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Psihologia adultului si varstnicului

Dificultatile tanarului adult


in societatea de astazi

Gheorghe Alexandra-Ecaterina
Psihologie anul II

Dificultatile tanarului adult

Erik Erickson, a descries perioada tanarului adult incepand de la varsta de 20 de ani, pana la 45,
iar tema acestei etape a numit-o intimitate vs izolatie. Spune ca asteptarile societatii de la
tanarul adult sunt altele decat alta data. Pentru ca tinerii din ziua de astazi intampina dificultati pe
care generatia trecuta nu le-a intalnit. Este nevoie de mai multa educatie, mai multe pregatiri si
un studiu continuu pentru ca un tanar sa se poata specializa. Astfel, cu cat are mai multe de
invatat, se simte mai putin sigur pe cariera sa si pe cunostintele sale, sunt mai putin grabiti sa se
casatoreasca si sa isi intemeieze o familie. Optiunile pt ambele sexe sunt mult mai variate.
Asteptarile legate de ce vor face dupa ce vor termina scoala sunt tot mai putin clare. Tinerii cauta
suport in terapie, u sfat, o indrumare, mai ales daca nu se inteleg prea bine cu parintii. Cauta o
figura paterna, sau uneori opusul figurii parentale, pe cineva care ii vede capabili, maturi. Daca
vin cu parintii ori locuiesc cu ei, sunt uneori ambivalenti, vor sa fie independenti de parinti, insa
sunt inca dependenti financiar ori emotional. Terapia ajuta la stabilirea timpului in care tanarul
adult este in procesul de separare si il ajuta sa stie de cata autonomie simte ca dispune. Ce ii face
sa ramana legati de parinti, daca este bine sa fie diferiti de parinti, ii ajuta sa isi cunoasca
identitatea, valorile, rolul lor in viata si societate. Creierul tinerilor adulti nu este complet
dezvoltat, maturizat, pana la varsta de 25 de ani. Dupa pubertate, cele mai mari schimbari au fost
in zona prefrontala a cortexului si in cerebel, zonele care se ocupa de afectivitate si procesele
cognitive. Sistemul limbic explodeaza in perioada pubertatii, insa zona prefrontala a cortexului
se va maturiza peste inca 10 ani. Aceasta este zona care te ajuta sa iti controlezi impulsurile.
Multe boli mintale tind sa apara in adolescenta tarzie spre 20 de ani, cum ar fi bipolaritatea ori
schizophrenia. Ar mai fi si consumul de substante interzise, alimentatia dezordonata, haotica,
depresia si anxietatea, toate aceste boli si probleme complica si mai mult intrebarea complexa ce
voi face in viitor si dezorientarea.

Young Adult Issues


Erik Erickson, noted developmental psychologist, described the period of young adulthood as
being from age 20-45, and the task of the stage to be intimacy vs. isolation. This seems too
broad and simplistic in todays society. In 1970, Kenneth Keniston, a Yale Psychologist,
described characteristics of youth as pervasive ambivalence toward self and society, having a
feeling of absolute freedom, of living in a world of pure possibilities. He proposed that they
have not settled the questions of relationship to existing society, vocation, social role and
lifestyle.
Societal Expectations of Young Adults
A young adult in todays society faces issues and challenges that did not exist, or were
unacknowledged, in previous generations. In 2000, Jeffrey Arnett coined the term Emergent
Adult and identified changes that have occurred over the last several decades: more education is
needed to survive in information-based economy; fewer entry-level jobs are available even after
all that schooling; young people are feeling less rush to marry because of the general acceptance
of premarital sex, cohabitation and birth control; young women feeling less rush to have babies
given their wide range of career options and their access to reproductive technology
if pregnancy is delayed beyond most fertile years.
Choices for both genders are more numerous. Expectations are less clear about what is ones next
step after finishing school (whether it be high school, college, or graduate school). In times past,
young adults paths were more predetermined by role expectations, family expectations, and
clearer gender expectations. The traditional cycle seems to have gone off course. Young people
remain unattached to romantic partners or permanent homes, are going back to school for lack of
better options, traveling, avoiding commitments, competing for unpaid internships or temporary
public service volunteer jobs - in other words, forestalling the beginning of adult life.
Sociologists call it the changing timetable for adulthood.

Clients of this population are frequently looking for an encouraging parental figure in a therapist,
particularly if they were or are not so well supported by their own parents. Other times they are
looking for the opposite of a parental figure someone who sees them as capable and adult. Not
an authority, just an older, wiser guide. If they come in with their parents, or are living with their
parents, they are sometimes ambivalent about separation from them, and may need some help
being launched. Therapy helps to establish where a young adult is in the separation process and
how much autonomy he or she is feeling. What is keeping someone tied to his or her parents? Is
it okay to be different from parents? What are fears/anxieties about independence? Therapy also
helps young adult clients to explore their identity or how well they know him or herself? What is
ones personality type, ones values and goals, ones sense of him or herself in the world? Group
therapy is a powerful intervention for this cohort, as many young adults are feeling isolated and
alone, as if everyone else has it together except for them. Group therapy helps them to see that
this is not the case, and gives them a place to feel less isolated and more supported, as they
grapple with issues of what their life will be about.

How Psychotherapy Can Help Young Adults


Psychotherapy with young adults may help the client explore their identity, including values,
interests, and questions of who the person is in the world. Instability is addressed as clients deal
with a feeling of being in between one stage of life and the next, often striving for
independence from parents, but needing to depend on them for financial or emotional support.
Clients are naturally very self-focused at this time of their life, but may need help in seeing a
bigger picture in terms of how they fit into the world, and their relationship with others. Young
adults sense of possibilities can help to establish hope for the future, but can also hinder progress
if the client is overwhelmed by possibilities and may need assistance narrowing down choices.
Some of these characteristics are part of adolescence but they take on new depth and urgency in
the 20s.

The Young Adult Brain


A NIMH longitudinal study found that childrens brains were not fully mature until at least age
25. Most significant changes after puberty were in prefrontal cortex and cerebellum, the regions
involved in emotional control and higher-order cognitive functioning. The limbic system
explodes during puberty, but the prefrontal cortex keeps maturing for another 10 years. This is
the part that allows you to control your impulses, come up with a long-range strategy and answer
the question, What am I going to do with my life? Many serious mental illnesses tend to
appear in the late teens or early 20s (bipolar, schizophrenia). Other common problems may
include substance abuse, eating disorders, depression and anxiety. These illnesses and issues
complicate the already complex question of life choices and direction.

Lacking Meaning in Young Adulthood - Case Example


Jenna, age 29, comes to therapy because her thirtieth birthday is approaching and she feels like
she has not fulfilled her potential. She is working as a waitress, though a career in film has been
her goal, and she did go to film school and graduated. After graduation, she worked as a
production assistant for several different production companies, and found the work very
difficult and at times demeaning. However, she hung in for two or three years because this is
how you make it in this industry - pay your dues by doing the lowly jobs and working your way
up. After a few years, though, she was burnt out and needed a break. This is when she started
working as a waitress. She makes much more money as a waitress than she did in the film
business. She does not like the work, but it is mindless and a break from what she was doing
before. By the time she comes to counseling, she has been working as a waitress for five years.
She is depressed, fearful about getting back into the film industry, feeling like her life is lacking
meaning and direction, and does not want to be in the same boat in several more years.
Additionally, Jenna has never been in a meaningful relationship, and has very limited dating
experience. Her lack of experience with relationships adds to her angst about getting older.

Therapy helps Jenna understand that the break she took was brought on by feelings of inferiority
(which upon further exploration revealed a neglectful childhood). Jenna learned how to reparent herself with the help of the therapist in an encouraging parent role. Her lack of certainty
about her life direction was normalized, and other possibilities for her future were explored. She
wasnt ready to let go of her dream, so she needed some confidence-building exercises to get
back into the world of film and the job market. She eventually quit her waitressing job, and
began to get involved in film jobs again. She wasnt sure she would stick with film, but she felt
she had to give it a good chance before she let go and try something else. Finally, she and the
therapist explored her interpersonal relationships, and began to understand what makes it
difficult for her to get close to others.