Sunteți pe pagina 1din 21

12-Apr-13

1
Generarea, transmiterea i
procesarea semnalului n
sistemul nervos
Informaie Semnal Via
Halobacterium
salinarium
Sea squirt
12-Apr-13
2
Natura semnalului
- Semnal electric
- Semnal chimic
- Semnal magnetic g
- Cmp de informatie
Semnal electric
-mecanisme de generare
-relaia stimul-rspuns
-generarea spontan
12-Apr-13
3
Semnalul electric
Luigi Galvani (1791-97) - curentul
bioelectric
A.Volta-bateria electric -1800
Cole i Curtis -1939,
Hodkin & Katz 1949- PA / Na /
H. Berger- de la telepatie la EEG
Interaciunea
stimul - receptor - rspuns
r

r
chimic
fizic
stimul
c

e

p

t

o

o

c

e

s

o

?
rspuns
R

e

P

r

?
12-Apr-13
4
transport membranar
canal
proteic
t t i
bistrat
lipidic
proteic
transportori
Gradient de
concentraie
transport pasiv
difuzie
simpla
mediat
de canale
mediat de
transportori
mediat
de pompe
transport activ
adaptat dup MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL. 2008
3Na
+
K
+
H
+
H
+
Ca
2+
POMPE
K
+
TRANSPORTORI
Cl
-
Ca
2+
K
+
Cl
-
Cl
-
AA
Na
+
CANALE
12-Apr-13
5
+20
repolarizare
depolarizare
- 60
P
m


(
m
V
)

repolarizare
depolarizare
depolarizare
timp (ms)
Variaia potenialului de membran n raport cu activitatea celulei
nervoase
hiperpolarizare repolarizare
teaca de
mielin
nod Ranvier
strat de
mielin
strat de
mielin
axon
nucleu
axon
12-Apr-13
6
Semnal chimic
-eliberarea semnalului chimic
-mecanisme de control i
stimulare
-relaia semnal electric-chimic
Transmiterea sinaptic
chimic
12-Apr-13
7
Sinapsa chimic
Segment
presinaptic
E
AGONITI
ANTAGONITI
Celul
Sinaps excitatorie
Sinaps inhibitorie
glial
Segment
postsinaptic
Neurotransmitori cu molecul mic i enzimele lor de
biosintez
Neurot Neurotransmi ransmitor tor Enzime Enzime Activitate Activitate
ACETIL COLIN ACETIL COLIN Colin acetiltransferaz Colin acetiltransferaz Specific Specific
AMINE BIOGENE AMINE BIOGENE
D i D i Ti i hid il Ti i hid il S ifi S ifi Dopamin Dopamin Tirozin hidroxilaz Tirozin hidroxilaz Specific Specific
Epinefrin Epinefrin Tirozin hidroxilaz i Tirozin hidroxilaz i
dopamin b hidroxilaz dopamin b hidroxilaz
Norepinefrin Norepinefrin Tirozin hidroxilaz i Tirozin hidroxilaz i
dopamin b hidroxilaz dopamin b hidroxilaz
Specific Specific
Serotonin Serotonin Triptofan hidroxilaz Triptofan hidroxilaz Specific Specific
Histamin Histamin Histidin decarboxilaz Histidin decarboxilaz Specificitate incert Specificitate incert
AMINOACIZI AMINOACIZI
GABA GABA Glutamat decarboxilaz Glutamat decarboxilaz Specificitate probabil Specificitate probabil
Glutamat Glutamat Enzime din Enzime din
metabolismul general metabolismul general
Cale specific Cale specific
nedeterminat nedeterminat
Glicin Glicin Enzime din Enzime din
metabolismul general metabolismul general
Cale specific Cale specific
nedeterminat nedeterminat
12-Apr-13
8
Peptide cerebrale neuroactive
clasificate dup localizarea tisular
Categoria Categoria Peptide Peptide
HORMONI ELIBERATORI HORMONI ELIBERATORI
HIPOTALAMICI HIPOTALAMICI
TRH, GnRH, Somatostatin, CRH, GH TRH, GnRH, Somatostatin, CRH, GH- -RH RH
HORMONI NEUROHIPOFIZARI HORMONI NEUROHIPOFIZARI Vasopresin, Oxitocin Vasopresin, Oxitocin
PEPTIDE HIPOFIZARE PEPTIDE HIPOFIZARE
ACTH, B ACTH, B- -endorfin, A endorfin, A- -MSH, Prolactin, MSH, Prolactin,
LH, GH, TSH LH, GH, TSH
PEPTIDE GASTROINTESTINALE PEPTIDE GASTROINTESTINALE
VIP, CCK, Gastrin, Neurotensin, Met VIP, CCK, Gastrin, Neurotensin, Met- -
Enkefalin, Leu Enkefalin, Leu- -Enkefalin, SP, Enkefalin, SP,
Insulin, Glucagon, Bombezin, Insulin, Glucagon, Bombezin,
Secretin, SST, TRH, Motilin Secretin, SST, TRH, Motilin
PEPTIDE CARDIACE PEPTIDE CARDIACE PAN PAN
ALTELE ALTELE
Angiotensina II, Bradikinin, Angiotensina II, Bradikinin,
Calcitonin, CGRP, NPYY, Galanin, Calcitonin, CGRP, NPYY, Galanin,
Substana K (Neurokinina A), Peptide Substana K (Neurokinina A), Peptide
de somn de somn
Transmitere efaptic
12-Apr-13
9
Myoclonusofperipheralorigin:twocasereports.
TyvaertL,KrystkowiakP,CassimF,HoudayerE,KreislerA,
DesteA,DefebvreL.MovDisord.2009Jan30;24(2):2747
Bilateralprocessinginchemicalsynapseswithelectrical
'ephaptic'feedback:atheoreticalmodel. SavtchenkoLP.
MathBiosci.2007May;207(1):11337.Epub2006Oct7.PMID:
17112549
Rhythmicneuronaldischargeinthemedullaandspinalcord
offetalratsintheabsenceofsynaptictransmission. RenJ,
MomoseSatoY,SatoK,GreerJJ.JNeurophysiol.2006
Jan;95(1):52734.Epub2005Sep7
+
+
+
+
+
+
Axon
hillock
Neuronpresinaptic
+
+
+
+
Neuron
presinaptic
Neuronpostsinaptic
12-Apr-13
10
Activitatea electric spontan a
creierului
Due to its ability to give rise to
spontaneous activity, the brain does
not simply process information but
also generates information.
...spontaneous neuron activity, far
from being mere noise, is actually the
source of cognitive abilities.
...the source of spontaneous neuron
Gyrgy Buzski
p
activity (noise), has never been
identified and has been assumed to
result from brains imperfections.
12-Apr-13
11
The central generation of movement and
generation of mindness are deeply
l d h f d ff related; they are in fact different parts
of the same process... Mindness is the
internalization of movement
Prediction is ultimate Function of the
Brain
12-Apr-13
12
How the mind came to us or we to
it is a rich and beautiful story
that is over 700 million years old that is over 700 million years old
and, like all things biological,
is still being written
12-Apr-13
13
Simultaneity of neuronal activity,
brought into existence not by chance
but by intrinsic oscillatory electrical y y
activity, rezonace and coherence are at
the root o cognition. Indeed, such
intrinsic activity forms the very
fondation of the notion that there is fondation of the notion that there is
such a thing called our selves
... understanding the brain/bodymind
complex is possible only when these
three are considered as a holistic
entity and not as discrete structures
or functions
Neuroscience is awaiting for a
breakthrough: an essay bridging the
concepts of Descartes, Einstein,
H i b g H bb d H k ith th
or functions.
Heisenberg, Hebb and Hayek with the
explanatory formulations in this special
issue. E. Baar, Karaka . Intern. J.
Psychophysiology. 60 (2006) 194201
12-Apr-13
14
exist inc o mare necunoscut n
nelegerewa lumii fizice, exact la un nivel
ce ar putea fi relevant pentru modul n care
opereaz gndirea uman i contiina, i p g ,
care se gsete chiar n faa nasului nostru
(sau mai exact n spatele)!
Problemele de filozofie i de psihologie i
l l l d i t t i d vor avea locul lor de cinste atunci cnd
vom ncerca s nelegem natura i funcia
contiinei
12-Apr-13
15
Penrose face parte dintr-un mare grup
de fizicieni, n continu cretere, care
consider c Einstein nu a fost
cpnat sau aiurit atunci cnd a p
spus c degetul cel mic i-a spus
despre mecanica cuantic c este
incomplet.
Realizrile lui Penrose izvorsc din Realizrile lui Penrose izvorsc din
capacitatea sa de a se mira n faa
misterului i a frumuseii existenei
Cine este reprezentantul misterului ?
Btrnul- un spirit organizator al
Universului - Universul pare s asculte
de legi precise i c acestea puteau fi
nelese de oameni. nelese de oameni.
Acest tnr a ridicat un col al
vlului cu care este acoperit Btrnul
Rspunsul lui Einstein la solicitarea lui Rspunsul lui Einstein la solicitarea lui
Paul Langevin, cu privire la formula
lungimii de und a unei particule de
materie -1924
12-Apr-13
16
The conception of the objective
reality of the elementary
particles has thus evaporated not
into the cloud of some obscure into the cloud of some obscure
new reality concept, but into
the transparent clarity of a
mathematics that represents no
l th b h i f th ti l longer the behavior of the particle
but rather our knowledge of this
behavior.
(Heisenberg 1958, p. 100).
12-Apr-13
17
Structura cuantic
I. Elemente morfofuncionale
ale sistemului nervos
As impressive as our gains in glial
cells knowledge have, the next is yet
to come. Glial researchers have
struggled with our own version of the
H i b t i t i i l Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Neuroglia (second edition) H. Kettenman, B R Ransom
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/npp/da.html
12-Apr-13
18
In substana cenuie a mamifere-
lor o singur celul de tip
astrocit poate contacta 20- p
100000 de sinapse la roztoare
i peste 2000000 la primate i
om. (Oberheim et al. 2006;
Verkhratsky et al 2011) Verkhratsky et al. 2011).
Brain tissue is largely divided between domains of astrocytes. Mouse
astrocytes, whose gap junctions were closed, were filled with two different dyes
to visualize their respective domains. In a human brain, a single astrocyte
domain can encompass over million neuronal synapses. Reprinted from Pekny
and Wilhelmsson (2006).
12-Apr-13
19
Amzica, 2000
http://www.antanitus.com/hypothesis/
Expression of neurotransmitter
receptors in astrocytes in
different brain regions is highly
heterogeneous and is likely to be heterogeneous and is likely to be
regulated by local neurotransmi-
tter environment and often the
assortment of receptors
d b t li t h expressed by astroglia matches
that present in the their
neuronal neighbors (Verkhratsky
et al. 1998; Verkhratsky 2011).
12-Apr-13
20
Acta Neuropathol (2010) 119:735
The structure of quantum mechanics is such
that, although the effect upon the observed
system of the agents choice about how to
act is mathematically specified, the manner y p f
in which this choice itself is determined is
not specified. This means that, in the
treatment of experimental data, the choices
made by human agents must be treated as
f l h i t i bl th th
Model of mindbrain interaction Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2005)
freely chosen input variables, rather than
as mechanical consequences of any known
laws of nature.
12-Apr-13
21
A breakthrough in neuroscience needs a
Nebulous Cartesian System
Oscillations, quantum dynamics and chaos in
the brain and vegetative system. International g y
Journal of Psychophysiology 64 (2007) 108122
Endogenous Brain Oscillations and Related
Networks Detected by Surface EEG-Combined
fMRI. Human Brain Mapping 29:762769 (2008
Spontaneous and driven cortical activity:
implications for computation. Current Opinion in
Neurobiology 2009, 19:439444