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UNIVERSITATEA DANUBIUS DIN GALAI DEPARTAMENTUL DE NVMNT LA DISTAN I FRECVEN REDUS FACULTATEA DE DREPT

LIMBA ENGLEZ Anul I, Semestrul al II-lea

ALINA CHEC

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CUPRINS
1. Ways ! E"#$%ss&'( F)*)$&*y +a', s#%-&a.&/%, *%"*s0
Future ense S!m"le Near Future S"e#!$!# %&'e#t!(es Summar) Sel$-e(aluat!%n tests B!&l!%*ra"+)

1. T2% S%3)%'-% ! T%'s%s


Past ense !n t+e ma!n #lause Present ense !n t+e ma!n #lause Future ense !n t+e ma!n #lause S"e#!$!# %&'e#t!(es Summar) Sel$-e(aluat!%n tests B!&l!%*ra"+)

4. C ',&*& 'a. M

+e C%n-!t!%nal M%%+e , t)"es %$ C%n-!t!%nal Senten#es S"e#!$!# %&'e#t!(es Summar) Sel$-e(aluat!%n tests B!&l!%*ra"+)

5. W$&*&'( F $6a. L%**%$s


Curr!#ulum (!tae Letters %$ a""l!#at!%n Bus!ness letters
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C%m"la!nt letters Summar) Sel$-e(aluat!%n tests B!&l!%*ra"+)

B&7.& ($a#2y

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IN R/0UCERE
+!s En*l!s+ #%urse -es!*ne- $%r t+e 1st )ear La2 stu-ents - 0!stan#e learn!n* -e"artment 3 a!ms at #reat!n* t+e #%m"eten#es %$ #%mmun!#at!%n !n En*l!s+ !n t+e $!el- %$ La2 an- n%t %nl)4 E(er) #+a"ter #%nta!ns a num&er %$ less%ns 2+!#+ ensure a "r%*ress!(e an- stru#ture- learn!n*4 +e learn!n* a#t!(!t!es are meant t% &a#5 u" t+e ne2 5n%2le-*e an- #reate t+e #%m"eten#es t% &e a#6u!re- &) t+e stu-ents4 +e assessment tests use- at t+e en- %$ ea#+ less%n, t+e summar) an- t+e #%n#lus!%ns als% #%ntr!&ute t% &a#5!n* u" t+e 5n%2le-*e an- #%m"eten#es ta5en !nt% #%ns!-erat!%n4 A$ter )%u +a(e stu-!e- all t+e !n$%rmat!%n an- s%l(e- t+e e7er#!ses, )%u 2!ll a#6u!re t+e $%ll%2!n* #%m"eten#es8 un-erstan-!n* &%t+ t+e s"%5en an- 2r!tten En*l!s+ re#%*n!9!n* stru#ture s!*nals :(er& tenses, "ers%nal "r%n%uns, s!n*ular;"lural mar5ers<4 !-ent!$)!n* senten#es4 ma5!n* u" senten#es, trans$%rmat!%ns, e7"ans!%ns, re-u#t!%ns4 #%m"re+en-!n* an- "r%-u#!n* a -!s#%urse !n(%l(!n* se(eral s"ea5ers4 tal5!n* a&%ut a #erta!n t%"!#4 summar!9!n* 2+at !s s"%5en %r 2r!tten4 rea-!n* senten#es an- "ara*ra"+s4 -%!n* an !ntens!(e rea-!n* :s#ann!n* an- s5!mm!n*<4 -%!n* an e7tens!(e rea-!n* :$%r s"e#!$!# !n$%rmat!%n<4 2r!t!n* te7ts t+at -em%nstrate *rammat!#al4 le7!#al an- semant!# a""r%"r!ateness

A$ter e(er) #+a"ter )%u 2!ll $!n- assessment tests 2!t+ #lear re6u!rements= t+us )%u 2!ll a#+!e(e t+e %&'e#t!(es #%ns!-ere-4 I$ )%u #ann%t s%l(e t+e $!rst tas5 (er) 2ell, )%u 2!ll rea- t+e less%n a*a!n an- a$ter t+at )%u 2!ll &e a&le t% eas!l) $!n- t+e r!*+t ans2ers4 +e #%urse !s -!(!-e- !nt% $%ur #+a"ters8 +e $!rst #+a"ter, Ways of Expressing Futurity, a""r%a#+es all $%ur t)"es %$ Future enses an- t+e #%n#e"t %$ Near Future :2!t+ all "+rases<, t+ere$%re )%u 2!ll #%nt!nue stu-)!n* *rammar, "art!#ularl) tenses an- m%%-s4 >%u 2!ll learn 2+at 5!n- %$ a#t!%ns ea#+ %$ t+ese tenses e7"resses, )%u 2!ll $!n- e7am"les 2+!#+ !llustrate t+e s!tuat!%ns ren-ere- &) all $uture tenses, t+us real!9!n* t+e -!$$eren#es &et2een t+em4 >%u 2!ll als% rea- an- translate te7ts %n le*al !ssues, t+us learn!n* ne2 2%r-s use- !n t+e $!el- %$ La2 an- us!n* t+em !n senten#es an- te7ts %$ )%ur %2n4 +ere$%re, at t+e en- %$ t+!s #+a"ter, %n %ne +an-, )%u 2!ll &e a&le t% !-ent!$) t+e t)"e %$ Future ense use- !n a #erta!n #%nte7t an- 2+) !t +as &een use-, t% ma5e t+e -!$$eren#e &et2een t+e s!m"le, #%nt!nu%us an- "er$e#t as"e#t an-, %n t+e %t+er +an-, t% -!s#uss a&%ut #erta!n le*al !ssues an- 2r!te "a"ers %n t+em4 +e se#%n- #+a"ter, The Sequence of Tenses, 2!ll a""r%a#+ t+e rules %$ t+e se6uen#e %$ tenses, !4e4 "ast tense !n t+e ma!n #lause 3 "ast tense ; "ast "er$e#t ; $uture-!n-t+e-"ast !n t+e -!re#t %&'e#t #lause= "resent tense !n t+e ma!n #lause 3
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"resent ; "ast ; "resent "er$e#t ; $uture !n t+e su&%r-!nate #lause= $uture !n t+e ma!n #lause 3 "resent ; "resent "er$e#t ; "ast tense !n t+e t!me-#lause, et#4 >%u 2!ll als% $!n- s!m!lar!t!es an- -!ss!m!lar!t!es &et2een t+e se6uen#e %$ tenses !n En*l!s+ an- R%man!an4 @ust l!5e !n t+e $!rst #+a"ter, )%u 2!ll als% rea- antranslate te7ts %n le*al !ssues, t+us learn!n* ne2 2%r-s use- !n t+e $!el- %$ La2 an- us!n* t+em !n senten#es an- te7ts %$ )%ur %2n4 +e t+!r- #+a"ter, The Conditional ood, 2!ll a""r%a#+ n%t %nl) t+!s *rammat!#al m%%-, &ut als% t+e t+ree t)"es %$ #%n-!t!%nal senten#es, e7"la!n!n* t+e #%rres"%n-!n* tenses an- m%%-s 2+!#+ are use- !n t+e #%n-!t!%nal #lauses, #%ns!-er!n* 2+et+er 2e re$er t% "ast, "resent %r $uture +)"%t+et!#al a#t!%ns4 >%u 2!ll als% &e tau*+t t+e A%m!ss!%n %$ ifB $%r ea#+ %$ t+e t+ree t)"es %$ #%n-!t!%nal senten#es an- )%u 2!ll ma5e u" senten#es an- te7ts %$ )%ur %2n &) %&ser(!n* t+e rules "re(!%usl) e7"la!ne-4 M%re%(er, )%u 2!ll rea- an- translate te7ts %n le*al !ssues, t+us learn!n* m%re ne2 2%r-s use- !n t+e $!el- %$ La2 an- us!n* t+em !n senten#es an- te7ts %$ )%ur %2n= )%u 2!ll +a(e -e&ates %n su#+ !ssues4 +e $%urt+ #+a"ter, Writing Formal Letters, 2!ll $!rstl) a""r%a#+ t+e #+ara#ter!st!#s %$ t+e $%rmal lan*ua*e :!4e4 2%r-s %$ Lat!n %r!*!n, !m"ers%nal #%nstru#t!%ns, "ass!(e (%!#e< #%m"are- t% t+e !n$%rmal %ne4 Se#%n-l), )%u 2!ll &e tau*+t +%2 t% 2r!te $%rmal letters8 Curr!#ulum (!tae, Letters %$ a""l!#at!%n ; Interest, Bus!ness letters, C%m"la!nt letters4 >%u 2!ll rea- an- translate sam"les %$ su#+ $%rmal letters an- t+en )%u 2!ll !ma*!ne #erta!n s!tuat!%ns an2r!te t+e ne#essar) letters4

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1. WA8S 9F E:PRESSING FUTURIT8


1.1. F)*)$% T%'s% S&6#.% 1.1. N%a$ F)*)$% S#%-&!&- 7;%-*&<%s S)66a$y S%.!=%<a.)a*& ' *%s*s B&7.& ($a#2y Specific objectives: At t+e en- %$ t+e #+a"ter )%u 2!ll &e a&le t%8 !-ent!$) t+e t)"e %$ Future ense use- !n a #erta!n #%nte7t= e7"la!n 2+at 5!n- %$ a#t!%n !t e7"resses= ma5e t+e -!$$eren#e &et2een t+e s!m"le, #%nt!nu%us an- "er$e#t as"e#t use all Future enses an- t+e "+rases e7"ress!n* Near Future !n #%rre#t senten#es4 Estimated time for individual study: 3 hours

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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

1.1. F)*)$% T%'s%s


1.1.1. F)*)$% T%'s% S&6#.% +ere are se(eral -!$$erent 2a)s %$ e7"ress!n* $uture a#t!%ns !n En*l!s+, t+e #+%!#e am%n* t+em !s %n 2+et+er t+e a#t!%n !s "lanne-, !nten-e-, s#+e-ule-, e7"e#te-, !mm!nent, et#4 14 F/RM8 A!!&$6a*&<%> I;2e s+all4;2!ll *%4 IGll;2eGll *%4 >%u;+e;s+e;!t;t+e) 2!ll *%4 >%uGll;+eGll;s+eGll;!tGll;t+e)Gll *%4 I;2e s+all n%t;s+anGt *%4 I;2e 2!ll n%t;2%nGt *%4 >%u;+e;s+e;!t;t+e) 2!ll n%t *%4 >%u;+e;s+e;!t;t+e) 2%nGt *%4 S+all;2!ll I;2e *%H I!ll )%u;+e;s+e;!t;t+e) *%H S+all I;2e n%t *%H S+anGt I;2e *%H I!ll I )%u;+e;s+e;!t;2e;t+e) n%t *%H I%nGt I;)%u;+e;s+e;!t;2e;t+e) *%H

N%(a*&<%>

I'*%$$ (a*&<%>

N%(a*&<%=I'*%$$ (a*&<%>

24 USE8 As a rule, shall !s use- 2!t+ t+e $!rst "ers%n :s!n*ular an- "lural< an- 2!t+ t+e se#%n- an- t+e t+!r- "ers%n, t+!s $%rm &e!n* als% #alle- Pure Future %r Un#%l%re- Future4 It usuall) %##urs !n $%rmal st)le, alt+%u*+ !n n%rmal s"ee#+, t+e $%rms !"ll an- We"ll "r%&a&l) &e use-4 a< a AneutralB $uture e(ent, a "re-!#t!%n a&%ut t+e $uture, 2!t+%ut an) (alue %$ (%l!t!%n, "r%m!se, et#48 I shall go %n an !nterest!n* tr!" ne7t 2ee54 M) $r!en- #ill see a *%%- $!lm !n t+e a$tern%%n4 &< a $uture a#t!%n !n t+e ma!n #lause %$ #%n-!t!%nal senten#es8 I shall read t+!s &%%5 !$ s+e *!(es !t t% me4
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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

I$ t+e ra!n st%"s, t+e &%)s #ill play !n t+e *ar-en4 In #erta!n #%nte7ts, t+e !nterr%*at!(e $%rms Shall i$#e %& An- Will you %& ma) +a(e -!$$erent mean!n*s4 S%, Shall !$#e open t+!s 2!n-%2sH +as t+e mean!n*8 I%ul- )%u l!5e me;us t% %"en t+!s 2!n-%2H an-8 Will )%u help me 2!t+ t+!s translat!%nH +as t+e mean!n*8 Are )%u 2!ll!n* t%;2%ul- )%u l!5e t% +el" me 2!t+ t+!s translat!%nH 1.1.1. F)*)$% T%'s% C '*&') )s 14 F/RM8 A!!&$6a*&<%> I;2e s+all;2!ll &e 2al5!n* >%u;+e;s+e;!t;t+e) 2!ll &e 2al5!n* N%(a*&<%> I;2e s+all n%t &e 2al5!n* I;2e s+anGt &e 2al5!n* I;)%u;+e;s+e;!t;2e;t+e) 2!ll n%t &e 2al5!n* I )%u;+e;s+e;!t;2e;t+e) 2%nGt &e 2al5!n* I'*%$$ (a*&<%> S+all;2!ll I;2e &e 2al5!n*H I!ll )%u;+e;s+e;!t;t+e) &e 2al5!n*H N%(a*&<%=I'*%$$ (a*&<%> S+all I;2e n%t 2e &e 2al5!n*H S+anGt I;2e &e 2al5!n*H I!ll I;)%u;+e;s+e;!t;2e;t+e) n%t &e 2al5!n*H I%nGt I;)%u;+e;s+e;!t;2e;t+e) &e 2al5!n*H 24 USE8 14 t% e7"ress a $uture a#t!(!t) %r state t+at 2!ll &e*!n &e$%re an- 2!ll #%nt!nue a$ter a #erta!n m%ment !n t+e $uture8 +!s t!me t%m%rr%2 2e shall be #atching K4 24 t% !n-!#ate t+at an a#t!(!t) %r state 2!ll e7ten- %(er a 2+%le $uture "er!%-8 Lu#) #ill be #riting letters all -a) l%n*4 ,4 t% e7"ress $uture e(ents t+at are "lanne-8 Ie shall be spending %ur ne7t +%l!-a) !n t+e m%unta!ns4 1.1.4. F)*)$% P%$!%-*
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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

F)*)$% P%$!%-* S&6#.% 14 F/RM8 S+all ; 2!ll M +a(e M Past Part!#!"le 24 USE8 +e Future Per$e#t S!m"le !s use- t% !n-!#ate8 14 An a#t!%n 2+!#+ 2!ll &e $!n!s+e- &e$%re a #erta!n m%ment %r an%t+er a#t!%n !n t+e $uture4 In t+!s #ase !t !s usuall) ass%#!ate- 2!t+ t+e "re"%s!t!%n by !n su#+ #%nstru#t!%ns as by onday$by that time$by the end of$' et#48 It !s n!ne %G#l%#54 IGm sure m) s!ster #ill ha(e #ritten +er #%m"%s!t!%n &) ele(en %G#l%#54 24 +e -urat!%n u" t% a #erta!n t!me !n t+e $uture8 %m%rr%2 2e shall ha(e been %n +%l!-a) $%r %ne m%nt+4 Ment!%n must &e ma-e %$ t+e $a#t t+at t+e Future Per$e#t -%es n%t %##ur !n t!me #lause, !n 2+!#+ #ase t+e Present Per$e#t !s use-8 >%u 2!ll &e a&le t% translate su#+ a -!$$!#ult te7t %nl) 2+en;a$ter )%u ha(e learnt :n%t8 #ill ha(e learnt< all t+e ne2 2%r-s4 F)*)$% P%$!%-* C '*&') )s 14 F/RM8 s+all;2!ll M +a(e M &een M Present Part!#!"le 24 USE8 +e Future Per$e#t C%nt!nu%us !s use- t% e7"ress t+e -urat!%n %$ an a#t!%n u" t% a #erta!n m%ment !n t+e $uture8 At C %G#l%#5 )%ur s!ster #ill ha(e been sleeping $%r t2% +%urs4 F)*)$%?I'?T2%?Pas* 1. F/RM8 I%ul- M !n$!n!t!(e 24 USE8 Future-!n-t+e-Past e7"resses a#t!%ns su&se6uent t% a "ast a#t!%n= t+ere$%re, !n t+!s #ase, t+e "%!nt %$ re$eren#e !s t+e "ast4 He as5e- me 2+en I #ould return t% t+e #%urt4 +e 'u-*e ann%un#e- t+at t+e 2!tnesses #ould be called t% t+e &ar4 1.1.5. F $ a 7%**%$ )',%$s*a',&'( ! ($a66a$ a', ! $ < -a7).a$y #$a-*&-% )ead the follo#ing text* Try to translate it #ithout using a dictionary' then loo+ for the un+no#n #ords and #rite them do#n* Try to use each of the ne# #ords in a sentence* Per+a"s t+e m%st !m"%rtant -!$$eren#e &et2een t+e 'u-!#!ar) %$ USA an- UN !s
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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

t+e!r relat!(e s!9e4 B) #%m"ar!s%n 2!t+ t+e Amer!#an, t+e En*l!s+ 'u-!#!ar) !s t!n), an- e7#e"t!%nall) t!*+tl) %r*an!9e-4 +e +!*+er 'u-!#!ar), 2+!#+ !n En*lan- #%ns!sts %$ 'u-*es %$ t+e H!*+ C%urt an- a""ellate #%urts, #%m"r!ses t+e L%r- C+an#ell%r, t+e L%r- C+!e$ @ust!#e, t+e Master %$ t+e R%lls :2+% !s Pres!-ent %$ t+e C%urt %$ A""eal<, 11 L%r-s %$ A""eal, 1J l%r-s 'ust!#es %$ a""eal, t+e K!#e-C+an#ell%r :t+e sen!%r 'u-*e %$ t+e C+an#er) 0!(!s!%n %$ t+e H!*+ C%urt<, t+e Pres!-ent %$ t+e Fam!l) 0!(!s!%n %$ t+e H!*+ C%urt, an- JO %t+er 'u-*es %$ t+e H!*+ C%urt, a t%tal %$ 11.4 +ese are t+e %nl) 'u-*es %$ *eneral %r a""ellate 'ur!s-!#t!%n !n t+e ent!re #%untr)4 +e ne7t t!er %$ t+e s)stem #%m"r!ses t+e C!r#u!t 'u-*es 2+% tr) #r!m!nal #ases !n t+e Cr%2n C%urts an- C!(!l Cases !n t+e C%untr) C%urts, &ut, !n &%t+ #ases, su&'e#t t% 'ur!s-!#t!%nal l!m!ts4 +ere are less t+an .OO C!r#u!t 'u-*es4 +ese are t+e %nl) "e%"le 2+% are "r%"erl) #alle- P'u-*esP !n t+e En*l!s+ le*al s)stem4 B) #%ntrast, t+e Amer!#an 'u-!#!ar) !s en%rm%us4 In 1LJ. t+e $e-eral 'u-!#!ar) al%ne #%m"r!se- %(er DOO 'u-*es4 +ere 2ere t+e n!ne 'ust!#es %$ t+e Su"reme C%urt an- t+e 1CJ 'u-*es %$ t+e 1, #%urts %$ a""eals :!n#lu-!n* t+e 0C C%urt an- t+e Fe-eral C%urt 2+%se 2%r5 !s alm%st ent!rel) a""ellate4 +en t+ere 2ere ?.? 0!str!#t 'u-*es, 2+% are tr!al 'u-*es, all %$ 2+%m ran5, !n terms %$ 'ur!s-!#t!%n an- "%2er, 2!t+ En*l!s+ H!*+ C%urt 'u-*es, s% $ar as $e-eral 'ur!s-!#t!%n e7ten-s4 In t+e state #%urt s)stems, t+e t%tal num&er %$ 'u-*es t%-a) e7#ee-s D,?OO t+%u*+ man) %$ t+ese ma) +a(e l!m!te- 'ur!s-!#t!%n an"%2ers s!m!lar t% :%r less t+an t+%se %$< En*l!s+ C!r#u!t 'u-*es4 :Alt+%u*+ !t !s -!$$!#ult t% &e sure t+at 2e are al2a)s #%m"ar!n* l!5e 2!t+ l!5e, t+ese $!*ures -% n%t !n#lu-e m!n%r ma*!strates, 'ust!#es %$ t+e "ea#e an- tra$$!# #%urt 'u-*es !n Amer!#a, %r ma*!strates !n En*lan-4< +e $e-eral 'u-!#!ar) an- %(er $%rt) states +a(e a t+ree-t!ere- #%urt s)stem l!5e En*lan-Ps, 2!t+ !nterme-!ate an$!nal a""ellate #%urts4 +e num&er %$ 'u-*es !n man) %$ t+e lar*er states *reatl) %utnum&ers t+e ent!re 'u-!#!ar) %$ En*lan-4 Cal!$%rn!a al%ne, $%r !nstan#e, +as D?L 'u-*es, alt+%u*+ t+e "%"ulat!%n %$ En*lan- !s alm%st t2!#e t+at %$ Cal!$%rn!a4 In a--!t!%n, Amer!#an 'u-*es %"erate !n a $ar less #entral!9e- s)stem4 N%t %nl) -%es ea#+ state +a(e !ts %2n 'u-!#!al s)stem 2!t+!n !ts %2n &%r-ers, -!st!n#t $r%m t+e $e-eral s)stem 2+!#+ #%(ers t+e 2+%le #%untr), &ut e(en t+e $e-eral s)stem !tsel$ !s -e#entral!9e- t% a s!*n!$!#ant -e*ree4 Fe-eral a""eals #%urts, $%r !nstan#e, 2+!#+ +ear a""eals $r%m $e-eral 0!str!#t @u-*es, are #%nst!tute- !n 12 -!st!n#t #%urts %$ a""eals :an- a $urt+er #%urt $%r Ias+!n*t%n 0C<, an- t+ese a""eals #%urts, &e!n* t+emsel(es lar*e #%lle*!ate &%-!es, *e%*ra"+!#all) rem%te $r%m ea#+ %t+er, e7er#!se a #%ns!-era&le -e*ree %$ !n-e"en-en#e4 M%re%(er, t+e su"er(!s!%n e7er#!se- &) t+e Un!te- States Su"reme C%urt %(er t+e a""eals !n #%urts !s !n "ra#t!#e $ar m%re l!m!te- t+an t+e #%rres"%n-!n* #%ntr%l e7er#!se- &) t+e H%use %$ L%r-s %(er t+e En*l!s+ C%urt %$ A""eal4 +e state #%urt s)stems are !n s!m!lar 2a)s m%re -e#entral!9e- t+an !n t+e En*l!s+ s)stem4

A-*&<&*y 1
Translate the following sentences into English:
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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

1< l4 N%ul "reEe-!nte al #%m"an!e! urmea9F sF "art!#!"e la % #%n$er!nQF -e "resF Rn urmFt%arele #Ste(a m!nute4 2< Am as!*urat-% "e mama #F nu (%! RntSr9!a la E#%alF4 ,< La a-unarea *eneralF a a#Q!%nar!l%r (%r $! "re9enQ! t%Q! #e! !n(!taQ!4 .< e (%! anunQa #are este +%tFrSrea mea -u"F #e Rm! (%! $! #%nsultat a(%#atul4

?< Anul (!!t%r #!$ra -e a$a#er! a $!rme! n%astre se (a -u&la, aEa #F (a tre&u! sF an*a'Fm un 'ur!st E! un #%nta&!l4 C< El (a $! e#%n%m!s!t ma! mult -e 2 m!l!%ane "SnF la s$SrE!tul a#este! lun!4 D< I-a s"us #F nu R! (a "utea mFr! salar!ul4 J< A(%#atul le-a atras atenQ!a #F (%r tre&u! sF res"e#te #u ma! multF atenQ!e termenele -e l!(rare4 L< Ban#a n%astrF (a -es#+!-e un a#re-!t!( -%#umentar Rn $a(%area -umnea(%astrF4 1O< Ne-au s"us #F -%mnul Sm!t+ (a $! un "artener "e #are ne (%m "utea &a9a4 11< Ce-a! -e *Sn- sF $a#! #u &an!!H 12< Era s!*urF #F $ata e! % sF a!&F su##es4 1,< La anul "e (remea a#easta (%! $! stu-!at -e -%! an! tre! l!m&! strF!ne -e%-atF, -ar tre&u!e sF mFrtur!ses# #F nu (%! Et! n!#! una la "er$e#Q!e4 1.< Luna (!!t%are a#eastF &an#F (a ma! -es#+!-e Rn#F tre! su#ursale4
15) Dac mai continu s cheltuiasc astfel va rmne fr bani pn cnd va mplini 30 de ani.

1.1. N%a$ F)*)$%


/ BE G/ING / :A AKEA 0E GAN0 S< 14 USE8 +e going to 3 #%nstru#t!%n !s use- t% e7"ress8 14 !ntent!%n :t+e $uture $ul$!llment %$ "resent !ntent!%n<8 I+at is @ane going to tell usH +ere !s a -!$$eren#e &et2een t+e !ntent!%n e7"resse- &) #ill an- t+e %ne e7"resse- &) be going to* +!s !s &e#ause t+e going to 3 #%nstru#t!%n e7"resses n%t %nl) !ntent!%n, &ut als% "reme-!tat!%n4 +ere$%re, to be going to !s n%t use2+ere "reme-!tat!%n !s n%t em"l%)e-8 A8 B@%+n #ann%t -% t+!s e7er#!se4B
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Ways of expressing futurity

B8 BIGll +el" +!m4B :n%t8 AIGm *%!n* t% +el" +!m4B< 24 "re-!#t!%n 3 2+en 2e 5n%2 t+at s%met+!n* 2!ll ta5e "la#e !n t+e $uture8 M) s!ster is going to *ra-uate $r%m t+e $a#ult) !n Ma)4 /r 2+en 2e see t+at s%met+!n* !s a&%ut t% +a""en8 It is going to ra!n !n a $e2 m!nutes4 ,4 Planne- a#t!%ns8 M) Un#le is going to &u) a &%at ne7t )ear4 / BE / :A URMA S< 14 USE8 +!s e7"ress!%n %$ $utur!t) +as #erta!n mean!n*s8 14 S%met+!n* t+at !s -est!ne- t% +a""en8 +e $am%us tenn!s "la)er &e*an t+e mat#+ !n 2+!#+ +e #as to brea+ +!s arm4 24 An %$$!#!al "lan %r an arran*ement8 +e "res!-ent #as to arri(e at 1O %G#l%#54 S+e is to see +er -ent!st t%m%rr%24 ,4 +e 2!ll %$ a "ers%n, -!$$erent $r%m t+e s"ea5er8 +!s &a- ne2s is to be gi(en t% +!m a$ter +!s e7am4 .4 0ut)8 I+at e7er#!ses are #e to do& ?4 P%ss!&!l!t), "r%&a&!l!t)8 Pr!#es are to &e mu#+ +!*+er s%%n4 / BE AB/U 14 USE8 +!s #%nstru#t!%n !s use- t% e7"ress s%met+!n* t+at 2!ll +a""en !n t+e !mme-!ate $uture8 e4 *4 /ur *uests are a&%ut t% lea(e4 I am a&%ut t% *% t% t+e seas!-e4 / BE /N HE KERGE /F M K M ING :A FI PE PUNC UL 0E AT< S+e is on the (erge of re(eal!n* +!s se#ret4 +e 2!tness is on the (erge of a-m!tt!n* t+at +e 2as n%t t+ere4 /

:A FI GA A S;A URMA S<

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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

Exemple: Ie s+all use all t+ese "+rases e7"ress!n* t+e Near Future !n t+e same #%nte7t8 14 +e la2)er is going to -!s#uss 2!t+ t+e -e$en-ant4 24 +e la2)er is to -!s#uss 2!t+ t+e -e$en-ant4 ,4 +e la2)er is about to -!s#uss 2!t+ t+e -e$en-ant4 .4 +e -e$en-ant is on the (erge of -!s#uss!n* 2!t+ t+e -e$en-ant4 +ese "+rases #an als% &e use- !n t+e!r Past ense $%rm8 14 +e la2)er 2as *%!n* t%444 24 +e la2)er 2as t% -!s#uss444 ,4 +e la2)er 2as a&%ut t%444 .4 +e la2)er 2as %n t+e (er*e %$444

A-*&<&*y 1
ranslate !nt% En*l!s+> 1< C%m"an!a n%astrF (a "r%-u#e % *amF #%m"letF -e a"araturF ele#tr%#asn!#F4 2< H%Qul era "e "un#tul -e a -es#+!-e se!$ul #Sn- a au9!t "aE! Rn Rn#F"erea alFturatF4 ,< Central!sta m-a Rntre&at #u #e !nter!%r sF-m! $a#F le*Ftura4 .< S"er #F rata -%&Sn9!! (a s#F-ea #u t!m"ul4 ?< Ce $a#! mS!ne searFH C< Se#retara (a mun#! -e -%uF %re #Sn- mana*erul (a a'un*e la &!r%u4 D< Pe -ata -e 2. ale lun!! a#este!a se (%r Rm"l!n! ?O -e an! -e #Sn- sunt #FsFt%r!Q!4 J< Ban#+erul a +%tFrSt #F (a l%#u! Rn An*l!a Rn urmFt%arele #!n#! lun!4 L< Ka tre&u! sF a##e"taQ! a#est amen-ament #a $F#Sn- "arte -!n a#re-!t!(4 1O< MS!ne "e (remea asta (%! 9&ura #Ftre Me7!#4 11< C%ntr!&uQ!a la as!*urFr!le s%#!ale se (a #al#ula Rn #%n$%rm!tate #u salar!ul &rut4 12< KeQ! $! #!t!t a#eastF #arte, #re-, #Sn- eraQ! m!#!4 1,< Pr%$!tul "e anul 2OOO (a $! !m"%9!tat Rn urmFt%rul an $!nan#!ar4 1.< F!rma -umnea(%astrF (a $u9!%na #u % altF $!rmF sau (a $! "reluatF -e un mare #%n#ernH

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Ways of expressing futurity

S)66a$y
+!s #+a"ter +as a""r%a#+e- t+e 2a)s %$ e7"ress!n* $utur!t), anal)s!n* t+e $%ur Future enses an- t+e "+rases e7"ress!n* Near Future4 >%u +a(e &een tau*+t +%2 t% use t+ese tenses an- "+rases a##%r-!n* t% t+e t)"e %$ a#t!%n 3 m%mentar) %r "r%*ress!(e, "re(!%us %r su&se6uent, !ntent!%n, !mm!nent et#4 >%u als% !m"r%(e- )%ur 5n%2le-*e !n t+e La2 $!el-, as 2ell as t+e s"e#!al!9e- (%#a&ular) &) rea-!n* an- translat!n* s"e#!$!# te7ts 3 B +e @u-*esB an- B +e S%ur#es %$ t+e En*l!s+ La2 :1<B

S%.!=%<a.)a*& ' *%s*s


Rea- an- translate t+e $%l%2!n* te7ts8 HE S/URCES /F HE ENGLISH LAI :1< Br!t!s+ C%nst!tut!%n an- G%(ernment +e Un!te- N!n*-%m %$ Great Br!ta!n an- N%rt+ern Irelan- !s a #%nst!tut!%nal m%nar#+) an- a un!tar) state, 2+!#+ !s ma-e u" %$ t+e !slan- %$ Great Br!ta!n :!n#lu-!n* En*lan-, S#%tlan- an- Iales< an- %$ N%rt+ern Irelan-4 En*l!s+ la2 an- S#%ts la2 are (er) -!$$erent $r%m ea#+ %t+er !n $%rm ansu&stan#e4 +e se"arate e(%lut!%n %$ t+e t2% le*al s)stems, &%t+ &e$%re ana$ter Un!%n, +as resulte- !n -!$$erent "r!n#!"les, !nst!tut!%ns an- tra-!t!%ns4 Alt+%u*+ !n m%-ern t!mes S#%ts la2 +as &een *reatl) !n$luen#e- &) En*l!s+ la2, !t !s st!ll &ase- u"%n "r!n#!"les %$ R%man an- C!(!l la2 an- u"%n rules %$ Can%n, $eu-al %r #ust%mar) la2 %r!*!n4 In s"!te %$ t+e e7!sten#e %$ a #%mm%n "arl!ament $%r En*lan- an- S#%tlan- $%r %(er 2?O )ears t+ere +as &een n% ass!m!lat!%n %$ t+e le*al s)stem %$ t+e t2% #%untr!es4 A $us!%n %$ la2 +as, +%2e(er, ta5en "la#e &et2een En*lan- an- Iales, as a #%nse6uen#e %$ t+e su&'u*at!%n %$ t+e latter #%untr) !n t+e m!--le a*es4 +e la2 %$ N%rt+ern Irelan-, alt+%u*+ a-m!n!stere- as a se"arate s)stem, !s s!m!lar !n man) essent!als t% En*l!s+ la24 +e #%nst!tut!%nal "r!n#!"les, rules an- "ra#t!#es %$ t+e Un!te- N!n*-%m +a(e ne(er &een #%-!$!e-= t+e) -er!(e $r%m statute la2, $r%m #%mm%n la2, an- $r%m #%n(ent!%ns %$ t+e #%nst!tut!%n, 2+!#+ are n%t la2s at all, &ut "%l!t!#al "ra#t!#es 2+!#+ +a(e &e#%me #%ns!-ere- as !n-!s"ensa&le t% t+e sm%%t+ 2%r5!n* %$ t+e ma#+!ner) %$ *%(ernment4 T2% 6 'a$-2y !s t+e m%st an#!ent se#ular !nst!tut!%n !n t+e Un!te- N!n*-%m, 2!t+ a #%nt!nu%us +!st%r) stret#+!n* &a#5 %(er a t+%usan- )ears4 +e m%nar#+) !s +ere-!tar) an- t+e "resent t!tle %$ t+e #r%2n -er!(es $r%m "r%(!s!%ns %$ t+e A#t %$ Settlement %$ 1DO1, 2+!#+ se#ure- t+e Pr%testant su##ess!%n4 +!s su##ess!%n #ann%t &e altere-, un-er a "r%(!s!%n %$ t+e Statute %$ Iestm!nster, 1L,1, e7#e"t &) #%mm%n #%nsensus %$ t+e mem&er states %$ t+e C%mm%n2ealt+ 2+!#+ %2e alle*!an#e t% t+e Cr%2n4
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Ways of expressing futurity

+e m%nar#+) !n t+e Un!te- N!n*-%m +as e(%l(e- %(er t+e #entur!es $r%m a&s%lute "ers%nal aut+%r!t) t% t+e "resent #%nst!tut!%nal $%rm &) 2+!#+ t+e Uueen re!*ns &ut -%es n%t rule4 Her Ma'est)Ps *%(ernment *%(erns !n t+e name %$ t+e Uueen 2+% must a#t %n a-(!#e %$ +er m!n!sters 4 +e Uueen summ%ns, "r%r%*ues :-!s#%nt!nue unt!l t+e ne7t sess!%n 2!t+%ut -!ss%lut!%n< an- -!ss%l(es Parl!ament= s+e usuall) %"ens ne2 sess!%ns %$ Parl!ament 2!t+ a s"ee#+ $r%m t+e t+r%ne !n 2+!#+ t+e ma'%r *%(ernmental "%l!#!es are %utl!ne-4 +e m%nar#+ must *!(e +er R%)al Assent &e$%re a B!ll 2+!#+ +as "asse- all !ts sta*es !n &%t+ +%uses %$ Parl!ament #an &e#%me a le*al ena#tment :A#t %$ Parl!ament< 4 +e M%nar#+Ps #%nsent an- a""r%(al !s re6u!re- &e$%re a Ca&!net #an &e $%rme- %r a m!n!ster ta5e u" %$$!#e4 As Hea- %$ State t+e M%nar#+ +as t+e "%2er t% s!*n !nternat!%nal a*reements, t% #e-e, anne7 %r re#e!(e terr!t%r), t% -e#lare 2ar %r ma5e "ea#e an- t% re#%*n!9e $%re!*n states an- *%(ernments4 +e M%nar#+ #%n$ers +%n%rs an- $%rmall) a""%!nts all !m"%rtant %$$!#e+%l-ers %$ state, !n#lu-!n* 'u-*es, *%(ernment m!n!sters, %$$!#ers !n t+e arme- $%r#es, -!"l%mats, an- t+e lea-!n* "%s!t!%ns :as &!s+%"s an- s%me %t+er sen!%r #ler*)< !n t+e Esta&l!s+e- C+ur#+4 As t+e V$%unta!n %$ 'ust!#eV s+e !s als% !n(%l(e- !n "ar-%n!n* "e%"le #%n(!#te- %$ #r!mes= !t !s %nl) t+e M%nar#+ 2+% !s a&le t% rem!t all %r "art %$ t+e "enalt!es !m"%se- u"%n "ers%ns #%n(!#te- %$ #r!mes t+r%u*+ t+e e7er#!se %$ t+e "rer%*at!(e %$ mer#) %n t+e a-(!#e %$ t+e a""r%"r!ate m!n!ster4 +e Uueen #%n$ers "eera*es, 5n!*+t+%%-s an- %t+er +%n%rs4 I!t+ rare e7#e"t!%ns-su#+ as a""%!nt!n* t+e Pr!me M!n!ster-a#ts !n(%l(!n* t+e use %$ Pr%)al "rer%*at!(eP "%2ers are n%2a-a)s "er$%rme- &) *%(ernment m!n!sters4 +e m!n!sters are res"%ns!&le t% Parl!ament an- #an &e 6uest!%nea&%ut "art!#ular "%l!#!es4 Parl!amentar) aut+%r!t) !s n%t re6u!re- $%r t+e e7er#!se %$ t+ese "rer%*at!(e "%2ers, alt+%u*+ Parl!ament ma) restr!#t ar a&%l!s+ su#+ r!*+ts4 +e Uueen als% +%l-s Pr!() C%un#!l meet!n*s, *!(es au-!en#es t% +er m!n!sters an- %$$!#!als !n Br!ta!n an- %(erseas, re#e!(es a##%unts %$ Ca&!net -e#!s!%ns, rea-s -!s"at#+es an- s!*ns state "a"ers4 Pr%(!s!%n +as &een ma-e t% a""%!nt a re*ent t% "er$%rm t+ese r%)al $un#t!%ns s+%ul- t+e Uueen &e t%tall) !n#a"a#!tate-4 In t+e e(ent %$ +er "art!al !n#a"a#!t) %r a&sen#e a&r%a-, t+e Uueen ma) -ele*ate #erta!n r%)al $un#t!%ns t% t+e C%unsel%rs %$ State, 2+% are mem&ers %$ t+e r%)al $am!l)4 +e Parl!ament !s t+e le*!slat!(e %r*an an- !s #%nst!tut!%nall) #%m"%se- %$ t+e M%nar#+, t+e H%use %$ L%r-s, an- t+e H%use %$ C%mm%ns4 +e t+ree elements 2+!#+ ma5e u" t+e Parl!ament are #%nst!tute- %n -!$$erent "r!n#!"les4 +e) meet t%*et+er %nl) %n %##as!%ns %$ s)m&%l!# s!*n!$!#an#e su#+ as t+e state %"en!n* %$ t+e Parl!ament, 2+en t+e C%mm%ns are summ%ne- &) t+e Uueen t% t+e +%use %$ L%r-s4 +e a*reement %$ all t+ree elements !s n%rmall) re6u!re- $%r le*!slat!%n, &ut t+at %$ t+e Uueen !s *!(en as a matter %$ #%urse t% B!lls sent t% +er4 As t+ere are n% le*al restra!nts !m"%se- &) a 2r!tten #%nst!tut!%n, Parl!ament ma) le*!slate as !t "leases, su&'e#t t% Br!ta!nPs %&l!*at!%ns as a mem&er %$ t+e Eur%"ean Un!%n4 It #an ma5e %r #+an*e an) la2= an- #an %(erturn esta&l!s+e#%n(ent!%ns %r turn t+em !nt% la24 It #an e(en "r%l%n* !ts %2n l!$e &e)%n- t+e n%rmal "er!%- 2!t+%ut #%nsult!n* t+e ele#t%rate4 In "ra#t!#e, +%2e(er, Parl!ament -%es n%t assert !ts su"rema#) !n t+!s 2a)4 Its mem&ers &ear !n m!n- t+e #%mm%n la2 an- n%rmall) a#t !n a##%r-an#e 2!t+
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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

"re#e-ent4 +e (al!-!t) %$ an A#t %$ Parl!ament, %n#e "asse-, #ann%t &e -!s"ute- !n t+e la2 #%urts4 +e H%use %$ C%mm%ns !s -!re#tl) res"%ns!&le t% t+e ele#t%rate, an- !n t+!s #entur) t+e H%use %$ L%r-s +as re#%*n!se- t+e su"rema#) %$ t+e ele#te- #+am&er4 +e s)stem %$ "art) *%(ernment +el" t% ensure t+at Parl!ament le*!slates 2!t+ !ts res"%ns!&!l!t) t% t+e ele#t%rate !n m!n-4 +e H%use %$ L%r-s !s $%r t+e m%st "art st!ll a +ere-!tar) &%-)4 It #%ns!sts %$ t+e L%r-s em"%ral an- t+e L%r-s S"!r!tual4 +e L%r-s em"%ral !n#lu-e +ere-!tar) "eers an- "eeresses 2+% +a(e n%t -!s#la!me- t+e!r "eera*es un-er t+e Peera*es A#t, 1LC,8 l!$e "eers an- "eeresses #reate- &) t+e Cr%2n un-er t+e L!$e Peera*es A#t, 1L?J !n re#%*n!t!%n %$ "u&l!# ser(!#e= an- t+e L%r-s %$ A""eal !n /r-!nar)4 +e H%use %$ L%r-s !s "res!-e- %(er &) t+e L%rC+an#ell%r 2+% !s e7 %$!#!% #+a!rman %$ t+e H%use4 +e L%r-s S"!r!tual !n#lu-e t+e Ar#+&!s+%"s %$ Canter&ur) an- >%r5, t+e B!s+%"s %$ L%n-%n, 0ur+am an- I!n#+ester, an- t+e 21 m%st sen!%r -!%#esan &!s+%"s %$ t+e C+ur#+ %$ En*lan-4 +e H%use %$ C%mm%ns !s an ele#te- an- re"resentat!(e &%-)= mem&ers :at "resent C?O< are ele#te- &) alm%st un!(ersal a-ult su$$ra*e t% re"resent t+e #%nst!tuen#!es !n En*lan- :?2,<, S#%tlan- :D2<, Iales :,J< an- N%rt+ern Irelan- :1D<4 +e la2 relat!n* t% "arl!amentar) ele#t!%ns !s #%nta!ne- !n su&stan#e !n t+e Re"resentat!%n %$ Pe%"le A#t, 1L.L, as amen-e-4 An) Br!t!s+ su&'e#t a*e- 21 %r %(er, n%t %t+er2!se -!s6ual!$!e- :as $%r e7am"le, mem&ers %$ t+e H%use %$ L%r-s, #erta!n #ler*), un-!s#+ar*e- &an5ru"ts, #!(!l ser(ants, +%l-ers %$ 'u-!#!al %$$!#e, mem&ers %$ t+e re*ular arme- ser(!#es an- t+e "%l!#e $%r#es< ma) &e ele#te- a mem&er %$ Parl!ament :MP<4 Mem&ers are "a!- a salar) an- an all%2an#e $%r se#retar!al an- %$$!#e e7"enses= a$ter a Parl!ament !s -!ss%l(e- all seats are su&'e#t t% a General Ele#t!%n4 B)-ele#t!%ns ta5e "la#e 2+en a (a#an#) %##urs -ur!n* t+e l!$e %$ a Parl!ament, as 2+en a mem&er -!es, !s ele(ate- t% t+e H%use %$ L%r-s %r a##e"ts an V%$$!#e %$ "r%$!tV un-er t+e Cr%2n4 +e S"ea5er %$ t+e H%use %$ C%mm%ns !s ele#te- &) t+e mem&ers $r%m t+e mem&ers t% "res!-e %(er t+e H%use !mme-!atel) a$ter ea#+ ne2 Parl!ament !s $%rme-4 He !s an !m"art!al ar&!ter %(er "arl!amentar) "r%#e-ure an- t+e tra-!t!%nal *uar-!an %$ t+e r!*+ts an- "r!(!le*es %$ t+e H%use %$ C%mm%ns4 In t+e Parl!ament A#ts %$ 1L11 an- 1L.L t+e Parl!ament +as "r%(!-e- t+at !n #erta!n #!r#umstan#es a B!ll ma) &e#%me la2 2!t+%ut t+e #%n#urren#e %$ all t+e #%m"%nent "arts %$ Parl!ament4 +ese t2% A#ts +a(e #lar!$!e- t+e su"rema#) %$ t+e H%use %$ C%mm%ns %(er t+e H%use %$ L%r-s, 2+!#+ #an %nl) -ela) t+e "assa*e %$ Pu&l!# B!lls $%r a ma7!mum "er!%- %$ %ne )ear an#ann%t -ela) at all t+e "assa*e %$ M%ne) B!lls :$!nan#!al measures<4 +e *%(ernment #%ns!sts %$ t+e m!n!sters a""%!nte- -!re#tl) &) t+e Cr%2n %n t+e re#%mmen-at!%n %$ t+e Pr!me M!n!ster, 2+% !s a""%!nte- -!re#tl) &) t+e Cr%2n an- !s t+e lea-er %$ t+e "%l!t!#al "art) 2+!#+ $%r t+e t!me &e!n* +as a ma'%r!t) %$ seats !n t+e H%use %$ C%mm%ns4 +e Pr!me M!n!ster !s t+e Hea- %$ t+e *%(ernment an- "res!-es %(er meet!n*s %$ t+e Ca&!net= &) #%n(ent!%n +e !s al2a)s a mem&er %$ t+e H%use %$ C%mm%ns4 He #%nsults an- a-(!ses t+e M%nar#+ %n *%(ernment &us!ness, su"er(!ses an- t% s%me e7tent #%%r-!nates t+e 2%r5 %$ t+e (ar!%us m!n!str!es an- -e"artments an- !s t+e "r!n#!"al s"%5esman $%r t+e *%(ernment !n t+e H%use %$ C%mm%n4 +e Ca&!net !s t+e nu#leus %$ *%(ernment= !ts mem&ers are re"resente- &) a small *r%u" %$ t+e m%st !m"%rtant m!n!sters 2+% are sele#te- &) t+e Pr!me
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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

M!n!ster4 +e s!9e %$ t+e Ca&!net !s t%-a) a&%ut 2, an- !ts ma!n $un#t!%n !s t% -eterm!ne, #%ntr%l an- !nte*rate t+e "%l!#!es %$ t+e *%(ernment $%r su&m!ss!%n t% Parl!ament4 +ere are %(er 1OO m!n!sters %$ t+e Cr%2n at t+e "resent t!me= t+e) !n#lu-e -e"artmental m!n!sters :e4*4, t+e Se#retar) %$ State $%r F%re!*n anC%mm%n2ealt+ A$$a!rs, C+an#ell%r %$ t+e E7#+e6uer : reasur)<<= n%n-e"artmental m!n!sters= m!n!sters %$ state, a4%4 +e L%r- C+an#ell%r an- t+e La2 /$$!#ers %$ t+e Cr%2n -eser(e s"e#!al ment!%n at t+!s "%!nt4 +e L%r- H!*+ C+an#ell%r an- t+e La2 /$$!#ers %$ Great Br!ta!n "res!-es %(er t+e H%use %$ L%r-s &%t+ !n le*!slat!(e #a"a#!t) an- as a $!nal #%urt %$ a""eal= +e !s a mem&er %$ t+e Ca&!net an- als% +as -e"artmental res"%ns!&!l!t!es !n #%nne#t!%n 2!t+ t+e a""%!ntment %$ #erta!n 'u-*es4 He a-(!ses %n, an- $re6uentl) !n!t!ates, la2 re$%rm "r%*rams 2!t+ t+e a!- %$ t+e La2 C%mm!ss!%ns, t+e La2 Re$%rm C%mm!ttee an- a- +%# #%mm!ttees; +e $%ur La2 %$$!#ers %$ t+e Cr%2n !n#lu-e, $%r En*lan- an- Iales, t+e Att%rne)General an- t+e S%l!#!t%r-General= $%r S#%tlan-, t+e L%r- A-(%#ate an- t+e S%l!#!t%r General $%r S#%tlan-4 +e En*l!s+ La2 /$$!#ers are usuall) mem&ers %$ t+e H%use %$ C%mm%ns an- t+e S#%tt!s+ La2 /$$!#ers ma) &e4 +e) re"resent t+e Cr%2n !n #!(!l l!t!*at!%n, "r%se#ute !n #erta!n e7#e"t!%nall) !m"%rtant #r!m!nal #ases, an- a-(!se *%(ernment %n "%!nts %$ la24 +e) ma) a""ear !n "r%#ee-!n*s &e$%re t+e Internat!%nal C%urt %$ @ust!#e, t+e Eur%"ean C%mm!ss!%n %$ Human R!*+ts an- C%urt %$ Human R!*+ts4 +e) ma) als% !nter(ene *enerall) !n l!t!*at!%n !n t+e Un!te- N!n*-%m as re"resentat!(es %$ t+e "u&l!# !nterest4 +e Un!te- N!n*-%m +as n% M!n!str) %$ @ust!#e4 Res"%ns!&!l!t) $%r t+e a-m!n!strat!%n %$ t+e 'u-!#!al s)stem !n En*lan- an- Iales !s -!(!-e- &et2een t+e #%urts t+emsel(es, t+e L%r- C+an#ell%r, an- t+e H%me Se#retar)4 +e L%rC+an#ell%r !s #%n#erne- 2!t+ t+e #%m"%s!t!%n %$ t+e #%urts, 2!t+ #!(!l la2, "arts %$ #r!m!nal "r%#e-ure an- la2 re$%rm !n *eneral= t+e H%me Se#retar) !s #%n#erne- 2!t+ t+e "re(ent!%n %$ #r!m!nal %$$en#es, t+e a""re+ens!%n, tr!al antreatment %$ %$$en-ers, an- 2!t+ "r!s%n ser(!#e4

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Al!na C+eE#F

Ways of expressing futurity

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