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Cand veti termina de studiat acest volum veti putea sa:

Formulati pluralul substantivelor sis a


detectati genul cuvintelor.
Folositi correct principalele timpuri verbale.
Explicati de ce engleza pe care o vorbiti va
fi cu atat mai interesanta cu cat veti putea
folosi mai multe cuvinte descriptive.

CUPRINS
SELECTION 1

METODE DE STUDIU
Citire, ascultare, scriere

SELECTION 2

CUVINTE

Singularul si pluralul
Genul cuvintelor
Acum, mai tarziu sau saptamana trecuta
Cuvinte descriptive
Cuvinte pentru indicarea cantitatii
UNIT 1

REVISION: Plurals. Gender of Words.


Now, Yesterday or Tomorrow?
Present
Simple

UNIT 2

Descriptive Words

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UNIT 3

The Future Tense-Simple Future

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UNIT 4

Present Perfect

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UNIT 5

Simple Present Continous


And
Simple Past Continous

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UNIT 6

Present perfect Continous

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METODE DE STUDIU
STUDIEREA CURSULUI

Studiul
Acesta este primul din cele trei volume de studiu Prime Share
International care ofera o introducere facila in folosirea limbii engleze ,
pentru cei fara prea multe cunostinte in domeniu. Este de asemenea un
excellent curs de recapitulare pentru cei care au terminat scoala cu multi ani
in urma si care au uitat multe din cunostintele accumulate.
Veti vedea ca in aceste volume preliminare , in majoritatea exemplelor
date sunt folosite numai cuvinte simple. Gramatica este de asemenea
explicate intr-un mod simplu , fara a va solicita sa invatati prea multio
termini de specialitate
Dup ace veti fi studiat cu atentie aceste trei volume, lucrand fiecare
set de verificari, pe masura ce ajungeti la ele in timplul studierii cursului,
veti fi invatat sufficient pentru a va exprima correct si clar in limba engleza.
Fiecare mapa de curs contine un numar de 10 texte, care constituie o
parte importanta a studiului dumneavoastra. Fiecare test trebuie rezolvat
integral in scris si trimis spre corectare indrumatorului personal. In acest
fel, va verificati pas cu pas cunostintele accumulate.
In aproape fiecare casa se afla un dictionar englez roman si orice
student care nu are acasa unul poate face rost. Tineti dictionarul langa
dumneavoastra in timp ce studiati sau cititi.

Folositi-ve si timpul liber pentru a citi, nu numai perioadele de studio.


In timp ce cititi, invatati cuvintele noi si modul in care ele se inlantuir in
fraze. Astfel, capacitatea dumneavoastra de a intelege engleza creste. Este
foarte important sa citit: cititi articole din ziare si reviste chiar si
reclame, desi acestea nu sunt totdeauna un ghid de incredere pentru o
engleza mai buna.

Faceti din ascultarea limbii engleze, ori de cate ori e posibil, o parte a
studiului dumneavoastra. Daca ascultati la radio sau la televizor, veti invata
mai multe cuvinte, cum sa le legati intre ele si cum sa le pronuntati corect. A
asculta si a sta de vorba cu alte persoane este un alt exercitiu, dar aici
exista in cele mai multe tari o dificultate, intrucat nu toti oamenii pronunta
la fel, diferentele depinzand in primul rand de zona de origine a persoanelor
in cauza. Dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti sis a vorbiti engleza
standard, adica acea forma a englezei care nu prezinta variatii regionale. Nu
exista in engleza standard cuvinte sau structuri gramaticale care san u fie
folosite in tarile unde se vorbeste engleza ca limba nativa. Cand vorbim
familiar, folosim probabil cuvinte specifice zonei in care traim; dar
dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti si sa vorbiti engleza standard.
De asemenea, oamenii fac greseli in vorbirea englezei; trebuie sa invatati sa
depistati aceste greseli, astfel incat san u le repetati. In sfarsit, engleza
vorbita sic ea scrisa nu sunt absolut identice; putem vorbi mai liber, mai
familiar decat scriem.

Citind, ascultand si vorbind puteti invata nu numai cuvinte, ci si cum sa


le folositi in fraze, dar este chiar mai important sa exersati folosind aceste
cuvinte pentru a va exprima propriile idei. Incercati sa folositi cuvintele noi
pe care le auziti sau le cititi si curand va veti da seama ca puteti sa va scrieti
propriile ganduri.

Ar fi inutil sa invatati cum se scrie sau cum suna un cuvant, daca nu


stiti si ce inseamna: in aceasta consta ajutorul dictionarului. Trebuie sa fiti
pregatiti pentru o munca grea si constanta, dar asigurati-va ca stiti intelesul
fiecarui cuvand nou si in acest fel veti putea sa-l folositi correct.

SINGULARUL SI PLURALUL
Ce sunt cuvintele?
Cuvantul este reprezentat de un sunet sau un grup de sunete
Prin care toti membri unui grup inteleg acelas lucru. Limba reprezinta
totalitatea cuvintelor.
Cand scriem, folosim litere pentru a nota sunetele cuvintelor. Fiecare
sunet existent intr-o mlimba poate fi reprezentat de o anumita litera sau de
un grup de litere. Scrierea sa dezvoltat probabil intr-un mod similar limbii
vorbite. La inceput, se pare ca oameni comunicau unul cu altul prin desene. In
timp desenele au ajuns sa reprezinte lucruri associate cuvintelor, mai de
graba decat obiectul propriuzis. Astfel un soare desenat putea insemna
caldura sau lumina. Prin repetitie, desenele s-ar fi simplificat din ce in ce mai
mult, ajungand in cele din urma sa arate ca literele alfabetului scris. Tot asa,
aceste simboluri ar fi ajuns sa reprezinte sunete independente( probabil
sunetele initiale ale obiectelor) sin u obiecte sau idei.

UNU SAU MAI MULTE DE UNU?


Deseori dorim sa vorbim sau sa scriem despre mai mult de o p[ersoana
sau un lucru, sic el mai simplu mod de a face acest lucru este sa adaugam
litere, ca in exemplele urmatoare:

Singular
A dog
Un caine

The dog
Cainele

One dog
Un caine,numeral

Plural
Two dogs
Doi caini

Some dogs
Niste caini

Several dogs
Mai multi caini

Termenii singular si plural sunt destul de expliciti :


Singular inseamna numai unul, in vreme ce plural inseamna mai mult de unul.
Exemplu :
Bed (pat)
House (casa)
Picture (tablou)
Building (constructie)
Boat (barca)
River (rau)
Tree (copac)
Plant (planta)
Flower (floare)
Girl (fata)
Boy (baiat)
Ship (vapor)
Ball (minge)
Ocean (ocean)
Mountain (munte)
Forest (padure)
Lion (leu)
Bird (pasare)
Room (camera)

beds
Houses
Pictures
Buildings
Boats
Rivers
Trees
Plants
Flowers
Girls
Boys
Ships
Balls
Oceans
Mountains
Forests
Lions
Birds
Rooms

Exista cateva moduri de a forma pluralul cuvintelor. Acestea vor fi explicate


in cele ce urmeaza.

Plurals :
Solve the following exercises but do not send theam to Another Life
Services.
1. Write down the singular form of these words:
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Geese
Feets
Mice
Sheeps
2. Write down the plural of the following words :
Street
Bus
Woman
Tooth
Nouns ending in o
Volcano
Tomato

volcanoes
tomatoes

Most words ending in o add es for plural; but when there is a vowel
before the o just add s.
Radio
Studio

radios
studios

And also :
Photo
Piano

photos
pianos

Nous ending in ss, sh, ch, x form their plural by adding an es


Class
Church
Brush
Box

classes
churches
brushes
boxes

THE GENDER OF NOUNS :

Masculine
Male
Actor
Boy
Husband
king
Lion
Man
Master
Steward

Feminine
female
Actress
Girl
Wife
Queen
Lioness
Women
Mistress
stewardees

Common
both sexes
Child, baby
Spouse
Monarch
Person

The ending ess is one of the ways of forming the feminine of a


masculine word :
1. Write down the feminine of the follwing words :
Prince
Dog
Baron
2. Write down the masculine of the following words :
Lady
Women
Cow

NOW , LATER OR LAST WEEK ?


TODAY, TOMORROW, YESTERDAY
I and the action

Tense

Present

Past

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Future

Aspect
SIMPLE

I eat

I eat yesterday

CONTINUOUS

I am eating

I was eating

PERFECT

I have eaten

I had eaten

PERFECT +
CONTINUOUS

I have been
Eating

I had been
Eating

I shall eat
tomorrow
I shall be
eating
I shall have
eaten
I shall have been
eating

Note that each Tense has four aspects,that last one being a
combination of the previous two.The Continuous suggests a preogressive kind
of action, the Perfect an action covering an interval of time, as opposed to
a moment ( as it is with the Simple Aspect ).

Regular verbs from the Past by adding ed at the end, but there are
also verbs wich have two forms for the past : these are called irregular
verbs ( see Appendix 2 in the Preliminary Course )

Exemple:
He, She, It and the Action

PRESENT
He eats
He is eating
She eats

PAST
He eat
He was eating
She eat

REMEMBER

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FUTURE
He will eat
He will be eating
She will eat

For the 3rd person singular, add s at the end of the verb!
The Present Tense of the Verb to like
AFFIRMATIVE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

I like
You like
He
She likes
It

we like
you like
they like

Verbs ending in s, ss ,ch, sh, z, o, add es for the the 3 rd person


singular:
To cross- he crosses
To buzz-it buzzes
To push-she pushes
To do-he does
To go-she goes
See also Appendix 3.

The Present of the Verb TO HAVE


AFFIRMATIVE 1
I have
You have

AFIRMATIVE 2
Ive
You;ve

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INTERROGATIVE
Have I?
Have you?

He has
She has
It has

Hes
Shes
Its

Has he?
Has she?
Has it?

We have
You have
They have

Weve
Youve
Theyve

Have we?
Have you?
Have they?

NEGATIVE
1
I have not
You have
not
He has not
She has not
It has not

NEGATIVE
2
Ive not
Youve not

NEGATIVE INTEROGARTIVE
3
1
Ihavent
Have I not?
You havent? Have you not?

NEGATIVE
2
Havent I?
Havent you?

Hes not
Shes not
Its not

He hasnt?
She hasnt?
It hasnt?

He
Has she not?
it

He
Havent she?
It

We have
not
You have
not
They have
not

Weve not

We havent?

Have we not?

Havent we?

Youve you
havent
Theynot

You havent

Have you not?

Havent you?

They
havent?

Have they not?

Havent
they?

Affirmative:
I have=Ive

Present Tense of the Verb TO SEE


AFFIRMATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

I see

Do I see?

NEGATIVE
1
I do not see

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NEGATIVE
2
I dont see?

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
Do I not see?
Dont I see?

You see

do you see?

He see
She sees
It see

Does he see?
Does she see?
Does It see?

We see

Do we see?

you see

Do you see?

They see

Do they see?

You do not
see?
He does not
see
She does
not see
It does not
see
We do not
see
You do not
see
They do not
see

You dont
see?
He doesnt
see?
She doesnt
see?
It doesnt
see?
We dont
see?
You dont
see?
They dont
see?

Do you not see?


Dont you see?
Doesnt He see?
Doesnt she see?
Doesnt It see?

Do we not see?
Dont we see?
Do you not see?
Dont you see?
Do they not see?
Dont they see?

Present Tense of the Verb TO READ


AFFIRMATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I read

Do I read?

I do not read

I dont read?

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INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE
Do I not read?
Dont I read?

You read

Do you read?

You do not
read
He does not
read
She does not
read
It does not
read

You dont
read?
He doesnt
read?
She doesnt
read?
It doesnt
read?

Do you not read?


Dont you read?
Doesnt he read?
Doesnt she
read?
Doesnt it read?

He reads
She reads
It reads

Does he read?
Does she read
Does it read?

We read

Do we read?

We do not
read

We dont
read?

Do we not read?
Dont we read?

You read

Do you read?

They read

Do they read?

You do not
read
They do not
read

You dont
read?
They dont
read?

Do you not read?


Dont you read?
Do they not
read?
Dont they read?

DESCRIPTIVE WORD
What kind of? Person or thing?

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The way we speak would be very boring without using various


descriptive word to help us express ( and explain ) the colour, shape and size
. the feautures of the things we speak about.
Here you have some adjectives. Look in the dictionary for their
meaning and write it down in the coumms bellow.
Red
White
Green
Black
COLOUR
Yellow
Purple
Blue
Pink
Orange
Brown
Square
Straight
SHAPE
Oval
Flat
Round
Curved
Triangular
Excellent
Kind
Pleasant
Generous
CHARACTERISTICS
Delicious
Friendly
+
Beautiful
Helpful
Nice
Happy
Unpleasant
Mean
CHARACTERISTICS
Awful
Miserable
Ugly
Nasty
Big
Gigantic
Enormous
Huge
High
Little
SIZE
Large
Long
Medium
Minute
Small
Tall
Tiny
Vast
Try to find other words that express shape, characteristics ( good or bad ),
kind and size and add them to the ones given here. As you have probably
noticed, there are people using a word or a couple of word very often. Try to
avoid this and learn as many descriptive word as you can, rather than saying:
a nice evening , some nice people, a nice soup, nice books, nice movies, an
enjoyable holiday.

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EXERCISE:
Answer the following questions but do not send them to ANOTHER
LIFE SERVICES. Use a dictionary to identify the following word. You are
given the first two letters of the word, the number of letters of the whole
word and its meaning.

ci.....................

8 letters

shaped like a circle

ch..

8 letters

bright and lively

be.

9 letters

lovely to look at

de.

9 letters

tasting very pleasant

ex.

8 letters

stirring stimulating

en ..

9 letters

which gives pleasure or joy

ex.. ..

9 letters

very good indeed

me..

6 letters

neither large nor small

mi

6 letters

very small indeed

mi.

9 letters

very sad and depressed

WORD TO SHOW QUANTITY


How much and How many?
Fiind in the dictionary the meaning of the words:
About

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Any
Few
Little
Much
Many
None
Several
Some

Compare

Many

Womens
Objects
Cups of coffee

BUT

Much

The Future Tense-Simple Future

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Oil
Water
coffee

The Simple Future of the Verb TO WATCH


AFFIRMATIVE 1
I shall watch
You will watch
He will watch
She will watch
It will watch
We shall watch
You will watch
They will watch

AFFIRMATIVE 2
Ill watch
Youll watch
Hell watch
Shell watch
Itll watch
Well watch
Youll watch
Theyll watch

NEGATIVE 1
I shall not watch
You will not watch
He will not watch
She will not watch
It will not watch
We shall not watch
You will not watch
They will not watch

INTERROGATIVE
Shall I watch
Will you watch
Will he watch
Will she watch
Will it watch

TRADUCERE
Voi privi
Vei privi
Va privi
Vom privi
Veti privi
Vor privi

NEGATIVE 2
I shant watch
You wont watch
He wont watch
She wont watch
It wont watch
We wont watch
You wont watch
They wont watch

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE 1
Shall I not watch?
Will you not watch?
Will he not watch?
Will she not watch?
Will it not watch?

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INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE 2
Shant I watch?
Wont you watch?
Wont he watch?
Wont she watch?
wont il watch?

Shall we watch
Will you watch
Will they watch

Shall we not watch?


Will you not watch?
Will they not watch?

The Present Perfect Tense

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Wont we watch?
Wont you watch?
Wont they watch?

The Present Perfect of the Verb TO PLAY


AFFIRMATIVE 1
I have played
You have played
He has played
She has played
It has played
We have played
You have played
They have played

AFFIRMATIVE 2
Ive played
Youve played
Hes played
Shes played
Its played
Weve played
Youve played
Theyve played

INTERROGATIVE
Have I played?
Have you played?
Has he played?
Has she played?
Has it played?
Have we played?
Have you played?
Have they played?

NEGATIVE 1
I have not played
You have not played
He has not played
She has not played
It has not played
We have not played
You have not played
They have not played

NEGATIVE 2
Ive not played
Youve played
Hes not played
Shes not played
Its not played
Weve not played
Youve not played
Theyve not played

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
1
Have I not played?
Have you not played?
Has he not played?
Has she not played?

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
2
Havent I played?
Havent you played?
Hanst he played?
Hanst she played?
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Has it not played?


Have we not played?
Have you not played?
Have they not played?

Hanst it played?
Havent we played?
Havent you played?
Havent they played?

The Present Perfect of the Verb TO DO


AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFFIRMATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

I have done
You have done
He has done
She has done
It has done
We have done
You have done
They have done

Ive done
Youve done
Hes done
Shes done
Its done
Weve done
Youve done
Theyve done

Have I done?
Have you done?
Has he done?
Has she done?
Has it done?
Have we done?
Have you done?
Have they done?

NEGATIVE 1
I have not done
You have not done
He has not done
She has not done
It has not done
We have not done
You have note done

NEGATIVE 2
Ive not done
Youve not done
Hes not done
Shes not done
Its not done
Weve not done
Youve not done

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They have not done

Theyve not done

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
1
Have I not done?
Have you not done?
Has he not done?
Has she not done?
Has it not done?
Have we not done?
Have you not done?
Have they not done?

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
2
Havent I done?
Havent you done?
Hasnt he done?
Hasnt she done?
Hasnt it done?
Havent we done?
Havent you done?
Havent they done?

THE SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND


THE SIMPLE PAST CONTINOUS
The Present Continous of the verb TO SMILE

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Affirmative 1

Affirmative 2

Interrogative

I am smiling
You are smiling
He is smiling
She is smiling
We are smiling
You are smiling
They are smiling

Imsmiling
Youre smiling
Hes smiling
Shes smiling
Were smiling
Youre smiling
Therre smiling

Am I smiling?
Are you smiling?
Is he smiling?
Is he smiling?
Are we smiling?
Are you smiling?
Are they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I am not smiling
You are not smiling
He is not smiling
She is not smiling
It is not smiling
We are not smiling
You are not smiling
They are not smiling

Im not smiling
Youre not smiling
Hes not smiling
Shes not smiling
Its not smiling
Were not smiling
Youre not smiling
Theyre not smiling

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
1
Am I not smiling?
Are you not smiling?
Is he not smiling?
Is she not smiling?
Is it not smiling?

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
2
Arent I smiling?
Arent you smiling?
Isnt he smiling?
Isnt she smiling?
Isnt it smiling?
24

Are we not smiling?


Are you not smiling?
Are they not smiling?

Arent we smiling?
Arent you smiling?
Arent they smiling?

Simple Past Continous of the Verb TO SMILE

AFFIRMATIVE
I was smiling
You were smiling
He was smiling
25

She was smiling


It was smiling
We were smiling
You were smiling
They were smiling
INTERROGATIVE
Was I smiling?
Were you smiling?
Was he smiling?
Was she smiling?
Was it smiling?
Were we smiling?
Were you smiling?
Were they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I was not smiling


You not were smiling
He was not smiling
She was not smiling
It was not smiling
We were not smiling
You were not smiling
They were not smiling

I wasnt smiling
You werent smiling
He wasnt smiling
She wasnt smiling
It wasnt smiling
We werent smiling
You werent smiling
They werent smiling

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
1
Was I not smiling?
Were you not smiling?
Was he not smiling?
Was she not smiling?

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
2
Wasnt I smiling?
Werent you smiling?
Wasnt he smiling?
Wasnt she smiling?

26

Was it not smiling?


Were we not smiling?
Were you not smiling?
Were they not smiling?

Wasnt it smiling?
Werent we smiling?
Werent you smiling?
Werent they smiling?

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUSLY


Present Perfect Continuous of the Verb TO PLAY

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AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFFIRMATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

I have been playing


You have been playing
He has been playing
She has been playing
It has been playing
We have been playing
You have been playing
They have been playing

Ive have been playing


Youre have been playing
Hes have been playing
Shes have been playing
Its have been playing
Were have been playing
Youre have been playing
Theyre have been playing

Have I been playing?


Have you been playing?
Has he been playing?
Has she been playing?
Has it been playing?
Have we been playing?
Have you been playing?
Have they been playing?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 1

I have not been playing


You have not been playing
He has not been playing
She has not been playing
It has not been playing
We have not been playing
You have not been playing
They have not been playing

Ive not been playing


Youve not been playing
Hes not been playing
Shes not been playing
Its not been playing
Weve not been playing
Youve not been playing
Theyve not been playing

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
1
Have I not been playing?
Have you not been playing?
Has he not been playing?
Has she not been playing?

INTERROGATIVE
NEGATIVE
2
Havent I been playing?
Havent you been playing?
Hanst he been playing?
Hanst she been playing?
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Has it not been playing?


Have we not been playing?
Have you not been playing?
Have they not been playing?

Hanst it been playing?


Havent we been playing?
Havent you been playing?
Havent they been playing?

Aspectele verbului in limba engleza

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Verbele in limba engleza pot avea patru aspecte: simplu ( Simple ), progresiv
( Continous ), pefect ( Perfect ) si perfect progresiv ( Perfect Continous ). Fiecare
dintre aceste aspecte poate aparea la oricare dintre cele trei timpuri: present
( Present ), trecut ( Past ) si viitor ( Future ).
Aspectele progresiv si perfect le corespunde cate un verb auxiliar ( cu
care se formeaza ), care preia timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ; aspectul
progresiv perfect se formeaza prin combinarea celor doua auxiliare .

Astfel:
Continous Tense se formeaza cu auxiliarul to be :
to be + infinitivul verbului de conjugat + ing
( la timpul si persoana verbului conjugat )
Perfect Tense se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have :
to have ( la timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ) + forma a 3 a verbului
conjugat
Perfect Continous Tense se formeaza cu ambele auziliare. to be si to have:
To have + been + infinitivul de conjugat + ing.

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Transformarea timpurilor verbale in trecerea de la vorbire directa la cea


indirecta

DIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH

Present Continuous
Present Simple
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Shall/will
Can
Must
Could
Ought to
May

Past Continuous
Past Simple
Past Perfect
No change
Past Perfect
No change
Would
No change
Could
No change
No change
Might

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