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> C[P]SA TC+PR - TXT <


VERSIUNE: Martie-Aprilie 2009

D...Norme de Calcul Aero + DMR


= FAR / JAR / MIL =
INTRODUCERE - SCOP - CUPRINS
Textul de fa are drept obiect prezentarea sintetic a prescripiilor de calcul
pentru categorii de avioane reprezentative. Pentru fixarea ideilor se prezint un
tablou cu principalele norme aeronautice cunoscute. n continuare se dau
dezvoltri pentru categorii de avioane "de larg interes". Textul este material de
lucru pentru proiectul de C[P]SA.
CUPRINS
Cap.

...

D-0
D-I
D - II
D - III
D - IV

Norme de calcul aeronautice (privire sintetic)


Definiii...
Avioane n general
Avioane de transport
Avioane militare (USAF / NAVY)

...
FAR-23 / JAR-23
FAR-25 / JAR-25
MIL...

Observaii
Info!...
Sintez!
Info!...
...
...

D - 0 ... Norme de Calcul Aeronautice - Privire Sintetic


[ Vezi Tabloul D-0 ]

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Tabloul D-0 ... Norme de Calcul Aeronautice

ARA

NORMELE

ANUL

APLICABILITATE

G
[daN]

RO

NTAZ

1958

Avioane civile n general

A
V
I
O
A
N
E

USA

FARPART 23

[1964]

Avioane civile n general

G 5700

FARPART 25

[1964]

Avioane de transport

G > 5700

C
I
V
I
L
E

FR

GB

FARPART 27
FARPART 29
AIR 2052
[2051]
BCAR

***

ICAO[OACI]

***

JAR

AV
M
I
L

USA

FR
GB
LEGENDA:

[1976]

Elicoptere n general
Elicoptere de transport
Avioane pentru transport public
de pasageri
Avioane civile n general
Avioane de transport
[ M < 1 ; H < 15200 m ]
Avioane de transport

CATEGORII / CLASE
DE AVIOANE
Clase de rezisten: IIV
Categorii de performan: AH(I)
Normal [ N ]
Utilitar
[U]
Acrobatic [ A ]

G 5700
[G > 5700]

OBSERVAII
Ieit din uz!
nlocuit cu FAR 23/25

Din 1971 nlocuite cu


normele FAR-23/25
Normal
Semi-aerobatic
Aerobatic

G > 5700

MIL ***

Toate tipurile

MIL-A-8860[1]A
USAF
MIL-A-8860[1]B
NAVY
AIR 2004 E

Toate tipurile

AvP 970

Toate tipurile

NTAZ
Norme Tehnice de Admisibilitate la Zbor a Avioanelor Civile n Republica Popular Romn
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulations
BCAR
British Civil Airworthiness Requirements
ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization [Organizaia de Aviaie Civil Internaional]
JAR
[European] Joint Airworthiness Requirements
MIL
Military Specifications

n uz pentru operaii pe
linii internaionale
Preconizate a nlocui
normele "naionale"

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D - I ... Definiii (Sintez)


I.1 Avionul n resurs - Factor de sarcin
Se consider avionul ntr-o evoluie simetric n plan vertical (resurs) - figura D1.
Se presupune avionul raportat la un sistem central (i principal!...).
Forele se introduc n modul uzual; pentru simplificare, traciunea s-a reprezentat pe direcia
axei longitudinale a avionului, etc...
z
r

Ra

Nz
P

MCG=0!
T

not!

G 
V = n ' G
g

V 2 not!
G 1+
= n G

rg

nzG

Figura D-1
Avionul n resurs
FACTOR de SARCIN
Definiii: UZUAL / FAR

Ecuaiile de micare se scriu (n modul uzual!) prin proiecii pe direcii legate de vitez...
La acestea se adaug ecuaia de momente fa de axa de tangaj. Conform cu normele (...),
evoluia se presupune stabilizat, prin urmare aceasta din urm se reduce la o condiie de echilibru...

G V 2 not!
= n G
g r

(D-1,a)

G dV not!
= n ' G
g dt

(D-1,b)

F V

P + T sin = G +

F V

R + T cos =

M y

M CG = 0!

(D-1,c)

Mai sus am introdus, n conformitate cu definiiile uzuale!, factorul de sarcin (propriu-zis) n


respectiv factorul de sarcin "secundar" (factor "de accelerare") n'.
Cu aproximaii uzuale ( mic...) ecuaiile se reduc la cele cunoscute
def!

def!

P = n G ; T R = n ' G

(D-2)

I.2 Definiii FAR


Redm textul din FAR-25
25.321 General
a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the aerodynamic force component (acting normal to
the assumed longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the weight of the airplane. A positive load
factor is one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with respect to the airplane

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Aadar, notm (figura D-1)


def!

N z = P cos + R sin =

not!

V 2 SC N = nz G

2
n care apare coeficientul forei aerodinamice normale CN...

(D-3)

I.3 Comentarii. Convenie...


10 Definiia din FAR este oarecum mai logic ntruct corespunde unei direcii fixe spre
deosebire de cea "uzual"...
20 Definiia "convenional" este ns mai comod pentru aplicaii deoarece se raporteaz
simplu la coeficientul de portan al avionului, parametru direct accesibil din polara acestuia...
30 Cele dou definiii sunt - ntr-o prim aproximaie - echivalente; astfel, pentru unghiuri de
inciden mici scriem imediat (vezi i [Lomax]-pag. 8)
C N = C z cos + C x sin C z , etc...
(D-4)
0
4 n cele ce urmeaz vom utiliza definiia "clasic" (D2)...
Prin urmare scriem
P
P
n = = 2 SV 2C z sau n = = 2 SV 2CL
(D-5)
G
G
Toate prescripiile referitoare la factori de sarcin se vor nelege n aceast accepiune...

BIBLIOGRAFIE GENERAL
Referine
[Engmann] - Klaus Engmann (Hrsg.), Technologie des Flugzeuges, Leuchtturm-Verlag /
LTV Press, Alsbach/Bergstrasse, 1994.
[Sechler] - Ernest E. Sechler & Louis G. Dunn, Airplane Structural Analysis and Design,
Dover Publications, Inc., New York, (1942) - 1963.
[Raymer] - Daniel P. Raymer, Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, AIAA Education
Series, AIAA, Inc., Washington DC, 1992.
New BOOKS...
[Howe] Denis Howe, Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout, AIAA Education Series,
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Reston, Virginia, 2004.
[Lomax] Ted L. Lomax, Structural Loads Analysis for Commercial Transport Aircraft:
Theory and Practice, AIAA Education Series, American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Inc., Reston, Virginia, 1996.
[Hoblit] Frederic M. Hoblit, Gust Loads on Aircraft: Concepts and Applications, AIAA
Education Series, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Reston,
Virginia, 1988.
Bibliografie (selecie)

[1] [Bruhn] ...... Bruhn, E. F., Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures, Tri-State Offset
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 1965 (1992).
[2] [Ni] ......... Ni, M. M., .a., Avioane i rachete - Concepte de proiectare, Editura Militar,
Bucureti, 1985.
[3] [Nicolai] ..... Nicolai, L., Fundamentals of Aircraft Design, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, 1975.
[4] [Niu-D] ....... Niu, Michael C. Y., Airframe Structural Design, Hong Kong Conmilit Press Ltd., 1988.
[5] [Niu-S] ....... Niu, Michael C. Y., Airframe Stress Analysis and Sizing, Hong Kong Conmilit Press
Ltd., 1997.

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D - II ... Avioane n general - FAR 23 / JAR-23


D-II.1 Diagrama de manevr i rafal
10. Reprezentare...

CLmax+
C'

n1
B'

CLmaxF

+15

C
+7.5

nF

D'

+20

A1

S
-20

VS

n2

VB

VA

B"

D1

C1

VD E

VC
-7.5
-15

D"

C"

CLmax
Figura D-2 ... Diagrama de manevr i rafal dup FAR-23[/25]

20. Prescripii...

V [VE]

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D - III ... Avioane de transport - FAR 25 / JAR-25


Not. Normele JAR i FAR sunt practic identice; se vor reda prescripiile dup FAR....
D-III.1 Diagrama de manevr i rafal (DMR)...
- Vezi mai sus D-III.2 Generaliti. Definiii...
FLIGHT LOADS
25.321 General
a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the aerodynamic force component (acting normal to
the assumed longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the weight of the airplane. A positive load
factor is one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with respect to the airplane.
b) Considering compressibility effects at each speed, compliance with the flight load
requirements of this subchapter must be shown:
(1) At each critical altitude within the range of altitudes selected by the applicant
(2) At each weight from the design minimum weight to the maximum weight appropriate to
each particular flight load condition; and
(3) For each required altitude and weight, for any practicable distribution of disposable load
within the operating limitations recorded in the Airplane Flight Manual.

Observaie. Din cele de mai sus se reine faptul c DMR pentru un avion dat se
"construiete" pentru orice combinaie posibil de altitudini, greuti i centraje admisibile...
Pentru proiectul C[P]SA analiza se va limita la o configuraie tipic - o vom zice nominal
O vom desemna prin tripletul (parametrii diagramei...)
(D-6)
G,H, Centraj
D-III.3 Construcie...
25.335 Design airspeeds
The selected design airspeeds are equivalent airspeeds (EAS).

Reamintim definiia:
- Notm V (VTAS ) - viteza adevrat a avionului (true airspeed) la nlimea H ( H = )
- Pentru o configuraie de zbor dat, forele aerodinamice se scriu n modul cunoscut (n care
apare presiunea dinamic q =

V 2 ...)
P=

V 2 SC z ,"

2
- Notm 0 densitatea la sol (nivelul mrii - atmosfera standard...)
- Prin definiie, viteza echivalent VE (VEAS - equivalent airspeed) este o vitez convenional,
fictiv, care "asigur" aceeai presiune dinamic evaluat ns cu densitatea de la sol
P=
VE

=V
0

def!

def!

V 2 SC z =

0 V 2 SC
E
z

def!

respectiv V = VE

(D-6)

- Prin aceast noiune, toate situaiile posibile ale avionului sunt "reduse" n mod
convenional la condiiile de la sol... Trebuie atenionat c evoluiile avionului se studiaz sistematic
cu parametrii de la altitudinea "nominal" - prin noiunea de vitez echivalent se realizeaz doar o
schimbare de scar a diagramei de manevr i se "unific" informaiile utile pilotului...

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10. Viteze de calcul


Prescripiile FAR referitoare la vitezele de calcul din DMR sunt destul de complicate...
FAR Part I - Definitions and abbreviations
1.2 Abbreviation and symbols
VS means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is
controllable
VH means maximum speed in level flight with maximum continuous power
VA means design maneuvering speed
VC means design cruising speed
VD means design diving speed
VF means design flap speed

Pentru proiectul C[P]SA vom reine urmtoarele:


a) VS , VA (viteze adevrate)
G
(D-7)
; V A = VS n1
VS =

SC zmax
2
b) VC , VD (viteze adevrate)
Pentru avioanele moderne (de transport), vitezele de calcul VC i VD (respectiv numerele
Mach MC i MD) se limiteaz din considerente de compresibilitate...
25.335 Design airspeeds
(a) Design cruising speed
(3) VC need not exceed the maximum speed in level flight at maximum continuous power for
the corresponding altitude
(b) Design dive speed
With VC set, a VD shall be selected so that the margin between VC/MC and VD/MD is the greater
of the following values:
(1) From an initial condition of stabilized flight at VC/MC thr airplane is upset, flown for 20
seconds along a flight path 7.50 below the initial path, and then pulled up at a load factor of 1.5
(0.5 acceleration increment). The speed thus attained is taken as VD!
Note. During this maneuver, the power as specified in 25.175-(a)-(iv) is assumed until the
pull-up is initiated - that is 75 % of maximum continuous power for reciprocating engines or
the maximum power or thrust selected by the applicant for turbine engines - at which time
power reduction and the use of pilot controlled drag devices may be assumed.
The speed increase occurring in this maneuver may be calculated if reliable or conservative
aerodynamic data is used
Not. Condiia de mai sus este reprezentat schematic n figura D-3.
(2) The margin between MD and MC may not be less than 0.05

VC(MC)

T = Tmax - continuu

VD(MD)

Zbor
orizontal

Angajare

Coborre
= 7.50
t = 20 s

Redresare
n = 1.5

Figura D-3 - Definiia vitezei limit de picaj VD(MD) conform FAR - 25

Zbor
orizontal

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Procedur practic:
Se adopt pentru VC(MC) valoarea vitezei maxime corespunztoare altitudinii "nominale" de
calcul, la regimul de funcionare maxim-continuu pentru motoare cu turbin
Se adopt pentru VD(MD) valorile VD = VC + V (respectiv M D = M C + M ) unde
V (respectiv M ) reprezint creterea de vitez n evoluia descris n figura D-3; diferena
V ( M ) nu va fi ns inferioar valorii M = 0.05
20. Factori de sarcin
Factorii de sarcin limit de calcul sunt specificai in paragraful...
25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors

Prescripiile sunt:
Not: Simbolurile folosite mai jos se "citesc" astfel (atenie la nuane!...):
n ... "n" nu va fi inferior valorii specificate...
n ... "n" nu e nevoie s depeasc valoarea specificat...

n1
n2

n1 2.1 +

11000
G [daN] + 4500

n2 " minim" = 1
[Intre VC si VD liniar spre 0]

n 2.5
dar 1
n1 3.8

( D-8)

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D - IV... Avioane militare - MIL 8860A/8861A (USAF)


D-IV.1 Diagrama de manevr i rafal (DMR)...
Construcia se d n figura D-4, i TABLE-I cu notaiile din MIL; spre claritate se dau mai jos
simbolurile i definiiile.
Not. Pentru avioanele NAVY prescripiile se dau n normele respective...
n
A
n1

n=k

0 VE 2
2W / S

CN max

VL
J

0
K

V [VE]

n3

VH
C

n2

n=

0 VE 2
2W / S

C N min

Figura 5 ... Diagrama de manevr conform MIL

TABLE I. [MIL-8861A] SYMMETRICAL FLIGHT PARAMETERS

Symmetrical Flight Limit Load Factor


Basic Mission
Symbol

Basic Flight
Design Weight
Max

All
Weights

Max Design
Weight
Max

Max

Min
at VH
[n2]

[n1]

Min
at VH
[n2]

[n1]

Min
at VH
[n2]

A, F, TF (Subsonic)
A, F, TF (Supersonic)
O, T
U
BI
BII
CAssault
CTransport

8.00
6.50
6.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
2.50

- 3.00
- 3.00
- 3.00
- 2.00
- 2.00
- 1.00
- 1.00
- 1.00

- 1.00
- 1.00
- 1.00
0
0
0
0
0

4.00
4.00
3.00
2.50
2.50
2.00
2.00
2.00

- 2.00
- 2.00
- 1.00
- 1.00
- 1.00
0
0
0

5.50
5.50

- 2.00
- 2.00

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4

Symbols [MIL-8861A/B]:
A Attack
F Fighter | TF - Tactical ~
O Observation
T Trainer
BI Tactical bomber
BII Strategic bomber

Min
at VL
[n3]

Time for
abrupt
cockpit
longitudinal
control
displacement
t1 [seconds]

Max
Ordnance
Weight

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D - 10

D-IV.2 Generaliti - Definiii...


10. Prescripii MIL
MIL-A-8860A (USAF)...
6.2.1 Design weights (...)
6.2.1.1 Minimum flying weight (WMIN) is composed of the weight-empty (...) plus the following
items and does not include disposable armament, ammunition or any other disposable useful
load item:
a. Five percent of total usable and unusable internal fuel capacity or reserve fuel
b. Oil consistent with item a
c. Minimum crew.
6.2.1.2 Maximum design weight (WMAX). The maximum design weight is the weight of the
airplane with the maximum internal and maximum external loads as defined herein with no
reduction permitted for fuel used during taxi, warm-up or climb-out. This weight applies to:
a. Taxiing and ground handling loads for all airplanes
b. Take-off loads
c. In-flight refueling conditions
d. Flight loads
e. Wheel jacking
f. Flutter and divergence prevention and vibration
g. Aerial delivery loads
6.2.1.2.1 Maximum internal load. The maximum internal load will include the following
items for which provision is required:
a. Full internal fuel
b. Maximum store (or combination of stores) weight to be carried internally
c. Racks to accommodate item b
d. Maximum internal useful load
6.2.1.2.1 Maximum external load. The maximum internal load will include the following
items for which provision is required:
a. Maximum store (or combination of stores) weight to be carried externally
b. Pylons to accommodate item a
c. Racks to accommodate item a
6.2.1.3 Basic flight design weight (WBF). The basic flight design weight applies to 6.2.1.2 items
a through g, as follows:
a. For A, F and TF airplanes this weight is the greater of the following:
(1) Maximum design weight minus the weight of 50 percent of the maximum internal and
maximum external store loading with either full internal fuel or 80 percent of the total fuel
(internal or external) whichever is greater
(2) The take-off weight with the primary useful load, including either full internal fuel or 80
percent of the total fuel (internal or external) whichever is greater
b. For B, C, O, T and U airplanes, this weight is the weight at engine start with the primary
mission useful load.
6.2.1.4 Maximum ordnance*) weight (WMO). For A, F and TF airplanes, the maximum ordnance
weight will include the fuel weight as defined in the basic flight design weight (6.2.1.3, a) plus
the weight of the maximum ordnance for which provisions are made.
6.2.1.5 Landplane landing design weight (WLL)
6.2.1.5.1 For O, T and U types, the landplane landing design weight is the maximum
design weight specified in 6.2.1.2 minus the following:
a. The weight of all droppable items
b. The weight of all external fuel
c. The weight of 25 percent internal usable fuel.
6.2.1.5.2 For C types the WLL is - see above! - minus the following:
a. The weight of all external fuel
b. The weight of 50 percent internal fuel.
*)

ordnance (abm): s. artilerie (grea); arsenal

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6.2.1.5.3 For A, F, TF and B types the WLL is - see above! - minus the following:
a. The weight of all external fuel
b. The weight of 60 percent internal fuel.
6.2.1.6 Maximum landing design weight (WML) is - see above 6.1.1.2! - less the weight of the
following:
a. Assist take-off fuel
b. Droppable fuel tanks
c. Items expended during or immediately after take-off as routine take-off procedure
d. Fuel dumped during one go-round or 3.0 minutes, whichever results in the minimum amount
of fuel
6.2.2 Speeds. Speeds will be in knots based upon the international nautical mile
6.2.2.1 Indicated airspeed (IAS). The IAS is the reading of the airspeed indicator uncorrected
for instrument, installation and compressibility errors.
6.2.2.2 Calibrated airspeed (CAS). The CAS is the IAS corrected for instrument and
installation errors.
6.2.2.3 True airspeed (TAS). The TAS is the speed at which the airplane moves through the air
surrounding it.
6.2.2.4 Equivalent airspeed (EAS). The EAS is the true airspeed multiplied by the square root
of the air density ratio at the altitude concerned.
H
VEAS = VTAS
0
6.2.2.5 Engaging speed (VE). The engaging speed is the airplane speed relative to the landing
surface.
6.2.2.6 Level-flight maximum speed (VH). This speed will be as specified in the contract
documents and will be the maximum continuous level-flight speed for the basic configuration
at the basic-flight-design gross weight commensurate with the specified operational use of the
airplane.
6.2.2.7 Limit speed (VL). The limit speed for the basic and high-drag configuration is the
maximum attainable speed commensurate with the operational use of the airplane considering
shallow and steep dive angles, thrust, operation and nonoperation of speed brakes and
inadvertent upsets from gusts, or as specified in the contract document.
MIL-A-8860B(AS)Navy
6.3.3.6 Level-flight maximum speed (VH). The maximum speed attainable at the basic
flight design gross weight in the basic configuration in level flight with maximum
available thrust, including use of afterburners (and rocket thrust augmentation if
applicable).
6.3.3.7 Limit speed (VL). For the basic and high drag configurations, the maximum
attainable speed commensurate with the operational use of the airplane considering
shallow and steep dive angles, thrust, operation and nonoperation of speed brakes and
inadvertent upsets from gusts.

6.2.2.11 Stalling speed (VSL). The stalling speed is the minimum speed for level flight in the
landing configuration with zero thrust

20. Discuie
Greuti de calcul
n cele ce urmeaz, pentru uniformitate, revenim la notaiile standard ("romneti")
Maximum design weight Gmax-des reprezint greutatea maxim de calcul a avionului echipat
n configuraie de zbor. Gmax-des include sarcina maxim intern Gmax-int i extern Gmax-ext.
Basic flight design weight Gbas reprezint greutatea de calcul pentru configuraia de zbor
"nominal" a avionului, respectiv (recomandri simplificate!)
a) Pentru avioanele A, F, TF... Gbas este valoarea (cea mai mare dintre...):
(1) Gmax-des minus 50 % din ( Gmax-int + Gmax-ext)...
(2) ...
b) Pentru avioanele B, C, O, T i U..., Gbas este greutatea avionului la start, complet echipat
pentru misiunea de baz.

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Viteze de calcul*)
Pentru avioanele militare, condiiile de calcul i vitezele VH (level-flight maximum
"continuous" speed) respectiv VL (limit speed) corespund regimurilor de zbor i vitezelor VC
respectiv VD din normele FAR...
Cu VH "selectat", VL se adopt n consecin, ca valoare "acoperitoare"...

D-IV.3 DMR - Construcie...


10. Prescripii MIL
MIL-A-8861A (USAF)...

3.3 Weight. The design for the flight loads and loading conditions specified herein shall
include weights from the minimum flying weight to the maximum design weight that result in
critical loads. For maneuvering conditions that are defined by a relationship to he maximum
symmetrical flight limit load factor, the following apply:
a. For weights up to the basic flight design weight, strength shall be provided for values
specified for the basic flight design weight.
b. At higher weights, strength shall be provided for maintaining a constant "nW" product,
except that the load factor, n, shall not be less than that specified in table I for the maximum
design weight.
3.4 Center of gravity positions
3.5 Aerodynamic configuration

3.8 Altitudes. The altitudes for determining flight loading conditions shall be as follows:
a. Sea level for landing approach and take-off
b. The altitude at which the Mach number is a maximum
c. The altitude at which the limit speed in EAS is a maximum
d. Sea level
e. All intermediate altitudes that result in critical loads
f. Sea level to 20,000 feet aerial delivery

20. Discuie
Factori de sarcin de calcul
"Filosofia" prescripiilor din paragraful 3.3 este urmtoarea:
Un avion militar (adesea multirol!) se calculeaz - din punct de vedere structural - pentru
configuraia "nominal", adic, n termenii MIL, pentru varianta de ncrcare "basic-flight-mission"
respectiv Gbas. Pentru aceasta, factorii de sarcin de calcul extremi sunt specificai n tabela I - i vom
nota nbas... Dup definiie, scriem pentru portan
Pbas = nbas Gbas
Condiiile de calcul respective se neleg "n cmpul operaional", adic dup ce avionul a
consumat o parte din combustibil i a lansat o parte din sarcinile exterioare... Pbas reprezint, dup
definiie, sarcina maxim pe care o are de suportat structura avionului dat.
Avionul trebuie ns calculat i pentru condiia "de start" atunci cnd el este complet
echipat, respectiv pentru Gmax-des. Deoarece structura avionului este una i aceeai, sarcina de calcul
se limiteaz - n sens logic! - la valoarea "nominal" Pbas de mai sus, ceea ce impune limitarea
corespunztoare a factorilor de sarcin de calcul la valori consistente cu greutatea de calcul, adic
nmax-des Gmax-des = const! = Pbas = nbas Gbas

nmax -des = nbas

Gbas

Gmax -des
De aici se scoate nmax-des. Valorile acestuia nu vor fi inferioare celor specificate n tabela I...
Similar, pentru varianta de echipare "max-ordnance-weight" (armament maxim la bord...)
valorile factorilor de sarcin de calcul nu vor fi inferioare celor specificate n tabela I...
*)

NATO/OTAN RTO-AG-300-V14 H.Walgemoed (Fokker Aircraft B.V.): Chapter 12 - Flight Envelope

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D - 13

BIBLIOGRAFIE GENERAL
Referine
[Engmann] - Klaus Engmann (Hrsg.), Technologie des Flugzeuges, Leuchtturm-Verlag /
LTV Press, Alsbach/Bergstrasse, 1994.
[Sechler] - Ernest E. Sechler & Louis G. Dunn, Airplane Structural Analysis and Design,
Dover Publications, Inc., New York, (1942) - 1963.
[Raymer] - Daniel P. Raymer, Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, AIAA Education
Series, AIAA, Inc., Washington DC, 1992.
New BOOKS...
[Howe] Denis Howe, Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout, AIAA Education Series,
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Reston, Virginia, 2004.
[Lomax] Ted L. Lomax, Structural Loads Analysis for Commercial Transport Aircraft:
Theory and Practice, AIAA Education Series, American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Inc., Reston, Virginia, 1996.
[Hoblit] Frederic M. Hoblit, Gust Loads on Aircraft: Concepts and Applications, AIAA
Education Series, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Reston,
Virginia, 1988.
Bibliografie (selecie)

[1] [Bruhn] ...... Bruhn, E. F., Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures, Tri-State Offset
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 1965 (1992).
[2] [Ni] ......... Ni, M. M., .a., Avioane i rachete - Concepte de proiectare, Editura Militar,
Bucureti, 1985.
[3] [Nicolai] ..... Nicolai, L., Fundamentals of Aircraft Design, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, 1975.
[4] [Niu-D] ....... Niu, Michael C. Y., Airframe Structural Design, Hong Kong Conmilit Press Ltd., 1988.
[5] [Niu-S] ....... Niu, Michael C. Y., Airframe Stress Analysis and Sizing, Hong Kong Conmilit Press
Ltd., 1997.