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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

1/2011

ASPECTE PRIVIND
MONITORIZAREA CALITII
APELOR DE SUPRAFA
Daniela Crn, Conf.univ.dr.,

ASPECTS REGARDING
SURFACE WATERS QUALITY
MONITORING
Daniela Crn, Assoc. prof. dr.,

Universitatea Constantin Brncui


din Tg. Jiu

Constantin Brncui University of


Tg.-Jiu

REZUMAT: n condiiile urbanizrii i a


industrializrii impetuoase, civilizaia contemporan
se caracterizeaz printr-un proces ngrijortor de
deteriorare a echilibrului ecologic i de poluare a
resurselor de ap. Managementul resurselor de ap
este pus n dificultate nu att din punct de vedere al
cantitii acestor resurse ct mai ales a calitii lor,
aceasta fiind afectat tot mai mult de diversele forme
de poluare. Monitorizarea permite realizarea a patru
obiective primordiale n cunoaterea strii de calitae
a apei i anume, supravegherea, prognozarea,
avertizarea i intervenia. Prin monitorizarea calitii
apei se realizeaz o evaluare sistematic a
caracteristicilor caltative ale apei, aflate ntr-o
dinamic permanent i cu implicaii socialeconomice semnificative. n lucrare sunt prezentate
obiectivele monitorizrii calitii apei, aspecte legate
de implementarea programelor de monitorizare a
apei, precum i aplicaii ale sistemului de monitoring
pentru rul Jiu, pe teritoriul judeului Gorj.

ABSTRACT: Under the conditions of tumultuous


urbanization and industrialization, the contemporary
civilization is characterized by an alarming process of
ecologic balance deterioration and water resources
pollution. Water resources management is put in
difficulty not so much from the point of view of these
resources quantity but rather from the point of view of
their quality, this being more and more affected by
various forms of pollution. Monitoring allows the
achievement of four main objectives in knowing water
quality, namely supervision, forecasting, warning and
intervention. Water quality monitoring allows to make
a systematic assessment of water qualitative features,
which are in permanent dynamics with significant
social and economic implications. The paper presents
the objectives of water quality monitoring, aspects
related to water monitoring implementation programs,
as well as applications of the monitoring system for
Jiu river, on the territory of Gorj county.

CUVINTE CHEIE: monitorizare, ape de suprafa,


indicatori de calitate.

KEYWORDS: monitoring, surface waters, quality


indicators.

1. INTRODUCERE

1. INTRODUCTION

Raportat la condiiile de existen ale


vieii n general i de desfurare a
activitilor umane n special, apa prezint o
dubl importan i anume: ca factor al
mediului nconjurtor, respectiv generatoare
de sisteme ecologice i ca materie prim
pentru anumite folosine: utilizarea ca surs
de ap potabil, utilizarea ca ap industrial,
folosirea apei pentru agrement, piscicultur
etc. n ambele ipostaze apa trebuie s
ndeplineasc anumite condiii de calitate,
mai precis s fie de calitate corespunztoare.
Conform cerinelor vieii moderne, calitatea apei i-a
pierdut treptat caracterul de noiune abstract,
devenind, alturi de cantitate, una din dimensiunile
apei, care poate fi msurat prin determinarea unui
ansamblu de elemente numite indicatori de calitate.

Related to the existence conditions of


life in general and human activities in
particular, water has a double meaning,
namely: environmental factor, generating
ecologic system and raw material for some
uses: the use as potable water, the use as
industrial water, the use of water for
recreation, pisciculture fish breeding etc. In
both cases, the water has to meet some quality
requirements, more specifically to be of
adequate quality. According to the
requirements of modern life, water quality has
gradually lost the character of abstract notion,
becoming, along with quantity, one of water
dimensions that can be measured by
determining a group of elements called
quality indicators". For most of these

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Pentru majoritatea acestor indicatori, exprimai n
concentraii specifice (de exemplu mg/l), valorile
obinute trebuie interpretate n raport cu situaia
hidrologic corespunztoare momentului de prelevare
a probelor de ap.
Din punct
de vedere statistico-matematic,
indicatorii de calitate sunt de natura unor

indicators
expressed
in
specific
concentrations (for instance mg/l), resulting
values have to be interpreted in accordance
with the hydrological situation corresponding
to the moment of water samples collection.
From statistic and mathematic point
of view, quality indicators are continuous
variables,
meaning
quantitative
characteristics that can take any numeric
value, within certain ranges. Therefore, there
occurs the idea of determining a volume as
big as possible of analyses in order to
estimate a size close to the real average value.
Consequently, the frequency of sampling in a
control section should be very high. This
desiderate can be achieved by using the
automated control plants of water quality [1].
Also, natural waters have the function
of receiving waste waters loaded with waste
or losses resulted from human activities,
which alters the initial quality of water. In the
contemporary society characterized by an
accelerated rhythm of social and economic
development, there is the tendency of a
dangerous increase of water sources pollution
process, with the possibility of getting into
totally inadequate circumstances. This is
why, taking into consideration the two main
characteristics: water environmental factor
and water raw material, it is necessary to
develop an adequate program of measures for
protecting water quality for periods
corresponding to the social and economic
development. But, in order to draft and
efficiently apply such a program, the first
necessary condition is to have some accurate
and complete information regarding the
loading level (pollution) of natural waters, as
well as the potential pollution sources [2].
In this
sense, water quality
knowledge is the specific activity that takes

variabile continue, adic a unor caracteristici


cantitative care pot lua orice valoare
numeric, ntre anumite limite. Astfel, apare
ideea determinrii unui volum ct mai mare
de analize pentru a estima o mrime apropiat
de valoarea medie real. n consecin,
frecvena recoltrii ntr-o seciune de control
ar trebui s fie foarte mare. Acest deziderat
poate fi realizat prin utilizarea instalaiilor de
control automat al calitii apei [1].
De asemenea, apelor naturale le revine
i funcia de a recepiona
apele uzate
ncrcate cu deeurile sau pierderile care
rezult din activitile umane, ceea ce
altereaz calitatea iniial a apei. n condiiile
societii contemporane, caracterizat de
ritmul accelerat al dezvoltrii socialeconomice, apare tendina unei accenturi
periculoase a procesului de poluare a
resurselor
de ap, putndu-se ajunge la
situaii total necorespunztoare. De
aceea,
innd seama de cele dou caracteristici
apa - factor de mediu i apa principale:
materie prim, este necesar s se prevad,
pe perioade corespunztoare dezvoltrii
social-economice, un program adecvat de
msuri pentru protecia calitii apelor. Dar
pentru a se putea ntocmi i aplica n mod
eficient un astfel de program, n primul rnd
se impune, ca o condiie absolut necesar,
deinerea unor informaii ct mai corecte i
mai complete cu privire la gradul de ncrcare
(poluare) al apelor naturale,
precum
i la
regimul surselor poteniale de poluare [2].
n acest sens cunoaterea calitii
places systematically and periodically in
apelor este activitatea specific care se
order to get the fundamental elements for
appreciating the evolution of waters quality
desfoar sistematic i periodic n
scopul
obinerii
elementelor and for drawing-up the decisions in the field
fundamentale pentru aprecierea evoluiei of waters quality management. Designing and
implementing a monitoring program at zonal
calitii apelor i pentru elaborarea
deciziilor n domeniul
gospodririi and national level is an essential condition for
calitii apelor. Proiectarea i implementarea

knowing water quality and an integrating part

of environmental integrated monitoring.

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nalele Universitii Constantin Brncui din

n
u
i

.
PEI

. WATER
ONITORING
ater quality monitoring and
Monitorizarea i evaluarea calitii
assessment is based on the following apei
undamentale: fizice, chimice, biologice i
biologic and microbiologic. It is a process
microbiologice. Este un proces de analiz, of
analysis, interpretation and interpretare i
comunicare a acestor communication of these
features within proprieti n cadrul
activitilor umane i de human activities
and environmental conservare a mediului
natural. Aadar, nu preservation. Therefore,
it is not a fixed este un proces fix, fiind
adaptat n funcie de process, being adapted
depending on the nevoile locale, naionale
sau internaionale. local, national or
international needs. By Prin proiectarea unui
program de designing a monitoring program
of water monitorizare a calitii apei se
urmrete ca quality one aims for the
information to be informaiile obinute s fie
de folos n luarea useful in making decisions.
The information deciziilor. Informaiile
generate din generated by the monitoring
program has to programul de monitorizare
trebuie s reflecte reflect the way in which
water quality and n ce mod calitatea i
cantitatea apei quantity meet users
requirements or ntrunete cerinele
utilizatorilor sau ale standards, to what
extent water quality is standardelor stabilite,
n ce msur calitatea influenced by natural
processes and in what apei este influenat de
procesele naturale i way water can
assimilate a large amount of n ce mod apa
are capacitatea de a asimila o waste without
reaching an inacceptable level cantitate mare
de deeuri, fr s ajung of pollution. The
monitoring program reflects la un nivel
inacceptabil de poluare. the compatibility
and efficiency of control Programul de
monitorizare reflect strategies and
management actions in compatibilitatea i
e
2.
1.

2.1. Obiectivele monitorizrii calitii apei


Obiectivele monitorizrii calitii apei
pot fi cu caracter general, atunci cnd

a
t
e

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monitorizarea se face fr s se stabileasc


Statistic descriptions of objectives are usually
obiective prea detaliat. Descrierile statistice
used for types of more advanced monitoring
ale obiectivelor sunt, de obicei utilizate
programs. Objectives setting starts from
pentru tipurile de programe de monitorizare
problems regarding the place the monitoring
mult mai avansate.
Stabilirea obiectivelor will develop, the purpose of monitoring, the
pornete de la probleme legate de locul unde nature of information to be received through
va fi realizat monitorizarea, scopul
monitoring (basic
information, planning
monitorizrii, natura informaiilor ce urmeaz information, operational or management
a fi obinute prin monitorizare (informaii de
information,
standards
elaboration
baz, informaii pentru planificare, informaii information or management information, for
operaionale sau pentru management, pentru
drawing-up standards or for depicting
elaborarea de standarde sau pentru depistarea pollution sources), the nature of variables that
surselor de poluare), natura variabilelor ce
have to be measured, human and financial
trebuie msurate, resursele umane i
resources for monitoring, the way in which
financiare pentru monitorizare, modul n care the multiple monitoring information will be
vor fi folosite informaiile monitorizrii [4].
used [4].
Obiectivele generale ale monitorizrii
The general objectives of water
calitii apei pot fi formulate astfel:
quality monitoring can be formulated as
- mbuntirea structurii datelor i follows:
informaiilor n sensul facilitrii unei
- improving the structure of data and
caracterizri ct mai complete a strii de
information in order to facilitate a complete
calitate a apei;
characterization of water quality status;
- obinerea unei baze de date referitoare la
- achieving a database regarding the
interdependena strii de calitate a apei de
interdependence of water quality status with
ceilali factori de mediu, care s poat fi
the other environmental factors, that can be
cuprins ntr-un sistem de monitoring integrat included in an environmental integrated
al mediului;
monitoring system;
- dezvoltarea unui suport informaional
- developing the data support necessary for
necesar
fundamentrii
deciziilor
n substantiating the decisions in water
gospodrirea apei pe principiile dezvoltrii
management based on the principles of
durabile;
sustainable development;
- creerea unei baze de
date necesare - creating a database necessary for complying
respectrii
legislaiei
naionale
i with the national and international legislation;
internaionale;
- informing the population regarding the state
- realizarea unei informri a populaiei n
of water masses.
legtur cu starea maselor de ap.
Among the typical objectives of water
Dintre
obiectivele
tipice
al quality monitoring, we mention the
monitorizrii calitii apei pot fi menionate
following: detecting any sign of water and its
urmtoarele: detectarea oricrui semn de
quality deterioration, identifying those water
deteriorare a apei i a calitii acesteia,
masses from the ecosystem that fail to meet
identificarea acelor mase de ap, din
the pre-established conditions and standards
ecosistem, care nu ntrunesc condiiile i
regarding water quality, identifying the
standardele prestabilite, privitoare la calitatea contaminated areas, estimating the load of
apei, identificarea zonelor
contaminate, polluting factor taken over by the ecosystem
estimarea ncrcturii de factor poluant
or subsystem, determining the extension and
preluat de ecosistem sau de subsistem;
the effects of certain waste discharge,
determinarea extinderii i
a
efectelor evaluating the efficacy of a management
descrcrii anumitor deeuri, evaluarea
intervention of water quality.
eficacitii unei intervenii de management al
calitii apei.
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2.2. Aspecte referitoare la implementarea


programelor de monitorizare a apei
Pentru un program nou este bine s se
nceap cu un proiect pilot care reprezint o
oportunitate pentru personal de a ctiga
experien practic i de a confirma dac
elementele programului pot fi ndeplinite
conform planului. Poate fi, de asemenea, o
oportunitate de a evalua probele i de a da
indicaii cu privire la necesitatea recoltrii
unui anumit numr de probe adecvat, n
vederea stabilirii calitii apei. De-a lungul
proiectului-pilot sau cercetrilor preliminare,
este important s se ia n calcul studiile
asupra ecosistemelor care vor fi evaluate. Ar
fi potrivit s se ia n considerare variaiile
calitii apei n funcie de lrgimea i
adncimea acesteia, de-a lungul unui ciclu
anual, pentru a se confirma numrul de probe
necesare obinerii unor date reprezentative.
Un
element
important
pentru
implementare este descrierea zonei de
monitorizare care trebuie s conin:
delimitarea vecintilor zonei, un rezumat al
condiiilor de mediu i al proceselor (inclusiv
activitile umane) care
ar
putea afecta
calitatea apei, informaii meteorologice i
hidrologice, descrierea maselor de ap, un
rezumat al folosirilor actuale i poteniale
ale apelor.
Alegerea punctelor de prelevare a
probelor de ap reprezint o etap important
n monitorizare. Factorii
care
afecteaz
calitatea apei trebuie luai n consideraie
atunci cnd se stabilesc punctele de unde vor
fi prelevate probele. Alegerea exact a
punctului de prelevare depinde n general de
doi factori:
selectarea zonei de prelevare (adic
fixarea poziiei seciunii transversale de
prelevare n bazinul de recepie, ru sau
pru);
stabilirea locului exact n zona de
prelevare.
Staiile de prelevare a probelor de
pe ruri trebuie, ca regul general, s fie
stabilite n locurile unde apa este bine
omogenizat astfel nct s nu fie nevoie
dect de o singur prob. Amestecul
lateral i vertical al unui pru afluent al

2.2. Aspects regarding water monitoring


programs implementation

In the case of a new program it is


indicated to start with a pilot project which is
an opportunity for the employees to gain
practical experience and confirm whether the
elements of the program can be fulfilled
according to the plan. It can also be an
opportunity to evaluate the samples and give
indications regarding the need to collect an
adequate number of samples in order to
determine water quality. During the pilot
project or the preliminary researches, it is
important to consider the studies on the
ecosystems which are to be evaluated. It
would be suitable to consider the variations
of water quality depending on its width and
depth, during an annual cycle, in order to
confirm the number of necessary samples for
achieving representative data.
An important element for the
implementation is the description of the
monitoring area which has to consist of:
defining the area neighbourhoods, an
overview of environmental conditions and
processes (including human activities) that
could affect water quality, meteorological and
hydrologic information, water masses
description, an overview of current and
possible uses of water. Choosing water
sampling points is an important stage in
monitoring. The factors that affect water
quality have to be considered when collecting
the samples. The exact choice of the
sampling point usually depends on two
factors:
selecting the sampling area (that is
defining the position of the cross section
position in the reception basin, river or
brook);
defining
the exact place in the
sampling area.
Samples collection stations on the
rivers usually have to be set in places where
water is homogenized in order to require only
one sample. The lateral and vertical mixture
of an affluent brook of the main river can be
very slow especially if the river flow is
laminar
and waters have
different
temperatures. The
mixture achievement

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rului principal, poate fi foarte lent, mai ales


dac, cursul rului este laminar i apele au
temperaturi diferite. Ritmul de realizare a
amestecului trebuie verificat prin msurarea
temperaturii sau alte variabile caracteristice
n diverse puncte de-a lungul limii rului.
Daca exist cascade n ru, amestecul va fi
grbit i probele
reprezentative pot fi
obinute
din
aval.
Probele
pentru
determinarea oxigenului dizolvat trebuie luate
din amonte ntruct turbulena va face ca apa
sa fie saturat cu oxigen.
Mijloacele de monitorizare i
variabilele studiate
Sunt trei factori principali care pot fi
folosii pentru monitorizarea acvatic: apa,
materia sub form de particule i organismele
vii. Calitatea apei i a materiei sub form de
particule este stabilit prin analize chimice i
fizice, pe cnd organismele vii pot fi folosite
ntr-un mare numr de moduri. Comuniti
ntregi de
organisme sau
de indivizi
aparinnd aceluiai grup, pot fi studiai ca
indicatori ai calitii apei. Fiziologia,
morfologia i comportamentul diverselor
organisme pot fi folosite pentru a evalua
toxicitatea cauzat de condiiile potrivnice
calitii apei [3]- [5]. Organismele
i
esuturile lor pot fi folosite i ca mijloace
pentru monitorizarea chimic a substanelor
contaminante din mediul acvatic. Cea mai
comun investigaie biologic a probelor
prelevate de la suprafaa apelor este
determinarea
pigmenilor
clorofilieni
fitoplanctonici, care dau indicaii despre
biomasa de alge Msurrile de clorofil sunt
folositoare i pentru evaluarea eutrofizrii din
lacuri, rezervoare i ruri mari, sau pentru
evaluarea productivitii n majoritatea apelor
de suprafa. Materia sub form de particule,
din ap este folosit, n special, n studiul
lacurilor, n monitorizarea tendinelor i n
studiile privind evoluia rurilor. Indicii
biologici bazai pe metodele ecologice sunt
folosii din ce n ce
mai mult pentru
evalurile rurilor i lacurilor, pe termen
lung. Calitatea apei poate fi descris printr-o
singur variabil sau prin orice combinaie de
peste 100 de variabile. Variabilele alese n
cadrul unui program de monitorizare vor

rhythm has to be checked by measuring the


temperature or other characteristic variables
in various points along the river width. If
there are any waterfalls in the river, the
mixture will be hurried and representative
samples can be collected downstream.
Samples for determining the dissolved
oxygen have to be collected upstream
because the turbulence makes water saturated
with oxygen.
Monitoring means and

studied

variables
There are three main factors that can
be used for aquatic monitoring: water, matter
under the form of particles and living
organisms. The quality of water and the
matter under the form of particles is
determined through chemical and physical
analyses, while living organisms can be used
in a large number of ways. Entire
communities of organisms or individuals
belonging to the same group can be studied as
indicators of water quality. The physiology,
morphology and behaviour of various
organisms can be used in order to evaluate
the toxicity caused by the conditions bad for
water quality [3]- [5]. Their organisms and
tissues can be used as means for chemical
monitoring of contaminated substances from
the aquatic environment. The most common
biologic investigation of the samples
collected from waters surface is the
determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll
pigments, which provide indications about
the algae biomass. Chlorophyll measurements
are also useful for assessing eutrophisation in
lakes, tanks and big rivers or for evaluating
productivity in most of the surface waters.
The matter under the form of particles from
the water is especially used in the study of
lakes, in monitoring the tendencies and
studies regarding rivers evolution. Biologic
indices based on ecologic methods are more
and more used for long-term evaluation of
rivers and lakes. Water quality can be
described through only one variable or
through any combination of over 100
variables. The variables chosen
within a

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depinde de obiectivele programului i de


utilizrile curente i anticipate ale apei. Cea
mai simpl combinaie de variabile este
temperatura, conductivitatea electric, pH,
oxigenul dizolvat i totalitatea solidelor
suspendate. Toate acestea ofer un minimum
de informaii pe care se poate baza evaluarea
calitii apei. Programele mult mai complexe
pot analiza pn la 100 de variabile, inclusiv
ocurena metalelor i
micro-poluanii
organici. n multe programe de monitorizare,
poluarea apei constituie motivul pentru a
ncepe analiza variabilelor specifice calitii
apei. Cteva exemple de forme de poluare i
variabilele care trebuie
studiate sunt
menionate n continuare:
poluarea cu reziduuri organice se
datoreaz apelor uzate din canalizrile
municipale, resturile de la abatoare, industria
alimentar i din agricultur. Variabilele care
trebuiesc msurate sunt: cerina de oxigen
biochimic, cerina de oxigen chimic, azotul
organic dizolvat, carbonul organic total,
azotul organic, fosforul total i coliformele
fecale;
poluarea datorat efluenilor
industriali care pot conine substane chimice
toxice, organice sau anorganice, n funcie de
procesul industrial. Cteva exemple de
variabile care trebuie msurate n apele
industriale sunt: total substane solide
dizolvate, oxigen dizolvat, bioxid de siliciu,
fier, cupru, conductivitate,
oxidabilitate,
fenoli, benzen, cianuri, arsenic, cadmiu,
crom, magneziu, mercur, nichel, seleniu i
zinc.

monitoring program will depend on the


program objectives and current and
anticipated uses of water. The simplest
combination of variables is temperature,
power conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen
and all the suspended solids. All of them
provide a minimum of information on which
water quality determination is based on. More
complex programs can analyze up to 100
variables, including metals and organic
micro-polluters
occurrence.
In
many
monitoring programs, water pollution is the
reason for starting the analysis of water
quality specific variables. Several examples of
pollution as well as variables that have to be
studied are mentioned next:
organic waste pollution is due to
waste waters from town sewerage systems,
residues from slaughter houses, food industry
and agriculture. Variables that have to be
measured are: the need for biochemical
oxygen, the need for chemical oxygen,
dissolved organic nitrogen, total organic
carbon, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus and
dejections;
pollution due to industrial effluents
which may include toxic chemical, organic and
inorganic substances depending on the industrial
process. Several examples of variables that
have to be measured in industrial waters are:
totally dissolved solid substances, dissolved
oxygen, silica dioxide, iron, copper,
conductivity, oxidability, phenols, benzene,
cyanides, arsenic, cadmium,
chrome,
magnesium,
mercury, nickel, selenium
and zinc.

2.3. Case study. Monitoring the quality of


2.3. Studiu de caz. Monitorizarea calitii
Jiu
river on the territory of Gorj county
rului Jiu pe teritoriul judeului Gorj
Calitatea apei de suprafa este
The quality of surface water is
permanent controlat pe teritoriul judeului
permanently controlled on the territory of
Gorj prin prelevarea de probe. Calitatea
Gorj county by collecting samples. The
chimic a rului Jiu, principalul curs de ap chemical quality of Jiu river, the main water
care strbate teritoriul judeului Gorj a fost flow that crosses the territory of Gorj county
caracterizat de o serie de indicatori chimici
was characterized by a series of general
generali, o parte dintre acetia fiind prezentai
chemical indicators, a part of them being
n tab.1.
presented in table 1.

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Locul
recoltrii

Jiu amonte
Confluen Sadu

Jiu aval Acumulare


Tg-Jiu

Jiu - Blteni

Tabel 1. Indicatori chimici ai rului Jiu.


Indicatori chimici
Data prelevarii
Materii n Oxigen CCO-Cr
suspensie dizolvat
(mg
O2/l)
(mg/l)
(mg
O2/l)
27
12,1
17,38
11.03.2009
2009 03.06.2009
88
9,4
14,18
06.08.2009
99
7,9
13,71
10.11.2009
43
10,00
8,13
2010 04.03.2010
29
10,9
10,00
08.07.2010
30
8,80
10,00
25
10,5
14,54
16.03.2009
2009
10.06.2009
28
7,6
14,18
11.08.2009
23
8,2
13,39
12.11.2009
37
10,9
8,13
11.03.2010
2010
23
11,1
10,00
14.07.2010
37
7,2
10,00
27
8,3
14,54
2009 16.03.2009
09.06.2009
37
6,5
14,18
11.08.2009
32
6,5
8,93
09.11.2009
49
9,3
8,13
15.03.10
2010
30
10,4
10,00
19.07.10

Sampling place

Jiu- upstream
confluence with
Sadu

Jiu- downstream
accumulation
Tg. Jiu

Jiu - Blteni

19

6,9

NO2 -

(mg N/l)

10,00

Table 1. The chemical indicators of Jiu river.


Chemical indicators
Sampling time
Total
Dissolved COD-Cr
suspension
oxygen
(mg
(mg O2/l)
O2/l)
matters
(mg/l)
27
12,1
17,38
2009 11.03.2009
03.06.2009
88
9,4
14,18
06.08.2009
99
7,9
13,71
10.11.2009
43
10,00
8,13
2010 04.03.2010
29
10,9
10,00
08.07.2010
30
8,80
10,00
25
10,5
14,54
2009 16.03.2009
10.06.2009
28
7,6
14,18
11.08.2009
23
8,2
13,39
12.11.2009
37
10,9
8,13
2010 11.03.2010
23
11,1
10,00
14.07.2010
37
7,2
10,00
27
8,3
14,54
2009 16.03.2009
09.06.2009
37
6,5
14,18
11.08.2009
32
6,5
8,93
09.11.2009
49
9,3
8,13
2010 15.03.10
30
10,4
10,00

0,049
0,123
0,156
0,115
0,012
0,075
0,057
0,090
0,082
0,156
0,057
0,060
0,066
0,123
0,098
0,14
0,059
0,036

NO2 -

(mg
N/l)

0,049
0,123
0,156
0,115
0,012
0,075
0,057
0,090
0,082
0,156
0,057
0,060
0,066
0,123
0,098
0,14
0,059

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19.07.10
Au fost efectuate de asemenea analize

19

6,9
10,00
0,036
Analyses were made also for

pentru determinarea turbiditii, a reziduului determining turbidity, fixed residue, N-NH4+,


+
fix, N-NH4 , N-NO3 , cloruri, sulfai etc.
N-NO3 , chlorides, sulphates etc. The
Metodele de determinare folosite au fost
determining methods used were in
conform STAS-urilor n vigoare. n accordance with the relevant STAS. We next
continuare se prezint stadiul actual al
describe the current state of the pollution
gradului de poluare a rului Jiu pe
level of Jiu river on the parts that cross the
tronsoanele care strbat teritoriul judeului territory of Gorj county:
Gorj:
- Jiu- upstream confluence with Sadu,
nd
part length- 3 Km, 2 quality class;
- Jiu- amonte confluen Sadu,
nd
lungime tronson- 3 Km, clasa de
- Jiu- Blteni, part length - 56 Km, 2
calitate II;
quality class;
- Jiu- Blteni, lungime tronson - 56
Jiu- downstream accumulation Tg.
nd
Km, clasa de calitate II;
Jiu, part length - 21 Km, 2 quality
Jiu- aval acumulare Tg. Jiu,
class.
lungime tronson - 21 Km, clasa de
The values of water quality indicators
calitate II;
which express the pollution level with TSM
Valorile indicatorilor de calitate a
and organic substances (DO, COD-Cr), for
apei, care exprim gradul de poluare cu MTS
2009-2010, are graphically represented in
i substane organice (OD, CCO-Cr), pentru fig.1-3.
perioada 2009-2010, sunt reprezentate grafic
n fig.1-3.
40
35

120
100

MTS

80

MT S

30

OD
CCO-Cr

25

OD
CCO-Cr

20

60

15

40

10
5

20
0

11 03 09 03 06 09 06 08 09 10 11 09 04 03 10 08 07 10

3 0
6
1

Data de prelevare

6 0
0

8 0
1

10

3 1
1

Data de prelevare

7 1
4

Fig.1. Variaia indicatorilor de calitate pe


tronsonul Jiu amonte confluen Sadu

Fig.2. Variaia indicatorilor de calitate pe


tronsonul Jiu aval acumulare Tg-Jiu

Fig.1. Variation on the quality indicators


the section Jiu- upstream confluence with
Sadu.

Fig.2. Variation on the quality indicators the


section Jiu- downstream accumulation Tg.
Jiu

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60
50

MTS
OD

40

CCO-Cr

30
20
10
0
03 09

9 06 09

1 08 09

9 11 09

5 03 10

9 07

10

16
1

Data de prelevare

Fig.3. Variaia indicatorilor de calitate pe


tronsonul Jiu Blteni.

Fig.3. Variation on the quality indicators the


section Jiu Blteni.

Monitorizarea indicatorilor chimici


pentru cursul de ap Jiu i raportarea lor la
valorile maxim admise prevzute n NTPA
001/2002, a condus la urmtoarele concluzii:
- pentru indicatorul materii totale n
suspensie, MTS ( concentraia maxim admis
este de 60 mg/l, cls. a-II-a de calitate),
frecvena depirilor a fost de 11,11%, cea
mai mare depire a fost nregistrat pe
tronsonul Jiu amonte confluen Sadu, n
procent de 65% fa de valoarea maxim
admis.
- pentru indicatorul consum chimic de
oxigen, CCO-Cr (concentraia maxim admis
este de 25 mg/l, cls. a-II-a de calitate), nu au
fost nregistrate depiri;
- pentru indicatorul oxigen dizolvat,
OD, au fost nregistrate trei valori (16,66%)
sub coninutul de OD corespunztor clasei aII-a de calitate (O.D.=7 mg/l).

Monitoring the chemical indicators for


Jiu water flow and relating them to the
maximum admitted values provided in the
NTPA 001/2002, has resulted in the
following conclusions:
- for total suspension matters
indicator,
TSM (maximum allowable
nd
concentration is 60 mg/l for 2 quality class),
the frequency of exceedances was 11,11%,
exceeding the highest was recorded on the
section upstream of confluence Jiu Sadu, at
the rate of 65% compared to the maximum
permissible .
Ascultai
Citii fonetic
Dicionar - Afiai dicionarul detaliat

3. CONCLUZII

1. adverb
1. also
2. as well
3. too
4. likewise
5. withal
- for chemical oxygen deficit indicator,

n contextul unei dezvoltri durabile,


protecia calitii apelor de suprafa ocup
un loc major, inndu-se cont de faptul c
apa, considerat mult timp ca o resurs COD-Cr (maximum allowable concentration
nd
inepuizabil i regenerabil a devenit i se is 25 mg/l for 2 quality class), there were no
dovedete tot mai evident unul dintre factorii exceedances;
limitativi n dezvoltarea socio-economic. Ca
- for dissolved oxygen indicator, DO,
principal factor de mediu i vector major de three values were registered (16,66%) in the
nd
propagare a polurii la nivel local i corresponding DO content of 2 quality
transfrontalier, ca resurs vital a suportului class (DO = 7 mg/l).
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vieii, monitoringul calitii apei a cunoscut o


serie de etape din punct de vedere al
organizrii i implementrii. Principala
dimensiune a apei este calitatea, care
constituie n prezent un obiectiv major n
gospodrirea apelor, la care activitatea de
monitoring are
un rol
determinant,
reprezentnd instrumentul de baz n
dezvoltarea politicilor de ap i asigurarea
managementului aferent.
Reprezentnd o
activitate de baz n gospodrirea integrat a
apelor, monitoringul calitii acestora a
devenit
n
prezent un
instrument
indispensabil evalurilor spaio-temporare
privitoare la tendinele de evoluie a
concentraiilor i ncrcrilor de poluani,
precum i a celor legate de ncadrarea n
criteriile i obiectivele de calitate cerute de
legislaia in vigoare. n vederea asigurrii
unei caliti corespunztoare i a proteciei
apelor, ct i pentru verificarea respectrii
reglementrilor de protecie este strict necesar
s se realizeze o baz de date ct mai
complet asupra stadiului de ncrcare cu
poluani al acestora. Realizarea unei eficiente
protecii a calitii apei nu este de conceput
fr organizarea unui sistem de supraveghere
i control. n prezent, eficiena unor astfel de
sisteme de supraveghere la nivel naional este
strns legat de aparatura de control automat
al calitii apei.
Prevenirea polurii apei poate fi
asigurat pornind de la un sistem de
supraveghere i control riguros, urmat de
implementarea unor msuri de reducere a
polurii apei precum: introducerea pe scar
larg a unor tehnologii nepoluante n
procesele industriale, reducerea cantitilor
de ape uzate evacuate n ruri prin
introducerea practicii recirculrii apei,
recuperarea materialelor utile din apele uzate,
avnd
astfel avantajul asigurrii
unor
adevrate
surse
de materii
prime,
mbuntirea randamentului de epurare prin
perfecionarea tehnologiilor, instalaiilor i
exploatrii acestora.
Protecia calitii apei este o aciune cu
caracter permanent, n care fiecare membru al
societii trebuie s-i aduc contribuia, un
aport contient i responsabil. n acest scop,

3. CONCLUSIONS
Within the context of sustainable
development,
surface
waters
quality
protection has a major place, taking into
consideration that water, considered for a
long time an inexhaustible and renewable
source proves more and more to be one of the
limiting factors in the social and economical
development. As the main environmental
factor and major pollution spreading vector at
local and cross border level, as a vital
resource of life support, water quality
monitoring has known a series of stages from
the point of view of organization and
implementation. The main dimension of
water is quality which is currently a major
objective of water management, where the
monitoring activity has a determining role,
being the main instrument in water policies
development and related management. Being
a basic activity in water integrated
management, their quality monitoring has
become an indispensable instrument of
spatial and temporal evaluations regarding
concentrations evolution trends and polluters
loading, as well as compliance with the
quality criteria and objectives provided by the
relevant legislation. In order to provide an
adequate quality and water protection, as well
as to check the compliance of protection
regulations, it is necessary to achieve a
complete database on their polluters loading
level. Achieving an efficient protection of
water quality cannot be conceived without
organizing a surveillance and control system.
At present, the efficiency of such surveillance
systems at national level is very connected to
the automated control devices of water
quality.
Water pollution prevention can be
provided starting from a rough surveillance
and control system, followed by the
implementation of water pollution measures
like: large scale introduction of non-polluting
technologies in industrial processes, reducing
the amounts of waste waters discharged in
rivers by introducing water recirculation
practice, recovering useful materials from
waste waters therefore having the advantage

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prin toate mijloacele de informare sau de of providing a real source of raw materials ,
educare, este necesar s se dezbat improving the treatment output by improving
importana social, economic, ecologic a technologies, plants and operating them.
problemelor i aciunilor de prevenire i
Water quality protection is a permanent
action, in which every member of the society
combatere a polurii resurselor de ap.
has to make a contribution, a conscious and
responsible contribution. For this purposes,
BIBLIOGRAFIE
using every information or educational
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Managementul sistemelor de mediu, Ed. means, it is necessary to debate the social,
economic, ecologic importance of problems
Politehnica Press, Bucureti, 2005.
water
resources
pollution
[2] Bbeanu, N. Ecologie i protecia regarding
prevention and control.
mediului, Ed. Dominor, Bucureti, 2008.
[3] Gavrilescu, E., Olteanu, I. Calitatea
mediului (II). Monitorizarea calitii apei, REFERENCES
Ed. Universitaria, Craiova, 2004.
[1] Apostol, T., Badea, A., Mrculescu, C. systems
management,
[4] Negulescu, M., Ianculescu, S. - Protecia Environmental
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Press
Publ.,
Bucharest,
2005.
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nconjurtor,
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Tehnic,
[2] Bbeanu,
N.
Ecology
and
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environmental
protection,
Dominor
Publ.,
[5] Ptroescu,C., Gnescu, I., Papa, I. Analiza apelor, Editura Sitech, Craiova 2000. Bucharest, 2008.
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Environmental Quality (II). Monitoring water
quality, Universitaria Publ., Craiova, 2004.
[4] Negulescu, M., Ianculescu, S. Environmental protection, Technical Publ.,
Bucharest, 1995.
[5] Ptroescu,C., Gnescu, I., Papa, I. - Water
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