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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Cu alte cuvinte, vom vedea orae Neapole <br>n toat Frana.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Europa nu e un caz special.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Problema este una mondial.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Suren Erckman, unul dintre cei mai mari<br>experi intern
aionali,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>crede c ne ndreptm spre<br>o explozie mondial a deeurilor.</
i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>n ceea ce privete volumul,
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>nc n-am vzut nimic
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>din aceast problem la scar mondial.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Este ngrijortor, poate chiar <br>nfricotor, dar nseamn c
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>va trebui s ne ocupm de
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>aceste cantiti de deeuri<br>pe care nu le cunoatem nc.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Aceasta este o problem serioas:</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Aceti muni de deeuri<br>trebuie nlturai cumva.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>ns toi i astup urechile<br>cnd aud de aceast problem.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>n Frana, conductorii ADEME ,<br>(Agenia pentru Protecia Medi


ului),confirm acest lucru :</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>reacia general este:<br>"nu vreau s am de-a face cu aa ceva
!"</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>ntlnim acest fenomen<br>on de cte ori se nfiineaz fie un centru
de triere,
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>fie un centru de colectare a deeurilor menajere,
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>dei acestea<br>that take household waste
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>provoke objections<br>to the implementation
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>of these indispensable tools.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Unele centre se nchid,<br>astfel deeurile se deplaseaz tot ma
i departe
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>n cutarea unui loc de descrcare.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Pe termen scurt,<br>e posibil
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>ca Frana s se confrunte cu o criz<br>asemntoare cu cea din Neap
ole.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>NO TIPPING
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>i nu numai c nimeni<br>nu vrea locuri de descrcare,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>dar nimeni nu vrea nici staii de incinerare.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Rezisten mpotriva acestora e tot mai puternic.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>De exemplu, la Clermont-Ferrand,<br>an incinerator </i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>was to be built here,<br>chiar mai sus de catedral.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>ns medicii din ora<br>au constituit o asociaie </i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>pentru a mpiedica amplasarea acestuia<br>invocnd principi
ul precauiei.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Jean-Michel Calut i Alain Lafont<br>sunt fondatorii micrii
,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>care reunete 531 de medici<br>din Puy de Dome,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>aproape toi practicienii<br>departamentului.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Ce i-a mpins pe doctorii din Auvergne</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>s acioneze astfel?</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Cei 531 de medici din Clermont-Ferrard<br>n primul rnd sunt
oameni de stiin
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Acetia examineaz pacienii<br>din punct de vedere fizic.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Sunt interesai de aceast problem<br>a incinerrii
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>care influeneaz sntatea,<br>indiferent de orientarea lor polit
ic.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Sntatea nu e de stnga sau de dreapta.<br>Toi au urmat aceeeai l
inie,
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>whatever their speciality,<br>to our petition
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>demanding an end<br>to this harmful project.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>De ce se refuz incinerarea,<br>care de cateva decenii</i
>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a fost considerat cea mai bun soluie?</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Frana deine 124 staii de incinerare,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>iar Belgia 24.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Din acest punct de vedere, cele dou ri<br>se afl pe primele
locuri n Europa.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>De exemplu,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>n regiunea parizian,<br>70% din deeuri sunt incinerate.</i
>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>ntr-o unitate ca cea de la Issane,<br>la marginea Parisul
ui,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>sunt arse zilnic peste o mie de tone de deeuri</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>care sunt transformate n cldur.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=261320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We produce steam, and with it<br>quality urban heating
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and hot water,<br>which enables us to supply
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the equivalent of 300,000 homes<br>in the Parisian region.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Astfel,<br>n jur de 1 milion de locuitori
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=276160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>pot beneficia de<br>energia produs local
<SYNC START=280840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>la standarde ridicate de mediu<br>i la un pre redus.
<SYNC START=284160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Problema este c incinerarea deeurilor<br>nu produce doar
cldur,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>ci i mult fum.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Mult vreme<br>acesta nu a fost un motiv de ngrijorare,</i
>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>explic Gonzagues Delbarre, directorul<br>centrului Ippal
e, din Begia.</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>La nceput, sectorul de incinerare<br>a funcionat la standard
e de mediu reduse.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Protecia aerului i nivelul de praf
<SYNC START=308880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>erau prinipalele preocupri.
<SYNC START=311120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In the 1980s, it was virtually
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the only standard there was.
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<P
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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=315280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So it only called for<br>fairly simplistic equipment.
START=318680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=319640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Until we realised</i>
START=321560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=321720>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that incinerators spit out<br>far more than just dust.<

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.</i>
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,</i>
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re.</i>
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START=326000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=326160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Dioxins, for instance:</i>
START=328560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=328720>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>molecules produced by<br>the combustion of mixed refuse

/i>

START=332680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=333160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Aceste dioxine sunt foarte periculoase.<br>odat produse
START=336480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=336640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>ele nu pot fi arse sau degradate.</i>
START=339160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=339320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Chiar i n cantitti reduse, ele sunt adevrate otrvuri</i>
START=343760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=346400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>La Besanon,<br>profesorul Viel a fost primul</i>
START=349280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=349440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>care a cercetat impactul fumului<br>emis de incineratoa
START=353920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=354160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Toate cercetrile au nceput n acest loc,
START=356840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=357000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>lng hornul pe care-l vedei n spatele nostru.
START=358560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=359360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We're just outside<br>the incineration plant,
START=361800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=361960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>care a emis n trecut<br>cantiti uriae de dioxine
START=364480>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=364640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>n zone bine determinate<br>n funcie de direc ia vntului. Suntem
deja
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=368800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>n acest cartier,<br>aflat sub pcla de fum a uzinei.
<SYNC START=373400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=374800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Un studiu recent al Institutului<br>Naional de Supravegh
ere Sanitar (INVS) a evideniat</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=379360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>o cretere cu 23% a riscului de cancer<br>n proximitatea a
cestui tip de incinerator.</i>
<SYNC START=384160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=385680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Studiile efectuate de INVS,
<SYNC START=386800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=386960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>asemntoare cu cele realizate<br>la Besanon,
<SYNC START=389840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=390000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>corespund expunerii din trecut.<br>De ce ?
<SYNC START=394160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=394320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Sunt necesari de la 20 la 30 de ani pentru ca moleculele c
ancerigene<br>s provoace cancerul
<SYNC START=398760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=398920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>i ca acesta s poat fi diagnosticat;<br>aceast perioada este nu
mit perioad de laten.
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=402280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Astfel c excesul despre care se vorbete astzi
<SYNC START=404720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=404880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>este rezultatul deeurilor<br>de acum 20 30 de ani.
<SYNC START=407920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=409360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>n ultimii 20 de ani, Europa a<br>progresat enorm n privina
dioxinelor.</i>
<SYNC START=414080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=414240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Prin intermediul sistemelor de filtrare<br>computerizat
e din ce n ce mai sofisticate,</i>
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<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

>

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START=418440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>cantitatea de dioxine eliberat<br>n atmosfer </i>
START=421640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=421800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a fost redus de 10.000 de ori.</i>
START=423560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=424280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Astzi, incineratoarele<br>le filtreaz i le re in.</i>
START=429240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=430320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>According to administrations <br>and industrialists,</i

<SYNC START=433160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=433320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>like here in Issane,<br>everything is under control.</i>
<SYNC START=437160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=438360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>This is where we visualize
<SYNC START=441280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=441440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the continuous control<br>of atmospheric emissions
<SYNC START=445400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=445560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>from the combustion<br>of household waste.
<SYNC START=447720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=447880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We are governed by regulations
<SYNC START=450120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=450280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>on emissions at European<br>and national level
<SYNC START=453600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=453760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>to preserve zero impact<br>on the environment.
<SYNC START=457680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=458840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Zero impact, or rather, zero excess<br>compared to fixe
d standards.</i>
<SYNC START=463800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=463960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Which isn't quite the same thing.</i>
<SYNC START=467280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=469280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Like many ecologists,</i>
<SYNC START=470560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=470720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the doctors of Clermont-Ferrand<br>don't accept</i>

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START=473440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=473600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the incinerator smoke standards.</i>
START=475960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=478160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>They claimed the set standards
START=480080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=480240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>were risk-free,
START=481560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=481720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>but we know there's been<br>a considerable increase
START=485600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=485760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>in certain cancers<br>in the local residents.
START=488360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=489400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>And the INVS
START=490800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=490960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>made clear<br>- which is a key point START=494640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=494800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that the toxins that caused them<br>haven't been identifie

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ins </i>
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START=498200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=499280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The doctors think the standards<br>protect us from diox

d.

START=502800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=502960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and heavy metals,</i>
START=504280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=504440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but for all the rest,<br>they are insufficient.</i>
START=508480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=508680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We don't know<br>which toxins caused this.
START=511040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=511200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So there are unidentified molecules<br>producing cancer,
START=515120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=515280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and we blithely continue
START=517240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=517400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>hiding behind standards<br>to reassure the public at large

<SYNC START=521280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=521440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>That's why taking steps<br>with only dioxins in mind
<SYNC START=524920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=525080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>is not seeing the wood for the trees.<br>There are other m
olecules
<SYNC START=528840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=529000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>with unknown effects.
<SYNC START=530480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=532000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So who is right?</i>
<SYNC START=533840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=534000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Should we be worried?</i>
<SYNC START=536400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=536600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>To find out, we went to the labs<br>at Lige University,<
/i>
<SYNC START=540080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=540240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a European benchmark<br>in chemical pollution.</i>
<SYNC START=544160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=544960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Professor Jean-Franois Focant<br>confirms the lack of re
search</i>
<SYNC START=549320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=549480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>into the molecules contained<br>in incinerator smoke.</
i>
<SYNC START=553120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=553280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We have no idea of the toxicology<br>of these molecules,
<SYNC START=556480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=556640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>so today we flag up crises<br>and stop them
<SYNC START=559840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=560000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>before they become dangerous<br>to the population,
<SYNC START=563200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=563360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>but we only address things<br>that are a worry.
<SYNC START=565960>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=568120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For now, most of the smoke residue</i>
<SYNC START=570960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=571120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>- those that constitute a "worry" -<br>is retained by f
ilters.</i>
<SYNC START=575880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=576280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For a city like Paris,</i>
<SYNC START=578680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=578840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that represents 40,000 tonnes a year.</i>
<SYNC START=581320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=582000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>40,000 tonnes of solidified poison!</i>
<SYNC START=585360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=585520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Hard to sweep under the carpet.</i>
<SYNC START=587480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=588400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The toxic particles are recovered,<br>neutralized</i>
<SYNC START=591880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=592040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>then covered in concrete.</i>
<SYNC START=594800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=594960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>These waste concentrates<br>are then poured into caviti
es,</i>
<SYNC START=598360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=598520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>where they'll be stored<br>for centuries.</i>
<SYNC START=601800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=609000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But incineration has another present<br>for future gene
rations:</i>
<SYNC START=613160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=613320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>solid combustion residues.</i>
<SYNC START=615600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=615760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The ashes of our dirt,<br>called cinders.</i>
<SYNC START=619960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=625600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Many European countries </i>
<SYNC START=628080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

START=628240>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>like to use them<br>as hard core in road building.</i>
START=631160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=631320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Very handy. But cinders contain</i>
START=634160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=634320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>heavy metals<br>and other toxic chemicals </i>
START=636840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=637000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that could eventually pollute<br>our soil and water.</i

<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

START=640600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=644080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So in Switzerland, their use<br>has been discontinued.<

>

<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

/i>

<SYNC START=648200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=650320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In the 1980-85 period,
<SYNC START=653880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=654040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>cinders were used in road-building.
<SYNC START=656360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=656520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>A whole stretch of the by-pass<br>built back then
<SYNC START=659840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=660000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>was done using cinders.
<SYNC START=661360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=661520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Then some standards evolved,<br>especially linked to water
drainage.
<SYNC START=665520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=665680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We saw that it resulted<br>in chemical concentrations,
<SYNC START=669400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=669560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>so it was stopped.
<SYNC START=670920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=673160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Today in Switzerland,<br>cinders are stored in dumps.</
i>
<SYNC START=677520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=677920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>They make artificial mountains,<br>to be monitored for
15 years.</i>
<SYNC START=683000>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=683160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>After that deadline,<br>everything becomes vague.</i>
<SYNC START=686720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=689240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Maybe in a generation<br>it won't be seen,
<SYNC START=691640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=691800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>but 2 or 3 generations later<br>we'll have water-table pol
lution
<SYNC START=695800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=695960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and consequently<br>public health problems.
<SYNC START=700080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=701160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So if we don't want</i>
<SYNC START=702720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=702880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to be poisoned by our waste<br>in the long term,</i>
<SYNC START=705760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=705920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we must burn less.</i>
<SYNC START=708440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=710120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>At any rate, there's one point<br>upon which everyone i
s agreed:</i>
<SYNC START=714680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=715520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we must reduce our waste production<br>immediately.</i>
<SYNC START=719320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=719880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This is Marc.</i>
<SYNC START=721680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=722880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And this is the waste<br>Marc produces each year.</i>
<SYNC START=726120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=726280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>As with most people,<br>his waste weighs 380 kilos.</i>
<SYNC START=729080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=731640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>That's a lot.</i>
<SYNC START=733000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=733240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Producing, collecting<br>and processing waste costs a lot,
<SYNC START=736920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=737080>

<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL>financially and environmentally.


START=739280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=739440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So there's a real need to reduce<br>our production of wast

<SYNC START=742800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=742960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>on our territory and in our cities.
<SYNC START=746640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=748840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Less waste
<SYNC START=749960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=750120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and the remaining waste must be<br>transformed into resour
ces.
<SYNC START=755000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=755520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In other words, we must recycle.</i>
<SYNC START=758560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=760120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Today, our performance varies</i>
<SYNC START=762040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=762200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>depending on the type of waste.</i>
<SYNC START=764160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=765320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For steel, aluminium and glass,<br>recycling is already
working well.</i>
<SYNC START=770000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=770880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>We've made spectacular progress<br>with paper and cardb
oard,</i>
<SYNC START=774520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=774680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>as over 60% is now recycled.</i>
<SYNC START=777200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=777680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Today, for instance,<br>most newspapers</i>
<SYNC START=780080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=780240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>are made from recycled paper.</i>
<SYNC START=783240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=783400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But in other sectors,<br>the results are less good.</i>
<SYNC START=786960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=787360>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>20% for batteries: not much,</i>


<SYNC START=789960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=790120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>when you consider they contain<br>heavy metal pollutant
s.</i>
<SYNC START=793840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=794000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Other products<br>are even less well recycled:</i>
<SYNC START=796960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=797360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>5% for mobile phones,<br>barely more for plastics,</i>
<SYNC START=801080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=801240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>though we produce huge quantities.</i>
<SYNC START=803360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=804240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In short, there's a lot of progress<br>still to be made
.</i>
<SYNC START=807880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=809920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But there are already easy ways<br>to reduce our waste.
</i>
<SYNC START=814400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=814840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Do a test: check your dustbin.</i>
<SYNC START=818160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=818320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>You'll see it's half-filled<br>with excess packaging:</
i>
<SYNC START=822600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=823760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the packaging around other packaging</i>
<SYNC START=826720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=826880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that you throw away<br>as soon as you get home.</i>
<SYNC START=829800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=829960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In other words, almost half<br>the volume of our domest
ic waste</i>
<SYNC START=833760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=833920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is totally useless.</i>
<SYNC START=836080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=836240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And it can be easily avoided.<br>Just watch.</i>
<SYNC START=839840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=842800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Excessive packaging is a daily fight<br>for Bruno Mondr
aillan.</i>
<SYNC START=846840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=847000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This Alsatian, 45,<br>is a new breed of revolutionary.<
/i>
<SYNC START=851560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=851720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>He battles excessive packaging<br>at the source: the su
permarket.</i>
<SYNC START=856960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=857120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>His is located in Dannemarie,<br>near Mulhouse.</i>
<SYNC START=861000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=861680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>These are products<br>with industrial-plastic packaging,
<SYNC START=865880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=866040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>which is nonsense.
<SYNC START=867880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=868040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In many shops today, the cheese
<SYNC START=870000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=870160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>isn't on a traditional counter
<SYNC START=872840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=873000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>like this one.<br>It's pre-packaged like this,
<SYNC START=876880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=877040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>in polystyrene containers<br>which aren't recyclable
<SYNC START=881800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=881960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and which are soiled.
<SYNC START=883240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=884160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Bruno has calculated that 9<br>out of 10 products are o
ver-packaged.</i>
<SYNC START=889000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=890160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>For example,
<SYNC START=891400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=891560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>from one household shop,<br>when you return from the store
,
<SYNC START=895320>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=895480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the excess packaging of yogurts,<br>baby food, bottles of
water, etc.
<SYNC START=900320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=900480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>will all end up in a bin bag.
<SYNC START=903200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=903360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>You'll fill a 30-litre bag<br>with cardboard and plastic
<SYNC START=906960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=907120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>whose only use is marketing<br>that could be avoided.
<SYNC START=911120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=912760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Bruno knows the problem inside out.<br>And so he should
.</i>
<SYNC START=916280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=916440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>He's no militant crank,<br>he's the supermarket manager
.</i>
<SYNC START=921160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=921760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Hello!
<SYNC START=922880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=923040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>- I think your stripes are fabulous.<br>- You like it?
<SYNC START=926080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=926240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Oh, yes. Hello, girls!
<SYNC START=928920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=929080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>He carries on with his inspection,
<SYNC START=931400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=931560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>heading for the toothpaste aisle,<br>the height of nonsens
e.
<SYNC START=936280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=936880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In France, toothpaste is sold
<SYNC START=939320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=939480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>in cardboard packages.
<SYNC START=942080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=942240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So the toothpaste arrives in a box,
<SYNC START=945080>

<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
us.
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=945240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>it's packed in plastic,<br>so I take that off
START=950000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=950640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>to reach my tubes of toothpaste.
START=953240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=953400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Now there's more cardboard,<br>so I take that off,
START=956800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=957400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and at home the cardboard<br>goes in the bin.
START=960880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=961040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Now I have my tube of toothpaste,<br>which I use,
START=963920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=964080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and which, when it's empty,<br>will go in the refuse too.
START=968240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=968400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Our friends in Germany<br>and Switzerland are smarter than

<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
n.</i>
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

START=979560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=982080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But Bruno doesn't just moan<br>about packaging,</i>
START=985480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=985640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>he's decided to set an example<br>with a simple solutio

START=972720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=972880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>They sell tubes of toothpaste<br>like this
START=975200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=975360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and the customer just takes home<br>his tube of toothpaste

START=990200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=991200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I decided to set up<br>this simple platform,
START=994080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=994240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>two wooden boxes with two signs:<br>Plastic and Cardboard.
START=999080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=999240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>"Reduce your refuse volume."
START=1001880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=1002040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>"Leave your plastic<br>and cardboard packaging with us."
<SYNC START=1006160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1006880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Here in the plastics,<br>this is packaging
<SYNC START=1010520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1010680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>from fruit and vegetables,<br>bananas in this case.
<SYNC START=1014160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1015560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Just because a habit is bad<br>doesn't mean it's easy t
o change.</i>
<SYNC START=1019400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1019560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>To sell his idea<br>to less-than-enthusiastic customers
,</i>
<SYNC START=1022800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1022960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Bruno uses a strong argument:<br>the wallet.</i>
<SYNC START=1027120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1028520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Do you use the unpacking platform?
<SYNC START=1033080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1033680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>No.
<SYNC START=1034760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1035080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Why not?
<SYNC START=1036120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1036280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>I've calculated that<br>for a family with two children,
<SYNC START=1040040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1040200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the weight in plastic waste<br>paid for by the municipalit
y
<SYNC START=1045680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1045840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>comes to just over 150 euros
<SYNC START=1048880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1049040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>over a year,<br>a surprising amount.
<SYNC START=1051640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1052600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>With perseverance,<br>this ecological approach</i>
<SYNC START=1055440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1055600>

<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
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<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is gradually becoming a reflex.</i>


START=1057840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1058000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This year,<br>with its 2 small boxes,</i>
START=1060480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1060640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the store will collect<br>2 tonnes of waste</i>
START=1063640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1063800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>which will be recycled<br>instead of incinerated,</i>
START=1067000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1067160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a positive blow for the environment.</i>
START=1069680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1069840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>You can imagine
START=1071560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1071720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>what the volumes would be
START=1073920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1074080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>if every supermarket in France
START=1077600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1077760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>set up these boxes.<br>It's ecological, it's environmental

<SYNC START=1081840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1082000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and it could encourage<br>distributors upstream to reduce
<SYNC START=1085320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1085480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>this over-packaging<br>at the time of manufacture.
<SYNC START=1088680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1090480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Others are taking up the idea:</i>
<SYNC START=1092280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1092440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>more retailers are installing<br>packaging bins in stor
es </i>
<SYNC START=1097320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1097480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and stripping pointless wrappings<br>from lots of food
products.</i>
<SYNC START=1102040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1105080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So we can reduce our household waste</i>

<SYNC START=1108400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1108560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>by almost a third.</i>
<SYNC START=1110760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1113800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The Japanese have done even better.</i>
<SYNC START=1116920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1117080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In some towns they recycle<br>80% of their waste.</i>
<SYNC START=1120800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1120960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But they have also tried a whole<br>series of solutions
that didn't work.</i>
<SYNC START=1125760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1129680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The Land of the Rising Sun<br>is short of living space.
</i>
<SYNC START=1132920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1133080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>What to do with too much waste</i>
<SYNC START=1134960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1135120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and not enough room to store it?</i>
<SYNC START=1138400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1138800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The Japanese have found a way </i>
<SYNC START=1140600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1140760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to kill two birds with one stone.</i>
<SYNC START=1142880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1143040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>With their mountains of waste,</i>
<SYNC START=1144840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1145000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>they build artificial islands.</i>
<SYNC START=1147520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1152200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Welcome to "Rubbish Island".</i>
<SYNC START=1154480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1154640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>These children paddling in Tokyo Bay</i>
<SYNC START=1157480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1157640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>are on the shore of an island<br>made of waste.</i>
<SYNC START=1161200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=1161760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The idea began<br>in the early 17th century,</i>
<SYNC START=1164160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1164320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>under Emperor Kata-ito.</i>
<SYNC START=1166760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1167120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But then they didn't imagine<br>the islands</i>
<SYNC START=1169840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1170000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>would be made<br>with non-degradable waste.</i>
<SYNC START=1172760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1172920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This is a long way<br>from sustainable development.</i>
<SYNC START=1176080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1176240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Firstly, Tokyo Bay<br>does not have an infinite capacit
y</i>
<SYNC START=1179720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1179880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and in 50 years,<br>there will be no more room.</i>
<SYNC START=1183320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1183640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And they recently discovered<br>that the water</i>
<SYNC START=1186480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1186640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>could be polluted<br>by leaking toxic chemicals.</i>
<SYNC START=1189880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1190040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Bathing in a poisoned sea<br>is far less of a temptatio
n.</i>
<SYNC START=1194720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1196640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Like us, the Japanese are realising<br>that to reduce w
aste,</i>
<SYNC START=1200320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1200480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the only lasting solution is sorting.</i>
<SYNC START=1204160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1204320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And everyone takes part.<br>Even rock fans!</i>
<SYNC START=1207160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1209240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Fuji Rock is one of Japan's<br>biggest festivals,</i>
<SYNC START=1211960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1212120>

>

<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a rite of passage for Japanese youth.</i>


START=1214840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1215000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Thousands of wild teenagers<br>in a park for 3 days:</i

<SYNC START=1219120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1219320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a recipe for damage to the landscape.</i>
<SYNC START=1221600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1222400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Yet take a look:</i>
<SYNC START=1223880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1224040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>there is no litter.</i>
<SYNC START=1225840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1232680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In the city,<br>youngsters see rubbish everywhere.
<SYNC START=1235760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1235920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In Tokyo, Osaka, everywhere.
<SYNC START=1239520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1240480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>When they come here, it's clean,
<SYNC START=1243000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1243200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>they learn to clean up the place<br>themselves.
<SYNC START=1246720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1252840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>- Where can I put this?<br>- Over here. Thank you!
<SYNC START=1256200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1256360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Bottle tops here.<br>And cardboard here, thank you.
<SYNC START=1259560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1260160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>No, that goes in here,<br>thank you very much.
<SYNC START=1263640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1263840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Can you take the label<br>off the bottle? Thank you.
<SYNC START=1267600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1268960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>From cardboard beakers to wooden<br>utensils, all will
be recycled</i>
<SYNC START=1272720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1272880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>for next year's festival.</i>
<SYNC START=1275160>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1276040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Cigarette packets<br>will become wood pulp,</i>
<SYNC START=1278160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1278320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>beakers will become toilet paper</i>
<SYNC START=1280640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1280800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and plastic bottles<br>will end up as bin bags.</i>
<SYNC START=1284880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1286200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Pick up your bin bags at the gate,<br>recycled from plasti
c bottles
<SYNC START=1290880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1291040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>from last year's<br>Fuji Rock Festival.
<SYNC START=1292880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1293040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Bin bags!
<SYNC START=1294720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1294880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Thank you for your help in sorting.
<SYNC START=1297640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1297800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Let's make Fuji Rock Festival clean!
<SYNC START=1300600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1301040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Bottles collected this year<br>will be recycled
<SYNC START=1303800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1303960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>as bin bags for next year.
<SYNC START=1306320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1307440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Let's improve the festival together.<br>Make Fuji Rock cle
an!
<SYNC START=1311680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1312640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And they're sorting in cities too.</i>
<SYNC START=1315120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1315280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In Minatoku,<br>a residential suburb of Tokyo,</i>
<SYNC START=1318520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1318680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>inhabitants must sort waste<br>into 11 categories.</i>
<SYNC START=1322000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1322160>

<P
ek.</i>
<SYNC
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>
<SYNC
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<P
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<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
i>
<SYNC
<P
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<SYNC
<P
te</i>
<SYNC
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i>
<SYNC
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<P
,</i>
<SYNC
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<SYNC

CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Different collection trucks pass<br>every day of the we


START=1325400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1325560>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Monday, paper; Tuesday, cans;</i>
START=1327880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1328040>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Wednesday, bottles;</i>
START=1329600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1329760>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Thursday, combustibles;<br>Friday, non-combustibles.</i
START=1332880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1333040>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>CDs and batteries<br>are collected separately.</i>
START=1336440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1338880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>In all cases, you must put out<br>your waste before 8am.
START=1342200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1342360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>The population of Minato is 200,000,
START=1344880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1345040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and everyone here<br>abides by this rule.
START=1348200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1350440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Late risers who don't put out<br>their waste before 8</
START=1353640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1353800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>must keep it at home<br>until next week.</i>
START=1357000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1357160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And with poor sorters,<br>Japanese dustmen don't hesita
START=1361200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1361360>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to leave the refuse there<br>with an unpleasant note.</
START=1364760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1365600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In a land where losing face<br>is the worst humiliation
START=1368680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1368840>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>this kind of punishment<br>is a real deterrent.</i>
START=1371880>

i>

<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1373880>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>More and more Japanese<br>are sorting</i>
START=1376360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1376520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>because of the initiatives<br>of enlightened citizens</

<SYNC START=1379560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1379720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>like the Zero Waste association.</i>
<SYNC START=1382760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1383080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Its aim is to pressure politicians<br>in the Tokyo regi
on</i>
<SYNC START=1387280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1387440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to vote in green regulations.</i>
<SYNC START=1390760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1392240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Until now, citizens expected<br>the government to decide f
or them.
<SYNC START=1396600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1396760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Now we're making sure
<SYNC START=1399040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1399200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>that waste treatment<br>is applied on a grand scale.
<SYNC START=1402520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1404080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Mr Shibuya is the founder<br>of the association.</i>
<SYNC START=1407520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1407680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This quiet retired civil servant</i>
<SYNC START=1409680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1409840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is visiting the local committee<br>to organise</i>
<SYNC START=1413040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1413200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a waste-free neighbourhood party.<br>A first step.</i>
<SYNC START=1416280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1418640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>What Mr Shibuya intends </i>
<SYNC START=1420600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1420760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is the ideal waste-management model,<br>a recycling par
adise.</i>
<SYNC START=1425680>

<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
hall.
<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1426000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This paradise exists.<br>It is called Kamikatsu,</i>
START=1430000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1430160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a small village<br>lost in the countryside</i>
START=1432880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1433040>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>where the inhabitants<br>sort their waste</i>
START=1435800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1435960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>into 34 bins.</i>
START=1438240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1442760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>There's only one<br>waste-collection centre.
START=1445440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1445600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>The inhabitants bring<br>all their waste themselves.
START=1448920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1449080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>In this centre, we decided<br>to collect 34 categories.
START=1453520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1453680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Everyone
START=1454360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1454520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>must personally sort their waste<br>into 34 categories.
START=1459200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1459360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So there's no collection service<br>organised by the town
START=1463240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1464800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Welcome to<br>the Kamikatsu sorting centre,</i>
START=1467240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1467400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>under the vigilant control<br>of Miss Fuji's smile.</i>
START=1471600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1476200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's a shame you can't smell this.
START=1478600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1478760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Nothing smells bad,
START=1480960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1481120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>as there is no organic waste.

<SYNC
<P
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
want</i>
<SYNC
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<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
</i>
<SYNC
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<P

START=1483600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1489800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>As for all the other waste,
START=1491960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1492120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>it is washed at home<br>before being brought in.
START=1495280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1498600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>For good recycling,
START=1500360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1500520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>each bowl and tray<br>must be washed first.
START=1503520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1505080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Everyone uses recyclable paper sacks
START=1508160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1508320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>to pack their paper and cardboard.
START=1511480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1511640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Even string must be made<br>of recyclable paper.
START=1514520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1516320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Some sorting can make people happy:</i>
START=1518560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1518720>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Kamikatsu residents also bring<br>items they no longer
START=1522240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1522400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that may help poorer people.</i>
START=1524280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1524440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Kuru-Kuru shop, a Japanese Emmaus,<br>is entirely free.
START=1529440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1529600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Those in need<br>can get what they want,</i>
START=1532560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1532720>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>even if they don't live<br>in the village.</i>
START=1535240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1536440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Thanks to its 34 bins,</i>
START=1538160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=1538320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>world sorting champion Kamikatsu </i>
<SYNC START=1540960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1541120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>manages to recycle 80% of its waste!</i>
<SYNC START=1545120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1545280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Mr Shibuya has set an example<br>for the rest to follow
.</i>
<SYNC START=1548600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1550600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Kamikatsu has few residents,
<SYNC START=1552440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1552600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>so the impact hasn't been that great.
<SYNC START=1554840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1555000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>But if a Tokyo suburb<br>like Machida,
<SYNC START=1557040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1557200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>with a 400,000 population,<br>applied the same model,
<SYNC START=1561120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1561280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>it would have major repercussions.
<SYNC START=1564360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1566000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The road to zero waste<br>is still long,</i>
<SYNC START=1569760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1569920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but as an old Japanese proverb says,</i>
<SYNC START=1572840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1573000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>even a 1000-league journey<br>begins with one step.</i>
<SYNC START=1577560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1580400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Europeans don't have the same sense<br>of discipline as
the Japanese.</i>
<SYNC START=1584880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1585040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But we do have<br>a very efficient system</i>
<SYNC START=1587560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1587720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that encourages households<br>to sort waste.</i>
<SYNC START=1590160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1590320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It's "weigh & pay".</i>

<SYNC START=1592000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1592160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In some regions, it works a treat.<br>Here's why.</i>
<SYNC START=1596200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1602800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Welcome to La Porte d'Alsace.</i>
<SYNC START=1604960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1605120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>At first sight,</i>
<SYNC START=1606480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1606640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>this peaceful town<br>of 15,000 inhabitants is like</i>
<SYNC START=1609800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1609960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>any other in the French provinces.</i>
<SYNC START=1612000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1613200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But here, they have smart bins.</i>
<SYNC START=1617120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1617280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And they're watching you.</i>
<SYNC START=1619200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1620400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We have designer dustbins
<SYNC START=1623160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1623320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>that are fitted with a microchip,
<SYNC START=1625240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1625400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>just underneath.
<SYNC START=1627760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1627960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The chip carries the characteristics<br>of the householder
who lives here.
<SYNC START=1632880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1634120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>You've heard of smart cards,</i>
<SYNC START=1635880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1636040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>now we have smart bins,</i>
<SYNC START=1638320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1638480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>linked to a computer that records<br>the weight of wast
e to within a gram.</i>
<SYNC START=1643080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=1643240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Since this morning, we've collected
<SYNC START=1645640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1645800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>4 tonnes and 96 kilos.
<SYNC START=1648600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1649800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The last bin weighed was<br>13 kilos and 500 grams,
<SYNC START=1654160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1654320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and we've collected 272<br>this morning.
<SYNC START=1657360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1657560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>All the data is recorded<br>on this cassette.
<SYNC START=1659760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1660840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The system wasn't set up<br>out of a love for statistic
s.</i>
<SYNC START=1664760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1664920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Here in Manspach, everyone pays<br>for waste collection
</i>
<SYNC START=1668600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1668760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>according to its exact weight.</i>
<SYNC START=1672080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1673440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The weight of what was in the bin<br>has been recorded
<SYNC START=1677200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1677360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and people pay a little over<br>30 cents per kilo
<SYNC START=1680320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1680480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>for anything that goes<br>into the truck.
<SYNC START=1683640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1684520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Collection of anything recyclable<br>- paper, plastic,
glass - is free,</i>
<SYNC START=1689240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1689400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but for the rest,<br>what we call "ultimate waste",</i>
<SYNC START=1693320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1693520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>each pick-up is billed.</i>
<SYNC START=1695040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1695200>

t.

<P
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CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So bins are a much rarer sight<br>in the streets.</i>


START=1699440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1700880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>At first people put<br>their bin out every week.
START=1703640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1703800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I try to limit it to once a month.
START=1706680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1707440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I fill it up,<br>so I get value for money.
START=1710080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1711440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So now it's super-sorted,<br>they can see when they load i

<SYNC START=1715240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1715400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>A winner all round!
<SYNC START=1716720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1719400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>To be "super-sorted"<br>requires a minimum of disciplin
e.</i>
<SYNC START=1723720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1724880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In a family of 5, public-spiritedness<br>has its share
of inconvenience.</i>
<SYNC START=1729400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1730960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Come on children,<br>it's for the good of the planet.</
i>
<SYNC START=1734320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1734680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So is this a chore?
<SYNC START=1736880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1737400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Well, it's a bit of a chore,<br>because...
<SYNC START=1740920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1741080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Not the plastic,<br>that doesn't go there.
<SYNC START=1743440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1743720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>That's it.
<SYNC START=1744800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1744960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Like you said, that's plastic.<br>Put it over there.
<SYNC START=1748760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1753520>

<P
<SYNC
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rything.
<SYNC
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/i>
<SYNC
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<P
</i>
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
y.</i>
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC

CLASS=SUBTTL>Sometimes I moan<br>because I have to do it again.


START=1756480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1756640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I can't always do that,<br>so initially I try
START=1759680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1759840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>to make them see<br>that they must sort it.
START=1762480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1762640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I say make an effort, because<br>it's not my job to do eve
START=1766400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1767280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>But now they understand.
START=1769160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1769480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>What's more,<br>ecological concerns</i>
START=1771640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1771800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>are linked to more<br>down-to-earth considerations.</i>
START=1775240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1776240>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Residents feel the difference<br>in their annual bill.<
START=1779360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1779520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Here, a family with 3 children</i>
START=1781320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1781480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>pays 74 euros for 6 months<br>of refuse collection.</i>
START=1785360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1785520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>On average, French households<br>pay 2 to 3 times that.
START=1789520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1789680>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>With weigh & pay,<br>the more you sort, the less you pa
START=1794560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1797280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Moreover,<br>this new collection system</i>
START=1799400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1799560>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>sharply reduces municipal expenses.</i>
START=1802640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1803200>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In the bin you've just seen<br>there were only


<SYNC START=1805920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1806080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>ultimate residuals, unsortable things<br>you can do nothin
g with.
<SYNC START=1810400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1810560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>All the rest is sorted by people,<br>that's the added valu
e of sorting.
<SYNC START=1815320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1815720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It translates into substantial<br>savings for households
<SYNC START=1819240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1819400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>because we negotiate<br>the sorted refuse
<SYNC START=1821720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1821880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and obtain 274,000 euros a year,<br>which isn't negligible
.
<SYNC START=1825800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1825960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So that's a further saving<br>to individuals.
<SYNC START=1829400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1831880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And the results aren't only<br>on the balance sheet.</i
>
<SYNC START=1834880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1835040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>From his refuse truck,<br>Thierry has a good view</i>
<SYNC START=1838560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1838720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>of the little changes<br>that make a big difference.</i
>
<SYNC START=1842080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1844320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>When this system began in 1998,
<SYNC START=1848720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1848880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>there were more bins outside.
<SYNC START=1850640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1850920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Gradually, over time,<br>we've seen fewer bins
<SYNC START=1855440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1855600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and people sort better.<br>Compared to other sectors,
<SYNC START=1859480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=1859640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>where they still use sacks,<br>our tonnage is far smaller.
<SYNC START=1863240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1863960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Take a look at this housing estate
<SYNC START=1866720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1866880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>where there are 15-20 houses.
<SYNC START=1870560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1870720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Nothing. Oh, yes, one bin.
<SYNC START=1872600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1872760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>One bin for 15 houses.
<SYNC START=1874760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1879240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Ten years ago, each inhabitant<br>produced 400kg of was
te a year.</i>
<SYNC START=1884000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1884160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Today, it's only one-fifth of that.</i>
<SYNC START=1887040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1887200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>We're doing as well as the Japanese!</i>
<SYNC START=1889960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1892000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The end of Thierry's road<br>is the huge tip at Retwile
r,</i>
<SYNC START=1895960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1896120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the only one in Haut-Rhin.</i>
<SYNC START=1898120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1898280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It's where the dpartement's rivers<br>of non-recyclable
waste end up.</i>
<SYNC START=1903200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1903360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The good news is,<br>this sea is drying up.</i>
<SYNC START=1907720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1908640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>This tip had a capacity<br>of 220,000 tonnes in 1999,
<SYNC START=1912920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1913080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and with all Alsace is doing today,
<SYNC START=1915800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1915960>

<P
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<SYNC
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s' time,
<SYNC
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.</i>
<SYNC
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<SYNC

CLASS=SUBTTL>by 2015 only 50,000 tonnes<br>will be coming here.


START=1919680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1920160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In the meantime,<br>Dany Dietman has an idea</i>
START=1923440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1923600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>of how to make more money<br>from the tip.</i>
START=1926880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1927400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>There's gold in our rubbish tips.<br>What kind of gold?
START=1930440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1930600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's metals, plastics...
START=1932960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1933120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>For each piece of plastic plucked<br>from a tip in 30 year
START=1937600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1937760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>we won't need to be fetching oil<br>from 6000km away.
START=1942760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1947960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Toate rile dezvoltate<br>se confrunt cu puzzle-ul deeurilor
START=1951840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1952000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Toate caut solu ii.</i>
START=1954600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1954760>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Exist unele idei care pot fi luate<br>din alt parte.</i>
START=1958560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1960840>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Barcelona, al doilea ora din Spania.</i>
START=1963640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1963800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>5 milioane de locuitori,</i>
START=1965760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1965920>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>strzi nguste i temperaturi ridicate</i>
START=1968840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1969000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>deci deeuri organice<br>care se descompun repede:</i>
START=1972480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=1972640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>un adevrat comar pentru colectare.</i>
START=1975280>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1976760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Drept urmare, catalanii au instalat </i>
<SYNC START=1978920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1979080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>un sistem ingenios<br>deja testat n Suedia:</i>
<SYNC START=1981600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1981760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>colectarea pneumatic.</i>
<SYNC START=1984360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1985560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Func ionnd 24/24 i 365 de zile pe an,</i>
<SYNC START=1989600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1989760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>acest sistem s-a implementat<br>n cartierele noi</i>
<SYNC START=1991960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1992120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>i n centrul istoric al oraului,<br>unde accesul este dific
il.</i>
<SYNC START=1996800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=1999440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Fr acest sistem subteran
<SYNC START=2000880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2001040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>de aspirare a deeurilor,
<SYNC START=2002760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2002920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>nu am fi putut aeza clien ii
<SYNC START=2004720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2004880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>la mese pe terase.<br>Ei ar fi mncat printre pubele.
<SYNC START=2007760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2007920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Aici, nu sunt mirosuri<br>i mai ales nu sunt animale care s
dea trcoale.
<SYNC START=2011680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2015600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>n total, avem aproximativ<br>1500 de borne ca acestea care
acoper
<SYNC START=2019720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2020520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>15 kilometri de re ea.<br>Peste c iva ani,
<SYNC START=2022880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2023040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>vor fi aproximativ 50 000 de persoane
<SYNC START=2025160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=2025320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>care vor utiliza<br>sistemul de colectare pneumatic.
<SYNC START=2029000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2032120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Deschizi i arunci.
<SYNC START=2034880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2036800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Deeurile se deplaseaz<br>cu 80 de Km/or n tub.
<SYNC START=2040160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2040320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Ele sunt aspirate<br>pn la central.
<SYNC START=2043120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2044280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Este mai curat, mai igienic<br>i mai ecologic.
<SYNC START=2048360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2048720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Asta i face pe oameni s contientizeze<br>c trebuie s sorteze ma
i bine deeurile
<SYNC START=2051800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2051960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>n vederea reciclrii.
<SYNC START=2054400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2055600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>O born pentru resturile non-organice,<br>alta pentru cel
e organice.</i>
<SYNC START=2059080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2059240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Deeurile ajung la 2 kilometri distan .</i>
<SYNC START=2061840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2062000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Cele organice<br>vor servi la producerea ngrmintelor.</i>
<SYNC START=2064560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2064720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Un sistem practic i eficient,<br>cu o singur problem.</i>
<SYNC START=2068480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2072680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Oasele de jamboane aruncate<br>alunec greu n conducte
<SYNC START=2076280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2076440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>i rmn blocate.
<SYNC START=2078280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2078440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Pentru a le putea ndeprta, trebuie s cobori<br>n canal i s defac
i tuburile.
<SYNC START=2083000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2083160>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Aceeai problem e i n cazul schiurilor,<br>sunt oameni care aru


nc schiuri.
<SYNC START=2086120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2086280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>S-au gsit pn i televizoare.
<SYNC START=2089280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2090720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Atta timp ct nu se arunc<br>cini i pisici.
<SYNC START=2093880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2094280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Sau soacra! Soacra!
<SYNC START=2097040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2098920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Bine, chiar dac are anumite neajunsuri,</i>
<SYNC START=2101840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2102040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>aspiratorul universal poate descongestiona<br>centrul o
raului</i>
<SYNC START=2104320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2104480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>i poate valorifica<br>deeurile organice.</i>
<SYNC START=2107760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2110560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Dar fr s atepta i<br>ca aspiratorul de deeuri s ajungn orau
avoastr,</i>
<SYNC START=2114160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2114320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>pute i deja s refolosi i<br>30% din ce arunca i,</i>
<SYNC START=2117800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2117960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>pentru c pubelele de uz casnic<br>con in resurse nebnuite.<
/i>
<SYNC START=2121480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2126480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Demonstra ie la Rennes,<br>al cincilea ora din Fran a.</i>
<SYNC START=2130720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2130960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Aici, din ce n ce mai mul i locuitori<br>apeleaz la o echip
de interven ie</i>
<SYNC START=2134880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2135040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>pentru reciclarea deeurilor menajere.</i>
<SYNC START=2138000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2138560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Ei sunt n acelai timp gunoieri<br>i ajutor de grdinari,</i>
<SYNC START=2141360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=2141520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>si pot s retrateze pn la<br>1/3 din deeuri. Totul gratuit.<

/i>

<SYNC START=2146760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2146960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Cu o singur condi ie: s i lai<br>s munceasc liniti i, la umbr
ia lor.</i>
<SYNC START=2152680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2155480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Ne aflm totui ntr-o faz foarte avansatm deoarece comportul are
...
<SYNC START=2158280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2158440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Dat fiind numrul de viermi pe care l are,<br>ei au muncit di
n greu.
<SYNC START=2161280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2161440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Ei asimileaz toate deeurile care sunt n descompunere
<SYNC START=2164360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2164520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>datorit ciupercilor,<br>bacteriilor, etc.
<SYNC START=2166600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2166760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>i iat prin digestie se face fermentarea<br>unui,unui compost
, a unui compost bun din care rezult humusul.
<SYNC START=2172160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2173080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Yves i Laurent nu sunt<br>angaja i ai serviciului de salub
rizare.</i>
<SYNC START=2175960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2176120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Sunt doar doi cet eni convini<br>de calit ile compostrii</i>
<SYNC START=2178880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2179080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>care permite producerea unui sol ultra fertil<br>din dee
urile alimentare.</i>
<SYNC START=2184800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2185440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Ah da ! Este bine fcut.<br>Este perfect.
<SYNC START=2188280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2188440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>l punem la dispozi ia
<SYNC START=2189320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2189480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>tuturor, chiar i celor<br>care nu au luat parte la realizar
ea lui.
<SYNC START=2193080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=2193240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>- Este o ini iativ colectiv.<br>- Da, colectiv.
<SYNC START=2196720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2196880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Mult lume care l utilizeaz<br>consider c este minunat.
<SYNC START=2200400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2200560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Noi l folosim pentru plantele de ghiveci.
<SYNC START=2203080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2203240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>i este o variant eficient<br>atunci cnd crete i flori.
<SYNC START=2206200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2206360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Este adevrat i acest lucru e o mndrie.
<SYNC START=2211440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2212560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Acum 4 ani,<br>cei doi maetri compostori au trebuit s se
lupte</i>
<SYNC START=2216000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2216160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>ca s poat instala aceste cutii<br>la subsolul caselor lor
</i>
<SYNC START=2218320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2218480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>deoarece vecinii se temeau de mirosuri<br>i insecte - ns a
u greit.</i>
<SYNC START=2223400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2224200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Unii oameni erau pentru, al ii mpotriva.
<SYNC START=2226720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2226880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Deci, a fost o btlie destul de mare,
<SYNC START=2229120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2229280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>a fost chiar o manifesta ie mpotriva compostajului.<br>Ei nu
erau de acord cu asta.
<SYNC START=2234080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2238160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>S schimbe prerea celor care nu cred,<br>aceasta este misi
unea lui Francis.</i>
<SYNC START=2241840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2242000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This former IT engineer<br>himself converted to compost
ing</i>
<SYNC START=2245560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2245720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and sings its praises<br>to the local population.</i>

<SYNC START=2249600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2249760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Acesta este viitorul,<br>ntruct la ob inerea compostului
<SYNC START=2252520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2252680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>putem utiliza o treime din deeuri.
<SYNC START=2255040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2255200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Dac toat lumea ar face acest lucru,<br>ar fi cu o treime mai
pu ine deeuri,
<SYNC START=2257800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2257960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>ceea ce ar reprezenta un buget imens.
<SYNC START=2259480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2259640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Waste is the 2nd- or 3rd-largest<br>municipal budget,
<SYNC START=2263080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2263240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>so we could use the money<br>to do far more interesting th
ings
<SYNC START=2268120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2268280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>than build incinerators<br>or landfill centres.
<SYNC START=2271080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2273200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Azi, Francis merge <br>ntr-un complex de locuin e din cent
rul oraului </i>
<SYNC START=2276800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2276960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>pentru a instala o nou cutie de compost</i>
<SYNC START=2279040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2279200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>i pentru a le explica locuitorilor cum func ioneaz aceasta<
br>i ce avantaje are.</i>
<SYNC START=2283320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2285240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Vor avea mai pu ine lucruri de aruncat<br>la gunoi.
<SYNC START=2288120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2288280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Locul unde sunt depozitate pubelele miroase urt,<br>este si
nistru i sumbru.
<SYNC START=2291280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2291440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Nu e un loc unde s vrei s ai ntlniri.
<SYNC START=2294520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2294680>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Acum, n schimb, vor merge<br>n parc


<SYNC START=2296560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2296720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>vor sta i vor discuta<br>n jurul unei cutii cu viermi.
<SYNC START=2301520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2302360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Au trecut 4 ani de cnd a nceput totul,<br>i nimeni nu s-ar
fi gndit c ar fi posibil </i>
<SYNC START=2306920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2307080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>un proiect colectiv de compostaj<br>ntr-un cartier oarec
are.</i>
<SYNC START=2310440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2311880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Acum, aproape un sfert<br>din popula ie ia parte la proie
ct,</i>
<SYNC START=2314840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2315040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>i locuitorii sun pentru a se nscrie<br>ca voluntari.</i>
<SYNC START=2318160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2318320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>O s punem capacul.
<SYNC START=2320200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2320640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Aici, Francis instaleaz<br>a 114-a cutie.</i>
<SYNC START=2324600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2325640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>i iat, aceasta este gleata voastr.
<SYNC START=2327600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2327760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Apoi urmeaz s v dau<br>un autocolant i un ghid de utilizare.
<SYNC START=2330480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2330640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Acum v las s ncerca i. E rndul vostru s v juca i.
<SYNC START=2332920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2333080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Da, trebuie s lucra i!
<SYNC START=2334960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2337120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Compostul a devenit att de popular</i>
<SYNC START=2339160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2339320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>datorit aa numitei<br>metode Tupperware.</i>
<SYNC START=2343280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2343440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Fiecare instalare nou este pretext<br>pentru o mic petrec

ere, ntre vecini.</i>


<SYNC START=2347280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2347440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Fiecare i primete instruc iunile<br>i trusa de la maestrul co
mpostor.</i>
<SYNC START=2352400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2352560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Ce ve i pune<br>n gle ile voastre?
<SYNC START=2354560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2354720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>- Coji?<br>- Coji, asta este scris mai sus.
<SYNC START=2357440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2357760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Se folosesc n mare parte ingredientele ce in <br>de pregtirea
mesei: resturi de legume,
<SYNC START=2361440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2362320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>coji de ou, za de cafea,
<SYNC START=2365840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2367120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>flori, resturi de mncare...
<SYNC START=2369800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2370080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Eventual un fruct stricatpe care nu-l mai mnca i.
<SYNC START=2371520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2371680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Pute i s l tia i n dou i s l pune i nuntru.
<SYNC START=2375080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2375240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Nu punem nici carne
<SYNC START=2376720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2376880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>nici pete,<br>deoarece acestea pot provoca mici defec iuni.
<SYNC START=2380480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2380640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>i cu ct ucenicii compostori sunt mai tineri,<br>cu att sunt
mai pasiona i.</i>
<SYNC START=2384320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2384480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Vrei s-mi pui o ntrebare?
<SYNC START=2385720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2385880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Dup ce am pus cojile de legume,
<SYNC START=2390200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2390360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>wce facem?

<SYNC START=2391840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2392000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Dup ce a i pus cojile nu mai face i nimic. Viermiorii<br>vor ave
a grij de restul.
<SYNC START=2396000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2396160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Ei ciugulesc, le sug,<br>le descompun, iar la sfrit nu mai rmn
e nimic.
<SYNC START=2401040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2401200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Vreau s- i art cum va fi. Hai cu mine.
<SYNC START=2403560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2403720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Uite, vom lua un be ior<br>vom spa pu in,
<SYNC START=2406760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2406920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>i poate vom gi nite viermiori<br>for when your daddies
<SYNC START=2410880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2411040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>go fishing...<br>- Da, o rm!
<SYNC START=2413560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2413720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Nu este o rm,<br>e un viermior de compost.
<SYNC START=2417080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2417240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Sunt viermi care rmn<br>la suprafa i mnnc frunze.
<SYNC START=2422040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2424560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Aceasta este genera ia<br>care va munci mai mult pentru asta
.
<SYNC START=2427560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2427720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Noi am fcut doar nceputul,
<SYNC START=2430360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2430800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>noi avem destul de multe obiceiuri proaste.
<SYNC START=2433720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2433880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Ei, n schimb, vor fi obinui i de mici<br>i dup aceea le va fi ma
i uor.
<SYNC START=2438120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2440040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Dup aceea, se pot face o mul ime de ac iuni.
<SYNC START=2441760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2441920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Odat ce oamenii se vor obinui s-i vorbeasc i s se ntlneasc<br

unui compostor,
<SYNC START=2445320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2445480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>ei vor organiza i alte activit i
<SYNC START=2447200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2447360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>precum medita ii colare, babysiting...
<SYNC START=2450200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2450360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Oamenii i vor vorbi<br>i vor profita de spa iul verde
<SYNC START=2453560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2453720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>pe care, este ntr-adevr de necrezut, nu-l foloseau deloc,
<SYNC START=2455400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2455560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>nici nu-l vedeau.<br>Era precum o carte potal, iar acum ei v
or tri acolo.
<SYNC START=2459520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2461960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Let's recap: one third fewer bins</i>
<SYNC START=2464760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2464920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>means one third saved<br>in waste processing.</i>
<SYNC START=2468280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2468440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And with the compost,<br>you can grow lots of things.</
i>
<SYNC START=2472600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2472760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Plants, of course.<br>But also social ties.</i>
<SYNC START=2476400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2477760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Good enough to eat.
<SYNC START=2479520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2479680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Is it homogenous?
<SYNC START=2481480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2483360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>- Animal life...<br>- No, no animal life.
<SYNC START=2487920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2489160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Yes, there is some.
<SYNC START=2491480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2491760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's a sustainable-development<br>initiative.
<SYNC START=2494480>

>

<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2495040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>There's the environmental angle,
START=2498600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2498760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>the economic angle<br>and the social angle.
START=2501320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2501480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's all in there.
START=2503280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2503480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But compost hasn't yet revealed<br>all its benefits.</i

<SYNC START=2506880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2507040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It can help our balconies flower,<br>reduce our waste b
y a third,</i>
<SYNC START=2511560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2511720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and also fertilize our fields.</i>
<SYNC START=2513640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2515880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Which they badly need.</i>
<SYNC START=2517720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2518080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For after decades of intensive use<br>of chemical ferti
lizers,</i>
<SYNC START=2522560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2522720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the soil in which we farm<br>is in steep decline.</i>
<SYNC START=2526600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2527440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Intensified cereal growing has<br>weakened the organic mat
ter in soil
<SYNC START=2531480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2531640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and therefore the humus,
<SYNC START=2533120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2533280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and we've seen changes<br>in soil behaviour.
<SYNC START=2536040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2536760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We've looked for solutions to halt<br>this decline in soil
quality.
<SYNC START=2541240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2541400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Chemistry exhausted our land.<br>Biology can perk it up

.</i>
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
/i>
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
ls.</i>
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
graded
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

START=2545840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2546000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Nol Adam founded an association<br>of farmer-composters<
START=2549440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2549600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>with 40 colleagues.</i>
START=2551480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2551640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>They aim to produce<br>natural fertilizer</i>
START=2554120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2554280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that's non-polluting and more<br>effective than chemica
START=2557640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2557800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And without collateral damage.</i>
START=2559920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2564520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Raw materials aren't costly:</i>
START=2566920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2567080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>take the green waste from villages.</i>
START=2569800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2569960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Then leave it<br>to natural fermentation.</i>
START=2574320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2577560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's 77C inside, a sign that<br>the matter is being well de
START=2582040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2582200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>by micro-organisms,<br>and at the same time
START=2584800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2584960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>it destroys any weed seeds<br>among the plants
START=2588080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2588240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and also any diseases
START=2590200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2590360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that may be present.
START=2591960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2592120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So it guarantees good-quality compost<br>is produced.

i>

<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

START=2596360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2598960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>These farmers produce<br>the same humus as the forest</

<SYNC START=2602240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2602400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>by accelerating the natural cycle.</i>
<SYNC START=2605160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2605320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Decomposition in the woods<br>may take decades.</i>
<SYNC START=2608800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2608960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Here, it only takes 6 months<br>for the earth to return
to the earth.</i>
<SYNC START=2613760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2616840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>By applying this principle<br>to all farming,</i>
<SYNC START=2620000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2620160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we could considerably reduce<br>soil pollution </i>
<SYNC START=2623360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2623520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and ensure its long-term fertility.</i>
<SYNC START=2627560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2631920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But green waste<br>has many other virtues.</i>
<SYNC START=2634600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2634760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It can also produce energy</i>
<SYNC START=2636720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2636880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>thanks to a strange process<br>called anaerobic digesti
on.</i>
<SYNC START=2641840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2643200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This is a methane digester.</i>
<SYNC START=2644720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2644880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>France will build 32 of them<br>in the next 5 years.</i
>
<SYNC START=2648840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2649000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It may look industrial,<br>but it's as natural as can b
e.</i>
<SYNC START=2654440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2655840>

ch.

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>You could say methanisation<br>is like a large cow's stoma

<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
</i>
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
y.
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

START=2659520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2661280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>First, the cow grazes:</i>
START=2663920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2664080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>tons of soft, humid waste<br>is crushed and mixed here.
START=2669000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2669160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Then the cows swallows:</i>
START=2671800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2671960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the green mulch is sent<br>through this oesophagus</i>
START=2674800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2674960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>into a kind of belly,</i>
START=2676840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2677000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>where the debris<br>is digested by bacteria.</i>
START=2680160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2680320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And at the end<br>of the digestion cycle,</i>
START=2683280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2683440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the cows gets wind.</i>
START=2685640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2686960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>This is the end of the chain.
START=2689400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2689560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We've done all this work<br>to obtain biogas,
START=2693920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2694080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>which is then injected<br>into these generator sets
START=2697080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2697240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that work a central generator<br>which produces electricit
START=2701360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2702160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>They're diesel units<br>converted for biogas.
START=2704920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2705080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>That's how we can produce energy</i>

>

<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P
<SYNC
<P

START=2707760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2707920>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>from organic waste.</i>
START=2710480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=2712240>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Unfortunately, not everything<br>is easily recycled.</i

<SYNC START=2715680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2715840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Lots of consumer goods<br>contain toxic substances.</i>
<SYNC START=2719880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2720040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Some get rid of them cheaply<br>by sending them to poor
countries</i>
<SYNC START=2723680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2723840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>as exports of second-hand goods.</i>
<SYNC START=2727400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2727760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>An illegal but common practice.</i>
<SYNC START=2731880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2732040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>How can we stop this trafficking?</i>
<SYNC START=2735560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2740360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>With 2000 quays like this one,</i>
<SYNC START=2742440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2742600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Antwerp is the second-largest<br>European port after Ro
tterdam.</i>
<SYNC START=2746680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2746840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Tens of thousands of containers<br>are loaded and unloa
ded each day.</i>
<SYNC START=2751720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2751880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>An ideal opportunity for hoodlums<br>who want to get ri
d of toxic waste</i>
<SYNC START=2756040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2756200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>by sending it surreptitiously<br>to faraway lands</i>
<SYNC START=2759200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2759360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>less particular<br>about ecological dangers.</i>
<SYNC START=2762760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2763200>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>They didn't count on Customs<br>Officer Vos and his spe


cial unit,</i>
<SYNC START=2767080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2767240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>on the lookout<br>for suspicious merchandise.</i>
<SYNC START=2770960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2772560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>This is the boat's waybill,
<SYNC START=2775520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2775680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>all the goods carried<br>are listed here.
<SYNC START=2778400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2778560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Each container has a description
<SYNC START=2781440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2781600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>of what should be inside.
<SYNC START=2784120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2787400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>From this description,
<SYNC START=2788960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2789120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>we choose the containers<br>we're going to inspect.
<SYNC START=2792160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2798840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Firstly we check the seals,
<SYNC START=2801880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2802040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>then the documents,
<SYNC START=2803320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2803480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>then send the container to a scanner
<SYNC START=2805960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2806120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>for a closer inspection<br>of its contents.
<SYNC START=2808840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2809000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Then, if necessary,<br>we empty it entirely.
<SYNC START=2812360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2812840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The scanner can check<br>if the suspicious container</i
>
<SYNC START=2815760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2815920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is carrying the goods specified</i>
<SYNC START=2818880>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2819040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and not toxic waste.</i>
<SYNC START=2820800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2820960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Just look: in this French container<br>from Strasbourg,
</i>
<SYNC START=2825200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2825360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we can see black marks<br>indicating the presence of ga
s.</i>
<SYNC START=2829080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2829640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Odd, for electric cookers.</i>
<SYNC START=2832800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2836080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>This container is refused. Why?
<SYNC START=2838840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2839000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Because the compressors in it<br>weren't declared and cont
ain
<SYNC START=2843320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2843480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>CFC gas which erodes the ozone layer.
<SYNC START=2846600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2847240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It will therefore be refused and<br>sent back to its count
ry of origin.
<SYNC START=2851800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2853280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Return to sender in Strasbourg.</i>
<SYNC START=2856160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2856320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This time,<br>the highly polluting fridges</i>
<SYNC START=2858920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2859080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>won't reach their destination:<br>Ghana.</i>
<SYNC START=2861600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2864680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>To halt waste trafficking,<br>we must step up customs c
hecks.</i>
<SYNC START=2869200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2870400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But there are other solutions,</i>
<SYNC START=2872360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2872520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>some of which can be very profitable.</i>

<SYNC START=2875280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2875440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In Antwerp,<br>engineers have found a way</i>
<SYNC START=2877960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2878120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to transform some waste into gold.</i>
<SYNC START=2880680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2880840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It's a formula<br>that should be taken literally.</i>
<SYNC START=2883760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2886760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Each year, Umicore recovers<br>thousands of tons of com
puters </i>
<SYNC START=2890640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2890800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and mobile phones<br>from all over the world</i>
<SYNC START=2893840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2894000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and extracts all kinds of metals:</i>
<SYNC START=2896760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2896920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>copper, silver, palladium...<br>and especially</i>
<SYNC START=2901080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2901240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>gold.</i>
<SYNC START=2903000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2909480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We process around
<SYNC START=2911200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2911360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>30,000 tonnes<br>of electronic waste,
<SYNC START=2913200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2913360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>motherboards, GSMs,<br>connector components, etc.
<SYNC START=2916480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2917480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>If we take the connectors here,
<SYNC START=2920360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2920520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the connection points are golden,
<SYNC START=2922800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2922960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>so there's gold in them.<br>They're easy to recognise.
<SYNC START=2927360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2930320>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The Umicore engineers developed</i>


<SYNC START=2932440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2932600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>complex technologies to recover<br>the metals while min
imising risks.</i>
<SYNC START=2937440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2937600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Their industrial secrets<br>are jealously guarded,</i>
<SYNC START=2940760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2940920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>as they're worth<br>their weight in gold.</i>
<SYNC START=2943560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2953120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Sold!</i>
<SYNC START=2954480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2954880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>A few taps of the hammer</i>
<SYNC START=2956560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2956720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and no less than 7 million euros<br>comes down the tube
.</i>
<SYNC START=2960640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2961560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Here, the production of gold<br>from electronic waste
<SYNC START=2964680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2964840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>amounts to around 6 tonnes per year.
<SYNC START=2968520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2968960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The price of gold is high now:
<SYNC START=2970800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2970960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>25,000 euros per kilogram.
<SYNC START=2973480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2973640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So that represents a certain value.
<SYNC START=2976760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2976920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>6000 kilos times 25,000 euros<br>is pretty impressive.
<SYNC START=2981600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2983040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Indeed it is. </i>
<SYNC START=2984720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2986160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>150 million euros a year,</i>
<SYNC START=2988480>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2988920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to which can be added the price of<br>the other metals
Umicore recovers.</i>
<SYNC START=2993960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=2997520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Our mobile phones<br>are also a source of treasure.</i>
<SYNC START=3002280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3003360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>GSMs can be valuable<br>for their precious-metal content.
<SYNC START=3007400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3008560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>If we throw away a GSM,<br>naturally the metals are lost,
<SYNC START=3013560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3013720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and in some circumstances<br>the battery can even explode.
<SYNC START=3018000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3019000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Recovery limits the risks<br>to the environment.</i>
<SYNC START=3022800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3022960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>There's another advantage:</i>
<SYNC START=3024720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3024880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the seam of used devices<br>isn't likely to dry up.</i>
<SYNC START=3029240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3029400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>If we don't recycle,
<SYNC START=3031040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3031200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>in the long or medium term,
<SYNC START=3033360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3033520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>some metal resources<br>will be exhausted
<SYNC START=3036440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3037040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and there may be no solution,
<SYNC START=3040160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3040320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>as there's no substitute.
<SYNC START=3042880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3043040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>If we recycle electronic waste,<br>we achieve a level
<SYNC START=3047840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3048000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>of gold recovery<br>of 300 to 350 grams per tonne.

<SYNC START=3052120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3052280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So it's a gold mine,
<SYNC START=3054640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3054800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>one that's richer<br>than those in South Africa.
<SYNC START=3058000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3059560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>These scrap-phone mountains<br>are worth all the mines
in Transvaal.</i>
<SYNC START=3063880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3066960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But beware.<br>Don't play at prospectors</i>
<SYNC START=3070480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3070640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>by burning a computer board!</i>
<SYNC START=3072720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3072880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>You will poison yourself,</i>
<SYNC START=3074720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3074880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>along with your neighbours,<br>and get nothing.</i>
<SYNC START=3078640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3080240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In Ghana, youngsters unaware<br>of the danger hope to r
ecover</i>
<SYNC START=3083760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3083920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>precious metals<br>by burning components.</i>
<SYNC START=3086920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3087080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But burning plastic<br>creates dioxins and other poison
s.</i>
<SYNC START=3090760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3091520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>A survey recently showed<br>these youngsters</i>
<SYNC START=3094120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3094280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>rarely lived to be older than 25.</i>
<SYNC START=3097160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3097840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's very important<br>to have an effective system,
<SYNC START=3101120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3101280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>not only to recover the metals
<SYNC START=3103800>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3103960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>but also to destroy the dioxins
<SYNC START=3108800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3108960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>which can form<br>in the melting process.
<SYNC START=3112800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3114920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Even our toxic waste<br>can be worth its weight in gold
.</i>
<SYNC START=3119080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3119360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So recycling is doubly useful:<br>it avoids dangerous p
ollution</i>
<SYNC START=3123640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3123800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and saves on raw materials</i>
<SYNC START=3125880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3126040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>which are becoming rarer.</i>
<SYNC START=3128760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3133360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Then why not design products</i>
<SYNC START=3136640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3136800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>in such a way<br>as to be easily recyclable?</i>
<SYNC START=3139920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3140080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This is called Ecodesign.</i>
<SYNC START=3143440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3144600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In the aircraft industry,<br>for instance,</i>
<SYNC START=3147160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3147320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the idea is beginning to take hold.</i>
<SYNC START=3149920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3150080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>What happens to our airliners<br>after their last fligh
t?</i>
<SYNC START=3153840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3154000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In the 1970s, the aircraft industry<br>produced 50 per
year.</i>
<SYNC START=3159160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3159320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But today,<br>they make 20 times as many,</i>
<SYNC START=3162560>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3162720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>so there are more and more<br>end-of-life aircraft.</i>
<SYNC START=3166120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3166280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Until now, the hulks were buried</i>
<SYNC START=3168520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3168680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>or stored in the desert,<br>like here in Arizona,</i>
<SYNC START=3172080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3172240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but over the next 20 years,<br>we'll have over 6000 to
recycle,</i>
<SYNC START=3176200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3176360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>enough to cover a quarter<br>of the surface of Paris.</
i>
<SYNC START=3179800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3179960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In future, we'll have to find<br>a less burdensome solu
tion.</i>
<SYNC START=3184400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3186360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Arosave,</i>
<SYNC START=3187720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3187880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a partnership between Airbus<br>and waste-treatment spe
cialist Sita,</i>
<SYNC START=3192120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3192280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>has its own ideas.</i>
<SYNC START=3193960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3195120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Here in Tarbes,<br>they dismantle planes</i>
<SYNC START=3198240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3198400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>piece by piece:<br>every bolt, every wire.</i>
<SYNC START=3202720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3202880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Mind your head.
<SYNC START=3204360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3204520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It's a surgical operation</i>
<SYNC START=3206560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3206720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>for which they call on specialists</i>
<SYNC START=3209040>

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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3209200>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>like former aircraft builder<br>Jean-Luc.</i>
START=3212520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3212680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We haven't started<br>on this cockpit yet.
START=3217200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3217360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>You can see the red danger labels
START=3220720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3220880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>for the engine fire<br>shut-off handles,
START=3223080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3223240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>because we've worked on the engines.
START=3225760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3225920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We've begun taking out the seats.
START=3228160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3228320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We'll take the cabin apart,
START=3229960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3230120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>because the seats<br>represent quite a weight.
START=3233560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3233720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>If you can put it together,
START=3235400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3235560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>you can take it apart.<br>And vice-versa.
START=3238880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3239840>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Jean-Luc is an enthusiast.</i>
START=3241760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3241920>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>He won't be breaking anything.</i>
START=3244360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3244520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>His work couldn't be<br>any more constructive.</i>
START=3248080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3248800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I was used to making aircraft fly,
START=3251840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3252000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>but I enjoy doing this job because
START=3255480>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3255640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>it's not destructive work.
<SYNC START=3258360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3258520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>I don't break,<br>I dismantle. It's different.
<SYNC START=3262760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3262920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>I dismantle knowing<br>I could put it back together.
<SYNC START=3266440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3266600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's fun, in fact.
<SYNC START=3268640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3268800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>I'm a bit like a kid<br>with a Lego set
<SYNC START=3272400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3272560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>or even a Meccano set.
<SYNC START=3275320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3276960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It took 9 months<br>to build this Airbus A300,</i>
<SYNC START=3281000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3281160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>it will be dismantled in 6 weeks<br>with almost as much
care.</i>
<SYNC START=3285400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3285560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Once it's cleared of pollution,</i>
<SYNC START=3287280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3287440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the cabin is cut up with diamond wire</i>
<SYNC START=3290440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3290600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to extract<br>all the precious materials.</i>
<SYNC START=3293760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3293920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The aircraft industry is discovering<br>a new source of
profit.</i>
<SYNC START=3298880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3299440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>When you remelt electric cable,
<SYNC START=3302720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3302880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>you can recover gold and silver leaf,
<SYNC START=3306360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3306520>

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CLASS=SUBTTL>or 99.9% of it,<br>which is extraordinary.


START=3310720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3310880>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Airplanes have karma too.</i>
START=3313080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3313240>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This old crate can be reincarnated</i>
START=3315840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3316000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>- 80% of it - as a modern version.<br>Or as a scooter.<

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START=3321040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3321880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>There'll always be<br>a little something of the aircraft.
START=3326160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3326520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>You might find<br>an aluminium scooter
START=3329840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3330000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that came from this plane<br>that I dismantled.
START=3333320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3333560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>You never know!
START=3335240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3336240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Maybe you'll get some<br>in your next car's engine block.
START=3340440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3341880>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Dismantling can pay well,</i>
START=3344720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3344880>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but for the time being,<br>it's not easy.</i>
START=3347360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3347520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So manufacturers are starting</i>
START=3349480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3349640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to take recycling into account<br>at the design stage.<

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START=3353560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3354640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>When we're developing the A350,<br>for example,
START=3358280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3358440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>we begin wondering<br>how we can recycle it.
START=3361240>

/i>

/i>

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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3361400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Merely asking the question
START=3364160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3364320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>means our experiments<br>in dismantling are bearing fruit.
START=3369040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3372080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>We haven't yet achieved<br>perpetual flight,</i>
START=3374560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3374720>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but we do know how<br>to make the same parts </i>
START=3378320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3378480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>fly for a long time.</i>
START=3381080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3384640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Some have gone even further.</i>
START=3386840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3387000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>They build houses<br>out of recovered materials.</i>
START=3391360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3399960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>To see this little miracle<br>in action,</i>
START=3403440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3403600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we have to head north to Scotland.</i>
START=3407920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3408800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The hills around Glasgow<br>give a very good view </i>
START=3412000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3412160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>of the ecological ravages<br>caused by cars.</i>
START=3415320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3415480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And we're not talking<br>greenhouse gases.</i>
START=3418680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3419600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We have a major problem in the world<br>with car tyres.
START=3423200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3423360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Currently in the U.K.<br>where we're based,
START=3425520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3425680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>we have about 50 million a year<br>that are waste.
START=3428480>

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e</i>
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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3429920>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>If you asked Kevan Trott<br>what his job is,</i>
START=3432840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3433000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>he'd tell you he's a "biotect". </i>
START=3436040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3436240>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Biotecture, or green architecture,<br>was born</i>
START=3438520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3438680>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>in the 1970s in the USA.</i>
START=3440560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3440720>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Kevan decided to promote it<br>throughout Europe.</i>
START=3444320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3445320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The whole concept<br>revolves around materials</i>
START=3447440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3447600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that are available locally,<br>globally.</i>
START=3449920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3450080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>The world has a problem<br>with car tyres.
START=3452040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3452200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>They're available almost everywhere,
START=3454200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3454360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and we use bottles,<br>plastic, glass bottles,
START=3456440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3456600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>mayonnaise jars, jam jars,
START=3460120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3460280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>recycled timber...
START=3462640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3462920>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Here, the ecobuilders<br>are building a reception centr
START=3466120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3466280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>for the Green Head Moss<br>nature park</i>
START=3468920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3469080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>by using local resources.</i>

START=3471520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3476880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We get all these tyres<br>from a place we call Tyre Mounta

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START=3480640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3480800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Just on one of the locations<br>we are going to,
START=3482960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3483120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>they go through 10,000 tyres daily,<br>every day.
START=3486760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3486920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So in this house,<br>which isn't by any means
START=3489360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3489520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>the largest you can build<br>with this type of constructio

in.

<SYNC
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n,

<SYNC START=3492840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3493000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>you go through about<br>800 to 1000 tyres.
<SYNC START=3496120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3496280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So if you take 10,000 tyres<br>every day,
<SYNC START=3498560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3498720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the potential of what we can do<br>with waste tyres is ast
ounding.
<SYNC START=3502520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3509080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Welcome to Scotland!
<SYNC START=3510440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3510840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Enjoy the weather.
<SYNC START=3512680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3517680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>There are now 1000 such sustainable<br>houses all over
the world.</i>
<SYNC START=3521800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3522520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Kevan decided to build his<br>in more clement climes,</
i>
<SYNC START=3526200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3526360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>in Normandy, in the village of Ger.</i>
<SYNC START=3528600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3532640>

<P
</i>
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CLASS=SUBTTL><i>We visit the house with Kevan's wife,<br>Gillian Trott.


START=3537760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3538720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Here, behind the stones, are tyres,
START=3541520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3541680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>ten rows of tyres,<br>and then above that,
START=3545000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3545160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>we have 10,000 bottles and 5000 cans.
START=3550680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3552480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The house blends with the landscape </i>
START=3554600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3554760>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and functions as an eco-system.</i>
START=3557160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3557320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>They call this "permaculture".</i>
START=3560320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3562200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We've installed on the roof<br>ten solar panels.
START=3565640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3565800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>That generates
START=3567000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3567160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>enough power for this house
START=3568800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3568960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>to be totally self-sufficient<br>for its needs.
START=3572000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3573880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>The house works exactly
START=3575720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3575880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>as any normal house does,<br>we have light switches...
START=3579280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3579440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We use all normal equipment.<br>We have a washing machine,
START=3583400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3583560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>we have computers,<br>telephones...
START=3586360>

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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3586520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>everything you'd expect<br>in a normal house.
START=3589640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3591520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We are working more with nature.
START=3594160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3594320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I'm sure electric companies
START=3596240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3596400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>aren't very happy with<br>people generating their own powe

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oint.
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<SYNC

START=3599520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3599680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>But the sun is there<br>for everyone to use.
START=3601400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3601560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Why shouldn't anyone<br>tap into it?
START=3603280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3603440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It is something that everyone<br>will have to do at some p

r.

START=3606480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3606640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We all know what the situation is<br>with climate change.
START=3609640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3609800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's a fantastic way<br>to get clean, free energy!
START=3613440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3621120>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Human activity<br>has unfortunately produced </i>
START=3623520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3623680>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>some waste we can't re-use </i>
START=3625920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3626080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and certainly not sort.</i>
START=3628080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3628240>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For one simple reason:</i>
START=3630280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3630960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>they're already diluted<br>in our environment.</i>
START=3634320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3635280>

..

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CLASS=SUBTTL>They're called micro-pollutants,


START=3637200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3637360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and these are types of waste
START=3640880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3641040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that come from current production<br>and consumption,
START=3644400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3644560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>including the manufacture of plastic
START=3646880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3647040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>or the decomposition of plastic.
START=3649520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3650280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>But it comes from paint,<br>fertilizer, varnish, solvents.

<SYNC START=3654600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3654760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Products we use in everyday life
<SYNC START=3657040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3657200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>contain substances<br>that even in tiny quantities
<SYNC START=3661840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3662000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>disturb the environment<br>and are found in water,
<SYNC START=3664840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3665000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>sooner or later in the soil,
<SYNC START=3667880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3668040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and also in the food chain.
<SYNC START=3670080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3670240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>They're absorbed by living beings,
<SYNC START=3672960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3673120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>concentrated,<br>and then turn up in our food.
<SYNC START=3676320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3677040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So that's a growing concern today.
<SYNC START=3679800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3683960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The most alarming example is the case<br>of micro-pollu
tants called PCBs.</i>
<SYNC START=3688880>

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nce,</i>
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nment.
<SYNC
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<SYNC

CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3689040>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>A chemical used<br>as an electrical insulator </i>
START=3692120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3692280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>for decades throughout the world.</i>
START=3694720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3695720>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Guillaume Llorca, head of<br>investigations for WWF Fra
START=3699840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3700000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is looking into<br>this new kind of pollution.</i>
START=3703080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3703960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Today, PCBs are found
START=3705440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3705600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>all over the environment.
START=3707400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3707560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>They're chemical compounds<br>that date back to the 1930s
START=3711480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3711640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that were used by a company<br>called Monsanto.
START=3715360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3715520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>They had lots of applications.
START=3717560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3717720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's a very good<br>electrical insulator.
START=3720240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3720400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It looks rather like oil.
START=3724160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3725120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Production in France<br>was banned in 1987.
START=3728400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3728560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>But we now know there are PCBs<br>everywhere in the enviro
START=3732240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3732400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>They're like time bombs.
START=3734520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3734680>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Like asbestos. There is no reliable<br>epidemiological tes


t In France,
<SYNC START=3739200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3739360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>but, health-wise, the time will come<br>when we have to pa
y the bill.
<SYNC START=3743640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3744360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>We've barely an inkling of the damage<br>done by this p
ollution.</i>
<SYNC START=3748200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3748360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But its victims are real.<br>Like Mr and Mrs Letellier.
</i>
<SYNC START=3753040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3753920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Until last year, they raised chickens<br>in La Chapelle
Ranville, Normandy.</i>
<SYNC START=3758240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3758400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Today, they have lost everything.</i>
<SYNC START=3760200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3761840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>A year after<br>a veterinary-services check,</i>
<SYNC START=3764800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3764960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the Letelliers received an email<br>announcing that the
ir chickens</i>
<SYNC START=3768680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3768840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and their eggs<br>were contaminated by PCBs</i>
<SYNC START=3772320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3772480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and unfit for human consumption.</i>
<SYNC START=3775840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3777240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>I haven't studied, but I did<br>what anyone would do: I Go
ogled
<SYNC START=3781280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3781440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and found PCBs, and thought "Oh God!"<br>So now I know.
<SYNC START=3784600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3784760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We're above the limit,<br>but our pollution is phenomenal.
<SYNC START=3788800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3789680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We were proud of our free-range farm.

<SYNC START=3792200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3792360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>That's what consumers wanted,
<SYNC START=3794720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3794880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and when there were<br>national food scandals,
<SYNC START=3798240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3798400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>we'd often get more customers
<SYNC START=3802520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3803120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>who wanted to buy<br>from local producers
<SYNC START=3806640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3806800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>who produced healthy food.
<SYNC START=3809320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3809480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Now we realise<br>that they have been misled.
<SYNC START=3813800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3814320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Given the way we farmed,<br>looking back on it,
<SYNC START=3818480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3818640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>we find that rather disgusting.
<SYNC START=3821640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3823760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>No one understands the mystery</i>
<SYNC START=3826080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3826240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>of how PCBs<br>managed to arrive in this village.</i>
<SYNC START=3829600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3829760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>By air or by water?</i>
<SYNC START=3832680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3833520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The Letelliers' aversion to intensive<br>farming was al
ways a point of honour.</i>
<SYNC START=3838160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3838320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>This land has been used for<br>free-range farming for 3
centuries.</i>
<SYNC START=3844280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3844440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>How could PCBs poison the poultry?</i>
<SYNC START=3848640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=3849880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Today it's wet, so there are plenty<br>of worms in the gra

ss.

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START=3853840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3854000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>The chickens love to eat them.
START=3856920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3857080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>As the ground is contaminated,
START=3858880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3859680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>the chickens are eating food<br>that's contaminated.
START=3864720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3864880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So automatically you get eggs<br>that are contaminated als

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START=3870440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3872120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>This is the hen house...
START=3874720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3874880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>in a neglected state.
START=3876800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3876960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's not been cleaned,<br>but what's the point of cleaning

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ur work,
<SYNC
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START=3882160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3882600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We were so disgusted
START=3884920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3885080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that we left it all as it stood.
START=3887360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3889200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>All this is worth nothing.
START=3891320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3891480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>30 years' investment<br>reduced to nothing.
START=3894280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3894440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's a farm that we can't work on,<br>we can't live from o

o.

START=3899400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3900640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and we can't even pass it on<br>to the children.
START=3904920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

>

<SYNC
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START=3905080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It was the last working farm<br>in La Chapelle Ranville.
START=3908280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3908440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Now there are no more.
START=3910200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=3912320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But finding the guilty party<br>could be a headache,</i

<SYNC START=3916120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3916280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>as PCBs are stowaways<br>which travel throughout nature
.</i>
<SYNC START=3921400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3922800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We end up with indeterminate<br>industrial pollution.
<SYNC START=3925840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3926880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Once again, it's up to us to find<br>the cause of the poll
ution.
<SYNC START=3931520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3931680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's another example<br>of how the human side of things
<SYNC START=3935280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3935440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>isn't taken into consideration.
<SYNC START=3937680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3937840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The fault is theirs, but they don't<br>know if this field
next to theirs
<SYNC START=3942120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3942280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>is polluted or not, so that's what<br>we're going to find
out.
<SYNC START=3946280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3946960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The 8 largest waterways in France<br>are highly contami
nated by PCBs,</i>
<SYNC START=3951080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3951240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and some regions<br>are already paying the bill.</i>
<SYNC START=3955360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3960880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In Franche-Comt,</i>
<SYNC START=3962080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3962240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the consumption<br>of most freshwater fish is banned.</

i>

<SYNC START=3966600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3966760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The effects of PCBs are harmful,<br>especially to repro
duction,</i>
<SYNC START=3970760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3970920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the immune system,</i>
<SYNC START=3972880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3973040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and are potentially carcinogenic.</i>
<SYNC START=3976480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3977280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>One crisp morning on the Doubs,<br>we meet Mr Cudey,</i
>
<SYNC START=3981360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3981520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>head of the professional<br>fishermen's union.</i>
<SYNC START=3984680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3984840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But months from retirement,<br>the picture is bleak.</i
>
<SYNC START=3989600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3991560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It makes me sick.
<SYNC START=3993200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3993360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>All the fish<br>that can't be sold nowadays
<SYNC START=3998200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=3998360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>are all termed as
<SYNC START=4000520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4000680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>fish affected by PCBs:
<SYNC START=4004520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4005040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>carp, wels catfish, tench, bream,<br>stone loach...
<SYNC START=4008880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4009200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>As far as our catch goes,<br>that's a major share.
<SYNC START=4013520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4013680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>I'd say 70% of the fish we see here.
<SYNC START=4018440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4019600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Contaminated fish cannot be eaten.<br>They will be dest

royed.</i>
<SYNC START=4024520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4025280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>This is one of the contaminated fish.
<SYNC START=4029000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4030120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Through bioaccumulation,<br>because it has fatty flesh.
<SYNC START=4033600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4033760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>These fish feed
<SYNC START=4036360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4036520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>at the bottom of the river.
<SYNC START=4038240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4038400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>That's why,<br>seeing as the chemicals
<SYNC START=4042800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4042960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>are mainly in the silt,
<SYNC START=4045120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4045440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>it's the bottom feeders<br>that are most affected.
<SYNC START=4048280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4057880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The time has come to act.</i>
<SYNC START=4059840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4060000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>EU countries have promised</i>
<SYNC START=4062080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4062240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to improve the ecological state<br>of rivers by 2015.</
i>
<SYNC START=4065160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4066960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The only thing is,</i>
<SYNC START=4068400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4068560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>PCBs aren't taken into account<br>in their measurements
of cleanliness.</i>
<SYNC START=4074320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4075000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For Alain Fousseret, vice president<br>of Franche Comt R
egional Council,</i>
<SYNC START=4078880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4079040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the authorities should be taking this<br>far more serio

usly.</i>
<SYNC START=4083680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4084520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>When you have chronic pollution,
<SYNC START=4086840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4087000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>that doesn't kill right away,<br>that's insidious,
<SYNC START=4090640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4090800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>it's very hard to show that<br>when you don't look for it.
<SYNC START=4094240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4094400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Why do they call<br>the Doubs polluted
<SYNC START=4096400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4096560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and say there are PCBs<br>in the fish?
<SYNC START=4098760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4098920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Because we looked for them,
<SYNC START=4101040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4101200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>because we launched<br>a campaign to measure them!
<SYNC START=4104280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4104440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>If we hadn't, we wouldn't have<br>caught them. No problem.
<SYNC START=4108880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4109040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>And this happens all the time.
<SYNC START=4112920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4113080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We don't investigate enough<br>because we're always worrie
d
<SYNC START=4118320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4118480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>about the economic impact it'll have,
<SYNC START=4122120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4122280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and that really is serious.
<SYNC START=4125960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4127200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>We still haven't found<br>the miracle solution </i>
<SYNC START=4129640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4129800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to eliminate PCBs<br>already present on river-beds,</i>
<SYNC START=4133000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=4133160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but at least we can decontaminate<br>products containin
g them.</i>
<SYNC START=4138760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4141040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>So far there is just one plant</i>
<SYNC START=4143520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4143680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>specialised in the chemical<br>elimination of PCBs.</i>
<SYNC START=4146720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4146880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It is in Japan,<br>the first country to feel </i>
<SYNC START=4150000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4150160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the devastating effects<br>of this pollutant.</i>
<SYNC START=4153320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4156760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>In Japan, we became aware<br>of the danger
<SYNC START=4159520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4159680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>when PCBs were mixed<br>with cooking oil.
<SYNC START=4162440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4163240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It caused serious skin problems.
<SYNC START=4166240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4166400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It was a typical case<br>of mass poisoning.
<SYNC START=4169920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4171840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Toxicology tests<br>carried out in Japan </i>
<SYNC START=4174040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4174200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>revealed that the problem</i>
<SYNC START=4176040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4176200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>could be greater<br>for future generations.</i>
<SYNC START=4179040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4181880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>As people gradually<br>ingurgitated PCBs,
<SYNC START=4185440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4185600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>it accumulated in their organism
<SYNC START=4187640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4187800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and caused malformations<br>in newborns.
<SYNC START=4191040>

<P
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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4191200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>The use of PCBs<br>has since been banned.
START=4194720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4197360>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>How can we ensure that manufacturers </i>
START=4200320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4200480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>make no more poisons like PCBs,</i>
START=4203440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4204080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>whose ravages we will discover<br>in 30 years' time?</i

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ted.</i>
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/i>
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START=4206840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4210640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In 2007,<br>the European Reach regulation forced</i>
START=4214000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4214200>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the chemical industry<br>to carry out tests</i>
START=4216200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4216360>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>each time a new molecule<br>was invented</i>
START=4219440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4219600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and its dangerousness established<br>before being marke

>

START=4225240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4229920>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Detecting pollution</i>
START=4231120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4231280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>before it can cause real damage</i>
START=4233480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4233640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is also the goal of Professor Hu,</i>
START=4236240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4236400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>robotics researcher<br>at Essex University in England.<
START=4241040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4266880>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>When he's not teaching<br>his robots to speak,</i>
START=4270360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4270520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>he teaches them<br>to protect the environment.</i>
START=4273320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

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START=4273480>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Like this carp with a tracker head.</i>
START=4276360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4276520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We want to use the robotic fish
START=4278960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4279120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>to monitor the water quality.
START=4282200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4282640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>For pollution protection.
START=4284640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4285040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>And the EU
START=4285960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4286120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>thought that was a good idea.
START=4288920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4289080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>That's why they gave us funding<br>of 3 million euros
START=4292160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4292320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>to monitor any leaks of oil
START=4297240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4297400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and other chemical pollution<br>in the environment.
START=4300840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4301520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>So we want to use this fish<br>to collect
START=4304680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4304840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>pollution information,
START=4306560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4306720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and then generate<br>radio pollution maps
START=4310320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4310480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>for the port authority,
START=4312480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4312640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>who can look at the port in real time.
START=4315520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4316480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>If anything happens, for example,
START=4319200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC
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ack

START=4319360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>ships go in and out,
START=4321680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4321840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>but if some ships are leaking oil,
START=4324920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4325080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>our fish will follow them,<br>and then the 3-D map comes b

<SYNC START=4330240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4330400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and says<br>there's oil coming out of this ship.
<SYNC START=4333360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4333520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So then,<br>the authority will impose sanctions.
<SYNC START=4337800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4339120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>This is the final fish,
<SYNC START=4341760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4341920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>1.5 meters long. It's a big fish.
<SYNC START=4345720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4345880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>And this is a GPS receiver,
<SYNC START=4349640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4349800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and a module ensuring communication<br>with other robots.
<SYNC START=4353720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4356440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Inventions like Professor Hu's<br>tracker-head carp</i>
<SYNC START=4359600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4359760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>could signal industrial leaks</i>
<SYNC START=4362320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4362480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>before they become<br>an ecological disaster.</i>
<SYNC START=4365840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4368640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But water resources are threatened<br>by another form o
f waste,</i>
<SYNC START=4372560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4372720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>far more widespread<br>and almost undetectable:</i>
<SYNC START=4375920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4376080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>pharmaceutical drugs.</i>

<SYNC START=4378000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4383840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Like many scientists</i>
<SYNC START=4385360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4385520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>who study<br>our water-resource problems,</i>
<SYNC START=4388160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4388320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Professor Petrella<br>has one big concern:</i>
<SYNC START=4392000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4392160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>our urine.</i>
<SYNC START=4393480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4398840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We've noted the appearance
<SYNC START=4400560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4400720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>of new sources of contamination
<SYNC START=4403760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4403920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>that raise the problem of treatment.
<SYNC START=4406840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4407000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's due to our ageing society.
<SYNC START=4411880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4412720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The degree of medicalization<br>of the older part of the p
opulation
<SYNC START=4418160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4418920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>is seen in the emission
<SYNC START=4420840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4421000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>into our waste system of urine
<SYNC START=4425240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4425440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>with a high level of toxicity.
<SYNC START=4428680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4428880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The toxicity is extremely pronounced,
<SYNC START=4431800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4431960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and our current treatments<br>are inadequate and insuffici
ent.
<SYNC START=4436560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=4437200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Purification plants weren't designed<br>to treat the hu
ge influx</i>
<SYNC START=4441000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4441160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>of new molecules contained<br>in the medicines we take.
</i>
<SYNC START=4445600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4448640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Professor Hlne Budzinsky,</i>
<SYNC START=4450200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4450360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>a CNRS researcher in Bordeaux,</i>
<SYNC START=4452560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4452720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>was among the first to study<br>this new type of pollut
ion.</i>
<SYNC START=4457440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4459120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Drugs can become toxic<br>to the environment
<SYNC START=4461760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4461920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>when they act on<br>another biological target
<SYNC START=4464840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4465000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and have side-effects.
<SYNC START=4466320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4466480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We already use,<br>in terms of human therapy,
<SYNC START=4469320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4469480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>lots of drugs with side-effects.<br>They're well known,
<SYNC START=4473520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4473680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>users are informed, but we also<br>have them at an environ
mental level.
<SYNC START=4478880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4479560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Beware: medicines<br>can be harmful to nature's health!
</i>
<SYNC START=4483840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4486000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>To measure these<br>"undesirable side-effects",</i>
<SYNC START=4489440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4489600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Professor Budzinsky's favourite sites<br>are estuaries,
</i>

<SYNC START=4493960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4494120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>like here on the Gironde.</i>
<SYNC START=4496440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4498080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So it's December 15,<br>and the time is...
<SYNC START=4502040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4502200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>09:10.
<SYNC START=4503520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4503680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Estuary waters carry evidence<br>of our urine,</i>
<SYNC START=4506120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4506280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and therefore of our way of life.</i>
<SYNC START=4508920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4509080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>They concentrate what we reject,<br>including drugs</i>
<SYNC START=4512000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4512160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we absorb and also those<br>we have our animals absorb.
</i>
<SYNC START=4517320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4517840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The presence of these compounds<br>in the aquatic environm
ent
<SYNC START=4521280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4521440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>can, for example,<br>affect the reproduction
<SYNC START=4524760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4524920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>of various species. For example,<br>hormones used in contr
aceptives,
<SYNC START=4529840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4530000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>antidepressants that could affect<br>the fishes' behaviour
,
<SYNC START=4533760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4533920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>then we have anti-cancer drugs<br>which are toxic compound
s.
<SYNC START=4537840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4538000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's only thousandths of a gram.
<SYNC START=4541120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4541280>

<P
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/i>

CLASS=SUBTTL>But we're witnessing<br>all kinds of phenomena,


START=4544360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4544520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>like the feminization<br>of fish in the Seine estuary,
START=4547560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4547720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>one of the hardest hit.
START=4549280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4555280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>At the Institute of Molecular<br>Sciences in Bordeaux,<

<SYNC START=4558440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4558600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the samples are analysed.</i>
<SYNC START=4561160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4561720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Thanks to ever-more sensitive<br>measuring devices,</i>
<SYNC START=4565080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4565240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the professor can trace the presence<br>of micro-pollut
ants </i>
<SYNC START=4568560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4568720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to within a nanogram per litre,</i>
<SYNC START=4570960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4571120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>the equivalent of a teaspoonful<br>in an Olympic swimmi
ng pool.</i>
<SYNC START=4574720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4574880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>An insignificant proportion.<br>And yet...</i>
<SYNC START=4578840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4579400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>If we take the example<br>of hormones,
<SYNC START=4581480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4581640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>we know they're toxic<br>at under 1ng/l.
<SYNC START=4584000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4584160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's been demonstrated, published,<br>and now established.
<SYNC START=4587600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4589520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Does persistent chemical<br>contamination have an impac
t </i>
<SYNC START=4592920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4593080>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>on human health?</i>


<SYNC START=4594680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4594840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Professor Budzinsky wonders...</i>
<SYNC START=4597000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4601040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>People who are now elderly
<SYNC START=4603320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4603480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>haven't usually been exposed<br>to chemical pollution
<SYNC START=4606720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4606880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>from a young age.
<SYNC START=4607960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4608120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The first generations to really be<br>exposed to chemical
contaminants
<SYNC START=4612560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4612720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>are those currently aged<br>between 40 and 50.
<SYNC START=4615640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4615800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's an area where we lack knowledge<br>and need to make p
rogress.
<SYNC START=4620160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4623560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Worried for the health<br>of her fellow citizens,</i>
<SYNC START=4626160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4626320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>she presented her results</i>
<SYNC START=4628040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4628200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>before a Senate commission.</i>
<SYNC START=4630560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4631120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Chemical pollution,
<SYNC START=4633200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4633920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>pharmaceutical substances...
<SYNC START=4636560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4637520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's all fairly worrying.
<SYNC START=4640080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4641120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In 3 years, Professor Budzinsky </i>
<SYNC START=4643200>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4643360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>has identified throughout France</i>
<SYNC START=4645480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4645640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>3000 undesirable<br>medicinal substances.</i>
<SYNC START=4648400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4648560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Our river water is looking more like<br>a chemist's cat
alogue.</i>
<SYNC START=4652400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4652560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Antibiotics,</i>
<SYNC START=4653880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4654040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>antivirals,<br>antidepressants, anticonvulsants,</i>
<SYNC START=4657000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4657160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>anti-cancer drugs...</i>
<SYNC START=4658400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4658560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Some of these substances<br>are known poisons.</i>
<SYNC START=4661960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4662120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The anti-cancer drugs are cytotoxins,
<SYNC START=4665200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4665360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>toxic molecules<br>that are designed
<SYNC START=4668200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4668360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>to kill cells.
<SYNC START=4670160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4670320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The problem comes<br>when the molecules
<SYNC START=4672480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4672640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>are found in an environment,<br>or targeting something
<SYNC START=4675840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4676000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>for which they were not designed.
<SYNC START=4679960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4681160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>All aquatic environments<br>are contaminated:
<SYNC START=4683760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4683920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>rivers, estuaries, seas...

<SYNC START=4686640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4686800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We feed the environment sufficiently
<SYNC START=4689440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4689600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>for the footprint to be persistent<br>and tenacious
<SYNC START=4693560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4693720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>beyond the capacities<br>of natural degradation.
<SYNC START=4696400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4696560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>In other words, we're sending nature</i>
<SYNC START=4698920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4699080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>more medicine that it can eliminate.</i>
<SYNC START=4702040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4702520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Senator Roland Courteau,<br>commission spokesman,</i>
<SYNC START=4705320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4705480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is convinced: we must improve<br>our purification capac
ities.</i>
<SYNC START=4709440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4709600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Especially biological treatments,<br>which consist</i>
<SYNC START=4711880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4712040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>in using bacteria<br>to degrade molecules </i>
<SYNC START=4714720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4714880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that pollute<br>and render them harmless.</i>
<SYNC START=4718040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4718880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Today, some purification plants
<SYNC START=4721760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4721920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>are equipped<br>with biological treatments,
<SYNC START=4724800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4724960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and we see,<br>according to this hearing,
<SYNC START=4729320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4731240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>that they can, to a large extent,<br>degrade
<SYNC START=4735160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4735320>

<P
<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P
we can
<SYNC
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CLASS=SUBTTL>these pharmaceutical substances.


START=4739040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4739200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>That comes at a cost, so we'll have<br>to examine how best

<SYNC
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thly.

START=4771520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4772160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>is far superior<br>to the rate of renewal
START=4775120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4775280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>of our water resources.
START=4778200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4778520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's like deducting a set amount<br>from your salary
START=4783960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4784440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that's higher than the amount<br>of money you are paid mon

START=4743520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4743680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>make available,<br>and even make compulsory,
START=4747520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4747680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>these biological processes
START=4750560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4750720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>to our purification plants.
START=4753560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4754520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It's high time<br>we took a serious look</i>
START=4757080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4757240>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>at water purity.</i>
START=4758600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4758760>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Because,<br>as Professor Petrella says,</i>
START=4761000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4761160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we'll be running short very soon.</i>
START=4764200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4764360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>In the developed countries,
START=4766360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4766520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>the so-called developed countries,<br>the rate of water us

<SYNC
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se.

START=4788480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4788640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>What happens?
START=4790400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4791440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>You go bankrupt.
START=4793360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4793520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We're constantly limiting
START=4799200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=4800120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>the quantity of water<br>of sufficient quality for human u

<SYNC START=4805000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4805880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>How do we avoid bankruptcy?</i>
<SYNC START=4808200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4808360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>If drinking-water reserves<br>are limited,</i>
<SYNC START=4810840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4811000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>we must find ways<br>to purify waste water </i>
<SYNC START=4814320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4814480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and avoid contaminating it<br>with indestructible molec
ules,</i>
<SYNC START=4818760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4818920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>whether from medicines<br>or elsewhere.</i>
<SYNC START=4822440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4826640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Some beauty and healthcare products</i>
<SYNC START=4828960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4829120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>trumpet the benefits<br>of new molecules.</i>
<SYNC START=4832040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4832200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But do we know how to make them<br>harmless to the envi
ronment?</i>
<SYNC START=4836200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4836360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And do we really know their effects?</i>
<SYNC START=4839800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4843160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It's a question being addressed<br>by researchers</i>
<SYNC START=4846520>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4846680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>at the European Space Agency.</i>
<SYNC START=4848560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4849080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Here in Belgium, the scientists</i>
<SYNC START=4851640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4851800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>are working to improve<br>a water-recycling system.</i>
<SYNC START=4855160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4855320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>They've found that certain molecules<br>contained in co
nsumer products</i>
<SYNC START=4859480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4859640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>can pose a real problem.</i>
<SYNC START=4862560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4863160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>What we studied in our group is,<br>for example, the bioci
de Triclosan,
<SYNC START=4867480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4867640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>which is used in certain types<br>of toothpaste.
<SYNC START=4872000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4872160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>And these biocides<br>can induce genetic changes.
<SYNC START=4875640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4875800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>So they are general toxins<br>that induce mutation.
<SYNC START=4880120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4880880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Let's check the labels:</i>
<SYNC START=4882920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4883080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Triclosan is an antibacterial agent<br>used in</i>
<SYNC START=4885600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4885760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>most of the main brand toothpastes,</i>
<SYNC START=4889440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4889600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but also found in soaps,<br>shaving gels,</i>
<SYNC START=4892160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4892320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>hand creams and even deodorants.</i>
<SYNC START=4895480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4898840>

>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For now, the mutations caused<br>by these molecules </i

<SYNC START=4901760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4901920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>only concern bacteria.</i>
<SYNC START=4904280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4905360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The real problem with compounds<br>invented by industri
al chemists</i>
<SYNC START=4909200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4909360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is that they're indestructible waste:</i>
<SYNC START=4912200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4912360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>no one has yet found out<br>how to get rid of them.</i>
<SYNC START=4915600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4916760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The main problem<br>with synthetic molecules
<SYNC START=4919440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4919600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>is that bacteria hasn't found<br>a solution to degrade the
m.
<SYNC START=4923480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4923640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>If we use them<br>in large quantities,
<SYNC START=4926120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4926280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>for example,<br>biocides like Triclosan,
<SYNC START=4928480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4928640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>but also pharmaceuticals<br>like Diclofonac,
<SYNC START=4931800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4931960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>if we continue to use them,
<SYNC START=4933720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4933880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>they will accumulate in our system
<SYNC START=4935920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4936080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>because there's no biological means<br>to degrade them yet
.
<SYNC START=4938520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4943400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>It's essential that we know<br>which compounds are in soap
s
<SYNC START=4948240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

<SYNC START=4948400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>or other hygienic hair products,
<SYNC START=4951480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4951640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and we can maybe avoid
<SYNC START=4953360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4953520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>the more toxic ones or the ones<br>which have mutagenic ef
fects.
<SYNC START=4957440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4961880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We should make a choice<br>as consumers
<SYNC START=4964200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4964480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>to avoid these compounds until<br>there is a biotechnologi
cal solution
<SYNC START=4968480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4968640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and we can find bacteria<br>to degrade these compounds.
<SYNC START=4971680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4974640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Too many new molecules,<br>often indestructible,</i>
<SYNC START=4978160>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4978320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>are accumulating in the environment:</i>
<SYNC START=4980600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4980760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>waste that could lead humanity<br>to an ecological impa
sse.</i>
<SYNC START=4985400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4988440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Suren Erckman believes </i>
<SYNC START=4990040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4990200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that we should totally rethink<br>our approach to recyc
ling.</i>
<SYNC START=4994760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4995640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Our approach to recycling today,<br>in the 21st century,
<SYNC START=4998960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=4999120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>is extremely primitive.
<SYNC START=5001040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5001920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Our waste recycling activities are,<br>for the most part,
still very dirty,
<SYNC START=5006520>

<P
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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5006680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>consume lots of energy
START=5008800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5009160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and lots of material.
START=5011320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5011480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We're only starting out,
START=5013720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5013880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>so it's good to develop<br>the approach and technologies
START=5017080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5017240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>as we do for long-range<br>space missions
START=5019720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5019880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>so we can develop<br>real recycling strategies
START=5023640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5023800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>that look like what's done<br>in a biosphere.
START=5026720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5027080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>We're currently a long way off.
START=5030000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5030440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>It's interesting that,
START=5032120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5032280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>in the most sophisticated systems<br>man has yet produced,
START=5035760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5035920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>which are our space ships,
START=5037880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5038040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>if they want to survive,<br>the only solution is to imitat

<SYNC
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START=5043080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5043240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>what ecosystems have done.
START=5045520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5048640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Recreating an autonomous ecosystem</i>
START=5051200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5051360>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is just what ESA researchers<br>are doing</i>

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e </i>
<SYNC
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<SYNC

START=5055400>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5055600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to prepare the first manned flight<br>to Mars.</i>
START=5059520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5060640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>18 months one way,</i>
START=5062640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5062800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>3 years' round trip.</i>
START=5064680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5064840>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Taking enough stores is impossible.</i>
START=5067680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5067840>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>To supply the astronauts</i>
START=5069200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5069360>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>with water, oxygen<br>and food for 3 years,</i>
START=5073040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5073200>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>there's only one solution:</i>
START=5074800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5074960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>replenish the reserves gradually<br>by recycling.</i>
START=5078520>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5083280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>A huge programme<br>focusing the efforts</i>
START=5085640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5085800>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>of thirty teams all over Europe.</i>
START=5088880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5089400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Barcelona University is home </i>
START=5091760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5091920>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>to the programme's star turn,<br>codenamed Melissa:</i>
START=5095040>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5095200>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>an ecosystem<br>created from the ground up.</i>
START=5098680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5099160>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Arnaud Fossen shows us round<br>this miniature biospher
START=5102360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5102520>

<P
<SYNC
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<SYNC
<P

CLASS=SUBTTL><i>where everything functions<br>in a closed circuit.</i>


START=5105880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5107000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Inside this lab, we've the equivalent<br>of a little Earth

<SYNC START=5111120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5111280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>in which an ecosystem
<SYNC START=5112960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5113120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>has been created,
<SYNC START=5114600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5114760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>one that runs much faster<br>than a terrestrial ecosystem,
<SYNC START=5118240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5118400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and in which we attempt<br>to recycle 100% of waste.
<SYNC START=5123240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5123400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>What nature recycles<br>in several years,</i>
<SYNC START=5125760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5125920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>this machine can do in several days,<br>in accelerated
mode.</i>
<SYNC START=5129400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5129560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>As on Earth, minor slips<br>can have major consequences
.</i>
<SYNC START=5133480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5133640>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But here it's detected right away.</i>
<SYNC START=5136760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5136920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We soon see the consequences
<SYNC START=5138800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5138960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>of a mistake,<br>of a contamination,
<SYNC START=5141760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5141920>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>of poorly sorted waste, for example.
<SYNC START=5144360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5144520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>We can detect it in its performance.
<SYNC START=5146880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5147760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>On an Earth scale,<br>we're not necessarily aware of it.

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START=5150920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5151080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>On a laboratory scale,
START=5152680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5152840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>we see it much quicker<br>and detect it more easily.
START=5156840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5157840>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Now let's see how<br>this miniature Earth works.</i>
START=5162360>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5162520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>First stage:</i>
START=5163240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5163400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>what to do with waste<br>produced aboard?</i>
START=5165960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5166360>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>For example, leftovers,<br>excrement, urine.</i>
START=5169320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5170560>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>We mix it up<br>and send it into the ecosystem.</i>
START=5174480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5175320>
CLASS=SUBTTL>This waste has been reduced<br>and crushed
START=5178760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5178920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>and now digested by the bacteria.
START=5182960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5183320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>And here are the bacteria at work,</i>
START=5185840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5186000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>busy eating up the organic waste.</i>
START=5189880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5190040>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Once digested,<br>a thick fatty liquid is obtained,</i>
START=5193280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5193440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>rather like the silt<br>at the bottom of a lake.</i>
START=5198240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5199640>
CLASS=SUBTTL>After the waste-digestion stage,
START=5202600>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5202760>
CLASS=SUBTTL>there's another transformation,<br>that of nitrogen.

START=5207440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5208640>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The nitrogen from<br>the astronauts' urine </i>
START=5211160>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5211320>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is used as fertilizer<br>to grow vegetables</i>
START=5213800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5213960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and this green algae<br>called spirulina.</i>
START=5217840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5218200>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>It's very useful:<br>not only does it produce oxygen,</

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START=5221800>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5221960>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>but they're edible<br>and full of vitamins. Bon apptit!<

i>

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/i>

<SYNC START=5227000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5228200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The astronauts will obtain oxygen
<SYNC START=5231880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5232040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and food inside this compartment.
<SYNC START=5236760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5237600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>An interstellar gardener's dream,</i>
<SYNC START=5240400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5240560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>this is a space kitchen garden.</i>
<SYNC START=5243080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5243240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The fertilizer produced by nitrogen<br>will also help g
row vegetables.</i>
<SYNC START=5247720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5247880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>A varied diet is important.</i>
<SYNC START=5250240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5250520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>These lettuce, like all plants,
<SYNC START=5253360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5253520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>produce oxygen by photosynthesis,
<SYNC START=5256240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5256400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>they sweat and also produce<br>water vapour
<SYNC START=5259360>

<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5259520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and of course are edible.
<SYNC START=5261520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5261680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Inside this compartment
<SYNC START=5263200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5263360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>are the 3 ingredients needed<br>for human life.
<SYNC START=5267600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5269200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>On the international space station,<br>they already rec
ycle water.</i>
<SYNC START=5274600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5274800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The astronauts you see here<br>are drinking their own u
rine.</i>
<SYNC START=5279080>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5279240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Filtered, of course!</i>
<SYNC START=5281320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5281800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>But the solution invented<br>by the Melissa researchers
</i>
<SYNC START=5285120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5285280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is both more natural<br>and more appetizing.</i>
<SYNC START=5289360>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5289600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Melissa proposes another way<br>to make drinking water,
<SYNC START=5295280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5295440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>as by recovering the water vapour<br>contained in this atm
osphere,
<SYNC START=5299880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5300040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>we can produce drinking water.
<SYNC START=5301840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5302000>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Psychologically, it's true:
<SYNC START=5304520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5304680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>you're less reticent to drink water
<SYNC START=5308320>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5308480>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>that's produced by plants.
<SYNC START=5311520>

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rse.
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CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5314520>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Imitating ecosystems,</i>
START=5317200>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5317400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>drawing inspiration<br>from nature's own solutions,</i>
START=5320240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5320400>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>is the best way to preserve nature</i>
START=5322920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5323080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and ensure our own survival.</i>
START=5326240>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5326600>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>Because we're travelling<br>on a kind of space ship</i>
START=5329840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5330000>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>that's infinitely more complex:<br>our planet.</i>
START=5333120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5334200>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>As astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigner<br>reminds us.</i>
START=5337280>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5337440>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>The French national<br>has spent longest in space </i>
START=5339960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5340120>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>after his 6-month stay<br>on the Mir station.</i>
START=5343120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5343280>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>He had the time to distance himself,</i>
START=5345920>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5346080>
CLASS=SUBTTL><i>and he deserves the last word.</i>
START=5348880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5349080>
CLASS=SUBTTL>I watched the Earth a lot.
START=5351560>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5351720>
CLASS=SUBTTL>When you're in space,
START=5352960>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5353120>
CLASS=SUBTTL>it looks so small compared to<br>the vastness of the unive
START=5356840>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5357000>
CLASS=SUBTTL>You can see it's finite,<br>and it seems obvious

<SYNC START=5360800>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5360960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>that a generation or two on,<br>we could cause irreversibl
e damage.
<SYNC START=5365720>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5366040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The second feeling, in particular,
<SYNC START=5368400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5368560>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>when you see the thin film<br>of atmosphere,
<SYNC START=5371040>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5371200>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>this blue strip which,<br>if the Earth were egg-sized,
<SYNC START=5374600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5374760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>would be thinner than the eggshell.
<SYNC START=5377520>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5377680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>Our atmosphere ensures life,
<SYNC START=5379680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5379840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>oxygen, and also protection<br>from ultraviolets.
<SYNC START=5382680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5382840>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>And when you see this proportion,
<SYNC START=5385600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5385760>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>you understand how fragile<br>everything is, and how
<SYNC START=5389240>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5389400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>we're not protected<br>by a big buffer on a large scale.
<SYNC START=5394120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5394280>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>The scale is critical<br>compared to the problems we face.
<SYNC START=5397680>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5397880>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>There are no alternative solutions<br>to Earth,
<SYNC START=5400960>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5401120>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>and we must adopt a new attitude<br>if we want humanity to
continue
<SYNC START=5406440>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
<SYNC START=5406600>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>living on Earth<br>for a few more centuries.
<SYNC START=5410400>
<P CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;

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</SAMI>

START=5414880>
CLASS=SUBTTL>In memory of Jean-Pierre Lentin.
START=5417680>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;
START=5455440>
CLASS=SUBTTL>Subtitling: TLTOTA
START=5457480>
CLASS=SUBTTL>&nbsp;