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-.

.t.

5. rhclranc'riussErcrnenr Gio\VS

r0blerns:

--,+

&J, l+eW'd'

;'roblern 5.1 :

onsiclcr tlte plnnc tru.ss .sltorvn irr Figtrrc 5.5. Civcrt li :210 CiPl irrtcl .,1 -

,l tenninc:

0.00f-r lrr2

I . thc global .stiffnes.s ttttttt'ix for the stt'ttctttt'c, ?". the horizontal ancl vcrtical clispllccnlcttl.s at ttotlcs 2,3, '1, attd 5,

l. tlrc lrorizontal and vcrticnl rcactiort.s rtt'ttoclc.s I and 6,

,t. thc strcss in each elcntcnt.

'#(- 5rtr

iK;-*

5ttt

)tlt

I,,,,

:'ig. 5.5. Ptltnc Trttss ftlr Problcrn 5.1

') roblem 5.2:

.r:nsiclcr the strrtctttrc coltlposccl of it 'sprirtg attd

livctt. fi -- 70 CPa,;t: S.0lnl2, alltl t:

30tjt)

llluttc trttss its shotvn irt lligtrrc 5.6"

kN/nt, dctcrtttine':

l. thc global stiffness ntatrix l"or Ilic strttctttl'c,

2. tlre displacclllcltts at noclc.s 'l atlcl 5,

3. thc rcacl"iotts at ttoclcs 1,2, attd 3,

L';. thc fcrrce in tltc sPt'ittg,

5. thc stress ilt ettclt trtt.ss clctttcttt.

',t, f'

,. {,

"'

,lr-

I

5

o

_> r0kN

,*

o\}

6 The SPace Truss Element

q

\

\

\ \ \ \

6.1 Basic Equations

-f1c sl)ilcc

glt,,lrrrl

truss clcrrrc't is a thrcc-)linre'sior*rl

tlrl)

'\

firritc.ty(tttt.t

rvith both local artd

rrctit)lls' 'l'lrc sP:tt'c It'ttss

v'

lcrrgttt

itltrl /)' tttcllstrrcd

1^.^L]:]]rtl.l:::

frtlttl

ctr.r.tlirrrrtcs. lt is ,,.lurnrt'tcr iz

lr1' lirrcrrt' s.lt: rry't',

clcrrcrrr 5rs *ruclrrlus r['cl.sticity

ClUlllUlll

I

/:', c,,\r-.t*cti.ttlt,

^f:,^/1,^itttcl

0,t,0

tr.rrss clcr'crrt 51s trvo rr.rlcs arrd

rlrc global X ,Y ,ancl Z rxcs, respectiucty,\q

is irtclin\ s'itlt tttg^6t

U.,:f:^t::,i-l:.it:i::1:,:::i:fif;i;

ffiZ;":'.::r'ri,,',"io:";;;'0;];;; c"':b\?/,. rn trris case rrrc crcrnenr stirrness

nrnrrix is gir.cn by (scc re[e rcnces

I l] arld Ilrp{\

A.- Etl

L

c3

(:yc:,.

C,C,

*c':.

-CrC,

-(:

c,.c:y

C,

C,.CV

-cl

*c rc,',,

Ci vC,

C:

C:

Ct,,C,

c;

C.rC'y

-C"'C"

-c rc,

_C:

C,'C "

C,C,

C,:

(0. 1)

.->x

-\ /.

l''iH. (r. l.'l'lrc Sl)ll('c'l'ttrss Ir'lctrtcttt

'rir.r'.

,

.',.'.

.''-:.",:i{ri.'

130 7. T'lrc Rcnrrr Elenrcrrt

llfl

rmElementHomentDiagram

(t 2 ,L2)

Bendrng Morncr{ CIogr

Fig'

|

1.5

2

13. Ilcnding Mclnrcrrt Diirgranr l,

Bt,, r,lleeentHomentDiagrarn

(f 3, L3

0ending Monrorl

lcrrrcrrt 2

7.2 l''14I'LAIJ Irunctiotts Uscd

3. thc

rcatt.ior)s at noy'Cs |,2, and 3.

4. the forcc.s

5. thc shcar fi

6. tlre

rc4{s and rnonle nt.s) in cach elcntenl.

6b{iagrarn for each elctltent.

r)ronft\t diagrant for each elctltcttt.

;-.1---

l3l

.:ilidiigr5r*

t<-r*+t<t-+t

Fig. 7,15. lJeitrrt rvitlr'l\v<l []lentcnts ftlr Prol,rlern 7.1

probtenl .dO

CorrsitJcr thc bcarn shorvn in Figurc 1.16. Do not put a nocle ilt tlre location of

the conccntratcd loacl but usc the rnctlrorl ol'crluir,illcrtt noclitl forces for both thc

cli.stributccl loacl lrnd tlre conccntratcd lond. Givcn Ii 10-o nl'l, clctcrtttittc:

2IA CI)a, and I

50 x

_

l. tlrc glolxrl .stil'frrc.ss tlt;ttrix Ior tlrc .stl'ttcttlt'c.

2. tlrc rotatiorts at ltotlcs 2, 3 and 4.

3. tlrc rcactiort.s ltt ttotlcs | , 2,3, ltrrd 4.

l. tlrc lirrcc.s (slrc;rrs lncl nl()rllcrrt.s) in citch clctttcttt.

5. tltc sltc'itt' lttrcc tliltgrnltt lilr crrclt clctttcttt.

6. tlrc bcnding nlotttcttt ditgrirlrr for clclt clctltcttt.

l0k N/nt

23

l<- ^---+i

Jnt

Jlll

lltl

lOk N

i

-

llll

Itig. 7.16. [Jcitrtt rvith Distribtrtcd l.tlld frrr I'rolrlcrlr 7.2

Problent k6:@

( lorr.sitir.r'llrt: llr:rrrrr rvitlr lr sllr irr11 t'le:nlcnt_;ts sllott'rr ilr I;igttt'c:

t ,10>: l0

(i nl'l ,ltl(t /,: ,

50()()kNlrtt,tlelt't'tttittt':

I, lhc globrrl slil'lhcss nrlrtri.r [or tltc.stt'ttcttttc.

132 7 . Thc fJcant Elerttcttt

4. t5c forcc.s (sllcars ancl nlonrcnts) in cach bcatn clclttcttl.

5. thc forcc itt thc spring clcntcttt.

6. tlrc shear force clingrartt fot' cach l:eattt eletttcttt.

7. the bcnclirrg nlonlcnt diirgrnrrt lor caclt bcattt clcntcttt.

ffi#{

I 0kN

E,I

4'A

4

n"t \a*

L

ol

,Itig. 7.17. Bcattr rvitlr n Spring for I''t'oblc'rtr 7.3

nr

\*t'-o

-'Fr.

4, f'

\

f:

I

"**t"rcA1

I\

.-L,

-l*i|

-a-v€

L''^

x--r(-_\-

\

rlphtr\rl.*

I

_

'l-\

--^

_V _'

[El

-!a.=

*rX

*fi

c^-J

B The Plane Frame Elefll'"

8.1

\

Eiasic Equatiqns

'l-ltc 1ll^nc

ft'atnc .,N

rt is e trvo- ft'rtln

{anc

r:ilritrcit .ll,

global coortlittlttes. 'fhe )

oI irtcrtia /, cross-sccticltt

noclcs

and is i nc I i nccl rv it

tl, ,\ra,rglc

glotral X nxis ns .sltorvtt i

clctt'tcttt. sti l'lllcss tttlttrix i

(se,: rcflcrcrtccs IlJlrntl I

in [:ig\1rc E

is gi'','.tt\Y

l til)

\

1

=.

-

E

T X

Ar;')

(^-

r2l

.f- --

y2

.5

*

,

,,, \

,t)

_

lcs

(i'

-- ---5'

I

I'

(

l

\l-2

,,

rtc'1----

r'i,

|

-la I

\/

-

'r,\

r,zl

$I

--5

I.

("

_1)"

,., )

, #r'

clintcnsirt'

e cletttctr

anrl lcrtgti:

0 tttc:,r:,!r- .

. l. I-t:t Q =

tlrrr lilll,r'.'. '

cntcttt rvirh both local antl trlrrs ol'clirsticiLy D, nlotncn[ '

,,/tt rllltrtc lrittttc eletltent lras two

/ntcrclockrvise l'rom the positivc

sirr 0. In this case the

,0 itncl $

*

.:rtr.i.x incl rrrli ng uxial clc[ortttirtiott

(^ -;i)"

t"'

a,

|,,rr'* 11"')

\v2)

til

----c"

L

/

l,r---l(:s tr)

\

t*r \

,ts? + Yg'

y2

-

6l

*c

t.

6t

--s L

6T

*C

L

2T

6I

--s

L

0t

- -c L

4I

(8' l)

ir tlctltt-rus of'l't'e:ctlottt - tltt'cc lti

ir,' sillrr ('()rrt,'itli,tlt rtst'tl is llt:li

rrrtl t ot:ttiolt\ lll c [)()sitil'e il tlrc't'

r,,'i{ll ?t riotlt's. lltc ilotrltl stil'l'ncs"

tirrcc clcgl'ccs tl['

l'rc'ctltlttt ilt e ilcli

1,. rl'" lt't'\'ll

AI:

i

!

.

','ll"

168 8' The Planc l"rittttc lllctnctt' C^SU€4A

Problems:

P roblem 8.1 :

3v\:1

Consicier[ltcplane[ranresltorvnirrIrigtrre8.2|,GivcnD

l0-2 m2, and [ -= 4 x 10-6 tn4, dtttcrtltitte:

,o

.l x

I.

tlrc glolxtl stil'l'lrcss f ltitlt'ix lirl'tlrc.stt'ttcttlr'(:,

7.

thc displncctllctlts ltrttl t'tltittitltt ltt ltotlc 2,

3.

the horizontal clisplirccnlcttI atttl rotlttiott itl. tloclc 3,

4. thc reaction.s at ttotlcs I and 3,

5. the axial force, shear forcc, ancl Llcnrling nlortlct'tt in caclt clctttcttt,

6- the axial ftlrce diltgritrtr for cltclt elcrtlcllt,

7 . the shear lorce cliagranr for eaclt eletnent,

8. the bending motl)etrt cliagrarn {'or eaq}t elcttrcnt.

.{

l5kN.tn

ffi

*a-a

3

20kN

Itig. 8.2L Plane Frutltc with J\vo Illertlcnts for ['roblcrlr 8' l

Problem 8.2:

Corrsir.lcr thc planc franrc shorvn irr l;igurc 8.22. Givcrr ri::

10-2 fil2o and I

-

I x 10-5 nt4, ctctertttilte:

the globnl

the

stiffrtcss ttt:ttrix [or tlrc stt'ttctttrc,

displncctttcltts lttttl rotlttiolis at tloclcs 2 nntl 3,

210 cl'it,

'

r\

l:<

tltt: r'cltclitltts ltt tttttlr-s I lrrltl 'l .

tlrc lrxilrl lg;ce. sl)('i1'lir;cc, iltrrlllclrtlirrg lll()lttcttt itt cltclr clcl'llcllt'

tltc ltXilrl l'tttet:,liirlil illll lirr cltt'lt t'lcttlr-'ttl, thc shcltt' furcc tlilrgrlttt ['t"rt' cltr-lt clctllcttt,

I lr,. lr,,r.', li,rn rr\nrllr. nl (li :t rt rit rtt t'tlf CitClt ulct t tCttt.

Ll

i

I

I

t

lr

8.2 NIA I'Ln B [:rrttctiutts Llscd

t69

20kN

5 kN/rn

l',

K

^;i-*n---,aii,=-'=t?ffl

l,'i1i. lf .22. l,t:rrrc li'i'rrc rvirlr I)istt'ilrtrtctl

l.':ttl lirl' l't'ttlrlt'trr ti'2

'

Problent 8.3:

Ct,nsiclcr tlc structure corrrposetl

Givc n I! :70

Gpa, A -:- i

ol'a bcanr ancl a spril]g

:

1 x l0-r',

X l0-2 nrz, /

clctct'ttt iltc:

a) sltorvrt irl Figurc 8 '23"

ol4' nncl A: :

5000 kN/m'

l. tlre global

stilfncss rtuttrix lclr tlrc strttctttt'e,

2. the displacenrcnts ancJ rotation at nodc l,

3. tltc rcitt:tiotts at ttodcs 2 artt!

4. thc axinl l'orce, shc{rr lrrrcc,

3,

nntl bcnding ttrotrtcttt i0 thc bcltltt'

5.

6.

1.

8.

tle forcc ip tlr'. spriltg,

tltc axi;rl forcc clitgrapl for tlrc [cntt't,

tlrc slrear fcll'cc cliagrrttlt fol tlte beltttt,

thc lrerttlirlg lltolllcnt tli:rgrattr [ot' tltc Llclttlt"

.

Iirrt: Usc a plattc frallle clctttcttt for the belttlt so aS

cf'l.ccts. Also irsc il plunc. tr.Lrss oldnlcnt lirr'tlrc spring

(l

inclirrrtion - in this cirsc clctcrurirrc valucs l'or -L'atttl -'l pl' /; giycp upcl t[c lcngtI of' tlrc spri']8).

to i rtc ltrde it

so ls to incl tuclc thc anglc of

xial deforntation

lor thc sprirt

g using the rlalue

f\/

^Vt

I.,,
I

r 0kN 1<- 4'--*;l

I;ig. ti.2l. I'lltttc Ft :rttlc \vitlr it '\Prirrg

U

lirr l'roltlcrrr li.3

3. Thc Lincar Bar Elcnrcnt

0;0;0;01

-004 *

ttSIT

tB02

't77 4

i c3g

1,168

t

rir

it isc

iltlT517 n

'roth

he

nm

rn

!.tfJ sl

i;6(P

':

;ler ar tlrnt the requ

r

(the nrinus s ;ig

gn

MA'I'LAB lrl

lc

N cli

t.\ rl)

r 1il,

cc

nlcnI t'

rI

nl.

rrl

ic

cat

tc.s

:.s

that i

\l

n rllar

Lit

ne e(

\

al

bc

lst

str

tlr

ilrc

ilr(

cn<l is -0.4517x 10-a nr

it is

it

tccl to tlre Icft). No calls

dir

re(

ect

'lile

Iet

lll c,t

tlcc.r or I.itteorllnrlile-

nl,

rt

[:t

Inc

ot

O

trt

cqrrirccJ in this cxanrple.

df

for

tlr

t

lr

.s cx:lnr;llc.

is

rc [r' rce

]cc

i,X \

c(i

rn(

I(

Ib

Ot'r

.s

;T;

'ill

)1.

,E

.si

s

i

:c thc clenrent

nc,

r-cssc.s

:r'f irrrrr

)c

red

l-processing) r

ost

ril

rvi

Froble;,t 3.7 :

CoitsirjI

E -

ilre .stt'ucttll'c collllttlsctl ol'tlrrcrr f irrcrrr lxu's ils slrorvrr irr

ltigsr.c 3.5. Ci'crr

7{j ' i[:'e, A = 0.00s rn2, ,I)l =

lt] kN, i.ur tI lrz: t5 kN, dctcrnrine:

l. thc i: l'.:tlrrl stillne.ss rrutri.x for tlrc .stnrctur.c,

2, tlrc '1is placetncnls nt noclc.s 2, 3, ilncl rl,

3. the ir';tctiort at lt,ttc I,

4. lhc

r ; csS in clch blrr"

P roblc

^t.2:

, Solvc l ., rrillc 3.2 nglrirr usirrg tcrr

,* dililtlttUr ', i\f ttl lltr- I'r*rr rrrrrl rrl' llrrr

ilrstc;rtl ol' livc. I)etrr.rrrirrt: llrt.

lll\lllt\fll'rr

\!rltlF

rrtrr'rrr.rrr

rr,lrl.

rl.

r)

') |

-'l

- lr

1,.

1-"

lrr

r

.-

z

-- .--.- o

I

--- .---.

lln--t-

/?=---t-_*.7l

2nt.-,--.

I

lll--,

o

4

Irig.3.5. -l'lrree-Bar Stnrclurc for Problcrrr 3. I

3.2 NlAl'l"All ljurrctiorr.q Lj.sctl

4l

Problent 3.3:

Ctlttsidcr tltc .stntcture conlpo.scd of lr sprips ltrrtl 1 lirrcnr bnr as .shorvrr

Civcn It -

200 GPit, /l :0.01

tn2, /,: :

ip Itrigur.c 3.6.

10()0 kN/rrr, lrnd P == 2i kN, rlcrcrnrine:

l. thc glol.rirl stiffrrcss rrrrrtrix fr.'r thc strtrcturc, 2, thc di.splaccnlcnt at ncld c 2,

3. thc rclrction.s at nodc.s I ancl 3,

4. thc strcss in tlrc bar,

5. the force in the spring.

")

v

k*

(l

v >?-h

I

=

Irig. 3.6. I-inc:tr Ilirr rvitlr ;r Sgrring ftrr. I)rrblcrrr j.l

'?*+u"- 4

Ftt

i\

t/

4V ,i

E

\-->'

(rl