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REVISTA DE PSIHOLOGIE

Vol. 59 2013 Nr. 3

SUMAR

STUDII I CERCETRI

ADRIAN PRISCARU, GHEORGHE CHIU, LEONARD VOLOIN, LUCIA IORGA,


ANA-MARIA GEORGESCU, AURELIAN MUAT, MANUELA NSTASE, Evaluarea
faetelor inteligenei i caracteristicile psihometrice ale instrumentelor specifice de
evaluare............................................................................................................................ 187
VIOLETA ROTRESCU, SIMONA MACOVEI, GERALDINE STANCIU, Factori culturali ai
memoriei autobiografice la aduli tineri ............................................................................ 199
LAURA CIOCHIN, LUSA FARIA, Independent-interdependent self: exploratory study with
Portuguese and Romanian students........................................................................................... 206
FLORINDA GOLU, Rolul interveniei educaional-formative prin joc n dezvoltarea copilului... 217
VIOREL ROBU, Predictori ai riscului suicidar n rndul adolescenilor ...................................... 226
MIHAELA CHRAIF, Gender differences in visual memory and nonverbal inductive reasoning
tasks A pilot study on undergraduate students at Psychology ......................................... 238

PUNCTE DE VEDERE

CAMELIA POPA, ANDRA BOLOHAN, GEORGETA PREDA, Tulburarea depresiv


direcii actuale de cercetare............................................................................................... 245
TEFAN VLDUESCU, Feedforward iradiation in psychology, psychopedagogy and
communication. The ontological principle of feedforward.................................................... 254

CRITIC I BIBLIOGRAFIE

ELENA STNCULESCU, Etica n psihologia educaiei, Bucureti, Editura Universitii din


Bucureti, 2013, 163 p. (Georgeta Preda)....................................................................... 265
ADRIAN PRISCARU, Cunoaterea integrativ a personalitii. Un model teoretico-
metodologic, Bucureti, Editura Militar, 2013, 259 p. (Camelia Popa)......................... 266

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 181268, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
REVISTA DE PSIHOLOGIE
(JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY)
Vol. 59 2013 No. 3

CONTENTS

STUDIES AND RESEARCHES

ADRIAN PRISCARU, GHEORGHE CHIU, LEONARD VOLOIN, LUCIA IORGA,


ANA-MARIA GEORGESCU, AURELIAN MUAT, MANUELA NSTASE, The
asessment of intelligence facets and psychometric characteristics of the specific
assessment tools.......................................................................................................................... 187
VIOLETA ROTRESCU, SIMONA MACOVEI, GERALDINE STANCIU, Cultural factors of
autobiographical memory in young adults................................................................................ 199
LAURA CIOCHIN, LUSA FARIA, Independent-interdependent self: exploratory study with
Portuguese and Romanian students................................................................................... 206
FLORINDA GOLU, The role of formative-educational intervention through playing in child
development..................................................................................................................... 217
VIOREL ROBU, Predictors of suicidal risk among adolescents................................................... 226
MIHAELA CHRAIF, Gender differences in visual memory and nonverbal inductive reasoning
tasks A pilot study on undergraduate students at psychology .............................................. 238

POINTS OF VIEW

CAMELIA POPA, ANDRA BOLOHAN, GEORGETA PREDA, Depression current research


directions ................................................................................................................................. 245
TEFAN VLDUESCU, Feedforward iradiation in psychology, psychopedagogy and
communication. The ontological principle of feedforward.................................................. ` 254

CRITICISM AND REFERENCES

ELENA STNCULESCU, Etica n psihologia educaiei (Ethics in the educational


psychology), Bucureti, Editura Universitii din Bucureti, 2013, 163 p. (Georgeta
Preda).............................................................................................................................. 265
ADRIAN PRISCARU, Cunoaterea integrativ a personalitii. Un model teoretico-
metodologic (The integrative knowledge of personality. A theoretical-methodological
model), Bucureti, Editura Militar, 2013, 259 p. (Camelia Popa)..................................... 266

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 181268, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
REVISTA DE PSIHOLOGIE
(REVUE DE PSYCHOLOGIE)
Vol. 59 2013 No 3

SOMMAIRE

TUDES ET RECHERCHES

ADRIAN PRISCARU, GHEORGHE CHIU, LEONARD VOLOIN, LUCIA IORGA,


ANA-MARIA GEORGESCU, AURELIAN MUAT, MANUELA NSTASE,
L`valuation des facettes de l`intelligence et les caractristiques psychomtriques des
outils d`valuation spcifiques.......................................................................................... 187
VIOLETA ROTRESCU, SIMONA MACOVEI, GERALDINE STANCIU, Les facteurs
culturels de la mmoire autobiographique chez les jeunes adultes..................................... 199
LAURA CIOCHIN, LUSA FARIA, Independent-interdependent self: exploratory study with
Portuguese and Romanian students................................................................................... 206
FLORINDA GOLU, Le rle des interventions ducatives-formatives par jeu dans le
dveloppement de l`enfant................................................................................................ 217
VIOREL ROBU, Prdicteurs de risque suicidaire chez les adolescents ........................................ 226
MIHAELA CHRAIF, Gender differences in visual memory and nonverbal inductive reasoning
tasks A pilot study on undergraduate students at psychology ......................................... 238

POINTS DE VUE

CAMELIA POPA, ANDRA BOLOHAN, GEORGETA PREDA, Les troubles dpressifs


directions de recherche actuelle .............................................................................................. 245
TEFAN VLDUESCU, Feedforward iradiation in psychology, psychopedagogy and
communication. The ontological principle of feedforward.................................................... 254

CRITIQUE ET BIBLIOGRAPHIE

ELENA STNCULESCU, Etica n psihologia educaiei (Lthique dans la psychologie de


lducation), Bucureti, Editura Universitii din Bucureti, 2013, 163 p. (Georgeta
Preda).............................................................................................................................. 265
ADRIAN PRISCARU, Cunoaterea integrativ a personalitii. Un model teoretico-
metodologic (La connaissance intgrative de la personnalit. Un modle thorique
mthodologique), Bucureti, Editura Militar, 2013, 259 p. (Camelia Popa) ................ 266

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 181268, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
STUDII I CERCETRI

EVALUAREA FAETELOR INTELIGENEI I CARACTERISTICILE


PSIHOMETRICE ALE INSTRUMENTELOR SPECIFICE DE EVALUARE

ADRIAN PRISCARU*, GHEORGHE CHIU, LEONARD VOLOIN, LUCIA IORGA,


ANA-MARIA GEORGESCU, AURELIAN MUAT, MANUELA NSTASE
Laboratorul psihologic al Ministerului Aprrii Naionale

Abstract
According to general aim to elaborate psychological tests watching the model of multiple
intelligence theory, we studied the selection for acceding in our organization through the vision of
multiple intelligences. So, we made a study design referring to some of faces of multiple intelligences.
For each type of intelligence we made a test including the theme similar and specific to cognitive
ability to test. Building formal tests is an important stage in our way for validity of the model. Another very
important dimension of the study is the use of individual results in making the abilities graphic which
have to answer to the task of vocational counselling or orientation by stressing the branches in which the
person may obtain a high efficiency.
Cuvinte-cheie: selecia psihologic, faetele inteligenei multiple, profil aptitudinal optim.
Keywords: psychologic selection, intelligence facets, aptitudinal graphic.

1. INTRODUCERE

Modelul teoriei inteligenelor multiple pare a fi superior, din anumite


perspective, modelului tradiional i poate propune soluii conceptuale sau practice,
att pentru dimensiunea orientrii vocaionale, ct i pentru selecia psihologic.
Problema clasificrii persoanelor n funcie de I.Q., specific modelului tradiional,
este nc de actualitate i se utilizeaz de ctre foarte muli practicieni, dar i
viziunea pluralist asupra inteligenei cucerete din ce n ce mai muli adepi. Noul
model accept faptul c oamenii dispun de puteri i stiluri cognitive diverse, specifice
unor domenii largi ale activitii umane, iar nivelul i combinarea acestora dau
amprenta individului.

2. MODELE TEORETICE PRIVIND ABORDAREA INTELIGENEI

n literatura de specialitate, cele mai frecvente abordri teoretice ale inteligenei


vizeaz: modelul psihometric, modelul factorial, modelul genetic, modelul ecologic

*
M.Ap.N., Laboratorul psihologic al Ministerului Aprrii Naionale; e-mail: adrian_prisacaru@
yahoo.com.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 187198, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
188 Adrian Priscaru et al. 2

i modelul triarhic (Andrie, 2007). ns, mai recent, la nceputul anilor 80, ca o
completare la modelele tradiionale enumerate anterior, apare o nou i interesant
abordare, denumit teoria inteligenelor multiple.
Referindu-se la teoria inteligenelor multiple, autorul acesteia, Howard Gardner
(2006), prezint teoria ca un model alternativ, ghidat de o alt orientare asupra
dezvoltrii i msurrii inteligenei, fiind n esen o viziune pluralist. Modelul
recunoate mai multe faete ale inteligenei i accept faptul c oamenii au puteri i
stiluri cognitive deosebite, dar i capaciti distincte, ncepnd cu inteligena muzical
pn la cea implicat n nelegerea de sine.
Teoria inteligenelor multiple extinde sfera conceptului tradiional al inteligenei,
susinnd c o inteligen este o capacitate computaional, adic o capacitate de
a procesa un anumit tip de informaie sau aptitudinea de a rezolva un anumit tip de
probleme pe baza unor operaii sau a unui set de operaii identificabile (Gardner,
2006). Se apreciaz c fiecare inteligen este activat sau declanat de anumite
tipuri de informaii prezente la nivel intern sau extern.
Autorul conchide: teoria inteligenelor multiple descrie mai bine competena
cognitiv uman n termenii unui set de capaciti, talente sau aptitudini mentale,
numite inteligene i toi indivizii normali posed fiecare dintre aceste aptitudini
ntr-o oarecare msur, iar diferena dintre acetia este dat de proporia aptitudinilor i
natura combinrii lor (Gardner, 2006).

3. METODOLOGIA CERCETRII

Studiul privind elaborarea unei baterii de probe psihologice destinate evalurii


faetelor inteligenei a pornit de la necesitatea seleciei subiecilor pe baza
aptitudinilor necesare rezolvrii unor sarcini concrete, la standardele de performan
impuse de postul/funcia pentru care se solicit evaluarea.
Pentru realizarea acestui obiectiv, am stabilit etapele de construire a bateriei
de probe, etape care ulterior s-au concretizat n obiective practic-aplicative, astfel:
O1 identificarea celor mai importante faete ale inteligenei implicate n
activitatea vizat (etapa I de cercetare, metoda experilor);
O2 definirea i operaionalizarea conceptelor/faetelor inteligenei (etapa
a II-a de cercetare, metoda experilor);
O3 elaborarea itemilor pentru fiecare faet a inteligenei (etapa a III-a de
cercetare, metoda experilor);
O4 construirea bateriei de probe psihologice, aplicarea experimental i
studiul privind criteriile de fidelitate i validitate (etapa a IV-a de cercetare, metoda
experimentului);
O5 definitivarea formei finale a bateriei de probe i stabilirea profilului
psihoaptitudinal optim (etapa a V-a de cercetare, metode combinate).
Pentru realizarea primului obiectiv (identificarea celor mai importante faete ale
inteligenei implicate n activitatea vizat), am operat cu modelul teoriei inteligenelor
3 Evaluarea faetelor inteligenei 189

multiple elaborat de Gardner, cu profesiogramele existente n C.O.R. (Clasificarea


Ocupaiilor din Romnia) pentru unele familii de specialiti sau profesii i cu unele
concepte din literatura de specialitate (Priscaru & Cracsner, 2010).
Utiliznd metoda experilor (psihologi cu experien n domeniul seleciei
psihologice), n demersul de identificare a celor mai importante faete ale
inteligenei rspunztoare pentru atingerea unor performane n activitatea profesional,
au rezultat ase faete ale inteligenei, denumite faete specifice, astfel: inteligena
verbal (I.V.), inteligena numeric (I.N.), inteligena spaial (I.S.), inteligena
organizatoric i funcionreasc (I.O.F.), inteligena tehnic (I.T.) i inteligena
general de nvare (I.G..).
n cea de-a doua etap de cercetare, care vizeaz definirea i operaionalizarea
conceptelor/faetelor inteligenei (O2), au fost concepute definiiile fiecrei faete,
operaionalizate conceptele (cele ase faete ale inteligenei) i a fost stabilit
importana evalurii lor pentru activitile care vor fi desfurate ulterior la locul de
munc.
Precizm c diferena fundamental dintre modelul tradiional i cel al teoriei
inteligenelor multiple privind evaluarea const n maniera de operaionalizare a
conceptelor. Dac n evaluarea I.Q. se utilizeaz teste, verbale sau nonverbale, ai
cror itemi abordeaz teme diversificate n coninut, evaluarea faetelor inteligenelor
multiple va utiliza teste specializate pentru fiecare dintre acestea.
Pentru conturarea cadrului conceptual, prezentm conceptele de baz cu care
operm, aa cum sunt descrise n literatura de specialitate, dar mai ales cum au fost
adaptate i acceptate de grupul de experi, urmrind finalitile aciunilor, astfel:
a) Inteligena verbal exprim capacitatea de a recepiona, prelucra i opera
cu cuvinte, de a nelege relaiile dintre noiuni i de a elabora raionamente de tip
verbal, fiind necesar pentru: emiterea, recepionarea i procesarea unor mesaje
verbale; nsuirea unor noiuni teoretice i practice de specialitate; colaborarea cu
autoritile i cu populaia n diverse situaii; nelegerea instructajelor, condiiilor
i msurilor de siguran pe timpul executrii unor activiti cu grad de risc crescut.
b) Inteligena spaial exprim capacitatea de a determina forma, dimensiunea,
relaia i orientarea unui obiect n raport cu altul sau cu o anumit structur, fiind
necesar pentru: elaborarea unor strategii de aciune; descifrarea relaiilor dintre
unele elemente grafice sau practice prezentate sau dispuse n plan bi- sau tridimensi-
onal; rezolvarea unor situaii practice din teren, plasarea unor semne convenionale
pe un plan de aciune sau pe o hart.
c) Inteligena numeric exprim capacitatea de a opera cu cifre, de a rezolva
rapid probleme simple de matematic, fiind necesar pentru: gestionarea resurselor
materiale i umane; planificarea, gestionarea, administrarea i utilizarea unor sume
da bani sau fonduri bugetare; calcularea unui necesar de materiale i utilizarea
judicioas a resurselor.
d) Inteligena organizatoric i funcionreasc exprim abilitatea de a
surprinde detaliile, acurateea n compararea, evaluarea i aprecierea unor produse,
190 Adrian Priscaru et al. 4

programe, planuri, litere, cuvinte sau serii de litere; viteza perceptual; rapiditatea
deciziei, fiind necesar pentru: elaborarea, completarea sau nscrierea unor documente;
organizarea, planificarea i desfurarea activitilor; realizarea actului de conducere/
execuie; managementul organizaiei; transmiterea de mesaje i date prin intermediul
mijloacelor de comunicaie; criptarea/decriptarea unor mesaje/ informaii transmise
codificat; rapiditatea deciziei n situaii limit.
e) Inteligena tehnic presupune capacitatea de a nelege principiile mecanicii,
micrile, fora de aciune, principiile simple ale fizicii, relaiile dintre obiecte i
fenomene, fiind necesar pentru: cunoaterea, ntreinerea i exploatarea mijloacelor
tehnice i a aparaturii din dotare; folosirea judicioas a tehnicii n funcie de caracte-
risticile i particularitile acesteia; perfecionarea tehnicii din dotare.
f) Inteligena general de nvare exprim capacitatea de a acumula cunotine,
informaii i de a opera cu acestea, fiind necesar pentru: formarea deprinderilor i
exploatarea mijloacelor tehnice, materialelor i resurselor umane la standardele
solicitate de post; adaptarea la situaii noi; nelegerea, prelucrarea i adaptarea
informaiilor la sarcini concrete; anticiparea unor evenimente i efecte n situaii
diverse.
A treia etap de cercetare vizeaz elaborarea itemilor pentru fiecare faet a
inteligenei (O3). n aceast etap, grupul de psihologi experi n domeniul seleciei
au stabilit ariile tematice subsumate dimensiunii investigate.
n urma studiului i acordului exprimat de experi, au fost stabilite cte trei
arii tematice pentru culegerea i conceperea itemilor din cadrul probelor pentru
evaluarea fiecrei faete, astfel:
a) proba pentru evaluarea inteligenei verbale conine itemi care vizeaz
analogiile verbale, respectiv cuvinte asemntoare (sinonime), cuvinte opuse (antonime)
i raionamentele logico-verbale;
b) proba pentru evaluarea inteligenei spaiale cuprinde itemi care vizeaz
selecia unor corpuri secionate, a unor figuri desfurate i a unor corpuri n
micare imaginar;
c) proba pentru evaluarea inteligenei numerice conine itemi care solicit
efectuarea de calcule aritmetice simple, serii de numere alctuite dup o anumit
regul i probleme aritmetice contextualizate;
d) proba pentru evaluarea inteligenei organizatorice i funcionreti cuprinde
itemi care solicit completarea de fraze, similariti n grupuri de litere i relaia
dintre grupuri de litere dup criteriile asemnrii i deosebirii;
e) proba pentru evaluarea inteligenei tehnice conine itemi care surprind
unele procese fizice i micri ale obiectelor, prghii, scripei i angrenaje;
f) proba pentru evaluarea inteligenei generale de nvare cuprinde itemi
care solicit identificarea unor similariti verbale ntr-o serie de cuvinte, ordonarea
noiunilor ntr-o succesiune logic i continuarea unor serii de figuri dup o regul dat.
Avnd n vedere complexitatea i diversitatea tematic, n urma ntocmirii
listei cu itemii concepui, aceasta a fost supus analizei experilor.
5 Evaluarea faetelor inteligenei 191

n urma analizei concordanei dintre experi i a validitii de coninut (metoda


experilor), au fost eliminai itemii care nu respectau criteriul calitii privind
conceptul i aria tematic stabilit iniial, rezultnd un numr de 40 de itemi pentru
fiecare prob i un total de 240 de itemi pentru ntreaga baterie.
Cea de-a patra etap de cercetare vizeaz construirea bateriei de probe
psihologice respectnd criteriile de fidelitate i validitate (O4).
Probele psihologice rezultate au fost aplicate experimental pe 466 de subieci,
cu vrsta cuprins ntre 18 i 40 de ani, avnd o medie de vrst de 22,9 ani.
Menionm c lotul respect criteriul reprezentativitii i este eterogen din punctul
de vedere al pregtirii colare, profesionale, vrstei i genului.
Fiecare prob a fost aplicat pe doi timpi (10 minute i 15 minute), pentru a
se stabili timpul optim de lucru al acestora. Datele colectate n urma aplicrii
probelor au fost introduse i prelucrate ntr-o baz de date SPSS. Dup verificarea
corectitudinii datelor, am efectuat analiza de itemi.
Pentru acurateea rezultatelor statistice, am codat rspunsurile la itemi astfel:
itemii rezolvai corect au primit codul 1, itemii rezolvai greit au primit codul
0, iar itemii neparcuri au primit codul 2. Am utilizat aceast codare pentru a
verifica, prin analiz statistic, normalitatea distribuiei rspunsurilor pentru fiecare
item i consistena intern a itemilor n cadrul fiecrui factor (faet) evaluat.
Principalii indicatori statistici prin care am verificat aceste aspecte au fost: media,
abaterea standard i coeficientul de consisten intern Cronbach.
ntr-o prim etap, fiecare item a fost analizat n funcie de medie i abaterea
standard, pentru a urmri dac respect criteriile distribuiei normale. Apoi, am
definit condiia izolrii sau eliminrii itemilor care aveau mediile mult prea mari
sau mult prea mici fa de media teoretic, precum i a celor cu dispersie mare,
care ns, pentru certitudinea rezultatelor, nu au fost eliminai n aceast etap.
Urmtoarea operaiune a constat n calculul coeficientul de consisten intern
Cronbach. Acest indicator statistic ne indic, pe de o parte, impactul pe care fiecare
item l are asupra consistenei interne a factorului general analizat, concordana
setului de itemi cu dimensiunea analizat, iar pe de alt parte, corelaiile dintre
itemi. n urma acestei proceduri, am eliminat itemii nediscriminativi, respectiv cei
care au coeficientul Cronbach peste 0.80 (foarte uori), sub 0.20 (foarte dificili)
i cei care nu respectau criteriile unei distribuii normale, verificnd n acelai timp
dac, prin eliminare, nu a fost afectat omogenitatea probei. n final, am avut n
vedere ca numrul de itemi rmai s fie identic pentru fiecare faet a inteligenei.
Au rezultat 120 de itemi, cte 20 pentru fiecare prob psihologic (faet a inteligenei).
Analiznd valorile coeficienilor Cronbach, prezentate n tabelul nr. 1,
pentru fiecare faet putem observa c acetia au o valoare mare, ceea ce garanteaz c
probele construite sunt omogene (itemii sunt consisteni ca sens) i unidimensionale
(itemii se refer la o singur dimensiune/factor).
192 Adrian Priscaru et al. 6

Tabelul nr. 1
Denumirea probei Coeficient Cronbach
Inteligen verbal Reliability Coefficients 20 items, Alpha = .7771
Inteligen spaial Reliability Coefficients 20 items, Alpha = .6566
Inteligen numeric Reliability Coefficients 20 items, Alpha = .7570
Inteligen tehnic Reliability Coefficients 20 items, Alpha = .6084
Inteligen organizatoric i funcionreasc Reliability Coefficients 20 items, Alpha = .5909
Inteligen general de nvare Reliability Coefficients 20 items, Alpha = .7545

Prin calcularea coeficienilor Cronbach am verificat i criteriul de fidelitate


al probelor, adic precizia cu care un test msoar anumite caracteristici psihologice
(Hvrneanu, 2000), folosind ca metod consistena inter-item.
De asemenea, literatura de specialitate menioneaz c o prob care are un
coeficient de consisten intern mare ( Cronbach) va avea i o validitate de
coninut mare dac factorul respectiv este precis descris, iar o foarte bun validitate
de coninut poate asigura i o foarte bun validitate predictiv sau de criteriu
(Constantin, 2004).
n ceea ce privete validitatea, aceasta a fost studiat i rmne n atenia
grupului de experi pentru analiz prin trei metode de baz, astfel:
validitatea de coninut se refer la msura n care itemii formulai vizeaz
coninutul dimensiunii/faetei propuse pentru evaluare;
validitatea concurent reprezint msura n care factorul msurat poate fi
evaluat i de alte instrumente similare (probe care msoar aceleai faete ale inte-
ligenei);
validitatea predictiv/de criteriu vizeaz existena unor relaii strnse i
relevante ntre factorul pus n eviden de o prob i un criteriu extern.
Validitatea de coninut a fost verificat prin trei procedee prezentate n
etapele trei i patru ale cercetrii, respectiv:
analiza concordanei dintre experi cu privire la coninutul itemilor;
eliminarea itemilor nediscriminativi;
analiza consistenei interne a itemilor din cadrul fiecrei probe prin
calcularea coeficientului Cronbach.
n ceea ce privete validitatea concurent, aceasta este aplicabil probelor
concepute de grupul de experi, fiind studiat i analizat prin prisma rezultatelor
obinute de subieci la baterii similare (AM1, AM2, AM3), utiliznd metoda core-
laiilor prin intermediul coeficientului de corelaie Pearson. Rezultatele sunt
prezentate n tabelul nr. 2.
Din analiza valorilor prezentate n tabelul nr. 2, desprindem concluzia c,
dei corelaiile sunt semnificative la un prag de 0.001, valorile coeficienilor nu
sunt mari, iar acest aspect se datoreaz diversitii ariilor tematice privind coninutul
itemilor din bateria experimental, comparativ cu bateriile utilizate pentru validare.
7 Evaluarea faetelor inteligenei 193

Tabelul nr. 2
Denumirea probelor Coeficientul de corelaie i pragul de semnificaie
Inteligen verbal AM1 : r = .444** , p = 0,001, AM2 : r = .444** ,
p = 0,001, AM3 : r = .444** , p = 0,001
Inteligen spaial AM1 : r = .539** , p = 0,001, AM2 : r = .586** ,
p = 0,001, AM3 : r = .471** , p = 0,001
Inteligen numeric AM1 : r = .666** , p = 0,001, AM2 : r = .672** ,
p = 0,001, AM3 : r = .607** , p = 0,001
Inteligen organizatoric i AM1 : r = .209* , p = 0,005, AM2 : r = .360** ,
funcionreasc p = 0,001, AM3 : r = .511** , p = 0,001
Inteligen tehnic AM1 : r = .282** , p = 0,001, AM2 : r = .380** ,
p = 0,001, AM3 : r = .202** , p = 0,001
Inteligen general de nvare AM1 : r = .539** , p = 0,001, AM2 : r = .586** ,
p = 0,001,AM3 : r = .471** , p = 0,001

Totodat, amintim c, n acord cu Colton (1974), un coeficient de corelaie


situat ntre 0.25 i 0.50 reprezint un grad de asociere acceptabil, iar un coeficient
de corelaie situat ntre 0.50 i 0.70 reprezint o corelaie moderat spre bun. Prin
analiza de coninut a itemilor din probele concurente, apreciem c valorile cele mai
mari prezentate la fiecare prob susin asocierea datelor i confirmarea c sunt
evaluate constructe similare.
Referitor la validitatea predictiv/de criteriu, aceasta nu este aplicabil la
momentul actual, ntruct ne-am propus o serie de criterii externe, respectiv urmrirea
longitudinal a rezultatelor obinute n procesul de nvare sau de munc, rmnnd
pentru studiu i vor reprezenta obiectivul cercetri viitoare.
n sfrit, cea de-a cincea etap de cercetare vizeaz definitivarea formei
finale a bateriei de probe i stabilirea profilului psihoaptitudinal optim (O5). Plecnd de
la certitudinea c am obinut o baterie de probe psihologice discriminative, susinut
prin respectarea criteriilor statistice, am recurs la stabilirea formei finale.
Fiecare prob din bateria de evaluare psihologic trebuie s conin descrierea
probei, instructajul/consemnul, itemii, instruciunile de corectare i interpretare,
precum i elementele pentru valorificare rezultatelor. n acest sens, prezentm n
continuare, pentru exemplificare, cteva elemente privind proba de inteligen spaial
(I.S.), astfel:
Descrierea probei
Este o prob de tip nonverbal care vizeaz:
rapiditatea i precizia de a rezolva sarcini cu coninut n imagini;
capacitatea de a observa corpuri n micare/transformare (prin rotiri, efectuarea
de seciuni sau asamblri) i de a opera cu algoritmi;
nivelul de dezvoltare al reprezentrilor spaiale bi- i tridimensionale;
spiritul de observaie, discriminarea vizual, imaginaia, logica i memoria.
Proba cuprinde 20 de itemi. Gradul de dificultate este mediu.
194 Adrian Priscaru et al. 8

Consemnul/instructajul
n cadrul probei vei ntlni 20 de itemi cu desene care conin serii de figuri,
simboluri sau corpuri geometrice pentru care sunt formulate sarcini de rezolvat i
variante de rspuns. Rspunsurile le vei consemna n foaia de rspuns. Lucrai ct
mai repede i corect posibil. Timpul de lucru este limitat. ncepei!
Exemple de itemi pentru fiecare tem
Exemplul nr. 1
Benzile desenate mai jos au n stnga cte un corp geometric secionat de
linia punctat. n urma seciunii, rezult una dintre cele patru figuri din ir, notate
cu litere de la A la D. Sarcina dumneavoastr este de a identifica care figur, dintre
cele patru notate cu litere de la A la D, corespunde seciunii?

A B C D
Exemplul nr. 2
Ce corp geometric, din variantele de rspuns notate cu literele A, B, C i D,
rezult din asamblarea figurii desfurate?

A B C D

Exemplul nr. 3
Primele trei cuburi se rotesc ntr-un sens pe care trebuie s-l descoperii.
Aplicnd regula descoperit vi se cere s identificai cubul care urmeaz dintre cele
patru variante de rspuns notate cu literele A, B, C i D.
:

U
: :

E
:

: D
:
::

U DU DU : D
D

E
D

A B C D
9 Evaluarea faetelor inteligenei 195

Corectarea i interpretarea
Se acord cte 1 punct pentru fiecare rspuns corect. Nota brut (NB), obinut
prin nsumarea punctelor acordate, se transform n not standard (NS) prin
raportarea la etalonul general.

4. INTERPRETAREA I VALORIFICAREA REZULTATELOR

Pentru a rspunde i ndeplini ultimul obiectiv al studiului de cercetare, am


recurs la analiza frecvenelor rspunsurilor n vederea stabilirii etalonului pentru
interpretarea i valorificarea rezultatelor obinute cu ajutorul probelor.
Totodat, pentru etalonarea probelor, am utilizat unele elemente de statistic
descriptiv: media, mediana, modul, abaterea standard, dispersia, valorile minime,
valorile maxime, indicatorii de boltire i aplatizare ai curbei Gauss, precum i
distribuia de frecvene.
Analiza indicatorilor statistici i a distribuiilor de frecven prezentate n
anex ne arat c rezultatele se distribuie, n general, pe ntregul interval de valori
al probelor respectnd criteriile unor distribuii normale, cu uoare deplasri, fie
spre stnga pentru proba AN (media 6.63 i abaterea standard 3.25), fie spre
dreapta n cazul probei AV (media 12.27 i abaterea standard 3.77). Pentru fiecare
prob mediile i abaterile standard se prezint astfel:
1. proba I.V. inteligena verbal media 12.27 i abaterea standard 3.77;
2. proba I.S. inteligena spaial media 9.80 i abaterea standard 3.36;
3. proba I.N. inteligena numeric media 6.63 i abaterea standard 3.25;
4. proba I.O.F. inteligena organizatoric i funcionreasc media 10.97
i abaterea standard 2.87;
5. proba I.T. inteligena tehnic media 11.21 i abaterea standard 3.15;
6. proba I.G.. inteligena general de nvare media 10.81 i abaterea
standard 3.38.
n funcie de specialitatea profesional (tehnic, logistic, umanist), de
exigenele postului pentru care se solicit evaluarea, dar i de numrul total de
itemi, etaloanele probelor pot fi realizate n 5, 7, 9, 10, 11 clase normalizate, prin
stabilirea unor praguri minime de admisibilitate sau prin proiectarea unor profile
aptitudinale optime.
Profilul aptitudinal al unui subiect se contureaz prin raportarea datelor
individuale la profilul aptitudinal optim, stabilit de comun acord, de ctre specialitii
care realizeaz selecia psihologic i specialitii n resurse umane.
Pentru exemplificare, prezentm rezultatele concrete ale unei persoane evaluate
n scop de selecie, astfel: inteligena verbal, N.S. = 9; inteligena spaial, N.S. = 4;
inteligena numeric, N.S. = 4; inteligena organizatoric i funcionreasc, N.S. = 8;
inteligena tehnic, N.S. = 4 ; inteligena general de nvare, N.S. = 8.
Din datele prezentate rezult c persoana dispune de un set de capaciti,
inteligene sau aptitudini mentale i cognitive, numite faete ale inteligenei
multiple, dezvoltate la nivel de mediu superior.
196 Adrian Priscaru et al. 10

Dintre acestea se remarc:


capacitatea de operare i prelucrare a informaiilor cu coninut verbal,
bazat pe nivelul i volumul vocabularului, flexibilitatea, abilitatea de cutare a
soluiei verbale, rapiditatea i precizia de rezolvare a sarcinii primite pe cale oral/
literal i/sau cu coninut verbal;
capacitatea de a nelege relaiile stabilite ntre anumite noiuni i de a
reconstrui mental i practic funciunile unor obiecte sau fapte dup modele sau
coduri coninute n texte, expresii verbale sau fenomene/fapte n desfurare;
capacitatea de operare cu coninuturi figurative, de sesizare, identificare i
determinare a unor reguli sau inferena acestora, pe baza succesiunii lor.
Pe un plan secund, la un nivel mai sczut fa de primele, se afl:
capacitatea de reprezentare spaial bi- sau tridimensional, spiritul de
observaie i discriminarea vizual, care presupune transformarea imagistic a unor
imagini din planul tridimensional n cel bidimensional;
capacitatea de a observa corpurile i evoluia lor n spaiu, att n integralitate,
prin rotiri, ct i prin practicarea de seciuni, rotaii sau translaii ale prilor
componente, reflectnd flexibilitatea, abilitatea de cutare a soluiei spaiale, rapiditatea
i precizia de rezolvare a sarcinilor primite pe calea sau cu coninut de imagini ale
unor corpuri i seciuni ale acestora;
capacitatea de a raiona pe baza unor relaii numerice i a evoluiei unor
valori rezultate prin multiplicare sau divizare, pe baza informaiilor primite sub
forma unor serii de numere cu diferite raii sau pe baza unor propoziii care propun
operaii de tipul celor enumerate.
Rezultatele obinute de subiect se raporteaz la profilul aptitudinal optim
prezentat mai jos, conturat pentru unele profesii din domeniile tehnice, logistice i
umaniste.

N.S.
10

8
7 7 7 7 7
7
6 6
6
6
Sp.tehnice
5 5
5 Sp.logistice
5
4 4 Sp.umaniste
4
3
3
3 3 3 3
2

1
faete
0
inteligen inteligen inteligen inteligen inteligen inteligene
verbal spaial numeric funcionreasc tehnic generale
ale inteligenei
de nvare
11 Evaluarea faetelor inteligenei 197

Persoana evaluat a optat iniial pentru a urma unele programe de pregtire


universitar ntr-o specializare din domeniul tiinelor tehnice. n urma rezultatelor
obinute i a profilului conturat, prin raportarea acestuia la profilul aptitudinal optim,
persoana a beneficiat de consiliere vocaional i colar pentru a-i schimba
opiunea n funcie de noile date avute la dispoziie, subliniind posibilitatea ca
persoana s obin rezultate foarte bune n domeniul specialitilor umaniste, contrar
opiunii iniiale.

5. CONCLUZII

Selecia este una dintre primele etape dintr-un amplu demers care are ca
obiectiv principal creterea eficienei n ndeplinirea atribuiilor instituionale, la
standarde ridicate, ale candidailor. Pentru obinerea unei eficiene maxime i a
unor rezultate superioare n activitile desfurate n organizaii, factorii de decizie
din selecie i resurse umane trebuie s in cont de potenialul aptitudinal specific,
tiut fiind faptul c dezvoltarea acestuia pe parcursul carierei conduce la optimizarea
activitii respective.
Aplicarea acestui instrument obiectiv i standardizat ofer posibilitatea cunoaterii
tiinifice, obiective i reale, a potenialului resursei umane care candideaz pentru
intrarea ntr-o organizaie, precum i pe parcursul carierei profesionale, prin
variantele sale specifice etapelor i categoriilor profesionale evaluate. Totodat,
instrumentul ne poate oferi o serie de date referitoare la capacitile cognitive ale
persoanei evaluate, care pot fi utilizate i valorificate n consiliere sau orientare
vocaional.

Primit n redacie la: 31.I.2013

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. ANDRIE, A., Testarea psihologic. Aptitudini i inteligen, Bucureti, Editura Fundaia Romnia
de Mine, 2007, p. 2733.
2. COLTON, T., Statistics in Medicine, Boston Little, Brown and Company, 1974, p. 123.
3. CONSTANTIN, T., Evaluarea psihologic a personalului, Iai, Editura Polirom, 2004, p. 103.
4. GARDNER, H., Inteligene multiple, Bucureti, Editura Sigma, 2006, p. 14.
5. HVRNEANU, C., Cunoaterea psihologic a persoanei, Iai, Editura Polirom, 2000, p. 108.
6. PRISCARU, A., CRACSNER, E.C., Faetele inteligenei multiple n teoria i practica seleciei
psihologice, Simpozionul de psihologie militar PSIHOMIL VII, Bucureti, Editura Centrului
Tehnic Editorial al Armatei, 2010, p. 151153.

REZUMAT

Avnd ca obiectiv general elaborarea unor probe psihologice dup modelul teoriei
inteligenelor multiple, am ales s studiem selecia la intrarea n organizaie prin prisma faetelor
198 Adrian Priscaru et al. 12

inteligenelor multiple. n acest sens, am conceput un design de studiu privind unele faete ale
inteligenei multiple. Pentru fiecare tip de inteligen ne-am propus s elaborm i s utilizm cel
puin o prob cu coninut tematic similar i specific capacitii cognitive. Construirea probelor
formale, utilizate n procesul de evaluare a faetelor inteligenei, reprezint o etap extrem de
important n demersul de validare a modelului. O alt dimensiune extrem de important a studiului
vizeaz valorificarea rezultatelor individuale obinute i conturarea profilului aptitudinal, care va
rspunde i cerinei de consiliere/orientare vocaional, prin sublinierea i evidenierea specialitilor
n care persoana poate obine o eficien crescut.
FACTORI CULTURALI AI MEMORIEI AUTOBIOGRAFICE
LA ADULI TINERI

VIOLETA ROTRESCU
Universitatea din Bucureti
SIMONA MACOVEI, GERALDINE STANCIU
Spitalul clinic Alexandru Obregia, Bucureti

Abstract
The problem of the determining factors for the emergence of autobiographical memory is an
important issue in that field. Many models propose two types of factors in this direction: personal and
cultural ones. This paper aims to present a way to identify and analyse inter-cultural differences
between three samples of subjects, concerning the content and the autobiographical memory via a
proposed model for the microstructure of autobiographical memory. The hypotheses concerned the
differences between cognitive and emotional content values of autobiographical memories for three
culturally different samples of subjects Romanian, Spanish and Chinese young adult subjects. The
method was the cued-word list, especially created for the purpose of this research. The results show
significant differences between Chinese and European subjects, concerning the affective contents of
autobiographical memories, that could be explained mainly by the cultural differences between
Romanian, Spanish and Chinese subjects. These results point out toward a cultural constraint that
moderate between the way the event is stored in autobiographical memory, and its remembering.
Cuvinte-cheie: memorie autobiografic, cultur, list de cuvinte-stimul.
Keywords: autobiographical memory, culture, cued-word list.

1. CTEVA ASPECTE LEGATE DE MODELAREA MEMORIEI AUTOBIOGRAFICE

Studiul memoriei autobiografice este un domeniu prolific n ultimii ani. O


clasificare a modelelor memoriei autobiografice mparte tipurile de modele n
modele de macrostructur i modele de microstructur. Acestea din urm se refer
la analiza coninutului amintirilor autobiografice, n vederea identificrii factorilor
determinani: de personalitate, de mediu, culturali.
Modelele de microstructur permit, n primul rnd, identificarea caracteristicilor
comune/de structur ale amintirilor autobiografice (Rubin, 1982). Pe de alt parte,
n structura amintirilor autobiografice se reflect diferenele specifice care in de


Universitatea din Bucureti, Facultatea de Psihologie i tiintele Educaiei, os. Panduri
nr. 90, sect. 5, Bucureti; e-mail: violeta.rotarescu@fpse.unibuc.ro.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 199205, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
200 Violeta Rotrescu, Simona Macovei, Geraldine Stanciu 2

caracteristicile lingvistice, culturale i istorice care acioneaz asupra subiecilor


(Santamaria et al., 2012; Harley & Reese, 1999 etc.). Aceste caracteristici funcioneaz
n calitate de cadre sau constrngeri pentru redarea evenimentului reamintit.
n cele ce urmeaz, propunem un mod de analiz a factorului cultural prin
intermediul unui model propriu al amintirii autobiografice. n acest model lum n
discuie implicarea factorilor personali i culturali, precum i modul n care ei
determin felul n care persoana i construiete amintirea pornind de la aceste
constrngeri preexistente. Vom porni de la acest model n analiza diferenelor
interculturale ntre subiecii studiului.
Modelul pe care l vom avea n vedere pornete de la cel propus de Conway
(2000). Pornind de la date acumulate n cercetare cu privire la coninutul, organizarea
i modul de reactualizare a amintirilor autobiografice, Conway (1992, 1995) propune
un model structural de organizare ierarhic a memoriei autobiografice, care permite
explicarea aspectelor caracteristice ale amintirilor, i anume: amestecul de informaii
cu caracter episodic i semantic, dificultatea de a accesa amintiri specifice, modul
de accesare a amintirilor prin cunotine generale, fenomenul deformrii amintirii,
precum i modalitile prin care amintirile se leag de sine, ca nucleu al perso-
nalitii. Acest model ncearc s combine date din mai multe domenii ale psihologiei:
cognitiv, social, clinic sau neuropsihologie (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000).
Principiul de baz n acest model este cel al reconstruciei dinamice a amintirii.
Amintirea este reconstruit pornind de la trei tipuri de reprezentri intricate unele
n altele (Conway i Bekerian, 1987): perioadele de via, evenimentele generale i
detaliile specifice. n cazul unui subiect care i reamintete viaa, cunotinele
generale (perioadele de via i evenimentele generale) i cunotinele specifice
(detaliile specifice) sunt ntreptrunse. Ele sunt reprezentate n memoria de lung
durat de la mai general la mai specific. n orice caz, perioadele de via i eveni-
mentele generale sunt organizate n funcie de cunotinele tematice i temporale,
contrar detaliilor specifice, care reprezint o mas nedifereniat de date perceptiv-
senzoriale.
Pornind de la acest model, la care se pot aduga i altele (Rubin & Wenzel,
1996; Rubin, 1982) propunem un model distinct, care are urmtoarele asumpii:
Amintirile autobiografice pot fi descrise n termenii organizrii interne a
coninutului (structur lingvistic, scenariul desfurrii evenimentelor memorate
etc.) i ai coninutului lor cognitiv i emoional.
Asupra amintirilor autobiografice acioneaz mai multe tipuri de factori (de
personalitate i culturali), a cror aciune este variabil ca pondere.
Modificabilitatea amintirilor autobiografice, ca urmare a aciunii factorilor
de mai sus, este mai mare n ceea ce privete coninutul lor cognitiv i emoional, i
mult mai mic din punctul de vedere al organizrii interne a coninutului.
Aciunea factorilor enunai mai sus difer funcie de vrst; astfel, factorii
culturali vor afecta mai pregnant formarea amintirilor n perioada copilriei, iar cei
personali n perioada adolescenei i la vrsta adult.
3 Factori culturali ai memoriei autobiografice 201

Aciunea diferit ca semn a factorilor poteneaz influena exercitat asupra


amintirii (efectul principal va fi determinat de rolul jucat de factorul dominant n
acea perioad de via, precum i de ceilali factori implicai).
n acest model amintirea autobiografic este vzut ca o povestire despre
viaa personal, realizat sub forma unei naraiuni sau discurs. Ca orice naraiune,
ea poate fi analizat att din punct de vedere structural, ct i funcional. Aspectul
structural este prezent prin prisma informaiei lingvistice semantice, nu sintactice.
Fiecare parte de vorbire are un rol n nelesul final al amintirii, aa cum este ea
relatat verbal (DeRaad, 1997). Utilizarea difereniat a prilor de vorbire are
semnificaie psihologic.
Msurarea aspectelor funcionale ine de valoarea cognitiv i cea emoional
a amintirii. Valoarea cognitiv este ncrctura n informaie pe care estimm c o
are o naraiune numrul de personaje sau de obiecte evocate n AA, prezena
detaliilor, dinamica personajelor sau a obiectelor asociat unui scenariu de desfurare.
Valoarea emoional se refer la ncrctura afectiv a amintirii i se msoar prin
prezena personajelor, aciunilor cu semnificaie emoional.
n coninutul amintirilor relatate verbal se reflect mai multe tipuri de factori.
n acest model acetia sunt factorii legai de personalitate i cei culturali. Factorii
de personalitate in de prezena referirilor la personalitatea proprie (Santamaria
et al., 2012), fie prin laturile sale (temperament, caliti aptitudinale etc.), fie la
nivel global (Eu). Factorii culturali se refer la reprezentri mprtite la nivel
cultural (de la Mata et al., 2011) sau scenarii de via, vzute ca serii de evenimente
care au loc ntr-o anumit ordine i reprezint un curs firesc de via n cadrul unei
anumite culturi (Berntsen & Rubin, 2004; Haque & Hasking, 2010).
Msurarea impactului pe care l au factorii de personalitate i cei culturali
asupra coninutului amintirilor constituie obiectivul testrii modelului. n aceast
lucrare ne propunem s verificm importana factorilor culturali, aa cum se reflect ei
n coninuturile amintirilor autobiografice evocate, analizate cognitiv i emoional.

2. INSTRUMENTELE FOLOSITE

Lista de cuvinte 15 face parte din familia listelor de cuvinte utilizate n mai
multe studii ale memoriei autobiografice, menionate mai sus. Lista de cuvinte utilizat
de noi a fost creat special n scopul acestei cercetri. Scopul pe care ni l-am
propus a fost identificarea unor cuvinte-stimul cu valoare emoional controlat
de la valoare maxim negativ (moarte, foame), trecnd prin itemi cu valoare
neutr: (u, picior) pn la itemi cu valoare emoional pozitiv (familie,
acas), n condiiile unei frecvene mari de utilizare a acestora n limba romn.
Elaborarea listei a presupus mai multe etape (lexical, inter-evaluatori, de rafinare).

2.1. DESIGNUL EXPERIMENTAL UTILIZAT


Aplicarea instrumentului s-a fcut n grup, fiecare subiect trebuind s rspund
individual, n scris, la itemii testelor, fr a avea limit de timp la rspunsuri.
Subiecii au putut s ia acas listele pentru a le completa i le-au adus napoi a doua zi.
202 Violeta Rotrescu, Simona Macovei, Geraldine Stanciu 4

Pentru subiecii chinezi i spanioli au fost tradui itemii n chineza mandarin


i n spaniol, cu ajutorul a doi traductori specializai. Rspunsurile acestora au
fost formulate n limba de origine. Dup colectarea foilor de rspuns acestea au fost
traduse n limba romn de ctre doi traductori specializai din fiecare limb,
comparate versiunile i agreat versiunea final.

2.2. LOTURILE DE SUBIECI

Loturile de subieci au fost formate din 1) N = 30 subieci romni, 2) N =


24 subieci spanioli i 3) N = 30 subieci chinezi, toi subiecii avnd vrste
cuprinse ntre 20 i 24 ani (medie general de vrst = 22.7 ani, medie lot romn =
22.9 ani, medie lot spaniol = 22.6 ani, medie lot chinez = 22.6 ani). Subiecii au
fost testai individual, fr limit de timp.

3. OBIECTIVUL CERCETRII

Ca obiectiv ne-am propus s studiem diferenele care apar ntre subiecii


provenind din medii culturale diferite n ceea ce privete coninuturile memoriei
autobiografice. Ne intereseaz coninutul cognitiv i emoional al amintirilor, i
pentru aceasta vom face o comparaie ntre loturi n ceea ce privete valoarea
cognitiv i cea emoional a acestora.

3.1. IPOTEZELE CERCETRII

n vederea atingerii obiectivului am formulat urmtoarele ipoteze:


1. Exist diferene semnificative ntre loturi n ceea ce privete valoarea
informaional (cognitiv) a amintirii autobiografice evocate.
2. Exist diferene semnificative ntre loturi n ceea ce privete valoarea
emoional a amintirilor autobiografice.

4. ANALIZA DATELOR

Analiza rezultatelor obinute arat faptul c ntre datele subiecilor provenii


din culturi diferite nu apar diferene cu semnificaie statistic (.71 < p < 1.00).
Valorile cognitive obinute sunt remarcabil de apropiate (m = 3.78 pentru lotul
romnesc, m = 3.91 pentru lotul spaniol, m = 3.88 n cazul lotului de subieci
chinezi, medii rezultate din nsumarea tuturor valorilor medii obinute prin inter-
evaluarea amintirilor de ctre evaluatori). Datele arat c se produc anumite
repetiii (de pild, la itemi cu aproximativ aceeai valoare afectiv iniial apar
diferene ntre aproximativ aceleai loturi), de unde putem s tragem concluzia c
nelegerea acestora este condiionat de valoarea emoional a itemului. La itemii
cu valoare emoional negativ (ex. srcie) lotul la care s-au obinut valori
cognitive semnificativ mai mari a fost cel romnesc, n timp ce valori cognitive mai
5 Factori culturali ai memoriei autobiografice 203

mici apar la subiecii spanioli i chinezi. La itemii cu valoare emoional pozitiv


(ex. mncare, tat) subiecii romni obin valorile cognitive cele mai sczute. Ali
itemi (ex. acas) nu genereaz diferene semnificative ntre subiecii celor trei loturi.
Cu alte cuvinte, subiecii celor trei loturi au furnizat un numr aproximativ
egal de informaii n cadrul amintirilor generate de cuvintele-stimul ale listei, ceea
ce nseamn c, n privina coninuturilor reflectate cu aceast ocazie, aspectele
culturale nu funcioneaz ca element constrngtor distinct n cazul acestor populaii de
subieci. Aceste date, comparate cu datele obinute de Peterson & colab. (2009), pe
dou loturi de subieci copii canadieni i chinezi, apoi cu datele obinute de Wang
& Leichtman (2000), ntr-o cercetare comparativ USA China (copii de 6 ani) ar
indica faptul c la vrsta adult tnr subiecii chinezi tind s-i reaminteasc
evenimente din viaa proprie ntr-o manier relativ asemntoare cu subiecii
europeni.
Valoarea emoional este cea de-a doua variabil evaluat. Datele obinute
arat c ntre lotul subiecilor chinezi i celelalte loturi (romni i spanioli) apar
diferene semnificative, prin aceea c subiecii chinezi obin scoruri mai mari fa
de ceilali subieci la itemii pozitivi i neutri emoional, i scoruri mai mici la itemii
negativ emoionali. n limbaj psihologic, studenii chinezi se dovedesc a fi mai
optimiti i mai pozitivi n ceea ce privete trecutul lor personal, fa de toi ceilali
subieci europeni. La itemii pozitivi emoional, subiecii chinezi obin valori semni-
ficativ mai mari (m = 3.48) dect subiecii romni (m = 3.07) i spanioli (m = 3.12).
Aceaste scoruri pot fi explicate prin tendina subiecilor chinezi de a pozitiva
evenimentele relatate, tendin care se menine chiar i n cazul amintirilor provocate
de itemii neutri i negativi emoional, comparativ cu celelalte dou loturi.
n ceea ce privete coninutul emoional al amintirilor autobiografice obinute
la itemii cu coloratur neutr, din nou lotul chinez are valori semnificativ mai mari
(m = 1.91, p < .05) dect celelalte loturi (m = .90 lotul de subieci romni, m = 1.21
pentru lotul de subieci spanioli). Datele arat din nou faptul c subiecii chinezi
tind s relateze ntr-o manier mai pozitiv despre experienele lor de via,
comparativ cu subiecii europeni. De asemenea, ntre romni i spanioli nu apar
diferene semnificative n privina ncrcturii emoionale a amintirilor relatate,
fapt posibil de explicat prin numeroasele asemnri culturale subiacente.
Analiza valorilor emoionale ale itemilor cu semnificaie emoional negativ
indic diferene semnificative (p < .05) ntre mediile subiecilor chinezi (m =
2.09) i cele obinute de subiecii europeni (m = 2.72 pentru chinezi, m = 3.11
pentru romni). ntre subiecii europeni diferenele nu sunt semnificative statistic,
pragul de semnificaie fiind foarte aproape de nivelul de semnificaie (p = .065).

5. DISCUII

n concluzie, variaiile inter-loturi au fost nregistrate n privina coninuturilor


emoionale i nu n privina celor cognitive. Constatm o distanare semnificativ a
204 Violeta Rotrescu, Simona Macovei, Geraldine Stanciu 6

scorurilor obinute de subiecii chinezi fa de scorurile obinute de subiecii spanioli i


romni, situaie care poate fi pus pe seama unei raportri emoionale diferite la
propria experien de via, prin prisma factorului cultural. Experienele de via
evocate cu ajutorul cuvintelor-stimul sunt exprimate la un nivel emoional ce ine
mai ales de modul de construcie a naraiunii n sine, acumularea de informaie i
construcia scenariului redat, acestea fiind elementele care fac diferena ntre relatrile
de via ale subiecilor implicai.
Rezultatele obinute ncurajeaz una dintre asumpiile modelului, conform
creia factorii culturali acioneaz cu precdere pn la vrsta adolescenei, n
vreme ce factorii de personalitate sunt mai activi dup vrsta adolescenei. Rolul
factorilor culturali se reliefeaz discret doar prin prisma ncrcturii emoionale, n
vreme ce coninuturile informaionale sunt relativ egalizate, probabil i prin prisma
aciunii educaiei formale toi subiecii fiind studeni (Santamaria et. al., 2012).

6. LIMITE ALE CERCETRII

Cercetarea de fa are cteva limite de luat n seam. n primul rnd, dei


subiecii au avut la dispoziie versiunea instrumentului n limba matern, la care
s-au raportat tot n limba matern, analiza de date s-a fcut dup ce rspunsurile
acestora au fost traduse n limba romn. Traducerea a urmrit pstrarea ct mai
fidel a structurii iniiale a textului. Cu toate acestea, analiza datelor s-a fcut pe
versiunile romneti ale amintirilor rezultate, ceea ce poate afecta acurateea i
specificul textului iniial.
n al doilea rnd, am avut drept subieci studeni venii la studii n Romnia,
cu un minim contact iniial cu limba i cultura romn. Cu toate c expunerea
anterioar la limba romn a fost relativ redus (ntre 1 i 8 luni, m = 3.9 luni
pentru loturile de subieci spanioli i chinezi), putem presupune existena unei
contaminri culturale minimale, ceea ce a afectat, ntr-o mic msur, datele
obinute. O cercetare ulterioar ar putea avea n vedere testarea persoanelor i
interpretarea datelor n mediul cultural nativ al acestora.

Primit n redacie la: 10.V.2013

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REZUMAT

n concluzie, prin aceast cercetare am ncercat s analizm, din punct de vedere informaional
i afectiv, coninutul amintirilor autobiografice, n funcie de variaia factorului cultural implicat.
Ideea de la care am pornit a fost aceea de a investiga modul n care subiecii reactualizeaz, pe baza
cuvintelor-stimul, amintiri din experiena proprie de via, presupunnd c diferenele deja existente
ntre loturile de subieci se vor reflecta n maniera n care acetia nareaz (reconstruiesc) trecutul
personal. n baza datelor obinute putem trage mai multe concluzii. n primul rnd, variaiile structurii
lingvistice de baz din amintirile autobiografice pot fi puse n special pe seama diferenelor culturale,
i mai puin pe mediul de provenien, nivelul de educaie sau de vrst. Nivelul informaional al
amintirii autobiografice variaz semnificativ mai mult, acesta fiind influenat de mediul de
provenien al subiecilor, educaie sau vrst, precum i de mediul cultural. Valoarea afectiv a
amintirii autobiografice cunoate relativ puine variaii, cele mai multe fiind determinate de mediul
cultural de provenien, i n proporie mult mai mic de mediul social al subiecilor.
INDEPENDENT-INTERDEPENDENT SELF: EXPLORATORY STUDY
WITH PORTUGUESE AND ROMANIAN STUDENTS

LAURA CIOCHIN, LUSA FARIA


Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Porto/Portugal

Abstract
This study represents an initial phase of a larger investigation whose aim is to construct a new
instrument for the assessment of the independent-interdependent self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) in
Portugal and Romania. Thirty two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 1st and 3rd year
university students, 16 Portuguese and 16 Romanian, in order to explore the meaning attributed to the
following elements of the independent-interdependent self: uniqueness vs. connectedness to each
other, independence vs. dependence/interdependence, personal goals vs. collective goals, direct vs.
indirect communication and static vs. dynamic self. In both cultural contexts the content analysis
showed that uniqueness is considered in terms of personal style and values, independence is mainly
seen from the financial point of view, boys give more importance to collective goals than girls, direct
communication is considered more efficient than the indirect one, and the social validation of the self
is thought to indicate low self-esteem.
Cuvinte-cheie: self independent-interdependent, cultur, analiz de coninut.
Keywords: independent-interdependent self, culture, content analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION

The studies in the field of the self have shown that, despite the structural and
dynamic dimensions of the self which are considered to be universal (Neisser,
1994), there are also intercultural variations of the self (Grace & Cramer, 2003;
Markus & Kitayama, 1991). These variations refer to the way individuality is
conceived, that is, the way in which the self develops itself in the context of the
relationships with significant others.
Regarding this, Markus and Kitayama (1991), in their influential cultural
theory of the self, pointed out that one of the most significant variations in what
people in different cultures believe about themselves is related to the extent to


Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Porto/Portugal, Rua Alfredo Allen,
4200-135, Porto, Portugal, Post-doctoral grant financed by the Fundao para a Cincia e a
Tecnologia (FCT)/Portugal: grant reference: SFRH/BPD/69120/2010; e-mail: lciochina@fpce.up.pt.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 206216, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
2 Independent-interdependent self 207

which they see themselves as separate from others or as connected with others.
Thus, they advanced two approaches of the self: the independent and the inter-
dependent self.
The core aspect of the independent self is represented by the belief in
individuals uniqueness, autonomy and independence, and in their separation from
others. At the same time, the independent self is defined in terms of internal
attributes, such as personal abilities and attitudes.
The interdependent self is characterized by a strong cohesion and connectedness
of human beings to each other, being defined in terms which refer to belonging to a
certain group and being faithful to the relationships inside the group. Such a
conception of the self entails considering that ones behavior is, to a large extent,
regulated by contextual factors, such as the thoughts, feelings and actions of
significant others.
This distinction between the independent self defined in terms of internal
attributes and the interdependent self regulated by contextual factors was used by a
series of authors (Chiu, Hong, & Dweck, 1997; Heine et al., 2001; Kanagawa,
Cross, & Markus, 2001) in order to explain the static vs. dynamic nature of the self,
aspect which we also included in the present study, as we shall present later on.
It is worth noting that the dichotomy the present study dwells upon
independent vs. interdependent self represents a key variable for the distinction
between members of occidental cultures more individualistic and members of
non-occidental cultures more collectivistic (Utz, 2004).
In this framework of intercultural comparisons, we need to emphasize that in
Hofstedes (1980) pioneer studies, which led him to the construction of one of the
most evoked and used theorizations of IND/COL, Portugal had been included
among the 53 countries investigated by the author, having received an IND index
of 27, which was placing it on the 33rd/ 35th positions, that is, among the countries
less individualistic and more collectivistic. As to Romania, although also a Latin
country, but belonging to Eastern Europe, Hofstede had not included it among the
53 countries which were analysed.
Consequently, it appears relevant to us to compare these two cultural contexts,
also taking into consideration what had been emphasized by Ciochin and Faria
(2006) in other studies conducted in the two mentioned cultures, that is, the fact
that these two countries have undergone a dictatorship regime. The authors notice
the following aspect: Although different in nature (fascism in Portugal and
communism in Romania), we can conjecture that such regimes have led, through
specific ideological, political, cultural and social mechanisms, to the implementation
of a collectivistic mentality (Ciochin & Faria, 2006, p. 178).
In spite of these similarities between Portugal and Romania, if we proceed
from what Hofstede (1980) observed regarding the positive correlation between the
individualism level and a high GNP, the latter being associated with an economy
based on individual interests, our hypothesis is that, considering their actual
208 Laura Ciochin, Lusa Faria 3

political and economical status Portugal being part of the European Union since
1986, while Romania joined the European Union only in 2007 , the individualistic
life model, with its specific functioning norms, has been assimilated by the
Portuguese society in a higher degree than by the Romanian society.
In a previous study, Ciochin and Faria (2011) analysed the influence of
individualism/collectivism on personal conceptions of intelligence (PCI) of Portuguese
and Romanian adolescents, aiming to investigate the association patterns between
IND/COL and the two types of PCI static and dynamic (Dweck, 1999). In doing
so, we considered that the nature of the self independent vs. interdependent
could mediate the relationship between the two dimensions IND/COL and PCI,
but since the measurement of the self was left aside, in the present research we
attended to this particular aspect.
More concretely, we conducted a series of interviews with a view to establishing
the meaning attributed by Portuguese and Romanian university students to the two
types of self. For this purpose we used the semi-directive interview (Ghiglione &
Matalon, 2003).

2. METHOD

2.1. PARTICIPANTS

A total of thirty two 1st and 3rd year university students, 16 Portuguese and
16 Romanian, from various university courses (Educational Sciences, Humanities,
Fine Arts and Economics), of both sexes (50% boys and 50% girls) were interviewed.
The Portuguese and Romanian samples comprised 8 students for each university
year. The age mean of the Portuguese students was 20.3 (SD = 1.40) for the 1st year
and 22.0 (SD = 1.06) for the 3rd year. The age mean of the Romanian students was
19.3 (SD = .60) for the 1st year and 21.6 (SD = .70) for the 3rd year.

2.2. INSTRUMENT

In order to establish the investigation questions of the semi-directive interview,


we took into consideration the central elements of the independent and inter-
dependent self, as they were theorized in previous studies (Markus & Kitayama,
1991; Singelis, 1994).
Thus, uniqueness and its forms of manifestation in different contexts
family, group of friends and faculty was one dimension of the self explored in the
study. The inclusion of questions about uniqueness (e.g. What does being unique
and different from others mean to you?) in the interview grid was justified by the
fact that the independent self emphasizes individuals uniqueness and the expression of
internal attributes in autonomous actions, while the interdependent self does not
focus on its uniqueness, but rather on external attributes, such as social roles,
connectedness and cohesion with the others (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Singelis,
1994).
4 Independent-interdependent self 209

The meaning attributed to goals was another aspect investigated by some of


the interview questions (e.g. What does achieving your goals in life mean to
you?), since, as Singelis (1994) and Triandis (1995) point out, the independent
self is characterized by goals which are different from the goals of the in-group,
whereas the goals of the individuals with an interdependent self are generally
compatible with the goals of the in-group and, even if they are not compatible, the
latter tend to have priority.
Other dimensions explored in the semi-directive interview were the
independence/interdependence (e.g. Who are the persons who can limit your
independence?), belonging to a certain group (e.g. What does belonging to a
certain group, as for example, your group of friends, a work group or your family,
mean to you?) and direct vs. indirect communication (e.g. In which situation do
you prefer to communicate openly and directly to the others? Which are the
situations in which you prefer using a rather indirect communication?). Regarding
these two types of communication, the former one is illustrative of the independent
self, while the latter, characterized by trying to guess the communicational intentions of
the interlocutor and by reading others minds (Singelis, 1994, p. 581), illustrates the
interdependent self.
Since the present study represents an initial phase of a larger investigation
which aims to verify the relation between the two types of self and the two types of
personal conceptions of intelligence (PCI) static vs. dynamic considered from
the perspective of Dwecks socio-cognitive model (Dweck, 1999), we also
included questions related with validating and demonstrating personal qualities to
other people (e.g. How would you describe a person who is always concerned
about demonstrating his or her qualities to the others?), as well as questions
related to personal development (e.g. How do you think you could improve your
own person?), two attitudinal models which illustrate the static vs. dynamic
dimension not only of PCI (Dweck, 1999), but also of the self in general (Heine
et al., 2001).
Summing up, the investigation questions referred to the central dimensions of
the independent/interdependent self uniqueness (two questions), goals (three
questions), independence (three questions), belonging to a certain group (two
questions), and communication type (three questions) , as well as to aspects
related to the static vs. dynamic nature of the self (two questions).

2.3. PROCEDURE

The semi-directive interview was conducted inside the faculties which took
part in the study, in classrooms which allowed the interviewer and the interviewee
a private dialogue. Each interviewee agreed upon the interview being recorded.
The average duration of the interview was 50 minutes.
The number of participants was previously established (16 students in each
cultural context). This was done starting from the practical conclusions of authors
210 Laura Ciochin, Lusa Faria 5

such as Ghiglione and Matalon (2003) who point out that the 20th or the 30th
interview represent the critical points starting from which other interviews will no
longer provide new information.
The 32 interviews were transcribed proceeding from their audio-recording
and then content analysis was conducted. Regarding the codification process, we
started by defining the register and the content units (Bardin, 2011). The theme was
considered to be the register unit and the paragraph, the context unit.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The themes of the interview were: definition of uniqueness, definition of


goals, independence, belonging to groups, communication type and social validation of
the self vs. improving the self.
The construction of the system of categories and subcategories was based on
the theoretical concepts underlying the interview, as well as on the empirical data
collected from the participants answers.
With respect to the first theme, definition of uniqueness, we established the
following categories: psychological uniqueness (with the subcategories personal
style and values, way of dealing with problems and specific aptitudes) and
physical uniqueness (with the subcategories physical traits and way of dressing
oneself).
The frequencies of the Portuguese and Romanian participants who described
their uniqueness in psychological or physical terms can be seen in Table no.11.

Table no. 1
Frequency distribution of the participants in the categories psychological uniqueness
and physical uniqueness
Category Portuguese context Romanian context
1st year 3rd year 1st year 3rd year
Psychological uniqueness 8 8 8 8
Physical uniqueness 2 2 1 3

As it can be noticed, in both cultural contexts, all the participants described


their uniqueness in terms related to their personality, personal style and values
being significantly valorized (having my own personality, having my own
style, uniqueness is my way of thinking and looking at things) to the prejudice
of the physical traits.
As regards the subcategory way of dealing with problems, four Portuguese
boys (one from the 1st year and three from the 3rd year) considered that the way of
dealing with a certain problem makes them unique, whereas no Romanian
participant referred to such an aspect. These results may be explained by the fact

1
For all the tables the same subject can appear in more than one category or subcategory.
6 Independent-interdependent self 211

that, in a progressively competitive educational system such as the Portuguese one,


students, especially boys, aspire to have more independence and more decisional
power during the academic period. This inevitably confronts them with the necessity of
dealing with more problems, which may enhance their feeling of uniqueness.
The subcategory specific aptitudes is weakly represented, since only a
Romanian girl from the 3rd year and a Romanian boy from the 1st year referred to
their aptitudes as aspects which make them unique.
For the same category of uniqueness, an interesting result was noticed,
namely a Portuguese boy from the 3rd year and a Romanian boy from the 1st year
talked about the impossibility of conceiving ones uniqueness independently of the
relationships with the others. For the Portuguese boy uniqueness is a discovery
process which cannot be done in isolation, since it has to be in continuous
discussion with the others. For the Romanian boy uniqueness is a characteristic
which is discovered only in the collective context. I dont think it is possible to talk
about uniqueness individually.
Consequently, starting from these answers, we can emphasize the fact that,
despite being an attribute characteristic of the independent self, separate from others,
uniqueness is constructed and assessed in the context of the relationships with the
others.
Concerning the theme definition of goals, in both cultural contexts we
identified the following categories: type of goals (with the subcategories personal
goals and professional goals) and own goals vs. others goals (with the sub-
categories situations in which others goals are favoured and persons whose
goals are favoured to the prejudice of personal goals).
The frequencies of the Portuguese and Romanian participants in the sub-
categories personal goals and professional goals are presented in Table no. 2.

Table no. 2
Frequency distribution of the participants in the subcategories personal goals
and professional goals
Category Subcategory Portuguese context Romanian context
1st year 3rd year 1st year 3rd year
Personal 3 5 2 5
Type of goals
Professional 6 4 6 4

We noticed that, in both cultural contexts, in comparison with the students


from the 1st year, those from the 3rd year favoured personal goals (having a family,
being happy, see myself surrounded by people who like me, being happy
doing the things I do, growing as a person) more than the professional ones
which seem to be more appealing to the students from the 1 st year (graduating and
finding a job, having a good job). These results suggest the fact that the
maturity level (superior in the case of the 3rd year students) gives access to a more
comprehensive view on what being an achieved person means.
212 Laura Ciochin, Lusa Faria 7

In connection with the category own goals vs. others goals, in both cultural
contexts the subcategory situations in which others goals are favoured refers
predominantly (14 Portuguese participants, 6 from the 1st year and 8 from the 3rd year,
and all the 16 Romanian participants) to the situations in which a friend or a
member of the family is being helped out. At the same time, two Portuguese
students from the 1st year, a boy and a girl, mentioned having given up enrolling in
a certain university course just to please the parents who wanted them to enroll in
another one. As for the subcategory persons whose goals are favoured to the
prejudice of personal goals, this includes predominantly the family members
(12 Portuguese students, 5 from the 1st year and 7 from the 3rd year and 12 Romanian
students, 6 from the 1st year and 6 from the 3rd year) and to a lesser extent the
friends (7 Portuguese students, 3 from the 1st year and 4 from the 3rd year and
5 Romanian students, 3 from the 1st year and 2 from the 3rd year).
Despite this generalized altruistic behavior, we also verified that three Portuguese
girls and four Romanian ones assert that, nevertheless, they do not use to leave
aside their own goals so as to favour others goals, whereas boys do not overtly
make such statements. This may be explained by the fact that, at least when it
comes to the group of friends, the comradeship is an attribute that boys valorize to
a great extent since this ensures them the group affiliation.
Concerning the theme independence, the following categories were identified
in both cultural contexts: meaning attributed to independence (with the sub-
categories financial independence, independent actions and decisions and res-
ponsibility) and persons or situations which can limit independence (with the
subcategories parents, friends and other situations). The frequency distribution
of the participants in these subcategories is presented in Table no. 3.
We can notice that in the majority of cases being independent is associated to
having financial independence, especially as concerns the 1st year students who, at
this age, most probably feel more dependent on their parents than the 3rd year
students do. This may be due to the fact that 3rd year students are more susceptible
to have part-time jobs which, to a certain extent, allows them to sustain themselves.
We can also notice that responsibility appears to be encompassed in the
meaning attached to independence, particularly as concerns the Romanian students.
This may be a reminiscence of the social discourse conveyed by the educational
system in this country after the shift from communism to democracy, when teachers
used to draw students attention on the risks of a freedom wrongly understood, that
is students were made aware of the fact that being free and independent also meant
being responsible for ones acts and not hurting the others.
Regarding the category persons or situations which can limit independence it
can be noticed that the parents are considered to be the main limitative factors. On
the second place come the friends who, by means of their opinions, pieces of
advice and personal preferences can condition and limit the participants actions
and decisions.
8 Independent-interdependent self 213

Table no. 3
Frequency distribution of participants in the categories meaning attributed to independence
and persons or situations which can limit independence
Portuguese
Category Subcategory Romanian context
context
1 year 3 year 1st year 3rd year
st rd

Financial independence 8 5 7 5
Meaning of
Independent actions and decisions 5 7 6 7
independence
Responsibility 2 3 5 6
Parents 8 6 8 7
Friends 5 4 3 3
Persons/situations
Studies 4 5 5 6
Others
Politicians 3 1 0 0

With regard to the theme belonging to a certain group, we identified the


following categories: intellectual factors (common opinions, ideas, values, interests
and goals), moral factors (respect, sincerity), emotional factors (being heard, mutual
help and support) and advantages and disadvantages of belonging to a certain
group. In Table no. 4 we present the frequency distribution of the participants in
the first three categories mentioned above and since the category advantages and
disadvantages of belonging to a certain group has quite many nuances, we shall
describe it separately.

Table no. 4
Frequency distribution of the participants in the categories intellectual factors, moral factors
and emotional factors
Category Portuguese context Romanian context
1st year 3rd year 1st year 3rd year
Intellectual factors 4 7 5 7
Moral factors 3 5 4 4
Emotional factors 8 5 7 6

We notice that, when belonging to a group, the intellectual factors having


common opinions, ideas, values, interests and goals seemed to be more important
for the 3rd year students than for the 1st year ones for whom the emotional factors
being heard, mutual help and support appeared to play the major role. The moral
factors mutual respect, sincerity seemed to have a quite similar importance for
both the 1st year students and the 3rd year ones.
Concerning the category advantages and disadvantages of belonging to a
certain group, when talking about advantages, the answer that appears to be
dominant in both cultural contexts refers to the complementarity of the group
members characteristics (10 Portuguese students, 4 from the 1 st year and 6 from
the 3rd year and 11 Romanian students, 5 from the 1st year and 6 from the 3rd year),
as well as to the emotional support received from the group (11 Portuguese students,
4 from the 1st year and 7 from the 3rd year and 13 Romanian students, 6 from the
214 Laura Ciochin, Lusa Faria 9

1st year and 7 from the 3rd year). A 1st year Portuguese girl and two 1st year
Romanian girls also talked about the advantage of being able to learn things
together with the other members of the group.
Regarding the disadvantages of belonging to a certain group, all the 1st year
Portuguese students referred to the existence of possible conflicts, whereas their
3rd year counterparts did not mention such an aspect, but rather the limitation of
personal space and time (two boys and two girls), the negative influences of the
group (two boys), the necessity to live up to the image that one has in the in-group
(a girl) and the difficulty of getting to know other people (a girl). As for the
Romanian students, only two girls one from the 1st year and one from the 3rd year
referred to the existence of possible conflicts. Three boys and two girls from the
1st year and four boys and two girls from the 3rd year considered that the biggest
disadvantage of belonging to a group is represented by the subsequent responsibility. A
girl from the 1st year mentioned the limitation of personal time and another one
referred to the necessity to live up to the image one has in the in-group. A boy from
the 1st year did not manage to mention any disadvantage of belonging to a certain
group.
As concerns the theme communication, we established the following categories:
direct communication, indirect communication, advantages/dis-advantages of
the direct communication and advantages/disadvantages of the indirect commu-
nication. In both cultural contexts the direct communication is predominantly used
in informal contexts family and group of friends , whereas the indirect
communication is preferred in more formal contexts or in relation to persons in
whom one does not have too much trust.
Finally, in the matter of the theme social validation of the self vs. improving
the self, we noticed that in both cultural contexts the answers of the participants felt
in the following categories: meaning attributed to the concern for demonstrating
personal qualities to other people and ways of improving oneself. Thus, we noticed
that in both cultural contexts the majority of the participants (14 Portuguese
students 6 from the 1st year and 8 from the 3rd year and 15 Romanian students
7 from the 1st year and 8 from the 3rd year) considered that the concern for
demonstrating personal qualities to other people indicated low self-esteem and
need for attention. However, a 1st year Portuguese boy considered that this type of
attitude shows ambition, while a 1st year Portuguese girl and a 3rd year Portuguese
boy considered that one has to let the others know his or her qualities, but not
exaggeratedly. At the same time, a 3rd year Portuguese boy mentioned that such an
attitude may represent a need for motivation, active motivation to try to achieve
things, opinion shared by a 1st year Romanian boy who considered that if this
ensures ones progress, then it means it helps them, its good for them.
With regard to the category ways of improving oneself it is interesting to
notice that 8 Portuguese students (3 from the 1st year and 5 from the 3rd year)
believed that they could improve themselves by interacting with the others,
10 Independent-interdependent self 215

learning together with the others and by hearing the opinions of other people,
whereas only three Romanian students (1 from the 1st year and 2 from the 3rd year)
referred to such aspects. This may be in line with the results obtained in a previous
study conducted by Ciochin and Faria (2009) on the meaning attributed to
individualism/collectivism by Portuguese and Romanian secondary school students.
These results showed that the Portuguese participants preferred the group work
more than the Romanian ones, highlighting the advantage of learning from and
together with the others.
Finally, another way of improving oneself is considered to be studying
more (10 Portuguese students 6 from the 1st year and 4 from the 3rd year and
14 Romanian students 8 from the 1st year and 6 from the 3rd year), searching for
new experiences (1 Portuguese girl from the 1st year and 1 Portuguese boy from
the 3rd year) and exercising in other languages (1 Romanian boy from the 1st year).

4. CONCLUSIONS

The present study aimed to clarify the conceptual framework of the


independent-interdependent self-construals, proceeding from the content analysis
of the answers given by Portuguese and Romanian university students to a semi-
structured interview.
The categories and the sub-categories to which the content analysis led
represent a thorough concretization of the two mentioned constructs which will
allow us to conduct a future larger investigation whose central aim will be the
construction of a new questionnaire for the assessment of the two types of self
independent vs. interdependent in Portugal and Romania.

Received at: 12.III.2013

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216 Laura Ciochin, Lusa Faria 11

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REZUMAT

Acest studiu reprezint etapa iniial a unei investigaii mai ample al crei obiectiv este
construirea unui nou instrument de msurare a self-ului independent-interdependent (Markus &
Kitayama, 1991) n Portugalia i Romnia. Au fost realizate 32 de interviuri semi-structurate cu
studeni de anul I i III, 16 portughezi i 16 romni, cu scopul de a explora urmtoarele elemente ale
self-ului independent-interdependent: unicitate vs. interconectivitate, independen vs. dependen/
interdependen, obiective personale vs. obiective colective, comunicare direct vs. comunicare
indirect i self static vs. self dinamic. n ambleme contexte culturale analiza de coninut a evideniat
faptul c unicitatea este neleas n termeni de stil i valori personale, independena este considerat
din punctul de vedere al autonomiei financiare, bieii, n comparaie cu fetele, acord mai mult
importan obiectivelor colective, comunicarea direct este considerat mai eficient dect cea
indirect, iar validarea social a self-ului este vzut ca indicator al unui nivel sczut de autostim.
ROLUL INTERVENIEI EDUCAIONAL-FORMATIVE
PRIN JOC N DEZVOLTAREA COPILULUI

FLORINDA GOLU
Universitatea din Bucureti

Abstract
Our study aims to highlight the role of play based activities training activities in mental
development of preschool children. Thus, we wish to emphasize that, after conducting educational
activities focused on play, there will be a breakthrough in the emotional development of children,
cognitive skills and their social development. The research was conducted on a sample of 58 children,
aged 5 and 7 years, from the preparatory group and large group. The 58 subjects were divided into
two groups as follows: 30 children in the experimental group (three groups of 10 children) and
28 children in the control group. The results weve obtained indicate that there were significant
increases in social skills and emotional abilities after the educational activities based on play. The
cognitive abilities have not made significant progress, although we can see an increase in the results.
The obtained results allow the drawing of practical suggestions aimed to increase the formative
efficiency of preschool education.
Cuvinte-cheie: joc, activiti educative, intervenii formative, stimulare mental, activare social.
Keywords: play, educational activities, formative interventions, mental stimulation, social activation.

1. INTRODUCERE

La vrsta precolar, jocul este principala modalitate de socializare a copilului.


El deschide n faa copilului nu doar universul activitii, ci i universul extrem de
variat al relaiilor interpersonale (Golu et al., 2009). Jocul d posibilitatea pre-
colarului de a-i apropia realitatea nconjurtoare, de a-i nsui funcia social a
obiectelor, de a se familiariza cu semnificaia socio-uman a activitii adulilor, de
a cunoate ambientul (Golu, 2010). Caracterul dominant al activitii ludice st la
baza conceperii activitilor instructiv-educative cu precolarii pe coordonatele
generale ale jocului specific vrstei. Conceperea jocului ca form de activitate este
cel mai important aspect particular al formelor pe care le mbrac nvarea la acest
nivel. O mare parte din timp, copiii l ocup n grdini cu activiti prefereniale.


Universitatea din Bucureti, Facultatea de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei, os. Panduri nr.
90, sect. 5, Bucureti; e-mail: florindagolu@yahoo.com.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 217225, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
218 Florinda Golu 2

Ei au largi posibiliti de exersare a jocului, cu nuanele lui specifice: de la jocul cel


mai naiv, cu scop fictiv, la activitatea cu scop ludic, scop precis i stabil, capabil s
subordoneze mijloacele.
Pe msur ce copilul trece dintr-o grup n alta, intervenia sa n joc este tot
mai activ, mai organizat, intenional i voluntar, jocul cptnd un cadru
funcional organizat, cu scop i finalizare elaborate. Sub influena jocului se formeaz,
se dezvolt i se restructureaz ntreaga activitate psihic a copilului.
Dup cum se arat n literatura de specialitate (Golu, 2009), prin joc se
dezvolt personalitatea copilului, prin crearea i dezvoltarea progresiv a unor
contradicii ntre libertatea de aciune i conformarea la schema de joc, ntre
imitaie i iniiativ, ntre repetiie i variabilitate, ntre dorina de joc i pregtirea
prealabil necesar, ntre ceea ce este parial cunoscut i ceea ce se cunoate bine,
ntre absena vreunui rezultat material util i bucuria jocului n sine, ntre operarea
cu obiecte reale i efectuarea de aciuni simbolice, ntre emoiile dictate de rolul
ndeplinit i emoia pozitiv provocat de participarea la joc (Golu, 2009).
n acelai timp, jocul ofer copilului situaii de siguran, n care s-i
exprime acele idei i sentimente care nu ar fi acceptate n alte cadre. Jucndu-se,
copilul poate s-i exprime liber ostilitatea, furia, ori poate s aduc n prim plan
evenimentele dureroase pentru el, jocul ajutnd copilul s-i neleag propriile
sentimente i s vin n acord cu aspectele mai dure ale realitii (Slavin, 1991).
Intrarea n grdini constituie, pentru copil, o adevrat ruptur de viaa i
obiceiurile familiale. Adaptarea la noul mediu i la grup este un proces de durat,
cu progrese i regrese ce presupune eforturi perseverente i regulate (Debesse,
1970). Grdinia introduce copilul ntr-o colectivitate care ncepe prin a fi un grup
neorganizat i are menirea de a contribui la dezvoltarea lui psihic i mai ales la
dezvoltarea identitii i a identificrii cu modele socio-comportamentale complexe
i, mai ales, socializate. Totodat, graie participrii copilului la relaiile i activitile
comune, de grup din grdini, cresc performanele comunicativitii i sociabilitii.
Asistm la formarea unor mici societi infantile, nluntrul crora i, sub supra-
vegherea adultului, precolarul capt treptat contiina propriului eu i descoper
semnificaia propriilor fapte (Golu, 2010). n grdini se ncheag formele
activitilor comune, aprnd elementele de opinie colectiv, care pot fi utilizate ca
factor de grup n fructificarea disponibilitilor prosociale ale precolarilor.
Precolarul se afl la vrsta unei sensibiliti emoionale deosebite (Osterrieth,
1976), a crei aa-zis cauz o constituie absena unor activiti autonome ale
copilului, lipsa lui de ndrzneal n privina aciunii (Debesse, 1970). Sentimentele
sale nu sunt definitiv cristalizate, ci sunt n formare, sprijinindu-se pe toate celelalte
aspecte ale psihismului copilului i, mai ales, pe existena unor conflicte interne
subiective i de idei n copil. Pentru a depi acest prag, trebuie s i se dea copilului
ajutorul, aprobarea i posibilitatea de a se manifesta autonom n relaiile i activitile
cu grupul i de a se pune n valoare pe sine nsui (Golu, 2010).
3 Intervenii educaional-formative prin joc la copii 219

Decalajul dintre dorinele i aspiraiile interne i posibilitile reale ale


copilului de a i le satisface, ca i multiplele direcii n care sunt atrase interesele
precolarului, pot facilita instalarea unor atitudini i conduite negativiste, refractare.
Aici subliniem rolul hotrtor al educaiei, prin funciile sale preventive i
terapeutice n raport cu tensiunile ivite la copil cu privire la contradiciile dintre
real-imaginar, posibil-imposibil, permis-interzis, subiectiv-obiectiv.
Curiozitile, emoiile i cogniia copilului se impregneaz de inedit. Se pun
bazele personalitii copilului, prin creterea gradului de emancipare a capacitilor
de comunicare, de expresie i de proiecie. De asemenea, cunosc o ampl dezvoltare
procesele imaginative, tentativele copilului de a se transpune n situaii imaginare,
dorina de a crea, de a interveni, de a schimba ambiana (Golu, 2010). Nzuina de
a adera la lumea adulilor, combinat cu absena cunotinelor i priceperilor
necesare pentru aceasta, i d precolarului impulsul de a cuta o form de a
asimila aceast lume, adecvat vrstei lui.
n acest stadiu al dezvoltrii, gndirea, comportamentul, persoana, sunt
ngemnate n mod sincretic, ntr-o viziune global i unitar asupra realitii, ntr-o
permanent interaciune i transformare a generalului i particularului, a ntmplto-
rului i a necesarului. De aceea, deosebit de important este s evalum i potenialitile
intelectuale ale copiilor, activate i mbogite prin exerciii i antrenamente de
nvare formativ.
Conceptul-cheie al strategiilor formative l constituie, dup cum se tie, nu
att achiziiile ateptate s se produc spontan, de la sine, ci capacitatea, disponi-
bilitatea de a face noi achiziii, ca mrime oscilatorie, variind de la caz la caz, n
funcie de condiiile n care este pus s lucreze subiectul i de nivelul posibilitilor
de nvare care i se creeaz (Golu, 2009).
n consens cu aceste idei, am adugat la cercetarea diagnostic-constatativ un
segment de abordare formativ, spre a vedea progresul performanelor copiilor,
atunci cnd le oferim sarcini i instrumente de lucru mai complexe, activndu-i i
stimulndu-i mental, emoional i social mai accentuat.
Printr-o intervenie educaional atent, adecvat vrstei, copilul poate fi
ajutat ca, nc din perioada precolar, s achiziioneze elemente de cunoatere
mediat, animat de criterii logice, care le pot estompa treptat pe cele concret-
intuitive. Sub impactul unor modele educaionale formative, de nvare dirijat,
dezvoltarea i fixarea structurilor cognitiv-acionale poate fi ntructva accelerat,
fr s se foreze limitele impuse de vrst (Golu, 2009). Gndirea poate fi ajutat
s se purifice mai de timpuriu de neesenial, operaiile ei pot fi configurate mai
rapid, iar copilul poate accede, prin aciuni verbale, mentale, presupuse, la invarianii
obiectelor reale. Structurile mnezice pot fi sprijinite s capete o form selectiv,
mediat, productiv, iar prelucrrile imaginative pot fi antrenate ctre ncorporarea
unor principii logice, intelective, contnd ca substrat de sens comun pentru
structurarea i re-crearea, prin fantezie, a universului perceput i verbalizat.
220 Florinda Golu 4

2. METODOLOGIA CERCETRII

Obiective
n aceast cercetare ne propunem s evideniem rolul pe care l au activitile
bazate pe joc n dezvoltarea psihic a copiilor precolari. Astfel, dorim s
evideniem faptul c, dup efectuarea unor activiti educative centrate pe joc, se va
nregistra un progres n dezvoltarea emoional a copiilor, n dezvoltarea abilitilor
cognitive i n dezvoltarea social.
Ipoteze
Pornind de la obiectivele menionate, ne propunem s analizm urmtoarele
ipoteze:
1. n urma activitilor educative bazate pe joc, se va nregistra un progres al
abilitilor emoionale.
2. Copiii care vor participa la jocurile educative vor progresa n ceea ce
privete abilitile sociale.
3. Abilitile cognitive vor nregistra un progres n urma participrii copiilor
la activitile educative bazate pe joc.
Variabile
Abilitile cognitive, abilitile sociale i abilitile emoionale reprezint
variabile dependente n cadrul celor trei ipoteze. Variabila independent, n cadrul
celor trei ipoteze, este reprezentat de grupul din care fac parte subiecii (grup
experimental sau grup de control). Cei 58 de subieci au fost mprii n cele dou
grupuri dup cum urmeaz: 30 de copii n grupul experimental i 28 de copii n
lotul de control.
Subieci
La aceast cercetare au participat 58 de copii, cu vrsta cuprins ntre 5 i
7 ani, nscrii n grupa mare i grupa mare pregtitoare. Dintre cei 58 de subieci,
28 sunt de gen masculin i 30 sunt de gen feminin. Subiecii din lotul experimental
au fost mprii n trei grupuri de cte 10 copii. Astfel, primul lot este format din
4 biei i 6 fete, lotul al doilea cuprinde 4 biei i 6 fete, iar lotul al treilea
cuprinde 5 biei i 5 fete.
Instrumente
Pentru a evalua dezvoltarea emoional, am utilizat 16 figuri care reprezint
expresii faciale cu diverse triri emoionale (trist, bucuros, timid, entuziast etc.).
Copiii sunt rugai s identifice emoiile reprezentate de figuri, iar rspunsul corect
este notat cu 1 punct, n timp ce rspunsurile greite primesc 0 puncte.
Pentru a evalua abilitile sociale, am compus un chestionar pe care l-am
aplicat prinilor. Chestionarul cuprinde 22 de itemi. Subiecii au rspuns la cei
22 de itemi folosind o scal de tip likert numerotat de la 1 la 5, dup cum
urmeaz: 1 = dezacord total, 2 = dezacord, 3 = neutru, 4 = acord i 5 = acord total.
Acest chestionar a cuprins itemi precum: Atunci cnd merge n parc, copilul se
mprietenete uor cu ceilali copii, Copilului meu i place s se joace singur,
Copilul meu este timid, Copilul meu prefer jocurile solitare etc.
5 Intervenii educaional-formative prin joc la copii 221

Avnd n vedere c acest chestionar a fost construit de noi, am realizat un test


pilot pe 10 subieci pentru a verifica indicatorii psihometrici ai testului. Iniial,
chestionarul a fost construit din 29 de itemi, avnd un indice Cronbach alpha =
0,80 (liminf 95% = 0.56; limsup 95% = 0.94). Dup eliminarea a apte itemi care
nu corelau puternic cu scala, am obinut un indice Cronbach alpha = 0,87 (liminf
95% = 0.71; limsup 95% = 0.96).
Pentru a evalua abilitile cognitive, am construit o prob denumit prob
logic. n cadrul acesteia, copiilor li se citeau afirmaii incomplete care urmreau
un anumit fir logic, iar ei trebuiau s completeze afirmaia conform tiparului dorit.
De exemplu, oseaua este pentru main, cum este apa pentru..., Maina este
alimentat cu benzin, aa cum televizorul este alimentat cu.... Subiecii au trebuit
s rspund la 15 afirmaii. Rspunsul corect era cotat cu 1 punct, iar rspunsul
greit era cotat cu 0 puncte.
Programul educativ-formativ s-a desfurat pe o perioad de trei luni. edinele
au avut loc sptmnal, iar unele dintre activiti sunt menionate mai jos.
n cadrul jocului Cine tie, ctig, copiii trebuie s rspund repede i
corect la ntrebrile date, s realizeze conexiuni i analogii logice, rspunznd
corect sarcinilor de perspicacitate propuse. Copiii sunt mprii n dou echipe, iar
jocul se va desfura sub form de concurs. Cte roi are un autoturism (5, cu cea
de rezerv). Ce broasc nu sare niciodat broasca de la u, broasca estoas.
n activitatea Amintiri imaginare, copiii trebuie s se transpun n ipostaza
unor diferite personaje, obiecte sau animale i s experimenteze modul lor de via.
Profesorul le cere copiilor s se imagineze n diferite ipostaze inedite. Dup ce
i-au ales, copiilor li se cere s relateze lucruri interesante despre ei i s adopte o
postur corespunztoare personajului. Exemple de ipostaze: cine, pisic, Alba ca
Zpada etc.
Activitatea Pictura sentimentelor i propune relaxarea copiilor prin angajare
tactil-kinestezic i facilitarea exprimrii sentimentelor acestora. Sub ndrumarea
adultului, copiii trebuie s realizeze o dactilo-pictur (pictur cu degetele), reprezentnd
diferite stri emoionale. Exemple de stri emoionale exprimate: veselie, fericire,
mirare etc.
Activitatea Suntem inteligeni se desfoar sub forma jocului Cine tie,
ctig. Copiii sunt mprii n dou echipe i sunt aezai n ir indian. Pe msur
ce primii copii de la fiecare echip vor rspunde, ei vor trece la coada irului i va
veni rndul urmtorilor copii, care vor proceda la fel. Copiii trebuie s rspund
repede i bine, iar ceilali membri ai echipei nu au voie s intervin. Cte foi are
un trifoi cu patru foi?. Ce srbtorim de Crciun?.
Activitatea Poveste pe mai multe voci urmrete att dezvoltarea i valorificarea
potenialului lingvistic al copiilor, ct i dezvoltarea spontaneitii, eliberarea
imaginaiei i descoperirea potenialului creativ. Copiii trebuie s continue firul
aciunii unei poveti, urmrind modelul verbal propus.
222 Florinda Golu 6

Activitatea Ce s-ar ntmpla dac urmrete activizarea copiilor prin stimularea


mecanismelor cognitive i a resurselor creative ale acestora. Copiii trebuie s
gseasc rspunsuri noi i originale la ntrebri precum Ce s-ar ntmpla dac am
avea patru ochi?, Ce s-ar ntmpla dac nu am visa?, Ce s-ar ntmpla dac
petii ar putea vorbi?, Ce s-ar ntmpla dac oamenii ar rmne mereu copii?.
Activitatea Curioziti se desfoar sub forma adresrii unor ntrebri inedite
copiilor, la care acetia trebuie s dea rspunsuri ct mai multe i mai originale. De
exemplu, De ce avem nevoie de ochi?, De ce avem nevoie de cri?, De ce
merg copiii la grdini?, De ce plngem cnd suntem suprai, necjii?, De ce
rdem cnd suntem veseli?, De ce avem nevoie de prieteni? etc. (Golu et al.,
2009).

3. REZULTATELE CERCETRII

n ceea ce privete abilitile emoionale, nainte de a ncepe activitile


educative bazate pe joc, subiecii au obinut o medie 10,48 (SD = 1,75; liminf 95% =
10,02; limsup = 10,94). La aceast prob, subiecii din lotul experimental au o
medie de 10,41 (SD = 1,90; liminf 95% = 9,70; limsup 95% = 11,11). Subiecii din
lotul de control au obinut o medie de 10,55 (SD = 1,61; liminf 95% = 9,92; limsup
95% = 11,17). Testul t pentru eantioane independente ne arat faptul c nu exist
diferene semnificative la nivelul abilitilor emoionale ntre cele dou grupuri,
nainte de nceperea activitilor (p>0,05; liminf 95% = 1,06; limsup 95% = 0,79).
n ceea ce privete abilitile sociale, nainte de a ncepe activitile educative
bazate pe joc, subiecii au obinut o medie de 66,02 (SD = 11,65; liminf 95% =
62,95; limsup = 69,08). La aceast prob, subiecii din lotul experimental au o
medie de 67,24 (SD = 12,91; liminf 95% = 62,41; limsup 95% = 72,06). Subiecii
din lotul de control au obinut o medie de 64,79 (SD = 10,31; liminf 95% = 60,79;
limsup 95% = 68,78). Testul t pentru eantioane independente ne arat faptul c nu
exist diferene semnificative la nivelul abilitilor sociale ntre cele dou grupuri,
nainte de nceperea activitilor (p>0,05; liminf 95% = 3,70; limsup 95% = 8,59).
n ceea ce privete abilitile cognitive, nainte de a ncepe activitile educative
bazate pe joc, subiecii au obinut o medie de 9,33 (SD = 2,00; liminf 95% = 8,80;
limsup = 9,85). La aceast prob, subiecii din lotul experimental au o medie de
9,45 (SD = 2,11; liminf 95% = 8,66; limsup 95% = 10,23). Subiecii din lotul de
control au obinut o medie de 9,21 (SD = 1,91; liminf 95% = 8,46; limsup 95% =
9,95). Testul t pentru eantioane independente ne arat faptul c nu exist diferene
semnificative la nivelul abilitilor cognitive ntre cele dou grupuri, nainte de
nceperea activitilor (p>0,05; liminf 95% = 0,82; limsup 95% = 1,30).
n ceea ce privete abilitile emoionale, la finalul activitilor educative
bazate pe joc, subiecii au obinut o medie de 11,29 (SD = 1,61; liminf 95% =
10,87; limsup = 11,72). La aceast prob, subiecii din lotul experimental au o
medie de 11,83 (SD = 1,51; liminf 95% = 11,26; limsup 95% = 12,39). Subiecii
din lotul de control au obinut o medie de 10,71 (SD = 1,53; liminf 95% = 10,11;
7 Intervenii educaional-formative prin joc la copii 223

limsup 95% = 11,30). Testul t pentru eantioane independente ne arat faptul c


exist diferene semnificative la nivelul abilitilor emoionale ntre cele dou grupuri,
la finalul activitilor educative (p<0,05; liminf 95% = 0,31; limsup 95% = 1,92).

Graficul nr. 1 Distribuia scorurilor la abilitile emoionale.

n ceea ce privete abilitile sociale, la finalul activitilor educative bazate


pe joc, subiecii au obinut o medie de 68,74 (SD = 9,50; liminf 95% = 66,24;
limsup = 71,24). La aceast prob, subiecii din lotul experimental au o medie de
71,63 (SD = 8,34; liminf 95% = 68,51; limsup 95% = 74,74). Subiecii din lotul de
control au obinut o medie de 65,64 (SD = 9,82; liminf 95% = 61,83; limsup 95% =
69,44). Testul t pentru eantioane independente ne arat faptul c exist diferene
semnificative la nivelul abilitilor sociale ntre cele dou grupuri, la finalul
activitilor educative (p < 0,05; liminf 95% = 3,70; limsup 95% = 8,59).

Graficul nr. 2 Distribuia scorurilor la abilitile sociale.


224 Florinda Golu 8

n ceea ce privete abilitile cognitive, la finalul activitilor educative


bazate pe joc, subiecii au obinut o medie de 10,55 (SD = 1,24; liminf 95% =
10,22; limsup = 10,88). La aceast prob, subiecii din lotul experimental au o
medie de 10,87 (SD = 1,13; liminf 95% = 10,44; limsup 95% = 11,29). Subiecii
din lotul de control au obinut o medie de 10,21 (SD = 1,28; liminf 95% = 9,71;
limsup 95% = 10,70). Testul t pentru eantioane independente ne arat faptul c nu
exist diferene semnificative la nivelul abilitilor cognitive ntre cele dou grupuri, la
finalul activitilor educative (p < 0,05; liminf 95% = 0,31; limsup 95% = 1,92).

Graficul nr. 3 Distribuia scorurilor la abilitile cognitive.

Conform rezultatelor obinute, putem observa c s-au nregistrat progrese


semnificative n ceea ce privete abilitile sociale i abilitile emoionale dup
efectuarea unor activiti educative bazate pe joc. La nivelul abilitilor cognitive
nu s-au nregistrat progrese semnificative, dei se poate observa o cretere a
rezultatelor obinute.

4. CONCLUZII I DISCUII

Aadar, dup cum ne indic rezultatele statistice, putem observa c prima ipotez
se confirm (n urma implementrii programului educativ-formativ cu activiti
bazate pe joc s-a nregistrat un progres al abilitilor emoionale). De asemenea, n
urma aplicrii activitilor educative, grupul experimental a nregistrat un progres
la nivelul abilitilor sociale. n urma aplicrii programului, dei au existat progrese
i la nivelul abilitilor cognitive, acestea nu sunt semnificative statistic i pot fi
datorate i dezvoltrii generale a copiilor.
n toate jocurile intervin i se exerseaz elemente creative, mobilitatea i
flexibilitatea gndirii, capacitatea de imaginare a unor soluii, aplicarea unora n
situaii concrete. Toate laturile vieii psihice, ncepnd cu cele mai simple i
terminnd cu cele mai complexe, se educ, se exerseaz i se perfecioneaz prin
intermediul activitilor ludice.
Prin activitatea ludic, copilul descoper capacitile umane observate n
mediul socio-cultural, le asimileaz prin re-creare i interiorizare, transformndu-le
9 Intervenii educaional-formative prin joc la copii 225

n coninut i organizare a planului su mental. Prin interiorizare, se urc treptat i


continuu de la nvare la dezvoltare, crendu-se suportul necesar viitoarelor
achiziii (Golu, 2001).
Astfel, am prefigurat i experimentat un program de valorificare superioar a
potenialului copilului. Aa cum rezult din cercetarea noastr, copilul poate mai
mult dect indic msurtorile psihometrice: i amplific capacitile constructive,
exploreaz activ sarcini de cunoatere, se implic motivaional n ele, descoper
noi legturi, inventeaz, creeaz, este capabil de interpretri i reflexii incipiente i
poate devansa stadiul gndirii intuitive, descris de studiile psihogenetice (Golu, 2010).
O ilustrare a acestui aspect o constituie experimentul nostru formativ, ale
crui date relev un tablou mult mai bogat n potenialiti i disponibiliti, dect
cel pus n eviden n condiii de lucru naturale, spontane, nedirijate. Rezultatele
obinute permit formularea unor sugestii practice viznd redirecionarea nv-
mntului precolar pe direcia creterii eficienei lui formative, a fructificrii
disponibilitilor copilului de aa natur nct s se asigure o mai bun conexiune i
continuitate ntre grdini i coal, formarea n condiii optime a premiselor
psihologice pregtitoare pentru contactul precolarului cu nvarea colar.

Primit n redacie la: 17.II.2013

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. DEBESSE, MAURICE (coord.), Psihologia copilului, de la natere la adolescen, Bucureti,


EDP, 1970.
2. GOLU, PANTELIMON, Psihologia nvrii i a dezvoltrii, Bucureti, Editura Fundaiei Humanitas,
2001.
3. GOLU, FLORINDA, Psihologia dezvoltrii umane, Bucureti, Editura Universitar, 2010.
4. GOLU, FLORINDA, Joc i nvare la copilul precolar. Ghid pentru educatori, prini i
psihologi, Bucureti, EDP, 2009.
5. GOLU, FLORINDA, IONI, CARMEN, Aplicaii practice ale psihologiei copilului. Dezvoltarea
personal ca program de educaie alternativ, Bucureti, Editura SPER, 2009.
6. OSTERRIETH, PAUL, Introducere n psihologia copilului, Bucureti, EDP, 1976.
7. SLAVIN, ROBERT, Educational Psychology, Prentice Hall, Englewood, 1991.

REZUMAT

Studiul nostru i propune s evidenieze rolul pe care l au activitile bazate pe joc activiti
formative n dezvoltarea psihic a copiilor precolari. Astfel, dorim s evideniem faptul c, dup
efectuarea unor activiti educative centrate pe joc, se va nregistra un progres n dezvoltarea
emoional a copiilor, n dezvoltarea abilitilor cognitive i n dezvoltarea lor social. Cercetarea s-a
realizat pe un lot de 58 de copii, cu vrsta cuprins ntre 5 i 7 ani, nscrii n grupa mare i grupa
mare pregtitoare. Cei 58 de subieci au fost mprii n cele dou grupuri dup cum urmeaz: 30 de
copii n grupul experimental (trei grupuri a cte 10 copii) i 28 de copii n lotul de control. Rezultatele
obinute indic faptul c s-au nregistrat creteri semnificative asupra abilitilor sociale i asupra
abilitilor emoionale dup efectuarea unor activiti educative bazate pe joc. La nivelul abilitilor
cognitive nu s-au nregistrat progrese semnificative, dei se poate observa o cretere a rezultatelor
obinute. Rezultatele obinute permit formularea unor sugestii practice viznd redirecionarea
nvmntului precolar pe direcia creterii eficienei lui formative.
PREDICTORI AI RISCULUI SUICIDAR N RNDUL ADOLESCENILOR

VIOREL ROBU
Universitatea Petre Andrei din Iai,
Centrul de Consiliere Educaional i Formare Creativ Ion Holban

Abstract
By integrating empirical evidence from several community studies, this present study aimed at
explore the contribution which personality traits, self-esteem, and attitude towards suicide have in
predicting suicide risk among adolescents. Four hundred and ninety adolescents (326 girls and
154 boys) completed a set of questionnaires that included various measures. In order to explore the
relationships among variables, linear multiple regression analysis was used. Both for whole sample,
as well as for girls and boys attitude towards suicide and neuroticism were positive predictors of
suicide risk. Also, self-esteem negatively predicted suicide risk in whole sample and girls. Of the
three variables, attitude towards suicide had the strongest contribution to the variance in suicide risk.
Cuvinte-cheie: trsturi de personalitate, stim de sine, atitudine fa de suicid, risc suicidar,
adolesceni.
Keywords: personality traits, self-esteem, attitude towards suicide, suicide risk, adolescents.

1. INTRODUCERE

Suicidul este o experien inefabil, prin care trec muli indivizi umani, de
diferite condiii sociale i vrste. Adesea, adolescenii sunt protagonitii gestului
suicidar. Numeroase studii au raportat date de factur epidemiologic, potrivit
crora, n rndul adolescenilor i al tinerilor, rata suicidului s-a triplat, ncepnd cu
mijlocul secolului al XX-lea (Marcelli i Berthaut, 2007; Ruiz Hernndez et al.,
2005; Seroczynski, Jacquez i Cole, 2009). n raport cu numrul cazurilor de suicid
reuit, proporia tentativelor suicidare este mai ridicat n adolescen dect la alte
vrste (Marcelli i Berthaut, 2007).

2. CAUZE ALE FENOMENULUI SUICIDAR N RNDUL ADOLESCENILOR

Dei vulnerabilitatea adolescenilor poate fi considerat un fenomen ,,normal,


identificarea i controlul factorilor care contribuie la riscul pentru svrirea actului


Universitatea Petre Andrei din Iai, Departamentul de tiine Socio-Umane, Facultatea de
Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei, Centrul de Consiliere Educaional i Formare Creativ Ion
Holban, Strada Ghica Vod, nr. 13, 700400, Iai, Romnia; e-mail: robuviorel_upa@yahoo.com.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 226237, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
2 Predictori ai riscului suicidar la adolesceni 227

suicidar constituie o prioritate att pentru cercettori, ct i pentru clinicieni (Ruiz


Hernndez et al., 2005). Exist numeroase lucrri care au contribuit cu informaii
valoroase, referitoare la rolul pe care diferite variabile l joac n etiopatogeneza
conduitei suicidare n rndul adolescenilor. A. D. Seroczynski, F. M. Jacquez i
D. A. Cole (2009) mpart factorii de risc pentru gestul suicidar pe care l comit
adolescenii n trei categorii: psihologici (experimentarea unor condiii psihopa-
tologice sau a unor tulburri de factur psihiatric tulburri afective, tulburri
relaionate la consumul de substane, tulburri de personalitate etc.), comportamentali
(tentativele suicidare n antecedente) i familiali (psihopatologia familial, pierderea
prinilor sau separarea de prini, victimizarea prin abuzuri, relaiile familiale
conflictuale etc.).
Studiile au vizat rolul pe care anumite variabile l joac n predicia
conduitelor din spectrul suicidar (ideaia suicidar, planificarea i/sau realizarea
efectiv a tentativei suicidare) n rndul puberilor, adolescenilor i al tinerilor.
Printre acestea, se numr: problemele n planul controlului emoiilor (Arria et al.,
2009), dispoziiile afective negative (Dori i Overholser, 1999; Kim i Kim, 2008;
Obando Medina, Herrera i Kullgren, 2011; Thompson et al., 2012; Vias et al.,
2002; Wild, Flisher i Lombard, 2004), stilurile cognitive i dispoziiile personalitii
(Beautrais, Joyce i Mulder, 1999; Brezo et al., 2005; Cross, Cassady i Miller,
2006), sentimentul de inferioritate (Goodwin i Marui, 2003), stima de sine (Dori
i Overholser, 1999; Vias et al., 2002; Wilburn i Smith, 2005; Wild, Flisher i
Lombard, 2004) sau atitudinea fa de suicid (Arnautovska i Grad, 2010; Gibb,
Andover i Beach, 2006; Joe, Romer i Jamieson, 2007). Totui, n populaia puberilor
i a adolescenilor, riscul suicidar a fost pus n relaie mai ales cu dispoziiile
emoionale disfuncionale, precum i cu o serie de experiene de via negative i
mai puin cu dispoziiile sau trsturile personalitii. Rolul pe care trsturile de
personalitate l au n predicia conduitei suicidare a constituit subiect de cercetare
nc din anii 1950, ns, datorit diversitii abordrilor conceptuale i metodologice,
stabilirea msurii n care factorii dispoziionali contribuie la predicia riscului
pentru ideaie suicidar, tentative suicidare i suicid reuit n diverse categorii
populaionale s-a dovedit o sarcin relativ dificil (Brezo, Paris i Turecki, 2006).
Dei nu au fost centrate exclusiv pe populaia de puberi i adolesceni,
studiile au raportat date consistente, potrivit crora nevrotismul tinde s coreleze
pozitiv cu ideaia suicidar (Kerby, 2003; Lolas, Gomez i Suarez, 1991; Stewart,
Donaghey, Deary i Ebmeier, 2008; Velting, 1999). De asemenea, nivelul sczut al
extraversiunii (care reflect un nivel sczut al orientrii ctre emoii pozitive) tinde
s se asocieze cu un risc mai ridicat pentru ideaie suicidar (Kerby, 2003; Lolas,
Gomez i Suarez, 1991; Stewart, Donaghey, Deary i Ebmeier, 2008). La rndul
lor, nivelurile sczute ale agreabilitii i contiinciozitii tind s se asocieze cu un
nivel ridicat al ideaiei suicidare (Bogg i Roberts, 2004; Kerby, 2003; Velting,
1999) sau al riscului pentru tentative suicidare (Bogg i Roberts, 2004). Studiile au
mai artat c nivelul ridicat al psihotismului ca trstur de personalitate din
228 Viorel Robu 3

modelul PEN propus de H. J. Eysenck, care se aproprie de domeniul agreabilitii


din modelele de tip Big Five tinde s coreleze pozitiv cu riscul pentru ideaia
suicidar i tentativele suicidare, precum i cu intensitatea sentimentului de
dezndejde (Lolas, Gomez i Suarez, 1991).
n tiinele comportamentale, stima de sine este neleas ca rezultatul
evalurilor pe care o persoan le face despre sine i care corespunde perceperii
propriei persoane ca fiind valoroas sau nevaloroas (F. Baumeister; citat de
Heatherton i Wyland, 2003). Studiile efectuate n rndul adolescenilor au sugerat
c nivelul ridicat al stimei de sine este un predictor negativ al riscului pentru
dezvoltarea ideaiei suicidare sau comiterea unei tentative suicidare (Dori i
Overholser, 1999; Vias et al., 2002; Wilburn i Smith, 2005; Wild, Flisher i
Lombard, 2004).
Pe de alt parte, s-a sugerat c indivizii umani pot varia mult n ceea ce
privete percepia cu privire la comportamentul suicidar (ca opiune) i atitudinea
favorabil fa de acesta. n timp ce unii consider c suicidul este o opiune
acceptabil, la care o persoan poate apela n anumite circumstane de via, alii
consider c suicidul nu este acceptabil n nicio circumstan de via (Gibb,
Andover i Beach, 2006). Datele raportate n mai multe studii converg n a susine
ipoteza, potrivit creia, n rndul adolescenilor i al tinerilor, acceptabilitatea
suicidului (vzut ca modalitate de soluionare a unor probleme de via insuportabile i
aparent insurmontabile) tinde s se asocieze cu un risc mai ridicat pentru
experimentarea ideaiei suicidare sau trecerea la actul efectiv (Arnautovska i Grad,
2010; Gibb, Andover i Beach, 2006; Joe, Romer i Jamieson, 2007). Aceast
asociere tinde s se ntreasc, atunci cnd adolescenii i tinerii experimenteaz
niveluri ridicate ale depresiei sau triesc acut sentimentul de dezndejde (Gibb,
Andover i Beach, 2006).

3. METODOLOGIE

3.1. SCOP I IPOTEZE DE LUCRU

Integrnd evidenele empirice raportate n mai multe studii, prezentul studiu


i-a propus explorarea contribuiei pe care trsturile de personalitate (nevrotism,
extraversiune, deschidere n plan mental, agreabilitate i contiinciozitate), stima de
sine i atitudinea fa de suicid o au n predicia riscului suicidar n rndul
adolescenilor. O variabil independent secundar, n funcie de care am realizat
comparaii, a fost genul. Studiul pe care l-am realizat s-a bazat pe un design
transversal i a utilizat analiza de regresie multipl liniar, pentru explorarea
multivariat a datelor. Datele studiilor i observaiile autorilor, care au fost
interesai de factorii care contribuie la conduita suicidar n rndul adolescenilor,
au constituit baza pentru urmtoarele ipoteze de lucru: I. n rndul adolescenilor,
nivelul riscului suicidar se asociaz pozitiv cu atitudinea (favorabil) fa de
suicid. II. Nivelul riscului suicidar se asociaz negativ cu nivelul stimei de sine. III.
4 Predictori ai riscului suicidar la adolesceni 229

n rndul adolescenilor, nivelul riscului suicidar se asociaz pozitiv cu nivelul


nevrotismului. IV. n rndul adolescenilor, nivelul riscului suicidar se asociaz
negativ cu nivelurile extraversiunii, deschiderii n plan mental, agreabilitii i
contiinciozitii.

3.2. PARTICIPANI I PROCEDUR

Respondenii la studiu au fost selectai n urma unei proceduri de eantionare


prin tehnica bulgrelui de zpad. Protocoalele au fost administrate de ctre autorul
prezentului articol, n colaborare cu profesorii psihopedagogi din instituiile de
nvmnt liceal, din care au fost recrutai respondenii. nainte de completarea
chestionarelor, respondenilor li s-a precizat c, n cazul n care doreau un rezumat
al rezultatelor la chestionare, puteau s-i treac pe protocoale numele i prenumele.
Majoritatea au procedat ca atare. Administrarea chestionarelor a fost realizat
colectiv, n timpul orelor obinuite de curs. Au fost excluse din analize toate
protocoalele cu rspunsuri invalide (incomplete sau ,,atipice). Urmtoarele date
descriptive se refer la un numr de 490 de protocoale cu rspunsuri, care au fost
reinute n baza de date final. Adolescenii (154 biei i 326 fete; 10 adolesceni
nu au indicat genul) aveau vrste cuprinse ntre 14 i 19 ani. Distribuia n funcie
de confesiunea religioas s-a prezentat dup cum urmeaz: cretini-ortodoci (433),
catolici (17), romano-catolici (6), baptiti (3), penticostali (2), adventiti de ziua a
aptea (2), cretini dup Evanghelie (1), martori ai lui Iehova (1), deiti (1) i
adolesceni care nu au indicat confesiunea religioas (24).

3.3. CHESTIONARELE ADMINISTRATE

Respondenii au completat un set alctuit din patru chestionare (scale i


inventare ale cror caracteristici psihometrice sunt consistente i recunoscute n
comunitatea internaional a cercettorilor care se preocup de stima de sine,
modelele metrice ale personalitii sau dimensiunile conduitei suicidare).
Stima de sine. Stima de sine a fost msurat cu The Rosenberg Self-Esteem
Scale/RSE. Itemii scalei sunt redai integral n Heatherton i Wyland (2003). Un
scor ridicat semnific un nivel ridicat al stimei de sine. n prezentul studiu,
valoarea consistenei interne (coeficientul ) a fost egal cu 0,79.
Trsturile de personalitate. Domeniile de trsturi de personalitate au fost
msurate cu Big Five Inventory/BFI (Benet-Martnez i John, 1998). Acest
inventar conine 44 de itemi i permite evaluarea celor cinci mari dimensiuni ale
personalitii (nevrotism, extraversiune, deschidere n plan mental, agreabilitate i
contiinciozitate), fiind util mai ales n scopuri de cercetare, atunci cnd nu este
nevoie de o msurare detaliat a faetelor (trsturilor) personalitii. Pentru lotul
de adolesceni care au participat la prezentul studiu, valorile consistenei interne au
fost: nevrotism 0,79, extraversiune 0,76, deschidere n plan mental 0,78,
agreabilitate 0,67 i contiinciozitate 0,81.
230 Viorel Robu 5

Atitudinea fa de suicid. Atitudinea fa de suicid a fost msurat cu


versiunea n limba romn a unui instrument Cuestionario de Creencias Actitudinales
Sobre el Comportamiento Suicida/CCCS-18 (Ruiz Hernndez et al., 2005) care a
fost elaborat de un grup de cercettori de la Universitatea din Murcia, pentru a
permite explorarea credinelor favorabile pe care persoanele de diferite vrste le au
fa de suicid. Chestionarul include 18 itemi (de exemplu: ntr-o societate
perfect, sinuciderea ar fi un lucru firesc, Persoanelor care au boli incurabile ar
trebui s li se permit s-i ia singure viaa ntr-un mod demn sau Dac m-a afla
ntr-o situaie extrem, m-a putea gndi chiar i la sinucidere). La fiecare dintre
itemi, rspunsul implic alegerea unei variante dintre mai multe, distribuite pe o
scal de tip Likert (1 dezacord total... 7 total de acord). Datele analizei factoriale
exploratorii ntreprinse de autori au evideniat tendina itemilor de a se grupa n
patru factori care reflect convingerile unei persoane cu privire la: legitimitatea
gestului suicidar, legitimitatea suicidului n cazul bolnavilor cronici aflai n stadiul
terminal, dimensiunea moral a actului suicidar, respectiv atitudinea fa de
propriul suicid. Dei pentru fiecare dintre aceste dimensiuni pot fi calculate scoruri,
n prezentul studiu am calculat doar un scor total la scal (ca medie a scorurilor la
itemi)1. Acesta poate varia ntre 1 i 7. Un scor ridicat a fost interpretat ca semni-
ficnd atitudinea favorabil fa de actul suicidar. n prezentul studiu, valoarea
coeficientului (calculat pentru ansamblul itemilor scalei) a fost egal cu 0,83.
Riscul suicidar. Denumit Suicide Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised/SBQ-R,
scala pentru evaluarea riscului suicidar a fost propus de A. Osman i prezint
simplitate i economicitate, aceste dou caracteristici permind obinerea unor
informaii valoroase de ctre psihologii clinicieni sau psihiatrii care consult pacieni
cu tulburri depresive i/sau cu istorie suicidar. Scala vizeaz evaluarea riscului
suicidar, prin intermediul operaionalizrii urmtoarelor aspecte (Osman et al.,
2001): istoria ideaiei i a tentativelor suicidare de-a lungul vieii (primul item),
frecvena ideaiei suicidare n ultimul an (al doilea item), destinuirea fa de o alt
persoan cu privire la tentativa suicidar sau ameniarea cu suicidul (al treilea
item), respectiv probabilitatea comiterii n viitor a suicidului (ultimul item). Un

1
Raiunea pentru care am calculat doar scorul total la scal al fiecruia dintre participani a
fost de a evita multicoliniaritatea variabilelor independente, referitoare la atitudinea fa de suicid.
Multicoliniaritatea este una dintre condiiile de baz ale aplicrii regresiei liniare multiple i se refer
la absena corelaiilor ridicate ntre oricare dou dintre variabilele independente introduse ntr-un
model de regresie care urmeaz s fie testat (cf. Labr, 2008). Pe de alt parte, ntruct trei dintre
itemii dimensiunii referitoare la atitudinea fa de propriul suicid fceau trimitere la posibilitatea
comiterii n viitor a suicidului de ctre respondent, iar la acest coninut se refer i ultimul item din
scala SBQ-R, prin care am msurat riscul suicidar n rndul adolescenilor, am fi supraestimat
corelaia dintre scorurile totale la chestionarul CCCS-18 i scorurile pe care adolescenii le-ar fi
obinut la scala SBQ-R. Din acest motiv, n operaia de calcul a scorurilor totale la chestionarul
CCCS-18, am eliminat itemii care scorau pentru dimensiunea referitoare la atitudinea fa de propriul
suicid, calculnd media scorurilor doar pentru restul de 14 itemi. Acest artificiu de calcul nu a
schimbat domeniul de variaie posibil a scorurilor la chestionarul CCCS-18.
6 Predictori ai riscului suicidar la adolesceni 231

scor ridicat indic un risc suicidar crescut. n rndul adolescenilor romni fr


tulburri mentale, scala a fost experimentat pe un numr de 118 subieci cu vrste
cuprinse ntre 15 i 19 ani, obinndu-se o valoare a consistenei interne egal cu
0,76 (Robu, 2011). n studiul de fa, valoarea coeficientului a fost egal cu 0,79.

4. REZULTATE

4.1. ANALIZE PRELIMINARE

Analiza diferenelor dintre fete i biei poate contribui la o mai bun nelegere a
particularitilor referitoare la factorii asociai conduitei suicidare. Astfel, tabelul 1
prezint valorile mediilor i ale abaterilor standard pentru variabilele pe care le-am
msurat. Se poate constata c, n rndul adolescenilor investigai, riscul suicidar a
nregistrat tendina de a fi sczut, iar atitudinea fa de suicid a nregistrat tendina
de a fi nefavorabil. Pe de alt parte, fetele au nregistrat un nivel al riscului
suicidar semnificativ mai ridicat dect nivelul nregistrat n rndul bieilor. Totui,
innd cont de reperele pe care Cohen (1992) le sugereaz, n cazul comparrii
mediilor a dou eantioane sau grupuri independente, pentru interpretarea mrimii
efectului (coeficientul d), se poate constata c diferenei dintre fete i biei, n ceea
ce privete nivelul riscului suicidar, i s-a asociat o mrime a efectului modest. n
schimb, la atitudinea fa de suicid, bieii au obinut scoruri semnificativ mai
ridicate dect scorurile fetelor (ns, din nou, valoarea coeficientului d sugereaz o
mrime a efectului modest).

Tabelul nr. 1
Medii i abateri standard pentru variabilele msurate
Lot total Fete Biei
Variabile t p d
M AS M AS M AS
Risc suicidar 4,55 2,36 4,74 2,45 4,14 2,11 2,74 0,006 0,26
Atitudine
2,38 0,93 2,31 0,86 2,52 1,09 2,08 0,03 0,22
fa de suicid
Stim de sine 31,49 4,75 31,02 4,80 32,45 4,55 3,09 0,002 0,30
Nevrotism 2,82 0,82 3,04 0,80 2,38 0,65 9,48 0,001 0,88
Extraversiune 3,58 0,68 3,56 0,70 3,58 0,66 0,32 0,74 0,03
Deschidere 3,77 0,60 3,78 0,60 3,74 0,60 0,64 0,52 0,07
Agreabilitate 3,99 0,54 4,04 0,51 3,88 0,59 3,09 0,002 0,30
Contiinciozitate 3,71 0,69 3,76 0,67 3,57 0,72 2,86 0,004 0,28

Comparativ cu bieii, fetele au manifestat tendina de a exprima un nivel


semnificativ mai sczut al stimei de sine, ns niveluri semnificativ mai ridicate la
nevrotism, agreabilitate i contiinciozitate. Cea mai mare mrime a diferenei n
valoare absolut dintre medii a fost obinut pentru dimensiunea referitoare la
nevrotism, aspect care s-a reflectat i n valoarea coeficientului d.
232 Viorel Robu 7

4.2. CORELAII NTRE VARIABILELE MSURATE

Tabelul nr. 2 prezint corelaiile liniare ntre variabilele msurate n cadrul


prezentului studiu. Nivelul riscului suicidar a corelat pozitiv cu scorurile la
atitudinea fa de suicid i cu cele la nevrotism, respectiv negativ cu scorurile la
stima de sine. Valorile corelaiilor au indicat asocieri de intensitate moderat. De
asemenea, nivelul riscului suicidar a corelat negativ cu scorurile pe care adolescenii
le-au obinut la extraversiune, agreabilitate i contiinciozitate, ns valorile corelaiilor
au fost mai sczute dect n cazul corelaiilor cu nevrotismul i stima de sine.
Corelaia dintre nivelul riscului suicidar i scorurile la dimensiunea referitoare la
deschiderea n plan mental a fost nesemnificativ din punct de vedere statistic.

Tabelul nr. 2
Corelaii ntre variabilele msurate (N = 490)
Variabile Risc suicidar Atitudine fa de suicid
Atitudine fa de suicid - 0,32 ***
Stim de sine 0,32 *** 0,06 ***
Nevrotism - 0,31 *** - 0,02 ***
Extraversiune 0,13 *** 0,07 ***
Deschidere - 0,01 *** 0,002 ***
Agreabilitate 0,16 *** 0,29 ***
Contiinciozitate 0,15 *** 0,15 ***
** p < 0,01; *** p < 0,001

Pentru fete, corelaiile dintre nivelul riscului suicidar i celelalte variabile


s-au prezentat, dup cum urmeaz: atitudine fa de suicid (r = 0,30; p < 0,001),
stim de sine (r = 0,34; p < 0,001), nevrotism (r = 0,32; p < 0,001), extraversiune
(r = 0,17; p = 0,001), deschidere (r = 0,03; p = 0,48), agreabilitate (r = 0,18; p =
0,001) i contiinciozitate (r = 0,18; p = 0,001). Pentru biei, corelaiile au fost:
atitudine fa de suicid (r = 0,44; p < 0,001), stim de sine (r = 0,23; p = 0,004),
nevrotism (r = 0,23; p = 0,003), extraversiune (r = 0,02; p = 0,74), deschidere (r =
0,15; p = 0,06), agreabilitate (r = 0,21; p = 0,008) i contiinciozitate (r = 0,14;
p = 0,08). Se poate constata c, n rndul fetelor, corelaiile dintre nivelul riscului
suicidar, pe de o parte, iar pe de alta, atitudinea fa de suicid, stima de sine,
nevrotismul, extraversiunea i contiinciozitatea au fost mai consistente.

4.3. DATE ALE ANALIZEI DE REGRESIE MULTIPL LINIAR

n analizele de regresie multipl liniar, au fost introduse numai variabilele


independente care au prezentat corelaii semnificative cu nivelul riscului suicidar.
ntruct am obinut diferene semnificative ntre fete i biei att pentru variabilele
independente, ct i pentru variabila dependent (nivelul riscului suicidar), analizele au
fost realizate separat. Datele au evideniat modele de predicie asemnntoare.
Astfel, pentru ntregul lot de adolesceni, variabilele independente au prezentat o
8 Predictori ai riscului suicidar la adolesceni 233

relaie de asociere semnificativ cu nivelul riscului suicidar (R = 0,49; F = 25,41;


p < 0,001), explicnd 23,1% din variana scorurilor la scala SBQ-R. Predictorii
semnificativi ai nivelului riscului suicidar au fost: atitudinea fa de suicid ( =
0,31; t = 7,45; p < 0,001), stima de sine ( = 0,23; t = 4,84; p < 0,001) i
nevrotismul ( = 0,21; t = 4,77; p < 0,001). Atitudinea fa de suicid i nevrotismul
au fost predictori pozitivi, explicnd 8,7%, respectiv 3,5% din variana riscului
suicidar. Stima de sine a fost predictor negativ, explicnd 3,6% din variana variabilei
dependente.
Rezultate asemntoare au fost obinute pentru subloturile de respondeni,
care au fost difereniate n funcie de gen. Astfel, pentru fete, variabilele
independente care au fost introduse n model s-au asociat semnificativ cu nivelul
riscului suicidar (R = 0,48; F = 16,35; p < 0,001), explicnd 22,1% din variana
scorurilor la scala SBQ-R. Predictorii semnificativi ai nivelului riscului suicidar au
fost: atitudinea fa de suicid ( = 0,27; t = 5,43; p < 0,001), stima de sine ( = 0,26;
t = 4,40; p < 0,001) i nevrotismul ( = 0,17; t = 3,10; p = 0,002). Atitudinea fa
de suicid i nevrotismul au explicat 7,07%, respectiv 2,3% din variana riscului
suicidar, iar stima de sine 4,6%. Pentru biei, variabilele independente au
prezentat o relaie de asociere semnificativ cu nivelul riscului suicidar (R = 0,50;
F = 8,38; p < 0,001). mpreun, acestea au explicat 22,5% din variana scorurilor la
scala SBQ-R. Predictorii semnificativi au fost: atitudinea fa de suicid ( = 0,42;
t = 5,49; p < 0,001) i nevrotismul ( = 0,18; t = 2,23; p = 0,02). ns, n timp ce
prima variabil a explicat 15,2% din variana scorurilor la scala SBQ-R, cea de-a
doua a acoperit doar 2,5%. Constatm c, n lotul de adolesceni care au participat
la prezentul studiu, atitudinea fa de suicid a avut cea mai puternic contribuie n
explicarea varianei riscului suicidar.

5. CONCLUZII I DISCUII

n prezentul studiu, nivelul riscului suicidar nregistrat n rndul adolescenilor


s-a asociat pozitiv cu atitudinea fa de suicid. Datele pe care le-am obinut au
confirmat prima dintre ipotezele de lucru, fiind concordante cu datele raportate n
alte studii (Arnautovska i Grad, 2010; Gibb, Andover i Beach, 2006; Joe, Romer
i Jamieson, 2007). Acest rezultat sugereaz c atitudinea pozitiv fa de suicid
reprezint un factor de risc pentru conduita suicidar, mai ales atunci cnd adolescenii
sau tinerii se confrunt cu solicitri stresante acute, experimentnd stri emoionale
negative (Gibb, Andover i Beach, 2006).
De asemenea, datele studiului nostru au evideniat o asociere negativ ntre
nivelul riscului suicidar i cel al stimei de sine, confirmnd cea de-a doua dintre
ipotezele de lucru. Stima de sine a explicat 3,6% din variana riscului suicidar n
ntregul lot de respondeni, respectiv 4,6% din variana riscului suicidar n sublotul
de fete. Relaia dintre riscul pentru manifestarea conduitelor suicidare (n special
234 Viorel Robu 9

ideaia i tentativa de suicid), respectiv stima de sine, constituie obiectul unor


evidene empirice consistente (Vias et al., 2002; Wilburn i Smith, 2005; Wild,
Flisher i Lombard, 2004).
Att pentru ntregul lot de adolesceni, ct i pentru fete, respectiv biei,
nivelul riscului suicidar s-a asociat pozitiv cu nivelul nevrotismului. Acest domeniu
de trsturi ale personalitii a fost un predictor pozitiv al nivelului riscului
suicidar, explicnd ntre 2,3% i 3,5% din variana scorurilor pe care adolescenii
le-au obinut la scala SBQ-R. Datele pe care le-am obinut au confirmat cea de-a
treia dintre ipotezele de lucru. Rezultatul este consistent cu datele raportate n alte
studii, dintre care unele au fost efectuate pe tineri sau adolesceni (Brezo, Paris i
Turecki, 2006; Kerby, 2003; Lolas, Gomez i Suarez, 1991; Stewart, Donaghey,
Deary i Ebmeier, 2008; Velting, 1999). n interpretarea relaiei dintre nevrotism i
riscul suicidar trebuie s inem cont de faptul c persoanele care prezint un nivel
ridicat al nevrotismului tind s experimenteze mai multe evenimente de via
negative, sunt foarte vigilente i au tendina de a resimi mediul nconjurtor ca
fiind amenintor n raport cu securitatea propriilor scopuri (Costa i McCrae,
1992; Rolland, 2004). Astfel de persoane manifest tendina de a tri mai frecvent
i cu o intensitate mai mare un ansamblu de emoii preponderent negative (anxietate,
depresie, stri de furie sau de ostilitate, culpabilitate etc.), care, n combinaie cu o
imagine de sine negativ (devalorizat), cu lipsa ncrederii n forele proprii, precum i
cu o anumit impulsivitate n aciuni i n relaiile interpersonale, contribuie la
scderea capacitii de adaptare la situaiile de via solicitante. Prin particularitile
dezvoltrii accelerate pe toate planurile, dar mai ales prin ,,crizele care le
marcheaz procesul complex al formrii i maturizrii identitii de sine, adolescenii
reprezint o categorie populaional aparte. Atunci cnd le scade controlul, n
efortul de gestionare a unor situaii de criz (de exemplu, o decepie n relaiile
romantice sau pierderea unei fiine dragi), adolescenii cu un nivel accentuat al
nevrotismului pot fi mai vulnerabili n raport cu ideaia suicidar i, n anumite
circumstane, pot trece la act, adesea fr nicio avertizare pentru cei din jur (prini,
rude, prieteni sau colegi de coal).
Ultima dintre ipotezele de lucru, de la care am pornit n prezentul studiu, a
fost susinut parial de datele pe care le-am obinut. Astfel, dei nivelurile extra-
versiunii, agreabilitii i contiinciozitii s-au asociat negativ cu nivelul riscului
suicidar (pentru ntregul lot de respondeni, precum i pentru fete), valorile corelaiilor
au indicat asocieri de intensitate modest. n plus, cele trei domenii de trsturi ale
personalitii nu au fost predictori semnificativi ai nivelului riscului suicidar.
Una dintre particularitile adolescenei const n ciclicitatea insidioas a
funcionrii n plan cognitiv, emoional i relaional, punctat de numeroase proble-
matizri, luri de poziie, conflicte intrapsihice i interpersonale (Munteanu, 2007).
n contextul acestui tumult, pentru muli dintre adolesceni, conduita suicidar cel
mai adesea, grefat pe fondul depresogen sau agitat al unor situaii de criz
constituie expresia dorinei de schimbare, exprimat sub forma unui strigt disperat
10 Predictori ai riscului suicidar la adolesceni 235

pentru atenia i ajutorul din partea persoanelor apropiate (familie, prieteni). innd
cont de faptul c tentativele suicidare svrite de ctre adolesceni sunt indicatori
puternici ai riscului pentru svrirea, n viitor, a unui nou act suicidar care poate
reui (Marcelli i Berthaut, 2007; Seroczynski, Jacquez i Cole, 2009), rezult c
nelegerea semnificaiilor antecedentelor suicidare pe care adolescenii le au,
precum i a factorilor individuali i situaionali care contribuie la predicia unor
astfel de manifestri reprezint un element-cheie al interveniei preventive n
domeniul sntii mentale a tinerii generaii. n aceast optic, evaluarea riscului
suicidar n populaia de adolesceni, prin screening-uri periodice, reprezint o surs
valoroas prin care pot fi identificai i referii ctre serviciile specializate adolescenii
cu probleme.

Primit n redacie la: 27.III.2013

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12 Predictori ai riscului suicidar la adolesceni 237

REZUMAT

Integrnd dovezile empirice raportate n mai multe comuniti, prezentul studiu i-a propus
explorarea contribuiei pe care trsturile de personalitate, stima de sine i atitudinea fa de suicid o
au n predicia riscului suicidar n rndul adolescenilor. Patru sute nouzeci de adolesceni (154 de
biei i 326 de fete) au completat un set de chestionare, prin care au fost operaionalizate variabilele.
Pentru explorarea multivariat a datelor, a fost utilizat analiza de regresie multipl liniar. Att
pentru ntregul lot, ct i pentru subloturile difereniate n funcie de genul respondenilor, atitudinea
fa de suicid i nevrotismul au fost predictori pozitivi ai riscului suicidar. De asemenea, pentru
ntregul lot i pentru fete, stima de sine a fost predictor negativ. Dintre cele trei variabile, atitudinea
fa de suicid a avut cea mai important contribuie n explicarea varianei riscului suicidar.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN VISUAL MEMORY AND NONVERBAL
INDUCTIVE REASONING TASKS A PILOT STUDY ON
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AT PSYCHOLOGY

MIHAELA CHRAIF
University of Bucharest

Abstract
The present research is focused on highlighting the possible gender differences in correct
answers for Inductive Reasoning (FOLO) and Visual Memory Tasks using symbols on a city map
(VISGED) (Vienna Test Systems, 2007). Method: The participants were 96 undergraduate students
aged between 19 and 23 years (Mean= 20.76; S.D.=1.063), 48 female and 48 male, Faculty of
Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Bucharest. Instruments: 1) Visual Memory Test
(Vienna Test Systems, 2007) S1 short visual screening form; 2) Visual Inductive Reasoning FOLO
(Vienna Test Systems, 2007). Results showed that there are no statistically significant differences in
inductive reasoning correctly solved items and visual memory tasks with symbols on the city map for
the undergraduate students of psychology. An explanation for this fact may be that all subjects (male
and female) have social sciences studies. Further direction may focus either on academically specialization
differences (electronics and mathematics versus social sciences and psychology) or high school
specialization differences (real and humanistic studies) in inductive reasoning and visual memory.
Cuvinte-cheie: raionament inductiv, memorie vizual, sarcin de recunoatere a simbolurilor,
regul specific de relaionare a imaginilor simbol.
Keywords: inductive reasoning, visual memory, symbols recognition task, specific rule in
simbols inductive reasoning.

1. THEORETHICAL FRAMEWORK

Kinshuk, Taiyou & McNab (2006) presented a structural model giving contextual
information about how learners can model inductive reasoning ability in five
different dimensions: domain knowledge, working memory, generalization, hypothesis
generation and analogy. Mastropasqua, Crupi & Tentori (2010) highlighted that the
human inductive reasoning correlates with predicted results in sound Bayesian
method. Alvarez, & Cavanagh, (2004) cited by Eng, Chen & Jiang (2005)
highlighted that the capacity of visual short term memory can be set by the number
of objects and visual information. Angelone, Levin, & Simons, (2003) cited by
Eng, Chen & Jiang (2005) showed the possible correlation between change detection

University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences; e-mail:


mihaelapopa14@yahoo.com.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 238244, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
2 Gender differences in memory and inductive reasoning 239

and recognition of objects in motion. The same authors Eng, Chen si Jiang (2005)
showed that visual memory can be affected by visual perception of complex
stimulus such as letters, cubes, and curves. Chraif (2013a; b) studied social context
differences in peripheral visual stimuli processing and gender and age differences
in time reaction and abstract figure comparison in previous research done in the
Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of
Bucharest. Other gender differences studies (Chraif, 2013c) showed statistically
significant differences in mental rotation of geometrical objects.

2. OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESES

2.1. OBJECTIVES
1) To highlight the gender differences in nonverbal inductive reasoning tasks
in young students of psychology.
2) To highlight the gender differences in visual memory symbols recognition
in young students at psychology.

2.2. HYPOTHESES

1. There are statistically significant gender differences in nonverbal inductive


reasoning correctly solved tasks.
2. There are statistically significant gender differences in visual memory
correctly solved items.

3. METHOD

3.1. PARTICIPANTS
The participants were 96 undergraduate students, age between 19 and 23 years
(Mean= 20.76; S.D.= 1.063), 48 female and 48 male, Faculty of Psychology and
Educational Sciences, University of Bucharest.

3.2. INSTRUMENTS

1) Visual Memory Test (Vienna Test Systems, 2007) S1 short visual screening
form. The test is focused on memorizing the position of visual symbols on a drawn
city map and the precision of position recognition at a certain moment.
2) Visual Inductive Reasoning FOLO (Vienna Test Systems, 2007). The test
shows a total of 25 items having different degrees of difficulty. Each item is made
up of a series of six related figures by a specific rule. Test participants must
identify the rule by which the six figures are linked and add two more figures by
using the same rule.
In Figure no. 3 there can be seen an image of six items related through a
series of inductive rules. Participants to the study chose two items that continue the
string after discovering the rule by following an inductive reasoning procedure.
240 Mihaela Chraif 3

Figure no. 1 VISGED: Symbols items from Memorizing Task, VISGED


(Vienna Test Systems, 2007).

Figure no. 2 VISGED: memorizing task, a possible city map with visual symbols,
screening form S1 (Vienna Test Systems, 2007).

Figure no. 3 Visual Inductive Reasoning Test FOLO (Vienna Test Systems, 2007).
4 Gender differences in memory and inductive reasoning 241

3.3. PROCEDURE

To complete the Visual Memory Test (Vienna Test Systems, 2007) S1 short
visual screening form, (see Figure no. 1 and Figure no. 2) and Visual Inductive
Reasoning Test (Vienna Tests System, 2007) the participants were exposed to the
computer screen instruction, to the exercise phase and after, they completed the
tasks.

3.4. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

The dependent variables for the VISGED Visual Memory Test S1 form are
the following: 1) number of solved items (raw score); 2) visual memory performance
(percentiles and T-score). The dependent variables for Visual Inductive Reasoning
Test: the correctly solved items. Raw and standard scores and percentile ranks are
shown in the results protocol. The independent variable is the gender of the parti-
cipants: male and female. The dependent variable is a scale type and the independent
variable is nominal.

4. RESULTS

In order to see what type of statistical test can be applied to test the
hypotheses, Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test was applied. The results from the
application of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test highlights that the variables Visual
Inductive Reasoning FOLO (p > 0.05) and Visual Memory task VISGED (p < 0.05)
are normally distributed.

Table no. 1
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, for variables number of correct items solved correctly
(FOLO) and number of items solved correctly (VISGED) for male participants.

FOLO Visged
N 48 48
Normal Parametersa,b Mean 15.5833 17.0625
Std. Deviation 3.85831 3.66354
Most Extreme Differences Absolute .130 .213
Positive .114 .213
Negative .130 .181
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z .903 1.478
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .389 .025
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.
c. Gender = male
242 Mihaela Chraif 5

Table no. 2
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, for variables number of correct items solved correctly
(FOLO) and number of items solved correctly (VISGED) for female participants.
FOLO Visged
N 48 48
Normal Parametersa,b Mean 14.1250 16.1042
Std. Deviation 4.36926 2.38113
Most Extreme Differences Absolute .124 .205
Positive .096 .205
Negative .124 .168
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z .862 1.420
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .447 .035
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.
c. Gender = female

The Maan Whitney nonparametric test for independent groups was applied
for hypotheses testing.

Table no. 3
The Mean Rank and Sum of Ranks for variables number of correct items solved correctly (FOLO)
and number of items solved correctly (VISGED)
Gender N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks
FOLO Male 48 53.16 2551.50
Female 48 43.84 2104.50
Total 96
Visged Male 48 50.70 2433.50
Female 48 46.30 2222.50
Total 96

Table no. 4
The Mann-Whitney test values and statistically signification for gender differences
in Inductive Reasoning and Visual Memory Task
FOLO Visged
Mann-Whitney U 928.500 1046.500
Wilcoxon W 2104.500 2222.500
Z 1.646 .788
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .100 .431
a. Grouping Variable: Genul

Analizing the data from Table no. 4, the research hypotheses were not
confirmed (p > 0.05). Hence, there are no gender differences either in Visual
Inductive Reasoning correct answers or in Visual Memory Tasks correctly solved
for young students of psychology.
6 Gender differences in memory and inductive reasoning 243

5. CONCLUSIONS

The research results obtained do not confirm the hypotheses regarding the
gender differences in dependent variables: Visual Inductive Reasoning and Visual
Memory Task (Vienna Test Systems, 2007).
Looking at Table no. 1 and Table no. 2 it can be seen that the data distribution is
normal only for the dependent variable Visual Reasoning Test (Figure no. 3) and it
is not normal for Visual Memory Task (Figure no. 2).
Given the findings of Vogel, Woodman, & Luck (2001) regarding the storage
of features and objects in visual working memory and the other studies cited by
Eng, Chen & Jiang (2005) and the studies made in the Laboratory of Experimental
Psychology George Zapan, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bucharest, the
results show that young people of the same age who are specialized in social
sciences and psychology specifically show no gender differences in solving
inductive reasoning tasks and visual memory test (VISGED), location recognition
of visual symbols on a city map.
A future study should significantly increase the number of participants and
should chose different age groups. Another direction is to study differences in
academic specialization for students of engineering, mathematics, computer science
versus the social sciences and psychology students.

Received at: 17.VI.2013

REFERENCES

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visual information load and by number of objects, Psychological Science, 15, 2004, p. 106111.
2. ANGELONE, B. L., LEVIN, D. T., & SIMONS, D. J., The relationship between change
detection and recognition of centrally attended objects in motion pictures, Perception, 32, 2003,
p. 947962.
3. CHRAIF, M., Social context differences in peripheral visual stimuli processing of young students,
Romanian Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology, 4, 1, 2013a, p. 1322.
4. CHRAIF, M., Gender and age differences in time reaction and decision to multiple stimuli and
abstract figure comparison on a Romanian sample, Romanian Journal of Psychology, 59, 1,
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5. CHRAIF, M., Gender Differences in Mental Rotation at Young Romanian Students at Psychology
a Pilot Study in VASILE, ANIEI & CHRAIF (Ed.) Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences,
78, 2013c, p. 692696.
6. ENG, H., Y., CHEN, D., & JIANG, Y., Visual working memory for simple and complex visual
stimuli, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 6, 2005, p.11271133.
7. KINSHUK, TAIYU L. & MCNAB, P., Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive
Reasoning Ability, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 43, 2, 2006, p. 151161.
8. MASTROPASQUA, T., CRUPI, V., AND TENTORI, K., Broadening the study of inductive
reasoning: Confirmation judgments with uncertain evidence, Memory & Cognition, 38, 2010,
p. 941950.
244 Mihaela Chraif 7

9. VIENNA TESTS SYSTEM, VISGED, FOLO [software], 2007.


10. VOGEL, E. K., WOODMAN, G. F., & LUCK, S. J., Storage of features, conjunctions, and
objects in visual working memory, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception &
Performance, 27, 2001, p. 92114.

REZUMAT

Prezenta cercetare este focusat pe scoaterea n eviden a eventualelor diferene de gen n


raionamentul inductiv (FOLO) i sarcinile de memorie vizuale folosind simboluri pe o hart a
oraului (VISGED) (Vienna Test Systems, 2007). Metoda: participantii au fost 96 de studeni de la
Facultatea de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei, Universitatea din Bucureti, cu vrsta cuprins ntre 19
i 23 ani (M = 20,76; SD = 1.063), 48 de sex feminin si 48 de sex masculin. Instrumente: 1) Visual
Memory Test (Vienna Test Systems, 2007) sub forma S1 screening; 2) Testul de raionament inductiv
Folo (Vienna Test Systems, 2007). Rezultatele au artat c nu exist diferene semnificative statistic
n raionament inductiv corect elementele rezolvate i sarcini vizuale de memorie cu simbolurile de pe
harta oraului pentru studenii la psihologie. O explicaie ar putea rezulta din faptul c specializarea n
tiine sociale, mai precis psihologie, implic dimnsiunea verbal a inteligenei i mai puin
raionamentul inductiv i memoria vizual a simbolurilor. Direcii viitoare se pot concentra fie pe
diferene de specializare academic (electronic i matematic comparative cu tiinele sociale i
psihologie) sau a diferenelor de specializare n ciclul de studii de liceu (studii reale i umaniste),
privind raionament inductiv i memoria vizual.
PUNCTE DE VEDERE

TULBURAREA DEPRESIV DIRECII ACTUALE DE CERCETARE

CAMELIA POPA, ANDRA BOLOHAN, GEORGETA PREDA


Institutul de Filosofie i Psihologie C. Rdulescu-Motru

Abstract
The raise of the depressions incidence in the general population, the lower of the starting age
of these disorders and the risks associated to the depression continue to drive the researchers
attention arround the world. They ellaborate complex theoretical models which analyze different sides
of the depression (taking into consideration the biological and psychosocial factors involved) and
conceive vast studies on various samples of patients suffering from depression. The present article
proposes the methanalytical exploration of case studies for identifying the contemporary reaserch
directions on depression.
Cuvinte-cheie: depresie, suicid, factori psihologici, vulnerabilitate.
Keywords: depression, suicide, psychological factors, vulnerability.

1. INTRODUCERE

Depresia este una dintre cele mai frecvente tulburri psihice, cu o inciden
cresctoare n rndurile tinerilor i vrstnicilor. Studiile epidemiologice arat c
prevalena maxim a depresiei (supranumit i guturaiul psihiatriei Seligman,
apud Holdevici, 2005) variaz ntre 11% pentru brbai i 22% pentru femei. Pe
lng suferina psihologic marcant pe care o provoac, tulburarea depresiv este
asociat n primul rnd cu pierderea de viei omeneti (un deces evitabil, prin
sinucidere, se produce la circa 2,2% dintre pacieni Fontaine, 2008) iar n al doilea
rnd cu costuri economice importante, cauzate de scderea productivitii muncii
persoanelor depresive i de creterea cheltuielilor cu tratamentele medicale.
Prezentul studiu ofer o analiz a literaturii de specialitate recente consacrate
depresiei, n scopul inventarierii direciilor majore de cercetare din acest domeniu.
Parcurgerea lui poate ajuta la o mai bun nelegere a complexitii tulburrii depresive.
Cele trei direcii majore de cercetare ale tulburrii depresive pe care ne-am
centrat metaanaliza sunt: 1. depresia n rndurile tinerilor i ale vrstnicilor; 2. alterarea
funciilor psihice n tulburarea depresiv i 3. depresia asociat altor tulburri
somatice sau psihiatrice.


Camelia Popa, Institutul de Filosofie i Psihologie Constantin Rdulescu-Motru, Departamentul
de Psihologie, Calea 13 Septembrie 13, sector 5, Bucureti; e-mail: Camelia.Popa@ipsihologie.ro.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 245253, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
246 Camelia Popa, Andra Bolohan, Georgeta Preda 2

2. DEPRESIA TINERILOR I A VRSTNICILOR

Literatura de specialitate ofer spaii ample studiilor privind depresia la


pacienii tineri i la cei vrstnici, dou categorii vulnerabile de populaie. Debutul
timpuriu al depresiei n rndurile copiilor i ale adolescenilor reprezint un risc
suplimentar pentru sinucidere, are consecine grave asupra dezvoltrii acestora i
nrutete prognosticul de remisiune a acestei tulburri. n acelai timp, odat cu
mbtrnirea populaiei, tot mai muli aduli n etate (pondere raportat la populaia
general) vor experimenta tulburri depresive, ceea ce crete, de asemenea, riscul
suicidar, al comorbiditilor medicale, precum i povara ngrijirii asigurate de familii.
Depresia major a copiilor i a adolescenilor este o tulburare complex,
examinat att prin prisma simptomelor ei, ct i din perspectiva metodelor de
diagnoz i de predicie. Copiii i adolescenii deprimai dezvolt numeroase
vulnerabiliti cognitive, constnd n deviaii de prelucrare a informaiei, deficiene
autoperceptive i n ceea ce privete stilul atribuional i manifestate prin atitudini
disfuncionale (Jacobs, 2008).
O alt categorie de studii se apleac asupra eficacitii tratamentului pe termen
scurt al depresiei copiilor i adolescenilor, asociat cu terapia cognitiv-compor-
amental, evideniind n acelai timp i unele dificulti n diagnoza acestei
tulburri la vrstele mici. Printre diagnosticele concurente se numr tulburarea de
anxietate generalizat, tulburrile de atenie, opoziionismul provocator, fobia
social i distimia (Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke
Clinical Research Institute, 2003). Eliminarea diagnosticelor concurente i depistarea
depresiei ct mai aproape de vrsta de debut a acesteia, n scopul instituirii unor
tratamente eficiente, ar putea mpiedica o cronicizare a depresiei i chiar ar putea
stopa un eventual parcurs cronic de boal mintal. De pild, n cazul tulburrii
depresive majore a copiilor, debutul precoce al depresiei poate fi depistat i studiat
n corelaie cu modificrile somnului (Rao, 2011).
Prevenia s-ar putea realiza, la rndul ei, pe dou paliere, i anume prevenirea
debutului depresiei i prevenirea secundar, realizat dup instalarea tulburrilor
depresive (avnd n vedere c simptomele aprute n copilrie pot fi predictori ai
unor tulburri depresive ulterioare Keenan, 2008).
n ceea ce privete modalitile concrete de intervenie, specialitii pledeaz
n favoarea terapiilor centrate pe familie, dat fiind existena unor dovezi puternice
referitoare la rolul jucat de factorii familiali n dezvoltarea, ntreinerea i cursul
depresiei tinerilor (Restifo, Bgels, 2009). Adversitatea familial i ataamentul
nesigur al copilului, ca i prezena tulburrii depresive la mam s-au dovedit predictori
valizi ai depresiei adolescentine, considerndu-se c astfel de factori determin o
vulnerabilitate psihologic mai mare a copiilor, nc din primii ani de via
(Murray, 2011). Totodat, depresia postpartum netratat este responsabil nu doar
pentru creterea riscului de suicid matern, ci i pentru diminuarea competenelor
parentale, cu efecte negative asupra copiilor (Miller, 2011).
3 Tulburarea depresiv direcii actuale de cercetare 247

De altfel, un model psihodinamic contemporan al depresiei trebuie s se


raporteze la experienele timpurii ale traumei care-l fac pe copil s aib reprezentri
problematice ale Sinelui i ale obiectelor, subliniaz Gabbard (2005). n cazul
abuzului fizic i sexual, copilul internalizeaz un Sine ru, care merit abuzul i
care este foarte sensibil n privina victimizrii. De asemenea, afirm Gabbard,
pierderea timpurie a unui printe are drept consecin dezvoltarea la copil a unui
Sine abandonat, cruia nu i se pot satisface nevoile. Acest copil va crete cu un
sentiment al pierderii, care se va reactiva n perioada adult n momentul n care
apare o pierdere. Totodat, copiii care au suferit o pierdere dezvolt o autostim
sczut i cel mai probabil vor avea dificulti de relaionare n viaa adult.
Ali cercettori susin importana dezvoltrii unor instrumente valide de
screening pentru depistarea precoce a depresiei la copii i adolesceni, proiectate pe
baza unor criterii diagnostice i statistice riguroase. Cung i colab. (2011) au aplicat un
astfel de test de screening pe 662 de elevi de liceu, asociat cu interviuri psihiatrice
structurate. Prin analiz de regresie multipl, au extras patru elemente definitorii
ale tulburrii depresive pentru aceast categorie de vrst, respectiv insomnie sau
hipersomnie, gnduri recurente de moarte sau ideaie suicidar recurent, senti-
mente de inutilitate sau vinovie excesiv sau necorespunztoare, i agitaie sau
lentoare psihomotorie.
Depresia vrstnicilor genereaz, la rndul ei, dup cum am artat, numeroase
studii de gen. Aceast tulburare afecteaz n principal persoanele cu multiple probleme
medicale i psihosociale (izolarea social agraveaz depresia geriatric), precum i
pe cele cu disfuncii cognitive. Cunoaterea factorilor care complic ngrijirea
adulilor n etate contribuie la gsirea unor metode complexe de tratament, care ar
putea reduce spirala deteriorrii, ar mbunti viaa pacienilor i a familiilor
acestora, remarc Alexopoulos i colab. (2002). Dei depresia este o problem
major la pacienii vrstnici, ea continu s fie puin frecvent diagnosticat, rmnnd
netratat i agravnd prognosticul celorlalte boli asociate (Charlson, 2002). Trata-
mentul depresiei geriatrice poate mbunti vindecarea altor boli medicale care
necesit implicarea pacientului n tratament (Alexopoulos, Borson i colab., 2002).
Pentru asigurarea tratamentului persoanelor vrstnice depresive sunt necesare nu
numai criterii clare de diagnoz (de pild utilizarea instrumentelor neuroimagistice
pentru depistarea anomaliilor cerebrale Gunning, Smith, 2011), ci i algoritmi de
ngrijire, precum i o mai bun colaborare ntre specialitii de sntate mintal i
medicii de familie (Untzer, 2002).

3. ALTERAREA FUNCIILOR PSIHICE N TULBURAREA DEPRESIV

Depresia este o tulburare afectiv caracterizat prin modificri ale dispoziiei


i afectivitii, prezentnd simptome din urmtoarele arii ale funcionrii umane:
palierul emoional dispoziie depresiv, sentimente de tristee, de goliciune interioar,
sentimente de furie, de vin, anxietate, diminuarea marcat a interesului i a
248 Camelia Popa, Andra Bolohan, Georgeta Preda 4

plcerii pentru diverse activiti (chiar i pentru activiti vesele i hobbyuri);


palierul motivaional lipsa interesului i a energiei, apatie; palierul cognitiv
diminuarea capacitii de a gndi, tulburri de atenie i de memorie, gnduri i
ruminaii triste i pesimiste despre via, lume i despre sine, gnduri recurente de
moarte, ideaie suicidar; palierul comportamental retragere social i izolare,
nelinite, agitaie psihomotorie; palierul biologic tulburri de somn (insomnie sau
hipersomnie), modificri ale apetitului alimentar (care conduc la o pierdere semni-
ficativ n greutate sau la ctig ponderal), pierderea apetitului i a interesului
pentru sex (Gilbert, 2011).
Alterarea funciilor psihice n depresie face i ea obiectul studiilor recente.
Trew (2011) analizeaz cele dou principii motivaionale de baz, respectiv dorina
de a avea rezultate pozitive (acestea ar reprezenta o arm mpotriva comporta-
mentului deprimat) i dorina de a evita rezultatele negative, artnd c n tulburarea
depresiv motivaia de evitare este una deficitar. Individul abordeaz adeseori
atitudinea de a persevera necorespunztor n atingerea unor obiective greu realizabile
sau chiar de neatins, ceea ce i ntreine depresia.
n planul proceselor cognitive, mai multe cercetri demonstreaz performane
sczute n activitatea de memorare, distorsiuni cognitive ale pacienilor depresivi i
judeci slabe n ceea ce privete gsirea soluiilor diverselor situaii problematice.
Lauer (1994) studiaz afectarea memoriei la copiii cu depresie i concluzioneaz c
tulburrile de memorie variaz n funcie de severitatea depresiei i pot fi evideniate
numai atunci cnd se atinge un anumit nivel de depresie. Spre deosebire de copiii
nondeprimai, cei cu grade moderate i severe de depresie au scoruri mai mici la
sarcinile de memorare voluntar.
Abordarea depresiei din perspectiv cognitiv-comportamental nu este o
orientare demodat, ci dimpotriv, dac avem n vedere numeroasele studii care
ncearc s optimizeze modelul lui Beck. Conform acestui model (Beck, 2010;
Holdevici, 2002), simptomele depresive nu apar ca urmare a unei situaii sau a unui
eveniment critic, ci ca urmare a modului n care persoana interpreteaz acea
situaie. Gndurile automate, negative, care apar ca urmare a interpretrii au la baz
convingeri disfuncionale care s-au format n copilria timpurie. Aceste convingeri
disfuncionale sunt scheme cognitive, structuri de baz, de natur profund, la care
subiectul se raporteaz ca la nite adevruri incontestabile cu privire la propria-i
persoan. Modelul cognitiv susine c, n timp ce persoana triete sentimente negative,
gndurile sale sunt supuse unor erori. Exist mai multe tipuri de erori ntlnite n
modul de gndire al persoanei depresive: gndirea de tip totul sau nimic, supra-
generalizarea (acordarea unei importane prea mari unei singure experiene
negative), abstragerea selectiv (alegerea unui detaliu negativ dintr-o experien
trecut), catastrofizarea (concentrarea pe cel mai mare ru care s-ar putea produce
ntr-o situaie), absolutizarea gndirii (prin convingeri de genul trebuie) etc.
O alt teorie cognitiv-comportamental care vine s explice depresia este cea
a neajutorrii nvate, dezvoltat de Seligman (2010) i revizuit de Seligman,
5 Tulburarea depresiv direcii actuale de cercetare 249

Teasdale i Abramson. Potrivit acestei teorii, expunerea repetat la evenimente


necontrolabile conduce la deficite n sferele motivaional, afectiv i cognitiv.
Deficitele respective se manifest prin pasivitate, renunare, retragere, ele fiind
nsoite de rspunsuri emoionale (anxietate, depresie) i de limitarea capacitii de
nvare.
n registrul comportamental al pacienilor depresivi, Segrin (2000) se apleac
asupra deficienelor de competene sociale asociate cu depresia, evalund trei
relaii teoretice diferite ntre aptitudinile sociale perturbate i depresie, mai precis:
abilitile sociale slabe n calitate de cauz a depresiei, depresia n calitate de cauz
a aptitudinilor sociale srace i abilitile sociale deficitare ca factor de vulnerabilitate
n depresie. Evalurile abilitilor sociale ale persoanelor cu tulburri depresive
sunt realizate prin probe de auto-raport, observaie i evaluri comportamentale.
Unele dintre cele mai eficiente tratamente mpotriva depresiei se axeaz pe stimularea
acestor competene sociale, ca i pe narmarea pacientului depresiv cu competene
cognitive i cu comportamente funcionale (Hopko, 2003), prin activare comporta-
mental (intensificarea activitilor sale). Sunt studiate n acest scop modelele
cognitive ale persoanelor care s-au recuperat dup un episod depresiv.
Just (2001) insist c, n cadrul tuturor acestor modele cognitiviste, trebuie
luat n calcul att variabila dependent (depresia), ct i variabila independent
(vulnerabilitatea cognitiv), ns fr a se ignora rolul teoriilor vulnerabilitate-stres.
Potrivit altor autori (Beevers, 2005), vulnerabilitatea cognitiv n depresie poate fi
descris cu ajutorul unui model dual, bazat pe dou moduri de procesare a
informaiei: un mod asociativ, care implic o procesare rapid, bazat pe asociaiile
nvate i un mod reflexiv, care implic o prelucrare lent, voluntar, bazat pe
reguli, care utilizeaz resurse cognitive importante. Vulnerabilitatea cognitiv
pentru depresie se observ atunci cnd procesarea asociativ este una negativ, care
rmne necorectat de procesarea reflexiv.

4. DEPRESIA ASOCIAT ALTOR TULBURRI

O alt direcie puternic de cercetare privete relaia bidirecional dintre


depresie i alte boli, precum cele coronariene, diabetul zaharat sau bolile oncologice.
S-a demonstrat, de pild, c bolile coronariene predispun la aa-numita depresie
vascular, pe care o perpetueaz (Thomas, 2004). Pentru a ajunge la aceast
concluzie, cercettorii au revizuit studii epidemiologice, clinice, neuroimagistice i
de neuropatologie cu privire la depresia asociat bolilor coronariene, accidentului
vascular cerebral, modificrile tensiunii arteriale, demenei vasculare, nivelurilor
ridicate de colesterol. Se ncearc n prezent chiar validarea depresiei vasculare
ca o categorie diagnostic specific, prin examinarea validitii ei de suprafa, a
celei descriptive, a validitii de construct i a celei predictive (Thuile, 2007), dat
fiind faptul c la o cincime din pacienii cu boli coronariene sunt prezente niveluri
clinice ridicate de simptome depresive. n insuficiena cardiac, depresia se asociaz i
250 Camelia Popa, Andra Bolohan, Georgeta Preda 6

cu ali factori precum lipsa de activitate fizic, slabul control al impulsurilor


alimentare i fumatul (Kop, 2011). Diagnosticul precoce i tratamentul acestei forme
de depresie poate preveni alte efecte fiziopatologice asupra inimii i a creierului n
cazul bolnavilor cardiaci (Norra, 2008).
Cercetrile din domeniul endocrinologic atrag atenia, la rndul lor, asupra
corelaiilor dintre depresie i diabetul zaharat (Riley, 2009), insistnd ca toi pacienii
cu diabet zaharat s fie analizai n mod curent pentru depresie, astfel nct ei s fie
tratai cu medicamente sau cu ajutorul psihoterapiei. Ca i n celelalte cazuri,
depresia nu apare numai n calitate de consecin a bolii principale, ci i n calitate
de declanator al acesteia. Simptomele depresive reprezint, de exemplu, un factor
de risc pentru dezvoltarea diabetului de tip 2, un alt motiv pentru care depresia i
diabetul ar trebui s fie tratate mai degrab mpreun, dect ca boli izolate (Rustad,
2011).
Depresia este examinat i n legtur cu unele tulburri psihice precum
alcoolismul, tabagismul sau dependena de droguri. Comorbiditatea ridicat ntre
depresie i dependena de droguri ar putea reflecta o ncercare de auto-medicaie a
tulburrii depresive, prin abuzul de droguri, i ar putea indica un trunchi neuro-
biologic comun, deoarece n cele dou tulburri sunt afectate aceleai sisteme de
neurotransmitori serotonina, noradrenalina, acetilcolina, dopamina, acidul gamma-
aminobutiric, corticotropina, neuropeptidele Y (Markou, 1998).
n cazul pacienilor oncologici, mai muli autori subliniaz c depresia rmne
nedescoperit i netratat, dei atenuarea ei ar mbunti calitatea vieii acestor
pacieni, le-ar scurta internrile, le-ar uura relaia cu ngrijitorii lor i le-ar crete
rata de supravieuire (Newport, 1996; Snyderman, Wynn 2009; Rayner, 2011). Pe de
alt parte, interveniile eficiente ar reclama o sensibilitate mai mare la diagnosticare
i ar putea fi att farmacologice, ct i psihosociale.
Depresia este studiat, de asemenea, n relaie cu durerea, cu stresul, cu
osteoartrita, cu boala Parkinson, cu boala Alzheimer, cu epilepsia, cu anxietatea femi-
nin sau cu leziunile traumatice. Linton i Bergbom (2011) arat c pacienii cu
dureri dezvolt depresie care, la rndul ei, ntreine durerea cronic i determin
rezultate slabe ale tratamentului. Pacienii cu osteoartrit sunt i ei mai susceptibili
de a prezenta plngeri somatice i de a dezvolta cogniii specific depresive (Ford,
2008). Liu i Alloy (2010) investigheaz relaia complex dintre stres i depresie,
ajungnd la concluzia c depresia crete sensibilitatea la evenimente stresante, fiind
printre predictorii generrii stresului, alturi de experimentarea n trecut a stresului,
stilul cognitiv negativ, vulnerabilitile de personalitate i interpersonale.
Halbreich i Kahn (2007) studiaz depresia n asociere cu anxietatea la femei.
Cum limitele ntre aceste dou tipuri de tulburri sunt neclare, diagnosticul diferenial
ar putea fi pus pe baze fiziopatologice, deoarece comorbiditatea sugereaz chiar
suprapunerea unor mecanisme fiziopatologice (afectate de fluctuaiile de hormoni
ale gonadelor). Depresiei feminine i sunt consacrate studii numeroase. Potrivit unora
dintre acestea, femeile sunt mult mai susceptibile dect brbaii s aib tulburri
7 Tulburarea depresiv direcii actuale de cercetare 251

afective sezoniere, simptome de depresie atipic (hipersomnie, hiperfagie); pe de


alt parte, tulburrile lor disforice premenstruale au un impact asupra calitii vieii
similar cu cel al tulburrilor depresive majore (Gorman, 2006).
Depresia este, totodat, una dintre cele mai frecvente comorbiditi psihiatrice n
cazul pacienilor cu Alzheimer (afecteaz 50% dintre acetia Lee, 2003), precum
i n cazul persoanelor care sufer de epilepsie (n acest caz, ea debuteaz nc din
adolescen Hankin, 2006) sau al suferinzilor de Parkinson (aici se asociaz cu
niveluri de educaie sczute, cu o istorie de fumat i o utilizare regulat a analge-
zicelor Dissanayaka, 2011). n acelai timp, depresia este una dintre cele mai
frecvente sechele psihice asociate cu leziunile traumatice, alturi de tulburrile de
stres postraumatic (Steel, 2011), genernd niveluri ridicate de mortalitate.

5. CONCLUZII

Depresia este o tulburare intens studiat, dat fiind expansiunea sa n


populaia general, prin coborrea vrstei de debut i mbtrnirea populaiei. n
Europa, ca i n SUA, femeile raporteaz rate mai ridicate de depresie comparativ
cu brbaii. Riscul mai mic de depresie este asociat, n cazul ambelor sexe, cu
cstoria i cu concubinajul, precum i cu poziia socio-economic bun (Van de
Velde, 2010). De altfel, n majoritatea rilor, factorii socioeconomici au cea mai
puternic asociere cu depresia, att la brbai, ct i la femei. Diagnosticul i
tratarea depresiei pot reduce numrul deceselor evitabile generate de suicid, precum i
costurile economice legate de scderea productivitii muncii, n cazul persoanelor
deprimate, motiv pentru care studiile destinate depresiei sunt din ce n ce mai
numeroase i mai diversificate.

Primit n redacie la: 12.VI.2013

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REZUMAT

Creterea incidenei depresiei n populaia general, coborrea vrstei de debut a acestei


tulburri i riscurile asociate depresiei continu s suscite interesul cercettorilor din ntreaga lume.
Acetia elaboreaz modele teoretice complexe, care analizeaz faetele depresiei (prin prisma
factorilor biologici i a celor psihosociali implicai) i realizeaz studii ample pe eantioane variate de
pacieni depresivi. Prezentul articol i propune explorarea metaanalitic a studiilor de gen, n vederea
identificrii direciilor actuale de cercetare a depresiei.
FEEDFORWARD IRADIATION IN PSYCHOLOGY,
PSYCHOPEDAGOGY AND COMMUNICATION.
THE ONTOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE OF FEEDFORWARD

TEFAN VLDUESCU
Universitatea din Craiova

Abstract
The study is transdisciplinary (according to Basarab Nicolescus theory, 2008). It occupies
the interference area of cognitive psychology, psycho-pedagogy, and communication science. It
subscribes to the contemporary onto-epistemological effort to strengthen the legitimacy of concepts
useful as research tools. It starts from opinions, interventions and relevant theories about feedforward.
From their analysis come off first, essential features, functions, operations, types and forms of
feedforward. In addition, it follows: a) that any cognitive process induces a feedforward connection
b) that the role of feedforward as a heuristic tool control characteristic to finalists systems is to
anticipate and intervene correctively and c) that the feedforward is the basis of predictions, prognosis, and
research of alternative future. For further research an extensive application of feedforward in psychology,
pedagogy and communication is expected.
Cuvinte-cheie: conexiune feedforward, principiul feedforward-ului, psihologie cognitiv, tiina
comunicrii.
Keywords: feedforward connection, feedforward principle, cognitive psychology, communication
science.

1. INTRODUCTION

As well as feedback, feedforward is an ontologically intangible element of


communication. Feedforward is a communicational concept rarely used in explaining
and describing communication. In relation to well-known and excessively used
concept of feedback, feedforward was rarely-discussed and used only by true
specialists in psychology, pedagogy, communication science, systems theory. As
shown by Professor Luminia Iacob, although the two concepts are factors with
almost equal presence (Iacob, 2006, p. 193) in communication (social communi-
cation, teaching communication, interpersonal communication, etc.) in psycho-
pedagogy too feedforward is barely reported, while feedback is thoroughly analyzed
(Iacob, 2006, p. 295). Moreover, in the same context, the frequency of estimations,

Universitatea din Craiova, Facultatea de Litere, str. A. I. Cuza, nr. 13, Craiova; e-mail:
vladutescus@yahoo.com.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 254263, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
2 The ontological principle of feedforward 255

predictions, projections, foresight and normative future, and forms of materialization of


feedforward as informational documents, is much higher than the one of feedback
documents. Feedback appears rather as an operational concept with a reduced field
of manifestation. The feedforward forms extended and with a lexical autonomy,
can not be opposed to the analytical forms of feedback, specific and with a textual
independent profile. From this perspective, it looks founded the researchers opinion of
Rzvan-Alexandru Clin and Claudiu-Marian Buniau stating: Feedforward
connection type is more important (Clin, Buniau, 2010, p. 230).

2. THE ONTOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE OF FEEDFORWARD

J. D. Cooper, J. Hoffmann and Tom Bruneau, separately, state the feedforward


principle, which will be calling the Cooper-Hoffmann-Bruneau principle: feed-
forward-ul appears in any human, affective, cognitive or cogitative behavior, as
well as in the communicative behavior. Ever since 1971, J. D. Cooper speaks of
the principle of feedforward; after reminding that the term comes from
I. A. Richards, he states the fact that he remembers it as opposite of term feedback
meaning taking experience from the past and projecting its meaning usefully into the
future (Cooper, 1971, p. 79). J. Hoffmann and T. Bruneau states: Anticipation
appears to be a fundamental principle not only for behavioral control but also for
perception (Hoffmann, 2007, p. 140); all communications has some kind of an
anticipated, expected or eventual result, however fleeting (Bruneau, 2009, p. 101).
In any human activity such a phenomenon operates. Feedforward is a regulatory
function of psychological, psycho-pedagogical and communication systems. The
existence of effects anticipation is obvious in modeling the action against the
desirable effects.

3. THE HISTORY OF THE FEEDFORWARD CONCEPT

As known, the founder of feedforward idea is I. A. Richards.


J. A DeVito acknowledged that: The concept of feedforward owes its
formulation to I. A. Richards (DeVito, 1983, p. 300). I. A. Richards consider it a
kind of lesson learned as a result of reflection on past experiences: Feedforward
is a product of former experience: a selective reflection of what has been relevant in
similar activity in our past (Richards, 1968, p. 15). Richards was thrilled by the
discovery, so he remembered it as a secret and, according to Emory A. Griffin,
he believed that feedforward was his most important insight (Griffin, 1997,
p. 66). In Richards opinion the feedforward is inextricably linked to feedback:
There can be no feedback without feedforward (Richards, Gibson, 2005, p. 229).
In the near future, the concept acquired anticipatory meanings and connotations
of control; according to Robert Kreitner feedforward control involves anticipating and
avoiding problems before they actually occur. (...) Feedback control, in contrast,
256 tefan Vlduescu 3

occurs after the fact through the monitoring of output and correction of existing
problems (Kreitner, 1982, p. 6). In the Dictionary of 1986, Joseph A. DeVito retained
the concept of feedforward (1) as message pre-information against a message to be
sent, (2) as message assessment of events or (3) as an expectancy about the messages
to come or how sent messages will be received: feedforward is information that is
sent prior to the regular messages telling us something about future messages.
Feedforward messages are predictions we make concerning what will take place.
Perhaps the most important type of feedforward is the information we tell ourselves
about messages we expect to receive or how we expect our own messages to be
received by others (DeVito, 1986, p. 122). According to J. A. DeVito the communi-
cative instance has expectations about receiving messages or how the generated
messages will be received: this is the passive feedforward. There is an active
feedforward too: it includes the teleological design, communication planning. Uma
Narula shows that communication planning involves communication strategies,
media planning (channel planning) and resource management culminating in commu-
nication policies (Narula, 2006, p. 8).

4. THE ANTICIPATION FEEDFORWARD RELATION

Any psycho-cognitive activity requires some anticipation. Knowledge without


anticipation is nonsense. The strategy of feedforward is based on the anticipation
operation. The systemic strategy of feedback consists of, as effect, adapting to goal
by implementing measures leading to a better materializing of it. Feedforward is
the anticipatory measures taken to ensure the efficiency of achieving the goal and
avoiding the risks (Vlduescu, 2002, p. 57). In feedback, the decision is taken in
relation to a past image, while in the feedforward the decision is related to an
anticipated image of the future system state. Both are strategies that the system
itself retorts to the present moment in order to improve the response to internal and
external needs. The first strategy compares the response from past to present, and
the second from the present to the future, by exploiting the past. Feedforward intro-
duces in the development process the anticipated knowledge and the prediction
of states, developments, causalities and finalities of certain phenomena and situations
that can occur in different systems. Forms of manifestation of feedforwards
operation are anticipation, estimation, prognosis and early warning.

5. THE HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CONCEPT

The real is proposed to us provided to somewhat anticipated it says Mikel


Dufrenne (Dufrenne, 1976, p. 31). Any cognitive act is rooted in an act of thinking.
Carried out, it enters a cognitive history and is linked volens-nolens to past
experience that behold, thus precedes it, incorporates it and somehow anticipates it.
The cognitive act of any kind, proactive (made in achieving a task), latitudinal
4 The ontological principle of feedforward 257

(made for fun or ludic), audio-perceptive, video-perceptive etc. is not the absolute
beginning of cognitive experience. The anticipation strategy involves at least two
operations: the access of short or long time memory and the projection in the new
cognitive act of the main data of the type of act stored in the deposit. The essence
of strategy is the projection, the work of the active and constructive subject. The
concept of anticipation was introduced by the Swiss psychologist and epistemologist
Jean Piaget. Perception (perceptual cognition), as an activity, operates by means
called by J. Piaget infra-logical operations, while intelligence uses logical operations
(Piaget, 1965, p. 96 and p. 132). Perceptual activity is one of the incubation envi-
roments which the intelligence operations, in their genesis, resort to. Among the
operations are listed: comparisons, transpositions (temporal and spatial) and anti-
cipations. These operations should be themselves perceptive acts.
The first of the Romanian psychologists to comment on the phenomenon of
feedforward and who questions the prospective orientation and the operations to
be executed in intentional behavior is Professor Mihai Golu (Golu, 1975, p. 295).
He states: the anticipatory feedback plays a key role, exploring profoundly the adjust-
ment space, providing the necessary reverse information about the features of the
new sequences to be covered and the space-time coordinates of the action (Golu,
1975, p 295). The anticipatory orientation is designated as anticipatory feedback. It is
essential, however, that the phenomenon of feedforward is noticed. This term
appears later with P. Popescu-Neveanu too, linked to positive feedback: positive
feedback means self-excitement, self-maintenance, achieving accommodation by
overcoming, on the basis of anticipation and planning (recently have been intro-
duced as being more significant the terms of feedbefore and feedforward)
(Popescu-Neveanu, 1978, p. 266). In 1975, Japanese Yoneji Masuda evaluated
feedforward as law (feedforwards law) and explained its operation for economic
systems, by stating that it applies in any system capable of command and control
(Masuda, 1975, p. 2136). Communication, society, organizations, institutions, groups
and individuals live in feedforward networks, complex and interconnected.
Mielu Zlate defines anticipation as a kind of pre-inference, an aspect of a
perceptive scheme, involving others through immediate involvement that changes
the perception (Zlate, 1999, p. 140). Set of operations or pre-inference, in anti-
cipating the fact is this: it changes the cognitive act and the concrete project.
Later, the concept was taken over by neurology, physiology, transistor techno-
logy with field effect, genetic, neural networks, nuclear energetic, physics, chemistry,
optics, computational neuro-science and so on, observing that it resonates in all
systems capable to process information and that we can speak of true feedforward
architectures. J. A. Taylor uses feedforward devices to control the blood pressure
(Taylor, 1995, p. 289298). Michael L. Power and Jay Schulkin assert that appetite,
the preference for certain foods or injecting insulin reveal as feedforward actions:
Anticipatory, feedforward systems are vital to regulatory physiology. Physiology
is not merely reactive (Power, Schulkin, 2009, p. 225).
258 tefan Vlduescu 5

Entered in the vocabulary of science, feedforward is remembered as the most


effective informational means to anticipate and control the future. Using the feed-
forward, the future is anticipated and controlled. Its operation is correlated with
that of feedback. Basically, through this mechanism, a part of information is produced
and transmitted anticipatory to prepare the control system part for a future action
(S. Suzuki et al., 2010, p. 846).
Maria-Cornelia Brliba is the first of the Romanian specialists in commu-
nication theory that addresses the issue of feedforward. In Communication
Paradigms, it designates feedforward as the mechanism which allows the
prediction of the effect of an action (Brliba, 1987, p. 57) and which explains the
information utility.

6. ANTICIPATORY CONTROL FUNCTION

As well as feedback, feedforward is part of the control unit of any system with
the capacity of knowledge, command, control, self-organization, self-regulation
and self-training.
Within a lucid or diffuse consciousness, the cognitive subject and the smart
organizations are seen as entities through a network of connections. These entities
could never survive otherwise (Vlduescu, 2011). Their essence is relationship.
Feedforward is the concept that designates the internal unit of teleological management
of the relational, functional, structural and substantial developments in a system.
Systems are driven by one or more purposes. Thinking (cognition), knowledge and
relationships within feedforward is teleological. Their management takes over the
teleological nature. Structuring itself as an aggregate focused on a purpose, the
feedforward device is the cognitive trace of thinking. It enhances the current
system efficiency by exploiting the past and planning-sabotaging the future. Self-
consciousness of the system is part of the history as feedforward device, as
thinking before, as anticipation, prediction, estimation. Systems with resolution
capabilities are based on designing on technological steps of taking shape in the
general frame of their abilities. Thus, the feedforward device proves to be the most
important process developed by the system to its own improvement, restructuring
and remodeling in relation to anticipating a future. In the final analysis, control of
operation efficiency of an entity system, its management, command, means knowing
the elements, its functions and rules of conduct of the whole assembly: aspect of
the communication system can not be detached from its intrinsic nature, finalist,
teleological insured structured through block diagrams(Popescu-Neveanu, 1978,
p. 266).
The sovereign consciousness of the orexic present is linked through feedback
to the past and through feedforward to the future (Vlduescu, 2003). Feedforward
undertaking aimed at achieving this goal in the future is called project-estimation-
prognosis. The feedforward device is essential for understanding biological,
6 The ontological principle of feedforward 259

psychological, economic, social, comunicational and information phenomena, as


well as for founding cyber-technical systems. Feedforward plays a decisive role in
any type of cognition and particularly in informational intelligence type cognitions.

7. CONTROL AND REGULATION FUNCTION OF FEEDFORWARD

The systems have two levers control: feedback and feedforward. Feedback is
a mechanism for monitoring and control of retrospectively type and feedfoward is
of the anticipatory type, proactive. Lars Skyttner asserts that feedforward is
anticipatory control action, intended to produce a predicted, desired state in the
future (Skyttner, 2005, p. 81). Feedforward control acts in the system and it refers
to ongoing processes. As Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich argue, it implies
monitoring inputs with a view to detecting future deviations of results (Koontz,
Weihrich, 2000, p. 397).
As well as feedback, feedforward: a) is a tool for monitoring and control, and
b) is a non-material element, that is intangible.
Feedforwards subject is double: a) to anticipate some developments
b) prevention of problems, risks and vulnerabilities by addressing premises, signs,
signals, before effects occur and so they may not appear. It consists in monitoring
the process to ensure achieving set target, to eliminate possible problems that could
affect the functions and operation of the system (before they occur), prevention of
risks and vulnerabilities that affect the achievement of goal.
Feedforward is a fundamental strategy to predict the dynamics of the system
and intervene in order to expected developments to be supported and undesired
developments to be inhibited. Through this mechanism it is interfered with the
elements-variables of the system so that the system functioning to be the one
designed. Feedforward type evaluation means to assess the possible consequences
and their prevention through proactive measures. Therefore, it is noted as The
ability to sense impending problems and to take prior corrective action (Lucey,
2005, p. 195) any type of cognition and particularly in informational intelligence
type cognitions.

8. FEEDFORWARDS OPERATIONS

Feedforward involves four operations. The first is a system analysis and


consists of collecting information about the function, operation, systemic projects
and projections concerning planning, system objectives and strategies to achieve
them. It is a structure system, functioning system and production system analysis.
The second operation is an environment system analysis to record the present
impact of external developments on the structure and on the functioning of the
system. The third operation consists, on the one hand, of the integrated compa-
rative analysis of the possibility that in the internal parameters of the system and in
260 tefan Vlduescu 7

relation to the environment, the system should achieve its objectives. On the other
hand, consists in making a decision in the optimization of system parameters
adjustment, reforming, restructuring the system so that goals should be achieved in
the future. In this operation an alternative future is created for which the decisions
are taken. The fourth operation is the implementation of the decision, so that goals
are achieved by the design level (Vlduescu, 2012).

9. TYPES AND FORMS OF FEEDFORWARD

We postulate the existence of two types of feedforward: declared or explicit


feedforward and automatic, undeclared or implicit feedforward. The implicit
feedforward can be detected in any communication instance. It is not defined as a
function, but acts irrepressibly. As principled argument, we invoke that, in order to
start a communication, behaviors are anticipated, possibly triggered by certain
communicational items placed in the stream and we validate or not those items.
Every beginning is impregnated with feedforward. The explicit feedforward or
feedforward control is an operation of communicative engineering. In designing a
pre-programmed communication, a communicative agent can provide discursive
visibility to the feedforward. Once evoked as effects and measures, feedforward
becomes explicit. Thinking of the future and, in this case, thinking of the evolution
and dynamics of communication is presented as feedforward phenomena. As well
as feedback, feedforward acts on different stages and at different levels, it can and
often do exist at many levels as single feedforward loops, double feedforward
loops or indeed multiple-level feedforward loops (Boczko, 2007, p. 95).
According to Theodor Clevenger and Jack Matthews, the feedforward has three
specific forms in communication: (1) goal-setting; (2) establishing expectancies
and (3) planning contingencies (Clevenger, Matthews, 2007, p. 43). Feedforward
involves meanings such as strategies, tactics, stratagems, plans, expectancies, objectives,
goals, targets, projects, projections, ancitipations, and predictions. Feedforward is
what C.R. Berger calls planning strategic (Berger C. R., 1997), plan elaboration
(Berger, di Battista, 1992) or what A. I. Patalano and C. M. Seifert (1997) call
opportunistic planning of V. R. Waldrom plans and tactics.
To communicative feedforward as a subsystem of planning and anticipation
is subsumed in what is called strategic communication. Strategic communication is a
concept designating communication centered on purposes, goals and preprogrammed
objectives. It applies both to interpersonal and organizational and state commu-
nication.
We emphasize C. R. Bergers substantial contributions (1995, 1996, 1997,
2005) to interpersonal communication. Organizationally, strategic communication
is seen as a method by which organization communicative entities communicate
deliberately to reach set goals (Holtzhausen, 2008).
8 The ontological principle of feedforward 261

10. CONCLUSION

The founder of feedforward concept is I. A. Richards. Significant contributions


to the definition, delimitation, application and expanding it in fields such as
psychology, psycho-pedagogy and communication have among others: Y. Masuda,
C. M. Gibson, Robert Kreitner, Joseph A. DeVito, M.-C. Brliba, Theodor Clevenger,
Jack Matthews, J. D. Cooper, J. Hoffmann, Tom Bruneau, Harold Koontz, Heinz
Weihrich, T. Lucey, T. Boczko, C. R. Berger. Feedforward consists of monitoring
the processes a) to secure the achievement of the set objectives, b) to eliminate
those problems that could impede the operation of the system (before they occur)
and c) for the prevention of risks and vulnerabilities that would affect the
achievement of goals.

Received at: 2.IV.2013

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10 The ontological principle of feedforward 263

REZUMAT

Studiul are caracter transdisciplinar (conform teoriei lui Basarab Nicolescu, 2008). Se situeaz pe
zona de interferen a psihologiei cognitive cu psihopedagogia i tiina comunicrii. Se circumscrie
efortului onto-epistemologic contemporan de ntrire a legitimitii unor concepte utile ca instrumente
de cercetare. Pornete de la opiniile, interveniile i teoriile relevante despre feedforward. Din analiza
acestora se desprind, mai nti, trsturile eseniale, funciile, operaiile, tipurile i formele de feed-
forward. n plus, rezult: a) c orice proces cognitiv subntinde o conexiune feedforward; b) c rolul
feedforward-ului, ca instrument euristic de reglaj caracteristic sistemelor finaliste, este de a anticipa i
a interveni corectiv i c) c feedforward-ul st la baza previziunilor, prognozelor, a cercetrilor de
viitor alternativ. Pentru cercetrile ulterioare se preconizeaz o aplicare extensiv a feedforward-ului
n psihologie, psihopedagogie i comunicare.
CRITIC I BIBLIOGRAFIE

ELENA STNCULESCU, Etica n psihologia educaiei, Bucureti, Editura


Universitii din Bucureti, 2013, 163 p.

Cartea Etica n psihologia educaiei, a crei autoare este Elena Stnculescu,


doctor n psihologie i confereniar la Facultatea de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei,
vine cu clarificri importante privind aspectele etice n psihologia educaiei,
propunndu-i astfel o problem de maxim actualitate. Pe baza unei extinse
bibliografii rspunde pe scurt la ntrebarea Ce este etica n psihologia educaiei?.
Dac nu ar fi existat tiina numit etic, ea ar fi trebuit inventat, i dac ar fi
existat, ar fi trebuit reinventat. Absena eticii are un rol nefast, mai ales n domeniul
educaiei, unde accentul cade pe model n formarea valorilor i competenelor
morale.
Autoarea a mai publicat cinci cri ca autor, la patru a fost co-autor, precum
i cincizeci de articole tiinifice n reviste prestigioase. Este membr n colegiul de
redacie al Revistei de Psihologie a Academiei Romne, n asociaiile profesionale
ISPA (International School Psychology Association), EARA (European Association of
Research of Adolescence), ENPP (European Network of Positive Psychology). S-a
specializat n Finlanda n domeniul managementului crizelor n coli, a fost visiting
professor la Universitatea din Padova, Italia. Acestea sunt doar cteva din
realizrile profesionale ale doamnei Elena Stnculescu, care a construit cu rbdare
acest parcurs profesional de excepie, cu extraordinar de mult munc i dedicare.
Revenind la cartea Etica n psihologia educaiei putem spune ntr-o fraz
sintetizatoare, c tematica lucrrii este extrem de important n plan teoretic i
aplicativ, mai ales pentru toate activitile desfurate n domeniul educaiei, cu
predilecie pentru exercitarea profesiei de psiholog cu liber practic.
Lucrarea este structurat pe trei pri, partea ntia i a doua cu cinci capitole,
partea a treia cu dou capitole. n prima parte ne sunt prezentate aspecte etice i
legislative din perspectiva Codului deontologic al profesiei de psiholog cu drept de
liber practic elaborat de Colegiul Psihologilor din Romnia. Codul deontologic
cuprinde valorile i standardele profesionale raportate la exigenele morale ale profesiei
de psiholog principii deontologice ct i reglementarea principalelor abateri
disciplinare n profesia de psiholog.
De asemenea, cititorii sunt familiarizai cu regulile privind cercetarea tiinific i
valorificarea rezultatelor n domeniul psihologiei educaiei, dar i cu sanciunile
aplicate n caz de abateri grave sau mai mici ale acestor specialiti.

Rev. Psih., vol. 59, nr. 3, p. 265267, Bucureti, iulie septembrie 2013
266 Critic i bibliografie 2

Partea a doua, poate cea mai incitant, prezint abateri celebre de la etica
cercetrii psihologice: influena ereditii asupra inteligenei sau problematica natur
versus cultur (Cyril Burt), experimentul Micul Albert (J. Watson) referitor la
nvarea prin condiionare a fricii, experimentul lui Johnson Wendell privind cauzele
balbismului (Studiu Monstru), experimentul lui Muzafer Sherif (Petera tlharilor)
cu privire la reducerea conflictului intergrupal prin inducerea ostilitii i experimentul
lui Stanley Milgram referitor la obediena fa de autoritate.
n partea a treia gsim dou studii alese pentru a evidenia bunele practici i
normele tiinifice recomandabile spre utilizarea n cercetrile din psihologia colar,
prevenirea comportamentului antisocial al elevilor prin stimularea competenei
socio-emoionale, analiza i sistematizarea principalelor cauze ale nerespectrii eticii
cercetrii n psihologie.
n final, nu pot dect s v recomand s parcurgei aceast carte care reprezint
un eveniment editorial de excepie, n care rigoarea tiinific se mpletete
armonios cu stilul accesibil, chiar plcut, n care este scris cartea. Cartea este deosebit
de folositoare psihologilor cu drept de liber practic, studenilor, fiind i o mare
surs de inspiraie pentru cei care desfoar activiti n acest domeniu. Suntem
siguri c lucrarea se va bucura de o bun primire din partea specialitilor i a unor
cercuri largi de cititori.

Georgeta Preda

ADRIAN PRISCARU, Cunoaterea integrativ a personalitii. Un model teoretico-


metodologic, Bucureti, Editura Militar, 2013, 259 p.

Cartea Cunoaterea integrativ a personalitii. Un model teoretico-metodologic


este o apariie editorial valoroas pentru comunitatea psihologilor din Romnia,
cu aplicabilitate n domeniul managementului resurselor umane.
Printr-un montaj investigativ minuios i riguros, autorul, col. psih. pr. dr.
Adrian Priscaru, nfieaz un model complex de evaluare a personalitii, bine
fundamentat din punct de vedere tiinific i propune, totodat, o baterie de teste
psihologice care s fie utilizat n mod unitar n demersul cunoaterii psihologice
aprofundate a personalului.
Lucrarea este structurat n apte capitole corelate. Primele trei capitole sunt
dedicate fundamentului teoretic al cunoaterii i asistenei psihologice a personalului,
autorul avansnd o perspectiv cuprinztoare asupra acestui domeniu. Modelele
clasice ale personologiei sunt optimizate cu ajutorul unor modele recente i
inovatoare ale psihologiei organizaionale i ale psihologiei cognitive, precum i cu
modele ale psihologiei sociale, n scopul cunoaterii att a diferitelor faete ale
personalitii umane, ct i a personalitii n integralitatea ei. Practicianul n resurse
umane beneficiaz astfel de o bogat sintez teoretic, prezentat ntr-o manier
3 Critic i bibliografie 267

logic, structurat i foarte bine argumentat. Parcurgnd aceast sintez, prezentat n


primele dou capitole, obiectivul cunoaterii aprofundate a personalitii i pare
psihologului, dintr-o dat, mai uor de atins.
Cel de-al treilea capitol nfieaz modelul teoretic propriu al autorului,
conceput, dezvoltat, utilizat i validat n cadrul a numeroase studii de gen. Modelul
propus este unul longitudinal i integrativ. Dimensiunea longitudinal a modelului
este dat de surprinderea, msurarea i descrierea personalitii la momente diferite
de timp, astfel nct s se obin date relevante pentru evoluia personal i
profesional a individului. n fapt, autorul propune realizarea unor profiluri de
stare ale personalitii, ealonate pe o perioad de 11 ani, n baza a cel puin trei
secvene semnificative de evaluare psihologic. Dimensiunea integrativ a modelului
este asigurat de reunirea, integrarea, prelucrarea i interpretarea complementar a
tuturor datelor obinute la evalurile psihologice, astfel nct s fie generat un profil
personologic global, apt s surprind constantul la nivel individual i n acelai
timp s asigure cunoaterea personalitii totale. Acest profil evolutiv permite o
mai bun nelegere a comportamentului i asigur acurateea prediciei psihologice
realizate.
Urmtoarele capitole ale crii cuprind designul cercetrii personalitii, cu
referire la subieci, metode i probele folosite n investigarea personalitii. Autorul,
col. psih. pr. dr. Adrian Priscaru, cu o experien profesional bogat n practica
resurselor umane, ndeosebi n evaluarea/testarea personalului, avanseaz un algoritm
propriu privind modul de elaborare a profilului psihologic descriptiv, cu accent pe
rigurozitatea structurrii lui, insistnd asupra utilizrii acestui profil (superior
conceptualizat) att n procesul de autocunoatere i cunoatere psihologic ale
persoanei, ct i n selecia personalului, potrivit cu cerinele diverselor posturi de
munc. Nu n ultimul rnd, cercetarea propune practicienilor, aa cum am artat,
mai multe instrumente psihometrice (Inventarul de personalitate California, Inventarul
de personalitate BEQ) i fie cu date anamnestice care, aplicate, respectiv ajustate,
cu o anumit periodicitate, valideaz modelul teoretic de evaluare longitudinal i
integrativ a personalitii. Complexitatea i completitudinea cercetrii sunt relevate de
faptul c autorul nu se oprete la analiza i interpretarea datelor obinute cu ajutorul
probelor menionate, ci continu s probeze utilitatea modelului su teoretico-
metodologic de studiu al personalitii, plednd pentru standardizarea activitilor
de cunoatere psihologic a personalului. Astfel, sunt examinate fidelitatea modelului,
validitatea divergent i convergent, validitatea relativ la criteriu iar rezultatele
obinute sunt ncurajatoare pentru a propune transpunerea n practic a algoritmului
prezentat, prin protocoale i proceduri de evaluare i diagnoz a personalitii.
n concluzie, considerm c lucrarea Cunoaterea integrativ a personalitii.
Un model teoretico-metodologic reprezint o resurs bibliografic valoroas, un
adevrat ghid al practicianului n resurse umane i o recomandm cu cldur
comunitii psihologilor.

Camelia Popa