Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

BIBLIOTECONOMIE

EDUCAIA PERMANENT - UN FACTOR DECISIV AL DEZVOLTRII


SOCIETII CUNOATERII : ABORDRI TEORETICE
Inga Cernat
Catedra Biblioteconomie i Asisten Informaional USM
Suar!
L"#e$"%e &earn"ng - a %e'"(")e #a't*r "n t+e ,n*$&e%ge (*'"et!
%e)e&*-ent: t+e*ret"'a& a--r*a'+e(
The change and transformation of nowadays society make s face new !roblems and
necesities dealing with the hman resorses training" the le#el of schooling and le#el of cltre
of the !o!lation" beha#ior rles$ In order to be a good !rofessional" family man" citi%en it is
necessary to learn a new art of life" a life contine accommodation to the transformations
arond& a life long change that re!re%ents a life long learning$ The lifewide learning is like a
common mbrella which co#ers all nited ty!es of edcation and formation$ Its aim is life long
!ersonal" social and !rofessional de#elo!ment$
Re.uat
Schimbarea i transformarea societii de a%i" ne !ne 'n fa !robleme i cerine noi"
!ri#ind !regtirea resrselor mane" ni#ell de instrire i cltr al !o!laiei" normele de
condit etc$ (entr a fi n bn !rofesionalist" familist" cetean e ne#oie de a 'nsi o no art
de a tri" o ada!tare ne'ntrer!t la transformrile din )r * o schimbare contin & ceea ce
re!re%int o edcare !ermanent$ +dcarea !ermanent este mbrela comn sb care snt
renite toate ti!rile de 'n#are i formare" sco!l ei fiind de%#oltarea !ersonal" social i
!rofesional !e tot !arcrsl #ieii$
,nce!tl milenili III este marcat im!ntor de o societate 'ntemeiat !e informaie i
cnoatere" constitind 'n sens larg o -societate a cnoaterii.$ Societatea 'n care trim ne oblig
la modificrile !rofnde la ni#el de indi#id" de organi%aie" de relaii intermane$ Se !oate afirma
c o societate a cnoaterii a e/istat 'ntodeana$ 0abriela 1$ Sab remarc 2 .Cnoaterea n
mai este o com!onent a economiei moderne" ci de#ine n !rinci!i organi%aional de ba% al
e/istenei noastre$ Trim 'ntr&o societate a cnoaterii !entr c ne organi%m realitatea social
!e ba%a cnoaterii de care dis!nem.$
+delgard Blmahn 3ministr al +dcaiei 'n 0ermania4 afirm 'ntr&n inter#i din 5667
c cele mai im!ortante bnri din societatea cnoaterii snt o bn edcaie" creati#itate i
com!eten$ 8i aceasta !entr c globali%area i re#olia informaiei a a#t !rintre consecine
n no mod de organi%are a mncii" n sector al ser#iciilor 'n cretere" dar cea mai im!ortant
consecin este re!re%entat de fa!tl c edcaia iniial n mai !oate garanta anga)area de&a
lngl 'ntregii #iei !rofesionale$ Cnotinele trebie 'n !ermanen actali%ate 2 -fiecare
indi#id trebie s fie !regtit s dob'ndeasc calificri noi" s de%#olte abiliti" care s&i !ermit
s se ada!te%e re!ede la cernele noilor sitaii.$ 9e aceea" credem c" !entr a face fa
!ro#ocrilor #iitorli" #a trebi s ne ba%m !e n factor decisi#2 educaia permanent$
Ideea edcaiei !ermanente s&a nsct din ne#oia de articla diferite ni#elri i ti!ri de
edcaie" 'nc't edcaia s de#in contin 'n tim! i s!ai * -continuum educaional.$
Cnotinele" com!etenele i atitdinile dob'ndite 'n !erioada co!ilriei i adolescenei 'n
familie" la coal sa ni#ersitate n #or dra toat #iaa$ +ste ne#oie de integrarea 'n#rii
!ermanente" care a!are ca n !roces contin ce se ealonea% de la leagn !'n la sf'ritl #ieii"
deci 'n#are -de&a lngl #ieii.$
5:;
Termenl de 'n#are -de&a lngl #ieii. atrage atenia as!ra tim!li" fie ea contin
sa !eriodic$ <ol termen creat" lifewide learning, 'mbogete imaginea" atrg'nd atenia
as!ra dratei 'n#rii care !oate a#ea loc !e tot !arcrsl ni segment al #ieii$
,n ceea ce !ri#ete definirea edcaiei !ermanente snt #ehiclate o serie de o!inii2 =rese
>$>$" n s!ecialist 'n domeni" afirm c edcaia !ermanent re!re%int o no !olitic
edcati# care !ermite de%#oltarea !lenar a fiecrei !ersonaliti$
(entr +milian 9mitr" n cerettor rom?n" edcaia !ermanent 'nseamn -edcaia
'ntregli !o!or." n sistem de aisten a omli" 'ntreaga #ia" !n'nd 'n e#iden rmtoarele
caracteristici ale edcaiei2 totalitatea" integrarea" fle/ibilitatea" democrati%area" o!ortnitatea"
moti#aia" edcabilitatea" calitatea #ieii i a 'n#rii$ Toate aceste !rici!ii edcati#e se cer
'ntemeiate !e !lanificare" organi%are i e#alare contin a sistemli i !e -o stare de s!irit
fa#orabil 'n masele largi !o!lare.$
Un alt s!ecialist 'n stdierea sociologiei edcaiei" 1eon @o!a scrie c" edcaia
!ermanent semnific di#ersificare" relare la tre!te s!erioare" restrctrare a cnotinelor"
con#ersine de de!rinderi i transfer al acestora$ Solia e $$$ de a 'n#a e/act ce se !oate 'n#a
n nmai la tineree" ci de a contina 'n#area" de a re'n#a" sa de a !erfeciona" ceea ce este
!osibil i 'n alte !erioade ale #ieii$
9in cele e/!se" se !oate s!ne c edcaia !ermanent re!re%int n continm care
strbate ca n fir ro 'ntreaga #ia !ersonal a omli contem!oran i !ro!ne o no strctr
edcaional" a#'nd fncia de a de a reali%a cone/ini creatoare" democratice de a con)ga
'n#area organi%at c cea s!ontan" dif% i discontin$
Conce!tl de edcaie !ermanent a a!rt !rin anii ;6 sb im!lsl organi%aiilor
U<+SCA i Consilil +ro!ei" interesate s dif%e%e ideea ofertei de anse egale de de%#oltare
general !entr fiecare indi#id de&a lngl 'ntregii sale #iei i 'n toate domeniile" c sco!l de a
!artici!a !lenar la de%#oltarea societii$ B$>$ 9a#e 37CD;4" n s!ecialist de #a% din domenil
!edagogiei" ne !ro!ne rmtoarele obiecti#e a edcaiei !ermanente2
7$ Scopuri convenionale2 a 'n#a s citeti" s scrii" s calcle%i s&i conser#i
sntatea" i 'n final s dob'ndeti o calificare !rofesional$
5$ Scopuri ce presupun o nou situaie2 ele !ri#esc idealrile relati#e la de%#oltarea
societii * l!ta !entr !ace i democraie" !entr libertatea i bnstarea
cetenilor$
E$ Scopuri de importan central2 acestea se a/ea% !e de%#oltarea !ersonal"
asigr'nd o no calitate a #ieii$ ,ntre acestea2
achi%iionarea ni baga) !ersonal ino#atorF
conser#area ni s!irit t'nr" caracteri%at !rin fle/ibilitate" crio%itate i
creati#itateF
de%#oltarea ca!acitii de a face alegeri res!onsabileF
anga)area socialF
dorina de a de!i 'n !ermanenF
re'm!ros!tarea contin a cnotinelor" n de dragl acmlrii ci
!entr a dega)a eseniall$
:$ Scopuri instrumentale2 a 'n#a !entr a 'n#a" a 'n#a 'm!ren c aliiF a
de%#olta ca!acitatea de a !rofita de e/!eriena edcati# de)a dob'nditF a a#ea
iniiati#a 'n#rii
9in e/aminarea obiecti#elor de mai ss am !tea constata c2 filo%ofia edcaiei
!ermanente este aceea de a tre%i" 'n fiecare indi#id" ne#oia de a contina stdil i formarea"
gstl !entr e/!eriene noi" dorina de a se atode!i i de a&i de%#olta calitatea !ro!riei #iei$
Acest mod de a 'nelege e/istena i de a tri este srsa nei dinamici !ersonale" a
anga)amentli 'n schimbarea #ieii !ersonale i !rofesionale$
,n continare" B$>$ 9a#e afirm c2 -+dcaia !ermanent este n !roces de
!erfecionare a de%#oltrii !ersonale" sociale i !rofesionale !e drata 'ntregii #iei a indi#i%ilor
5:D
'n sco!l 'mbntirii calitii #ieii" at't a indi#i%ilor" c't i a colecti#itii lor$ Aceasta este o
idee nificatoare care inclde 'n#area formal" nonformal i informal !entr dob'ndirea i
'mbogirea ni ori%ont de cnoatere care s !ermit atingerea celi mai 'nalt ni#el de
de%#oltare !osibil 'n diferite stadii i domenii ale #ieii.$
9in aceast !ers!ecti# edcaia !emanent a!are 'ntr&o strctr com!le/ i fle/ibil
totodat * coala" institiile de cltr" mass&media" familia" organi%aiile edcati#e * concr'nd
toate la asistena com!le/ a omli" 'ntreaga #ia$ Aliment'nd&se din informaiile" ideile"
o!tinile etc$ #ehiclate de familie" scoala" alte instittii" indi#idl 'si formea%a tre!tat n
instrment de !erce!tie i inter!retare a medili" o modalitate de a g'ndi !ractic" de a cnoaste
i sta!'ni conte/tl social" de a elabora mental realitatea" transform'nd obiectele sociale
3!ersoane" conte/te" sitaii4 'n categorii simbolice 3#alori" credine" ideologii4$ Be!re%entarile
sociale" manifestate !rin o!eraii mentale" !rin !rocese generati#e de sistemati%are a
conintrilor cogniti#e" organi%ea% realitile concrete 'n imagini simbolice" constitie o form
de g'ndire sociala a realitii" o reconstrctie a e/!erientelor !ersoanei" n as!ect e#alati#" o
idee 3conce!tie" schem mentala" model de abordare4 i o actine 3stil de condit" model
actional" com!ortament coo!erati# sa com!etiti#4 renite 'ntr&n 'ntreg i regl'nd relatiile c
lmea$
Un alt #estit !edagog 1ynch G$ ssine c2 +dcaia !ermanent con)g trei com!onente
eseniale2
& mi)loace i tehnici !entr a fa#ori%a 'n#areaF
& !ersoaneF
& n stoc de cnotine 3o acmlare de e/!eriene cltrale4 !e care trebie s le
combinm 'n aa fel 'nc't indi#idl s fie stimlat s !artici!e$
,n aa fel" indi#idl este a)tat s 'n#ee s rmreasc 'ntreaga #ia de%#oltarea
!otenialli s" s contribie la bna stare economic i la !rogresl !o!orli sF s triasc"
s 'n#ee i s schimbe 'n cadrl !rocesli de de%#oltare social" comnitatea creia 'i a!arine$
Astfel" edcaia !ermanent ne a!are ca o -ofert. de mi)loace" nific'nd edcaia
dis!ersat" !romo#'nd democrati%area relaiilor i o no conce!ie des!re calitatea #ieii$
S!re deosebire de ali atori" atorl rom?n" 0$ Hidean definete edcaia !ermanent
ca n !roces contin i necesar de%#oltrii !ersonalitii i ne !ro!ne rmtoarele
caracteristici ale edcaiei !ermanente2
& este continu" de#enind modl de a fi" de a mnci i de a se ada!ta omlF n
s!ri)in" i n o !o#ar" o obligaie$
& este global" integr'nd 'ntr&n continmtoate ni#elrile i ti!rile de edcaie
constitite sa e/istente 'n cadrl nei colecti#iti naionaleF
& este integral, asigr'nd tineretli i adlilor o formaie mltilateral i
echilibrat" care s le !ermit abordarea c scces a !roblemelor mlti!le$
Beieind din caracteristicile enmerate mai ss !tem afirma c !ersoana este n agent al
!ro!riei edcaii" combin'nd -'n#area. c res!onsabilitile ci#ice" familiale i !rofesionale$
(entr a !artici!a la acest !roces trebie s 'n#ing nele obstacole materiale 3dificlti de tim!"
#'rst" sntate" se/4 i !sihologice 3 timiditate 'n faa fenomenli cltral" de!recierea de ctre
medil social etc4 care !ot bloca calea s!re stattl de -edcat. sa -clti#at.$
+dcaia !ermanent ne a!are" astfel ca o -ofert. de mi)loace" nific'nd edcaia
dis!ersat" !romo#'nd democrati%area relaiilor i o no coce!ie des!re calitatea #ieii$
Benirea diferitor mi)loace i e/!eriene confer edcaiei !ermanente caracterl de !roces
-global." !e care&l sbliania% toi atorii$ +a renete edcaia 'n familie" edcaia de ba%
formal i diferite alte ti!ri de edcaie$ ,n acelai tim!" trebie s&l !regteasc !e indi#id
astfel 'nc't s de#in - c't mai mlt !ro!ril instrment al de%#oltrii sale !rin intermedil
mlti!lelor forme de atoinstrire." aa ne remarc n alt ator 1engrand ($
+dcaia !ermanent #i%ea% n at't sfera instrciei 3oferirea de informaii4" c't i
!osibilitatea de a forma" !n'nd accentl 'ndeosebi !e ne#oia de a a#ea oameni c't mai bine
-edcai. 'n societate$
5:I
9eci" ea a!are ca o continare a efortli de instrire" ca o deschidere s!re informare"
s!re schimbare i formare contin !e tot !arcrsl #ieii" aceste !ro!rieti re!re%entnd
cerinele de%#oltrii societii de a%i & cea a cnoaterii$
B"/&"*gra#"e
7$ 9a#e" B$ >$ +dcation !ermanent et !rogramme scolaireJ Institt de l Unesco !or l
+dcation$&>ambrg" 7CD;$& 7;; !$
5$ 9imitri +$+dcaia !ermanent * edcaie a 'ntregli !o!or J +$ 9imitri $&
Bcreti2+ditra 8tiinific i +nciclo!edic" 7CDI$&7ID !$
E$ 1ifelong learning and 1ifewide 1earning J <ational Agency for +dcation" Stockholm"
5666$
:$ 1engrand" ($ Introdcere 'n edcaia !ermanentJ ($ 1engrand$& Bcreti$ +ditra
9idactic i !edagogic"7CIE$& 5:; !$
K$ 1ynch" G$ +dcation !ermanente et la formation d !ersonelJ Institt de l Unesco !or l
+dcation$&>ambrg" 7CDI$& 7EI !$
;$ Memorandm as!ra ,n#rii (ermanente J Comisia Comnitilor +ro!ene$&
Brssels"5666
D$ <ecla" A$ +dcaia adlilorJ A$ <ecla $ &Iai2 (olirom" 5667$&555!$
I$ Sab" 0$1$ Societatea cnoaterii$ A !ers!ecti# rom?neasc J 0$ 1$ Sab $& bcreti 2
+ditra +conomic" 5667$&7:E !$
C$ @o!a" 1$ Sociologia edcaiei !ermanenteJ1$ @o!a $& Bcreti2 +ditra 8tiinific" 7CDI$&
5:;!$
01234053678 5 9:0;< 76=02>3?743@77: 605A8 :82B:8C?75A 7
?86D86@77
7EFGH CIGJKJLJMH
LMNOPQM RSTUSVWOXVYOPOZS[ S \ZNVQ]M^SVZZV_V `TOabOcOZS[
dVUPMYaXSe fVagPMQaWYOZZhe iZSYOQaSWOW
Suar!
E%u'at"*n "n t+e "n#*rat"*n e-*'+: ne$ -r*(-e't( an% ten%en'"e(
The !resent work is oriented towards same !roblems in the information e!och$ The basic
attention is !aid both to the informational !rocess and Informational Technology as well as to
their im!act !on the de#elo!ment of the edcational system$ Also this work re#eals the general
as!ects knowledge and factors which increase the le#el of efficiency of sing IT in the
edcational !rocess$
Re.uat
jMZZM[ QMTVWM bVaY[kOZM QMaa]VWQOZSl ZOXVWVQhm bQVTUO] VTQMnVYMZS[ Y obVmg
SZNVQ]MWSnM^SS$ `aZVYZVO YZS]MZSO gPOU[OWa[ SZNVQ]M^SVZZh] bQV^OaaM] S
XV]bplWOQZh] WOmZVUV_S[]" S Sm YUS[ZSl ZM QMnYSWSO aSaWO]h VTQMnVYMZS[$
`TVTkMlWa[ nZMZS[ S NMXWVQh" bVYhqMlkSO gQVYOZp oNNOXWSYZVaWS SabVUpnVYMZS[
XV]bplWOQZhm WOmZVUV_Se Y bQV^OaaO VTgcOZS[$
r bQV^OaaO aYVOe oYVUl^SS cOUVYOcOaXM[ ^SYSUSnM^S[ bQVqUM ZO VPZg obVmg
QMnYSWS[2 VW VWPOUOZS[ VW sSYVWZV_V ]SQM S VaYVOZS[ bQS]SWSYZV_V VQgPS[ WQgPM" PV
VTQMnVYMZS[ _VagPMQaWY S SZPgaWQSMUSnM^SS$ thZOqZ[[ obVmM VnZM]OZVYMZM
SZNVQ]M^SVZZh] YnQhYV] YaOVTkOe XV]bplWOQSnM^SOe S VTQMnVYMZSO]$ LMXSO sO
VaZVYZhO WOZPOZ^SS S bOQabOXWSYh VZM ZM] VWXQhYMOWu
r bOQYgl VcOQOPp ZgsZV VW]OWSWp" cWV VaZVYZh] oUO]OZWV] QMnYSWS[ VTkOaWYM
aWMUM SZNVQ]M^S[$ r gaUVYS[m VTkOaWYM SZNVQ]MWSnM^SS" cOUVYOX VTQMngOW aS]TSVn
3UScZVaWS S SZNVQ]M^SS4$ vQSZ[WV acSWMWp" cWV aS]TSVn * YnMS]VPOeaWYSO S
5:C
aVagkOaWYVYMZSO QMnZhm TSVUV_ScOaXSm YSPVY" Y PMZZV] aUgcMO ]VsZV bVZS]MWp
YnMS]VPOeaWYSO cOUVYOXM XMX TSVUV_ScOaXV_V YSPM S SZNVQ]M^SS XMX QOngUpWMWM O_V
PO[WOUpZVaWS S VaZVYZV_V bQOP]OWM cOUVYOcOaXV_V WQgPM$ wMX" a VPZVe aWVQVZh"
_UVTMUSnM^S[ SZNVQ]M^SS" OO ZObQOXQMkMlkOOa[ QMnYSWSO S YaO bV_UVkOZSO" a PQg_Ve *
cOUVYOX aV aYVOe SZPSYSPgMUpZVaWpl S bVaWV[ZZV QMnYSYMlkS]a[ SZWOUUOXWV]"
abVaVTZh] bQSVTkMWpa[ X UlTh] WQOTVYMZS[] aVYQO]OZZV VTkOaWYM$ xWV bVnYVU[OW ZM]
aPOUMWp YhYVP" cWV sSnZOPO[WOUpZVaWp UlPOe" VTkOaWYM WMXsO ZO YVn]VsZM TOn
SZNVQ]M^SS$
yUOPgOW VW]OWSWp" cWV VTkOaWYV YaO_PM ThUV SZNVQ]M^SVZZh]" M SZNVQ]M^SVZZM[
aSaWO]M YVnZSXUM VcOZp PMYZV2 ]SUUSVZ UOW WV]g ZMnMP Y QOngUpWMWO TSVUV_ScOaXVe
oYVUl^SS bV[YSUMap QOcp S [nhX" QMnYSUVap ZMqO aVTaWYOZZVO" M nMWO] S VTkOaWYOZZVO
aVnZMZSO$
7
yUOPVYMWOUpZV" cOUVYOcOaWYV bQOPaWMYU[OW aVTVe SZNVQ]M^SVZZVO aVVTkOaWYV$
`PZMXV nZMcS]VaWp SZNVQ]M^SS S OO YOPgkgl QVUp UlPS aWMUS bVZS]MWp aVYaO] ZOPMYZV$
rV&YWVQhm" _UVTMUpZM[ ZMgcZM[ QOYVUl^S[" SZWOZaSYZVO bQS]OZOZSO ZMgcZhm
nZMZSe YV YaOm aNOQMm aV^SMUpZVe sSnZS * oWV NMXWVQh" XVWVQhO Sn]OZSUS aM] mMQMXWOQ
ZMgcZVe PO[WOUpZVaWS S aY[nMZZh a QMnYSWSO] aQOPaWY mQMZOZS[ S bVUgcOZS[ nZMZSe$
vQVSamVP[kSO Sn]OZOZS[ Y VTQMnVYMZSS S ZMgcZVe PO[WOUpZVaWS" VaZVYhYMlWa[ ZM
WMXSm bQSZ^SbMm XMX VWXQhWVaWp ]SQM" PSZMZS]SnM^S[ S _g]MZSWMQSnM^S[ bQV^OaaM
bVnZMZS[$ jMZZhO bQSZ^Sbh S aVnPMZSO OPSZVe ZMgcZVe S aV^SMUpZV&SZNVQ]M^SVZZVe
aQOPh PMlW YVn]VsZVaWp bVUgcMWp XMcOaWYOZZVO VTQMnVYMZSO Y UlTV] ]OaWO S YQO]OZS$
zOngUpWMWV] oWV_V [YU[OWa[ NVQ]SQVYMZSO TgPgkO_V {VTkOaWYM nZMZSe| Y QM]XMm
{SZNVQ]M^SVZZVe ^SYSUSnM^SS|$ }POap Ya~ TVUpqVO nZMcOZSO VTQOWMlW VTQMnVYMZSO S
ZMgXM XMX VTUMaWS cOUVYOcOaXVe PO[WOUpZVaWS" XVWVQhO NVQ]SQglW ZVYhe WSb UScZVaWS$
r aYVl VcOQOPp SZNVQ]M^SVZZhO WOmZVUV_SS YUS[lW ZM QMnYSWSO UScZVaWS"
bQVNOaaSVZMUpZVO VbQOPOUOZSO S aM]VaWMZVYUOZSO$
r oWV] a]haUO" PO[WOUpZVaWp gZSYOQaSWOWVY XMX _OZOQMWVQVY ZMgcZhm QMnQMTVWVX S
bVP_VWVYXS TgPgkSm abO^SMUSaWVY aUOPgOW QMaa]MWQSYMWp a WVcXS nQOZS[
NgZX^SVZSQVYMZS[ SZNVQ]M^SVZZhm VTQMnVYMWOUpZhm gaUg_" ZM TMnO XVWVQhm aVnPMlWa[
XMX PVXg]OZWMUpZhO QOagQah" WMX S SZNVQ]M^SVZZhO ]MaaSYh$ icOZhO aWQO][Wa[ ZO
WVUpXV X bVUgcOZSl ZVYhm ZMgcZhm PMZZhm" ZV S X abO^SMUpZVe QMTVWO bV
aSaWO]MWSnM^SS" V^OZXO S VTVTkOZSl SZNVQ]M^SS$ \amVP[ Sn oWV_V" YhaqM[
VTQMnVYMWOUpZM[ aSaWO]M PVUsZM ThWp YaO_PM ZM qM_ YbOQOPS$
r&WQOWpSm" gQVYOZp nZMZSe SUS SZNVQ]MWSnM^S[ VTkOaWYM YV ]ZV_V] VbQOPOU[OW
oXVZV]ScOaXSe" bVUSWScOaXSe S aV^SMUpZhe aWMWga _VagPMQaWYM$ jU[ QMTVWh Y WMXSm
gaUVYS[m _VagPMQaWYg ZOVTmVPS]h YhaVXVXYMUSNS^SQVYMZZhO abO^SMUSaWh" VWYOcMlkSO
YhaVXS] WQOTVYMZS[] aVYQO]OZZVaWS$ \]OZZV bVoWV]g VTQMnVYMZSO VbQOPOU[OW VTkSe
gQVYOZp QMnYSWS[ VTkOaWYM" _UMYZh] gaXVQSWOUO] aWMZVYSWa[ SZNVQ]M^S[ S
XV]bplWOQSnM^S[ aSaWO]h VTQMnVYMZS[$
\ZNVQ]MWSnM^S[ VmYMWSUM aV^SMUpZgl aNOQg2 VTQMnVYMZSO" ZMgXg" XgUpWgQg$
vVZ[WSO ZVYM[ SZNVQ]M^SVZZM[ WOmZVUV_S[ * aY[nMZM a bV[YUOZSO] S qSQVXS]
YZOPQOZSO] XV]bplWOQVY Y aNOQg VTQMnVYMZS[$ \ZNVQ]M^SVZZM[ WOmZVUV_S[ &
aVYVXgbZVaWp ]OWVPVY" bQVSnYVPaWYOZZhm S bQV_QM]]ZV&WOmZVUV_ScOaXSm aQOPaWY"
VTOPSZOZZhm Y WOmZVUV_ScOaXgl ^ObVcXg" VTOabOcSYMlkgl aTVQ" mQMZOZSO" VTQMTVWXg"
YhYVP S QMabQVaWQMZOZSO SZNVQ]M^SS$ \ZNVQ]M^SVZZhO WOmZVUV_SS bQOPZMnZMcOZh PU[
aZSsOZS[ WQgPVO]XVaWS bQV^OaaVY SabVUpnVYMZS[ SZNVQ]M^SVZZhm QOagQaVY$
5
`ZS
YXUlcMlW2 bQV_QM]]SQVYMZZVO SngcOZSO" SZWOUUOXWgMUpZVO VTgcOZSO" oXabOQWZhO
aSaWO]h" _SbOQWOXaW S ]gUpWS]OPSM" ]SXQV]SQh" S]SWM^SVZZVO VTgcOZSO" PO]VZaWQM^SS$
raO YhqO bOQOcSaUOZZhO aVaWMYU[lkSO [YU[lWa[ cMaWZh]S ]OWVPSXM]S S bQS]OZ[lWa[ Y
nMYSaS]VaWS VW gcOTZhm ^OUOe S gcOTZhm aSWgM^Se$
C SabVUpnVYMZSO] XV]bplWOQZhm WOmZVUV_Se gYOUScSYMOWa[ aWObOZp
MYWV]MWSnM^SS XMX ZMgcZhm SaaUOPVYMZSe WMX S gcOTZhm bQV^OaaVY" aUgsSW VaZVYVe Sm
aVYOQqOZaWYVYMZS[$
5K6
LV]bplWOQZhO WOmZVUV_SS bVYhqMlW gQVYOZp oNNOXWSYZVaWS QMTVW Y ZMgXO S
VTQMnVYMZSS nM acOW aUOPglkSm NMXWVQVY2
7$ ibQVkOZSO S gaXVQOZSO bQV^OaaVY VTQMTVWXS" bOQOPMcS" bQOPaWMYUOZS[ S
mQMZOZS[ SZNVQ]M^SSF
5$ iYOUScOZSO VTO]M bVUOnZVe SZNVQ]M^SS a ZMXVbSWOUO] WSbVYhm QOqOZSe S
VTVTkOZSO] VbhWM ZMgcZhm QMnQMTVWVXF
E$ `TOabOcOZSO _UgTSZh" WVcZVaWS S XMcOaWYM QOqMO]hm nMPMc$ rVn]VsZVaWp
QOMUSnM^SS nMPMc QMZOO ZO QOqMO]hm$ vVaWMZVYXM SaaUOPVYMZSe S bVUgcOZSO
QOngUpWMWVY" ZOPVaWSsS]hm PQg_S]S aQOPaWYM]S$
:$ rVn]VsZVaWp MZMUSnM TVUpqO_V cSaUM YMQSMZWVY" aSZWOnM VTOXWVY S bQSZ[WS[
QOqOZSe$
vQV^Oaa VTgcOZS[ * bOQOPMcM SZNVQ]M^SS VTgcMlkO]ga[" Y oWV] a]haUO
XV]bplWOQ YhaWgbMOW" XMX ]VkZhe SZaWQg]OZW bVnYVU[lkSe QOqMWp ZVYhO QMZOO ZO
QOqMO]hO PSPMXWScOaXSO nMPMcS$ RUM_VPMQ[ SZNVQ]M^SVZZh] WOmZVUV_S[]" ]OZ[OWa[
]SQVYVabQS[WSO" S gaWMZMYUSYMlWa[ ZVYhO aWMZPMQWh" ]OZ[OWa[ bVZ[WSO VTgcOZS[" M
S]OZZV gaYVOZSO nZMZSe gaWgbMOW ]OaWV g]OZSl bVUpnVYMWpa[ SZNVQ]M^SOe a bV]Vkpl
XV]bplWOQM$
xNNOXWSYZVaWp VTQMnVYMZS[ YaO_PM nMYSaSW VW ]ZV_Sm NMXWVQVY VPZS] Sn
YMsZOeqSm VaWMOWa[ gQVYOZp bVP_VWVYXS bQObVPMYMWOUOe$ vQObVPMYMWOUp ThU S VaWMOWa[
VaZVYZh] nYOZV] bQV^OaaM VTgcOZS[$ \ZWO_QM^S[ SZNVQ]M^SVZZhm WOmZVUV_Se Y
VTQMnVYMZSO NVQ]SQgOW ZVYgl QVUp bQObVPMYMWOU[ Y bQV^OaaO VTgcOZS[$
vQObVPMYMWOUp Y SZNVQ]M^SVZZVe S YhaVXVWOmZVUV_ScOaXVe aQOPO [YU[OWa[ ZO
WVUpXV SaWVcZSXV] SZNVQ]M^SS" ZV S ]OPSMWVQV] PU[ gcMkSma[ bVZS]MZSS S YZOPQOZSS
Y bQV^Oaa VTgcOZS[$ yVYQO]OZZhe bQObVPMYMWOUp bV]V_MOW S ZMbQMYU[OW gcMkSma[ Y
bVSaXMm SZNVQ]M^SS" Yh[aZSWp aVVWYOWaWYgOW US VZM nMPMZZh] WQOTVYMZS[]" XMX
SabVUpnVYMWp PMZZgl SZNVQ]M^Sl PU[ VWYOWM ZM bVaWMYUOZZhO YVbQVah$
LMsPhe cOUVYOX VaYMSYMOW ZVYhO nZMZS[ bV&QMnZV]g" Y QMnZVe aWObOZS$ r bQV^OaaO
VTgcOZS[ bOPM_V_S ZO YaO_PM ]V_US ZMeWS SZPSYSPgMUpZhe bVPmVP X XMsPV]g gcMkO]ga[$
r ZMaWV[kOO YQO][ S] ZM bV]Vkp bQSmVP[W ZVYhO SZNVQ]M^SVZZhO WOmZVUV_SS$
\abVUpng[ XV]bplWOQZhO aOWS S VZUMeZVYhO aQOPaWYM" bQObVPMYMWOUS bVUgcMlW
YVn]VsZVaWp bQObVPZVaSWp ZVYgl SZNVQ]M^Sl WMXS] VTQMnV]" cWVTh gPVYUOWYVQSWp
SZPSYSPgMUpZhO bVWQOTZVaWS XMsPV_V gcMkO_Va[$ ybO^SMUSnSQVYMZZhO XV]bplWOQZhO
bQV_QM]]h PMlW YVn]VsZVaWp gcMkS]a[ ZM_U[PZV aVbQSXVaZgWpa[ a WOVQOWScOaXS]
]MWOQSMUV]" oWV POUMOW bQV^Oaa VTQMnVYMZS[ TVUOO SZWOQOaZh]" oNNOXWSYZh] S
bVUZVaWpl VWYOcMOW bVWQOTZVaW[] aO_VPZ[qZO_V PZ[$
r aNOQO VTQMnVYMZS[ YOPgWa[ bVSaXS ]OWVPVY gaXVQOZS[ S ]VPOQZSnM^SS aSaWO]h
bVP_VWVYXS" bVYhqOZS[ XMcOaWYM VTgcOZS[ a SabVUpnVYMZSO] XV]bplWOQZhm WOmZVUV_Se$
\abVUpnVYMZSO XV]bplWOQM XMX aM]V_V aVYOQqOZZV_V SZNVQ]M^SVZZV_V aQOPaWYM PVUsZV
bQSYOaWS X aVYOQqOZaWYVYMZSl bQV^OaaM VTgcOZS[$ r VTQMnVYMWOUpZV] bQV^OaaO
XV]bplWOQ ]VsOW ThWp XMX VTOXWV] SngcOZS[" WMX S aQOPaWYV] VTgcOZS[$ r bOQYV]
aUgcMO gaYVOZSO nZMZSe" g]OZSe S ZMYhXVY YOPOW X SngcOZSl YVn]VsZVaWOe
XV]bplWOQZhm WOmZVUV_Se$ rV YWVQV] aUgcMO XV]bplWOQZhO WOmZVUV_SS [YU[lWa[
aQOPaWYV] bVYhqOZS[ oNNOXWSYZVaWS VQ_MZSnM^SS gcOTZV_V bQV^OaaM$ `PZVe Sn aM]hm
_UMYZhm nMPMc SabVUpnVYMZS[ XV]bplWOQZhm WOmZVUV_Se [YU[OWa[ QMaqSQOZSO
SZWOUUOXWgMUpZhm YVn]VsZVaWOe cOUVYOXM" M WMXsO QMaXQhWSO" aVmQMZOZSO S QMnYSWSO
UScZhm XMcOaWY VTgcMO]hm$
tM] Y VaVTOZZVaWS S]bVZSQglW ]OWVPVUV_ScOaXSO bQSZ^Sbh VQ_MZSnM^SS
gcOTZV_V bQV^OaaM S VaYVOZS[ VTkOVTQMnVYMWOUpZhm bQV_QM]]" ZM VaZVYO SabVUpnVYMZS[
XV]bplWOQZhm WOmZVUV_Se aNVQ]gUSQVYMZZhO Y aWMWpO d$r$ LVYWgZ {` ]VPOU[m gcOTZVe
PO[WOUpZVaWS S gbQMYUOZS[ XMcOaWYV]|" M S]OZZV2
NEFGOFN FGPIEHKPFMGJLPF" XVWVQhe YhQMsMOWa[ Y bVaWV[ZZhm XVZWMXWMm YaOm
gcMaWZSXVY nMVcZV_V VTgcOZS[ bVaQOPaWYV] SabVUpnVYMZS[ gcOTZV&
5K7
]OWVPScOaXVe aQOPh" Y WV] cSaUO \ZWOQZOWM 3NVQg]h" oUOXWQVZZM[ bVcWM"
XVZNOQOZ^SS4F
NEFGOFN HQHNPFMGJLPF" bVnYVU[lkSe UO_XV SabVUpnVYMWp gcOTZhO ]MWOQSMUh
ZVYV_V bVXVUOZS[" aVPOQsMkSO ^SNQVYhO VTQMnVYMWOUpZhO QOagQah Y
XVZXQOWZhm gaUVYS[m gcOTZV_V bQV^OaaM" S abVaVTaWYglkSe aVcOWMZSl QMnZhm
PSPMXWScOaXSm NVQ] YXUlcOZS[ gcMkSma[ Y gcOTZgl PO[WOUpZVaWp2 {\ngcOZSO
WOVQSS|" {jO]VZaWQM^SS|" {MTVQMWVQZhe bQMXWSXg] gPMUOZZV_V PVaWgbM|"
{wQOZMsOQ|" {wOaWh| S PQ$
NEFGOFN RFSKJLPFT PMlkSe YVn]VsZVaWp gcMaWZSXM] gcOTZV_V bQV^OaaM
QMTVWMWp Y ZOVTmVPS]V] PU[ ZSm WO]bOF
NEFGOFN UJQVWXGJLPFT bVnYVU[OW SabVUpnVYMWp gcMkS]a[ S bQObVPMYMWOUl
ZOVTmVPS]hO S] gcOTZhO XgQah 3SUS VWPOUpZhO aVaWMYU[lkSO gcOTZV_V XgQaM4
PU[ QOMUSnM^SS SZPSYSPgMUpZhm gcOTZhm bUMZVY$
vV ]ZOZSl bQVNOaaVQM yOe]gQM vOebOQWM XV]bplWOQ * oWV" Y bOQYgl VcOQOPp"
aQOPaWYV abVaVTZVO bQSPMWp bQV^Oaag VTgcOZS[ OaWOaWYOZZhe" ZONVQ]MUSnVYMZZhe
mMQMXWOQ$ r O_V bQOPaWMYUOZSS XV]bplWOQ ]VsOW Sn]OZSWp mMQMXWOQ gcOZS[ * ZO cO]g&WV
VbQOPOUOZZV]g" M gcOZS[ YVVTkO * S aPOUMWp O_V TVUOO SZWOQOaZh] S oNNOXWSYZh]" M
bVUgcMO]hO nZMZS[ * TVUOO _UgTVXS]S S VTVTkOZZh]S$
E
LV]bplWOQ ZMSTVUOO VbWS]MUpZV S oNNOXWSYZV aVVWYOWaWYgOW PSPMXWScOaXVe ^OUS
nMZ[WSe$ r oWV] bUMZO ]VsZV YhPOUSWp ZOaXVUpXV MabOXWVY2
0SEHYJMHPIWXGZ[ HLNIKP2 YVabQS[WSO gcMkS]Sa[ gcOTZV_V ]MWOQSMUM" Va]haUSYMZSO
aY[nOe S VWZVqOZSe Y VTOXWMm SngcOZS[$
2HYMFMH\]F[ HLNIKP2 QMnYSWSO bVnZMYMWOUpZV_V SZWOQOaM g gcMkSma[" g]OZS[ VTVTkMWp"
MZMUSnSQVYMWp" aQMYZSYMWp$ ybVaVTaWYVYMZSO NVQ]SQVYMZSl XUlcOYhm XV]bOWOZ^Se" M
WMXsO MXWSYSnM^S[ WYVQcOaXVe PO[WOUpZVaWS gcMkSma[$
5JLNFPHPIWXGZ[ HLNIKP 2 & YVabSWMZSO ZMgcZV_V ]SQVYVnnQOZS[F
& YVabSWMZSO g]OZS[ cOWXV VQ_MZSnVYMWp aM]VaWV[WOUpZgl S
_QgbbVYgl QMTVWgF
& YVabSWMZSO cgYaWYM aVWQgPZScOaWYM" YnMS]VbV]VkS$
& XV]]gZSXMWSYZhO ZMYhXS$
`PZVnZMcZV" cWV bQVTUO]M QMnYSWS[ SZWOUUOXWM gcMkSma[ ZO ]VsOW ThWp QOqOZM
WVUpXV aQOPaWYM]S SZNVQ]M^SVZZhm WOmZVUV_Se" ZV QMnYSWSO VTQMnVYMZS[ PVUsZV
QOqMWpa[ a gcOWV] bOQOmVPM Y SZNVQ]M^SVZZVO VTkOaWYV" Y XVWVQV] TgPOW aNVQ]SQVYMZM
UScZVaWp" M bVoWV]g QMnYSWSO SZWOUUOXWgMUpZhm abVaVTZVaWOe UScZVaWS PMsO Y ZMaWV[kOO
YQO][ WOaZV a]hXMOWa[ a bQVTUO]Ve SZNVQ]MWSnM^SS VTkOaWYM$
fUMYZh] bQSZ^SbV] aVYQO]OZZV_V VTQMnVYMZS[ PVUsOZ aWMWp bQSZ^Sb
ZObQOQhYZVaWS SZNVQ]M^SVZZVe bVP_VWVYXS gcMkSma[$ r aSaWO]O YhaqO_V VTQMnVYMZS[
SZNVQ]MWSXM PVUsZM aWMWp NgZPM]OZWMUpZVe PSa^SbUSZVe$ ybO^SMUSnSQVYMZZhO XgQah
SZNVQ]M^SVZZVe bVP_VWVYXS bQSnYMZh gaVYOQqOZaWYVYMWp bVP_VWVYXg" PU[ WV_V cWVTh
XV]bplWOQ aWMU OaWOaWYOZZh] VQgPSO] WQgPM Y UlTVe sSnZOZZVe VTUMaWS PU[ TgPgkSm
YhbgaXZSXVY gZSYOQaSWOWVY$
\n ]OsPgZMQVPZVe bQMXWSXS SabVUpnVYMZS[ ZVYhm SZNVQ]M^SVZZhm WOmZVUV_Se Y
aSaWO]O VTQMnVYMZS[ Yh[YSUSap aUOPglkSO bVUVsSWOUpZhO MabOXWh2
7$ g]OZpqOZSO YQO]OZS ZM SngcOZSO gcOTZV_V ]MWOQSMUMF
5$ bVnSWSYZVO YUS[ZSO ZM SZPSYSPgMUpZhO abVaVTZVaWS gcMkO_Va[" M S]OZZV
VWaWMlkSO QMZOO gcMkSOa[ VbOQOPSUS aYVSm XVUUO_" XVWVQhO QMZOO VbOQOsMUS
SmF
E$ Yh[aZSUVap" cWV SabVUpnVYMZSO XV]bplWOQM [YU[OWa[ TVUOO bQVPgXWSYZh]S Y
ZMgXO" cO] Y SngcOZSS [nhXVYF
:$ YaO ZMgcZhO SaaUOPVYMZS[" bQVYVPS]hO a bV]Vkpl XV]bplWOQM" ThUS
bQSnZMZZh]S ZMSTVUOO oNNOXWSYZh] bV aQMYZOZSl a PQg_S]S ]OWVPM]SF
5K5
L aVsMUOZSl" ZM PMZZV] oWMbO Y aSaWO]O VTQMnVYMZS[ SabVUpnVYMZSO XV]bplWOQM
aYVPSWpa[ cMkO YaO_V WVUpXV X bQObVPMYMZSl S SngcOZSl SZNVQ]MWSXS$ \abVUpnVYMZSO
sO XV]bplWOQM XMX SZaWQg]OZWM bQSnYMZZV_V gUgcqSWp S gbQVaWSWp bQV^Oaa SngcMO]Ve
]MWOQSS bQS]OZ[OWa[ PVaWMWVcZV QOPXV$
r ^OUV]" Ya[ aVYQO]OZZM[ VTQMnVYMWOUpZM[ aSaWO]M PVUsZM NVQ]SQVYMWpa[" S
QMnYSYMWpa[ a gcOWV] SZWO_QM^SS S MPVbWM^SS VTQMnVYMZS[ X gaWVecSYV]g QMnYSWSl
^SYSUSnM^SS" Y aY[nS a oWS] S YVnZSXMOW bQVTUO]M VbOQOsMlkO_V QMnYSWS[
VTQMnVYMWOUpZVe aSaWO]h" XVWVQM[ PVUsZM gPVYUOWYVQ[Wp bVWQOTZVaW[] TgPgkO_V
YhaVXVWOmZVUV_ScOaXV_V VTkOaWYM$
1FSWFJREH^F_
7$ yOQ_Oe LMbS^M jO]V_QMNScOaXSe bOQOmVP S TgPgkOO cOUVYOcOaWYM JJ {rOaWZSX YQVbh|
566D" 57 htt!2JJmaga%ines$rss$rJ#estnikJ566DJ57JkaE$html
5$ htt!2JJwww$glossary$rJ
E$ yOe]gQ vMebOQW$ vOQOYVQVW Y aVnZMZSS2 POWS" XV]bplWOQh S bUVPVWYVQZhO SPOS$
d$2 vOPM_V_SXM" 7CIC$
:$ M$B$ LVYWgZ$ ` ]VPOU[m gcOTZVe PO[WOUpZVaWS S gbQMYUOZS[ XMcOaWYV] JJ IT &
SZZVYM^SS Y VTQMnVYMZSS2 dMWOQSMUh raOQVaaSeaXVe ZMgcZV&bQMXWScOaXVe
XVZNOQOZ^SS * vOWQVnMYVPaX$2 566K$
K$

wMZ_[Z y$$ rhaqOO VTQMnVYMZSO Y bOQabOXWSYOI aWVUOWS[ JJ vOPM_V_SXM$ * 5666 5$
;$

fgQpOY y$r$ f$ \abVUpnVYMZSO XV]bplWOQM XMX SZaWQg]OZWM VTQMnVYMWOUpZV_V
bQV^OaaM$ JJhtt!2JJwww$rsed$infoJArticleKCI$html
5KE