Scampo, A. Qarru!ia, Limba Englez, gramatica de baz n exerci ii, editura 'eora, 5<<E @idia Vianu, English !ith a "ey, editura 'eora, 5<<M :ue S4Connell, #dvanced English, @on!man, 5<<? /i(ai /. Tdren!(ea, Anca @. Freere # Practical English Grammar $ith Exercises