Sunteți pe pagina 1din 46

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr.

1/2013

OMUL MODERNITII TRZII.

MAN OF LATE MODERNITY:

,,MAREA RUPTUR I NEVOIA

GREAT BREACH AND THE

REFACERII ORDINII SOCIALE

NEED FOR REMAKING THE


SOCIAL ORDER

Adrian Gorun, prof.univ. dr.

Adrian Gorun, prof. univ. dr.

Univ. Constantin Brancusi din Tg-Jiu

Univ. Constantin Brancusi of Tg-Jiu

Abstract

Abstract

Studiul de fa reprezint o incursiune n istoria


omenirii ncepnd cu teza lui Darwin i continund cu
Th P. Milllemann, a crui concluzie este c evoluia
omenirii etse o evoluie paralel cu cea a altor specii,
iar apariia omului modern se bazeaz pe
descoperirile anterioare.
Demersul ne nlesnete prezentarea teoriei
valurilor a lui Toffler, ce analizeaz tranziia i
evoluia societii umane pe parcursul valurilor
vzute ca repere de abordare a etapelor civilizaiilor
umane i culminnd cu Marea Ruptur
dezindustrializarea Rust Belt i n ultim instan Era
Informaiei, cu consecine att de vaste.

The present study represents a foray into the


history of human beings starting with Darwins thesis
and going on with Th. P. Millemann, whose conclusion
is that the evolution of the human beings is an
evolution parallel with that of other species and the
emergence of the modern man is based on the
discoveries of the previous species.
The endeavour enables us to introduce Tofflers
theory of waves, analyzing the transition and evolution
of the human society along the waves as landmarks
for approaching different stages of the human
civilizations, culminating with the Great Breach
deindustrialization of Rust Belt and ultimately the
Information Age, whose consequences are so vast.

The

Filosoful american Francis Fukuyama

democratizare

of numberless studies on democratization and

politic

international

economic internaional, fost membru al


Departamentului

de

tiine

Politice

personalitate

activ

policy,

former

for Political Sciences RAND (for more than 8


years in the period 1979-1996 with certain

intervalul 1979-1996, cu anumite intervale de


i

economic

member of the Department of the Corporation

al

Corporaiei RAND (mai bine de opt ani n


ntrerupere)

Francis

The End of History and the last man, author

istoriei i ultimul om, autor a numeroase


despre

philosopher

Fukuyama, famous after launching his book

devenit celebru dup lansarea crii Sfritul


studii

American

intervals

la

of

interruption)

and

active

personality of the State Department of the

Departamentul de Stat al Statelor Unite

United States (1981-1982 and 1989) wrote

(1981-1982 i 1989) scrie n 1999 cartea

the book Great Breach, Human Nature and

,,Marea ruptur. Natura uman i refacerea

Remaking the Social Order.20

ordinii sociale1.

Cartea apare n Romnia la Editura Humanitas n 2002 i este prefaat de Liana V. Alecu, reeditare 2011

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

The post industrial world bears the

Lumea postindustrial poart amprente


serioase

ale

unei

tranziii

zbuciumate, imprints of a tormented transition, imprints

amprente generatoare de crize i concretizate generating


n:

creterea

delicvenei,

crises

and

substantiated

in:

destrmarea increase of law infringement, individualism

familiilor, individualism i nencredere. Toate and distrust. All these justify a fundamental
acestea justific o ntrebare fundamental: Ce question: What are the chances for the
anse

au

societile

contemporane

s contemporary societies to overcome the

depeasc momentul de criz i s refac moment of crisis and to restore the social
ordinea social? Construcia intelectual de order?

The

highly

refined

intellectual

mare rafinament, ntemeiat deopotriv n structure, set up alike in history, sociology,


istorie, sociologie, economie, religie, filosofie economics, religion, political philosophy,
politic,

biologie,

antropologie logics, and anthropology, represents the

logic,

reprezint rspunsul pe care Fr. Fukuyama l answer which Fr. Fukuyama gives to this
d la aceast ntrebare, filosoful punnd n answer and includes in the debate the bases
discuie

nsi

fundamentele

organizrii themselves of the social organization.

sociale.
1. Cum s-a nscut omul modern?

1. How Was the Modern Man Born?

Pn la impunerea geneticii n sistemul

Until genetics imposed in the system of

tiinelor teza lui Darwin care prezenta sciences, Darwins thesis, according to which
evoluia uman ,,ca pe o succesiune de the human evolution was presented as
evoluii,

pornind

de

la

specia

biped successive evolution starting from the biped

apropiat de maimu i terminnd cu o species close to the ape and ending with a
nlnuire de specii intermediare omului a chain of species intermediate to human,
dominat

gndirea

uman.

Darwinismul dominated the human thought. Darwinism

ptrunsese adnc i n perimetrul tiinelor had deeply pervaded the domain of society
despre societate, multe din metodele de sciences, many of the investigation methods
investigare, dar mai ales multe rezultate ale but especially many of the investigation
investigaiei

fiind

vulgarizate.

Lanul results were vulgarized. The evolutionist

evoluionist descris de Darwin avea, ns, chain described by Darwin lacked many
multe verigi lips, discontinuitile fiind links; the discontinuities were present over
prezente pe perioade de timp extrem de mari. great periods of time. Understanding this idea

20

InRomaniathebookispublishedwiththePrintingHouseHumanitasin2002withaPrefacewrittenbyLiana
V.Alecuandreeditedin2011

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

nelegerea acestei idei este nu doar necesar, is not only necessary, but illustrative too. Th.
ci i ilustrativ. Th. P. Millemann exemplific P. Millemann exemplifies through different
prin diverse specii umane care, dei au fost human

species

that

even

considered

considerate ascendente n evoluia altei ascendant within the evolution

of another

specii, n-au avut nici un rol n evoluia celor species, had no role in the evolution of the
de pe urm: ,,ntr-adevr, fr s ne former:
ntoarcem prea mult n trecut, n epoca

Without going far too back in the

dispariiei dinozaurilor, nainte ca Homo history, in the dinosaurs age, before Homo
sapiens, strmoul nostru, s apar pe sapiens, before our ancestor to appear on the
pmnt, acum o sut cincizeci de mii de ani, earth, it is true that Homo Neanderthals lived
tria deja Homo neanderthalis, prezent de on earth; he had been present for more than
mai bine de dou sute de mii de ani, i care a two hundred thousand years and seemed to
trit, pare-se, timp de nc o sut de mii de have lived in harmony for more than one
ani n armonie cu omul modern, fr s se hundred thousand years with the modern
amestece cu el, ca s dispar abia acum man, without entangling with it, to disappear
treizeci de mii de ani, atunci cnd trebuia s fi only thirty thousand years ago when he must
fost la cel mai nalt nivel al civilizaiei sale.

have been at his highest level of civilization.

Oamenii de Neanderthal care populau Neanderthals people populating France, by


Europa, la acea vreme nconjurai de marea then surrounded by the great ice cap in the
calot glacial la nord i ghearii Alpilor la North and the Alps glaciers in the South, had
sud, au trit, naintea apariiei strmoului lived before our ancestor appeared on earth
nostru, timp de peste o sut cincizeci de mii for more than 150 thousand years along his
de ani, alturi de vrul lor, Homo erectus, cousin Homo erectus who seemed to have
care se pare c era o fiin mai inteligent, cu been a more intelligent being with a cranium
o cutie cranian superioar omului de astzi, superior to the man today, who mastered the
care stpnea tehnicile preistoriei posednd prehistoric techniques with a high tribal and
un sim tribal i religios.

religious sense. This Homo erectus also lived

Acest Homo erectus a trit i el peste un over one million years and disappeared with
milion de ani, disprnd cu treizeci de mii de 30 thousand years before Homo sapiens.
ani naintea sosirii lui Homo sapiens. n Varying with the criteria of species evolution,
funcie

de

criteriile

evoluiei

speciilor, his adaptation to the environment must have

adaptarea la mediul su nconjurtor trebuia come to a head in the moment of his


s fie i ea la apogeu n momentul dispariiei disappearance. The situation is the same for

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

sale. Situaia este aceeai pentru Homo Homo habilis, called as such since he could
habillies, numit astfel deoarece tia s use the tools. He lived at the same time with
foloseasc uneltele. El a trit acelai timp cu Homo rudolfensis whose evolution led to
Homo rudolfensis, a crei evoluie a dus la Homo ergaster, who mastered the fire. The
naterea lui homo ergaster, care stpnea last had lived two million years before Christ
focul.

(B.C.) and for approximately one million

Acesta din urm a trit, cu dou milioane three hundred thousand years. Before them,
de ani nainte de Hristos, timp de aproximativ going back over four million years, we find
un milion trei sute de mii de ani.

different species of Australopithecus related

naintea lor, ntorcndu-ne cu peste patru to biped beings, which descended from trees
milioane de ani n urm, gsim diferite specii but disappeared the same mysterious way.
de Australopitecus nrudite cu bipezii, care au They disappeared because they were not
cobort din copaci i care au disprut i ei necessarily the descendants and did not
represent the others evolution21.

ntr-un mod la fel de misterios.


Au disprut, deoarece nu sunt n mod

Though the line of exemplifications seems

obligatoriu descendenii i nu reprezint too long, it is far from being useless. On the
evoluia celorlali2.

contrary: it questions the continuity of the

Dei irul exemplificrilor pare prea lung, species immanent succession within the
el nu este nici pe departe inutil. Dimpotriv. evolution and it proves in essence that:
The relation of concomitance and

El pune sub semnul ntrebrii continuitatea n

succesiunea imanent a speciilor n evoluie, succession between Homo sapiens and other
dovedind n esen c:

human species are purely accidental;


Homo sapiens is not the first human

ntre Homo sapiens i alte specii


umane

raporturile

succesiune

direct

de

concomiten
sunt

mai

i species, there were others before it, many of

mult them disappeared tens or hundreds thousand

ntmpltoare;

before Homo sapiens emergence;

Homo sapiens nu este prima specie

Previous human species disappeared

uman, naintea sa existnd o serie de alte when they came to a head concerning their
specii, multe disprute cu zeci sau sute de mii adaptation to the environment.
de ani anterior apariiei lui Homo sapiens;

Under the circumstances that none of the

Specii umane anterioare au disprut civilizations that were brilliant on the stage of
atunci cnd i-au atins apogeul n privina history and dominated Ancient times, could

21

Th. P. Millemann, op. cit. p.p. 26-27


Th.P.Millemann,op.cit.pp.2627

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

adaptrii la mediul nconjurtor.

not endure until today, a question arises

n condiiile n care nici una dintre naturally: What does the future bring to the
civilizaiile cate au strlucit i dominat present man?
Antichitatea nu s-a putut conserva pn azi,

The last studies intended to establish the

se pune justificat ntrebarea: Ce se va DNA molecular sequences as well as studies


ntmpla cu omul actual n viitor?
Ultimele

studii

orientate

undertaken especially by the German group


n

direcia of researchers led by Svante Paabo show that

stabilirii secvenelor moleculare de ADN, the genetic sequences of the Neanderthal man
studii efectuate ndeosebi de echipa german and of modern man, Homo sapiens are
din grupul de cercettori ai lui Svante Pbo, extremely different; they are so different that
demonstreaz c secvenele genetice ale it is impossible for one of them to be the
omului de Neanderthal i ale omului modern, descendant of the other22. To this sense Th.
Homo sapiens sunt extrem de diferite. Att de P. Millemanns conclusions are edifying:

Whether in case of biped people, an

evolution can be observed, it is an evolution


de Th. P. Millemann sunt i ele edificatoare:

within other species, the evolution of some

Dac este observabil o evoluie la was possible as long as they used the others
bipezi, ea este o evoluie n rndul diferitelor discoveries;
The species previous to the man,

specii, fiind posibil evoluia unora prin

considered

folosirea descoperirilor altora;

his

ancestors

do

not

exist

Speciile preexistente omului, care anymore;


The species evolved within their own

erau considerate strmoii lui, nu mai exist;

Speciile evolueaz n snul propriului group, from the same group, more evolved
grup, dnd natere unor indivizi mai evoluai, individual emerged, who in turn disappeared
care dispar, fr s dea natere unei specii to leave room for other more evolved species.
The mystery connected to the appearance

mai evoluate.

Misterul ce nsoete apariia omului of the modern man at least 150 thousand
modern, cu cel puin o sut cincizeci de mii years ago still persists. The scientific,
de ani n urm, persist.

religious and mythical theories put forward,

Ipotezele lansate tiinifice, religioase, can be admitted, yet they cannot be


mitice sunt admisibile, ns nu sunt demonstrated and nothing can be affirmed
demonstrate i nu se poate afirma nimic about them being plausible. It is certain

22

Ibidem, p.27
Ibid,p.27

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

despre plauzibilitatea lor. Cert este ns c though, that the biped mammals are not the
mamiferele bipede nu sunt strmoii omului, ancestors of the human being, that all the
c ,,toate speciile bipede evoluate, mai mult evolved species, more or less human,
sau mai puin umane, au disprut, mai puin disappeared though not the same can be said
omul, singur i unic, indiferent de culoarea about the human being, alone, unique,
pielii sale i a locurilor de evoluie sau irrespective of the colour of his skin and of
existen4.
Genetica

his places of evolution and existence23.


pune

din

nou

la

lucru

Genetics again has the anthropologists,

antropologii, istoricii, politologii. Ei se afl historians, political scientists work. They


confruntai cu certitudini, dar i cu multe meet both certainties and uncertainties.
incertitudini,

Printre

certitudini,

pot

fi Among real facts one can enumerate:

enumerate: inexistena unei relaii ntre between Australopithecus (the relatives of


australopiteci (rudele maimuelor) i omul apes) and the present man, the common
actual,

originea

comun

oamenilor, origin of human beings, irrespective of race

indiferent de ras i culoare, relaia mediu and

colour,

their

relations

with

the

ambiant (elemente climaterice i geologice) environment there were no kind of relations


diferenieri n interiorul speciei umane, (climate

or

geological

elements

nevoia intrinsec a traiului n comunitate, differentiations within the human species, the
nevoia de inovaie (ca atribut exclusiv al intrinsic need of living, an attribute described
omului, atribut descris de J. W. Lapierre) by J. W. Lapierre) for the community
pentru perenitatea comunitii, rolul jucat de everlasting existence, the role played by
factorul clim n constituirea civilizaiilor, climate in the civilizations setting up, the
rolul mitologiilor i religiilor n conservarea role
unor popoare sau n dispariia altora .a.

of

mythologies

and

religions

in

some

peoples

and

the

preserving

disappearance of others and so on.


2. Migraiile populaionale i apusul unor

2. Migration of Populations and Decline

civilizaii

of Some Civilizations

Se redeschide cercul?

Does the circle reopen?

Factorii geoclimaterici sunt pe ct de

The geo-climate factors are important and

importani

constituirea,

meninerea, responsible

alike

for

the

setting

up,

nflorirea dar i decderea comunitilor i maintaining, flourishing and the decline of

23

Ibidem
Ibid

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

civilizaiilor, pe att de ,,responsabili de communities and civilizations; they are


mersul istoriei. ,,Responsabili prin raportare responsible alike for the course of history
itself, responsible through the relation with

la factorul demografic.

Acolo unde clima i poziia geografic the demographic factor. Where climate and
permit vieuire i convieuire n condiii geographical

position

were

favourable

acceptabile, indivizii umani i-au constituit enough for living and cohabitation under
acceptable conditions, the human individuals

comuniti i civilizaii nfloritoare.

Acolo, ns, unde, factorul geoclimateric a were able to set up flourishing communities
fost nefavorabil, supravieuirea unor populaii and civilizations.
Yet where the geo-climate factor was

n cretere era dificil. Capacitatea de a rvni

este specific fiinei umane. Preocupat de unfavourable, a growing population survival


supravieuire n mediul natural arid i ostil, was difficult. To strive for something is
omul i vede tot mai mult resursele (i aa specific to the human being. Concerned with
insuficiente) n continu diminuare. Resursele his survival in a natural environment, arid and
se mpuineaz, populaia se nmulete. ,,Cu hostile,

the

human

being

regards

his

aproximativ zece mii de ani nainte de Hristos resources (insufficient anyway) ever more
lumea cunotea doar trei regiuni de civilizaii diminishing. Resources are diminishing while
avansate: China, India i Orientul Mijlociu. the population is increasing. Approximately
Europa i Americile i dezvolt civilizaii ten thousand years BC, there were only three
strlucite, dar mult mai trziu. Popoare regions of advanced civilizations in the
precum cele mesopotamiene i egiptean au world: China, India and Middle East. Though
fost preocupate de cultivarea pmnturilor they developed brilliant civilizations, Europe
fertile din zona Tigrului, Eufratului i Nilului, and the two Americas emerged much later.
lundu-i msuri de aprare a propriilor Mesopotamians and Egyptians were people
bogii i nefiind preocupate de colonizarea concerned with working the fertile lands in
altor teritorii. Alte popoare, precum grecii, the areas of Tiger, Euphrates and Nile and
romanii,

germanicii

au

fost

popoare with defending their wealth, not at all with

rzboinice i regimurile teocratice s-au colonizing other territories. Nevertheless


dovedit neputincioase n faa regimurilor there were other peoples like Greeks,
militare, chiar dac n unificrile teritoriale Romans, Germans who were warrior peoples
din Mesopotamia i Egipt puterea teocratic a and the military regimes have always been
jucat un rol semnificativ. Unindu-i fratriile, stronger than theocrat regimes, even if in
grecii au cldit o civilizaie de invidiat n Mesopotamia

and

Egypt

territorial

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

antichitate, dar au fost cucerii de romanii ce- unifications took place and the theocrat
i asociaser cele zece curii, la rndul lor power

played

significant

role.

By

cucerii de popoarele barbare germanice, unification of phratries, the Greeks built an


popoare ,,care vor avea nevoie de mai multe envied civilization in Ancient times; yet they
secole de evoluie ca s ating nivelul de were conquered by the Romans who unified
via al nvinilor5.

their ten curries; in turn the Romans were

Puine au fost cazurile n istorie n care conquered

by

the

Germanic

barbarian

civilizaiile s-au constituit i dezvoltat prin peoples, peoples who would need more
utilizarea resurselor proprii. Expansiunea centuries of evolution in order to get to the
economic a civilizaiei occidentale s-a bazat living standards of the conquered peoples24.
aproape continuu pe nsuirea i exploatarea
resurselor

altor

antichitate.

popoare,

Cum

nu

precizam

doar

Few were the cases in history when the

n civilizations set up and developed by utilizing

anterior, their own resources. The economic expansion

mijloacele s-au schimbat, esena problemei of


rmnnd aceeai.
Statele

the

Western

civilization

rested

continuously upon taking possession and

occidentale

au

declanat exploiting other peoples resources, and this

colonizarea mondial cu acelai scop, ns did not happen in ancient times only. As we
consecinele

acestei

colonizri

au

fost stated before, despite the changing of means,

diferite, funcie de particularitile fiecrui the essence remained unchanged.


The Western states started the global

continent dar i de particularitile fiecrei

civilizaii. Mai mult, ,,Valurile prin care colonization for the same reason, though the
Alvin Toffler6 analizeaz tranziia i evoluia consequences of this colonization were
societii
abordarea

umane

reprezint

particularitilor

repere

n different varying with the particularities of

colonizrii each continent and the particularities of each

mondiale n sensul c primul val (cel al civilization. Moreover, the theory of Waves
tranziiei de la societile arhaice de vntori through which Alvin Toffler25 analyzes the
i culegtori la societile agricole) este transition and evolution of the human society
specific

expansiunilor

anexiunilor represents landmarks in approaching the

teritoriale prin violen n epoca veche, avnd particularities of global colonization to the
ca obiect dobndirea de pmnturi roditoare, sense that the first wave (that of transition

Ibidem, p. 31
Vezi Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, William Morrow, New York, 1980
24
Ibid,p.31
25
SeeAlvinToffler,TheThirdWave,WilliamMorrow,NewYork,1980
6

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

cel de-al doilea val, (cel al tranziiei de la from archaic societies of hunters and
societile agricole la cele industriale) este gatherers to agricultural) specific to the
specific perioadei acumulrii primitive de violent territorial expansions and annexations
capital i are ca obiect dobndirea, prin in ancient times aims at taking possessions of
violen a bogiilor solului i subsolului fertile ground; the second wave (transition
necesare industrializrii, iar cel de-al treilea from agricultural to industrial societies)
val (cel al trecerii de la societatea industrial specific to the accumulation of primary
la ,,societatea informatizat) are ca obiect capital and aims at violent taking possession
instituirea

megacapitalului of the ground and underground riches

dominaia

informaional ntr-o ,,er a informaiei necessary for industrialization, and finally the
(neleas ca ,,epoc postindustrial), epoc third wave (passing from Industrial Age to
n care violena de tip clasic este nlocuit Information Age) aims at instituting and
prin forme (mai mult sau mai puin) voalate domination of information mega-capital in
Information Age (understood as post-

ale violenei psihice.

Analiza atent a proceselor de tranziie de Industrial Age), where the classic violence
la o epoc la alta nvedereaz un fapt supersedes (more or less) veiled forms of
incontestabil:

consecinele

majore

ale psychological violence.


Thorough analyses on the transition

colonizrii mondiale se traduc n termeni de

dominaie prin expropriere a celor puternici, processes from one age to another makes
prin cuceriri (de teritorii, de poziii, de zone evident a cogent fact: the major consequences
de

influen,

de

cognitiv- of global colonization are rendered through

potenial

informaional, de amplasamente de capital n domination terms of the powerful states,


afara granielor etc.) i de ascultare, supunere, conquering (territories, positions, influential
deposedare, golire de suveranitate pentru cei areas,
slabi.

Vectorii

utilizai

cognitive-informational

potential,

colonizarea placement of capital outside the borders etc.),

mondial sunt multiplii: puterea armat obedience, sovereignty deprivation for the
(rzboaiele), puterea economic susinut de weak states. There are many vectors utilized
puterea militar (despolierea de resurse i by global colonization: army power (wars),
amplasamentele de capital n exterior prin economic power upheld by the military
ameninarea
recurgerea

cu
la

arsenalul
acest

militar

arsenal),

sau (dispossession of resources and capital

puterea placement outside the borders by threat with

informaiei susinut prin politica pretextului the military arsenal or recourse to this
(cucerirea i ntreinerea poziiilor dominante arsenal), the power of information upheld by

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

se ntemeiaz n potenialul informaional for a shift policy (conquer and maintain of


deinut i instalat fr frontiere n lume, the

dominant

positions

founded

on

apelul de for militar fiind doar consecina informational potential, owned and used
politicii pretextului i doar o ultim soluie).

without frontiers anywhere in the world,

Cteva repere sunt semnificative pentru appeal to military force being only the
ilustrarea diferenierilor expuse supra n consequence of policy for a shift and a last
privina valurilor tranziiei i consecinelor solution).
colonizrii. Pe ansamblu, apelez la metoda

Just to illustrate the differences presented

comparativ aa cum este expus de Fr. above regarding the waves of transition and
Fukuyama, chiar dac valoarea metodologic the consequences of global colonization,
este una contextual circumscris: ,,Pentru some significant landmarks are enough to
studierea fenomenelor precum schimbrile which I resort comparatively, following
brute ale normelor sociale este foarte Fukuyamas

example,

important s se compare date din diferite ri. methodological

value

even
is

if

the

contextually

Spre deosebire de cercettorii din tiinele circumscribed: In order to study the


naturii, sociologii nu pot realiza experiene de phenomena as the unexpected shifts of social
laborator, n care un experiment se desfoar norms, it is of an utmost importance to
n condiii controlate, pentru a nelege exact compare data in different countries. Unlike
care este cauza anumitor efecte. Noi nu ne the

natural

putem apropia de acest mod de lucru dect sociologists


prin

compararea

dou

sciences

researchers,

cannot undertake

the

laboratory

societi experiences, where controlled experiments

asemntoare n multe privine, dar deosebite can be achieved to better understand the
ntr-un anume domeniu7. Foarte exact, cause of some effects. The only way to
pentru c metoda comparativ presupune a approach this method is for us to compare
compara ceea ce este de comparat, adic, societies similar in some respects, different in
pornind de la elementele comune s constai others26.

To

be

more

precise,

the

i s analizezi diferenierile. Niciodat nu d comparative method supposes to compare


roade comparaia n privina unor elemente what bears comparison that is starting from
ce se deosebesc fundamental i nici n common elements to get to analyze the
privina unor elemente absolut identice.

differences.

The

comparison

analyzing

n baza acestei prime clasificri, voi pune elements which differ fundamentally or
la lucru cteva texte cu referine n domeniu absolutely identical ones is useless.

26

Fr. Fukuyama, op.cit. p. 36


Fr.Fukuyama,op.cit.p.36

10

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

pe care le-a elaborat Th. P. Millemann n

Based on these first classifications, I

,,Faa ascuns a lumii occidentale i voi am going to make use of some referential
extrage consecine corelate celor trei valuri de texts in the domain elaborated by Th. P.
care vorbete A. Toffler.

Millemann in Hidden Face of Western


World and I am going to draw some

2.a. Mesopotamia i Egiptul dou consequences correlated to the Tofflers three


waves.

civilizaii distincte, victime ale primului val


,,Mesopotamia era la acea vreme o regiune
nverzit a Asiei de Vest, ale crei pmnturi

2. a. Mesopotamia and Egypt Two

fertile de lng Tigru i Eufrat permiteau Distinct Civilizations, Victims of the First
locuitorilor s dezvolte o agricultur prosper Wave
i un artizanat elaborat. Primele sate neolitice

Back then, Mesopotamia was a woody

au aprut nc din mileniul al X-lea .Hr., iar region of Western Asia, whose fertile lands
sistemul

de

irigaie

fost

inventat nearby Tiger and Euphrates enabled the

aproximativ n mileniul al VI-lea. ncepnd inhabitants

to

develop

prosperous

cu mileniul al V-lea, pentru a-i pstra agriculture and elaborated craftsmanship. The
bogiile, locuitorii acestei regiuni s-au unit la first Neolithic villages emerged already in X
nivel local, formnd sate fortificate, apoi millennium BC, and the irrigation system was
ceti de aprare nfloritoare i, din punct de invented approximately in VI millennium.
vedere economic, satisfctoare. Aceste ceti Starting with V millennium, in order to
nou-create au ncheiat pacte de alian ntre preserve their riches, the inhabitants of this
ele, pentru a putea lupta n mod eficace region united their forces locally effecting
mpotriva

propriilor

vecini,

invadatori fortified villages, then flourishing walled

rzboinici barbari, mpini, deja, de o cities and developed economically speaking.


demografie galopant i de aviditatea de a-i The people in these walled cities newly built
nsui bunuri, fr s se strduiasc s le concluded alliances among them to fight
produc. Aceste mari aglomeraii fortificate efficiently against their greedy neighbours,
dintre care cea mai renumit a fost Babilonul, barbarian invaders, pushed by their alarming
erau conduse n mod teocratic. Preoii erau demography

and

their

greed

to

take

intermediarii dintre oameni i diferitele possessions of more assets without striving to


zeiti.

produce them. These crowded fortresses

Mitologia lor era relativ complet, toate among which he most famous was Babylon,
ntrebrile pe care un individ i le-ar fi putut had

11

theocratic

leadership.

Priests

were

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

pune, referitoare la natur, via sau moarte, intermediates between the humans and gods.
aveau un rspuns.

Their mythology was complete; all the

n Egipt, situaia era cu totul alta. naintea possible questions, an individual might have
mileniului al IV-lea, triburile care triau aici asked on life and death had already had an
erau

relativ

dezorganizate

victime

ale answer.

creterii apelor Nilului, binefctoare i

In Egypt, the situation was different.

devastatoare n acelai timp. Epidemiile erau Before IV millennium, the tribes living here
numeroase, iar foametea fcea ravagii. La fel were relatively disorganized, victims of the
ca n toate rile situate n Africa, fauna floods caused by the waters of the river Nile,
slbatic era prezent, iar raidurile triburilor at the same time beneficial and devastating.
negre din sud destul de frecvente.

There were numberless epidemics, whereas

Abia n mileniul al IV-lea, n jurul anului hunger played havoc. Just as in all African
3200 . Hr., s-au format primele dinastii. countries, the savage fauna could be found,
Impetuozitatea Nilului a forat unificarea and the

raids of Southern black tribes were

rii, care s-a produs spre nceputul mileniului frequent enough. It was not until IV
al III-lea, sub egida lui Narmer, zeul uman, millennium, 3200 BC to be more specific,
fiu unic al Soarelui i suveran, faraon. that

the

first

dynasties

emerged.

The

Civilizaia egiptean se va nate cu adevrat tumultuous Nile forced the unifying of the
odat cu aceast unificare dirijat n mod country, which took place at the beginning of
teoretic,

dar

jurul

unui

singur III millennia, under Narmer, the human god,

comandament i al unei puteri politice, the sole son of the sun and sovereign. The
militare i religioase. A fost un regim Egyptian civilization would be truly born
dictatorial, n care asprimea climei interzicea with this unification theoretically controlled,
libertile individuale, n scopul proteciei i yet revolving around a sole political, military
prosperitii comunitii. Mitologia Egiptului and religious power-commander. It was a
a fost, fr ndoial, cea mai poetic, iar dictatorial regime, in which the bitterness of
civilizaia sa, cea mai savant pentru vremea weather contributed to interdict the individual
respectiv8.

liberties aiming at protection and community

Prin urmare: ,,n cele dou regiuni vecine, prosperity.


dar cu climat diferit i un mediu nconjurtor undoubtedly

Egypt
the

most

mythology
poetic

was
and

its

deosebit, oamenii au dezvoltat dou civilizaii civilization the most learned for those
distincte.

Totui,

prospere

instalate times27.

27

Th. P. Millemann, op. cit. pp 30-38


Th.P.Millemann,op.cit.,pp.3038

12

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

confortabil n frontierele civilizaiilor lor

Hence: The two neighbouring regions,

reciproce, aceste popoare au preferat s fac though

with

different

climate

and

nego cu vecinii lor dect s le declare rzboi, environment, people developed two distinct
fiind nevoite s lupte ncontinuu pentru a-i civilizations. Prosperous and comfortably
apra ara. Dar ele nu au fost cu adevrat located

within

colonizatoare i invadatoare ca popoarele civilizations,

the

these

frontiers
peoples

of

their

rather

had

rzboinice grecii, romanii sau germanicii commercial relations with their neighbours
a cror putere politic de afl n minile than challenge them to war, although they
militarilor, preoii nefiind prezeni dect had continuously to fight to protect their
pentru a le oferi sprijin i a le legitima countries. Yet they were not concerned with
puterea.

Unele

au

disprut;

altele, colonization and invading other countries as

nvingtoare, au provocat naterea civilizaiei the warrior peoples Greeks, Romans and
noastre occidentale9.
Observnd

Germans whose political power is in

consecinele,

consider military hands, the priest were present only to

important de semnalat, pe de o parte comfort them and legitimate their power.


preeminena unor tendine expansioniste care Some

disappeared;

others

persisted

to

28

confirm teza lui P. Mannent referitoare la contribute to our civilization emergence .


ideea de imperiu ca idee natural, imanent
individului

nvedereaz,

totodat,

Noticing the consequences, I think it is

c important for me spotlight on the one hand

momentele constituirii popoarelor poart the pre-eminence of expansionist tendencies


amprenta

factorilor

demografici.

geoclimaterici

Aceti

factori

conduc

i thus confirming P. Manents thesis referring


la to empire as a natural idea immanent to the

iminena diminurii resurselor existeniale individual and all the more that the moments
ceea ce-i pune amprenta asupra formelor de the peoples were founded bear the imprint of
organizare

fenomenalizare

puterii: geo-climate and demographic factors. These

teocratic sau preponderent teocratic la factors lead to the imminence of existential


popoarele cu teritorii fertile, ndeletnicite cu resources diminution which in turn influence
sporirea avuiei prin munc proprie ce are ca the organization and power as a phenomenon:
efect apropierea naturii n scopul unei theocrat or preponderantly theocrat in the
convieuiri

ndestultoare,

preponderent
teritorii

aride

militar,
i

la

resurse

militar

sau case of the peoples owning fertile territories,

popoarele

cu engaged in increasing their wealth through

insuficiente, work, with another beneficial effect for them,

28

Ibidem, p. 31
Ibid,p.31

13

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

ndeletnicite nu cu fertilizarea inuturilor the communion between man and nature and
proprii

vederea

sporirii

avuiei

i thus to a plentiful living; military or

satisfacerii nevoilor mereu n cretere odat preponderantly military in the case of people
cu creterea populaiei, ci cu cuceriri de owning

arid

territories

and

insufficient

teritorii aparintoare altora, apropriindu-i resources engaged not in fertilizing their


astfel, odat cu teritoriile fertile i sporul de lands to increase their wealth and meeting
bogie produs prin eforturile celor cucerii. their needs ever increasing at the same time
Apoi, tipul de organizare politic i pune with the population increase, but conquering
amprenta asupra valorilor ce ntemeiaz n the territories pertaining to other peoples,
aceast perioad civilizaiile, valori traduse n taking possession of the fertile territories and
norme

de

comportament:

panic

sau wealth obtained through hard work by the

rzboinic, orientat spre aprarea comunitii conquered populations. Then the type of
n faa nvlitorilor sau orientat spre cucerirea political organization influenced the values
underlying those period civilizations, values

teritoriilor altora.

Victime ale primului val n-au fost doar as norms of conduct: peaceful or belligerent,
Mesopotamia i Egiptul ci, cum afirm Th.P. oriented towards defending their community
Millemann, au devenit, la rndul lor victime, against the attacks of invaders or invading
polisurile greceti, cetatea Romei, aezrile others populations territories.
Mesopotamia and Egypt were not the only

germanice .a.m.d. Cert este c n primul val

s-au succedat numeroase fluxuri i refluxuri victims of the first wave, but, as Th. P.
ntr-un interval de timp extrem de vast Millemann ascertains, the Greek polis, Rome,
(comparativ cu urmtoarele valuri), tranziia the Germanic settlements and others became
la societile agricole fcndu-se n perioade in turn victims. Obviously, the first wave
variate. De altfel, revoluiile agrare au pus ebbs and flows succeeded in an extremely
bazele societii cu cea mai mare longevitate. vast period (comparatively to the following
Numai c societile agricole ncep s fie waves), transition (shift) to agricultural
ameninate de dumanii lor, venii pe societies taking place in varied periods. As a
creasta celui de-al doilea val.

matter of fact, Agricultural Revolutions


laid the basis of the most lasting society.

2.b. Civilizaia occidental colonizatoare With the only difference, the agricultural
i declanarea celui de-al doilea val

societies began to be menaced by their

Fac mai nti dou remarci n privina enemies come on the crest of the second
subtitlului. Prima referitoare la sintagma wave.

14

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

civilizaia occidental colonizatoare pe care


o preiau de la Th.P. Millemann pentru a ntri

2. b. Colonizing Western Civilization and

ideea pe care el o lanseaz, aceea, c Starting the Second Wave


expansiunea

economic

civilizaiei

I find it necessary to point out two remarks

occidentale care, n Antichitate, se baza pe regarding the title. The first refers to the
nsuirea i exploatarea bogiilor vecinilor, collocation colonizing western civilization
nu s-a schimbat foarte mult nici azi10. Prin which I adopt from Th. P. Millemann with
urmare, scopul fiind unul intrinsec i tacit the aim of strengthening the idea he puts
impus n evoluii de secole, rmne mereu forward, that the economic expansion of the
deschis problema legitimrii mijloacelor Western civilization which in ancient times
(machiavellismul a fcut carier!). A dou was based on taking possession of and
remarc este legat de abordrile lui Alvin exploiting the neighbours resources has not
Toffler la care m raportez ndeosebi prin changed today either29. To the same effect,
utilizarea noiunilor de primul val, al the scope being one intrinsic and tacit
doilea val i al treilea val, fr a cantona imposed to evolutions along centuries, the
demersul meu n periodizri pe date istorice problematic of legitimacy of means has
certe. Nici nu cred c este posibil, avnd n always been open (Machiavelli has made a
vedere marea diversitate a fenomenului. M successful career!). The second remark
intereseaz esena procesului i coordonatele ues to have an important role. With the only
lui fundamentale n trecerea de la societile difference that as hg the terms first wave,
agricole la societile industriale. n acelai second wave and third wave without
timp, m intereseaz aici ilustrarea faptului necessarily limiting to certain historic data. I
c, funcie de particularitile populaiilor din do not even think it would be possible given
diferite continente, colonizarea mondial the great variety of the phenomenon. At the
declanat de rile occidentale a avut same time, I am interested in highlighting that
consecine

diferite.

Pentru

aceste varying with the populations particularities

consecine diferite i pun amprenta i asupra on


societii nscute dup cel de-al treilea val.

different

colonization

of

continents,

the

Western

countries

global
had

Mai trebuie spus c atributul mondial different consequences. It is to these different


ataat

colonizrii

declanat

de

rile consequences that influence the societies

occidentale vizeaz nu doar nceputurile arisen after the third wave.


industrializrii,

nceputuri

ce

pregtesc

10

29

Ibidem
Ibid

15

It is also to be remarked that the attribute

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

revoluia industrial, ci ntreaga perioad n global added to colonization triggered by


care statele occidentale i export diverse the western countries envisage not only the
forme

de

capital,

inclusiv

capitalul

beginning of industrialization, but the whole

informaie.
Prin

period

urmare,

colonizarea

when

western

countries

export

mondial different forms of capital, including the

occidental nu se suprapune doar peste cel capital-information. Therefore, the Western


de-al doilea val de tranziie ci, debutnd cu el, global colonization not only overlaps the
va mbrca forme specifice n cel de-al treilea second wave of transition, but starting with it
val, n ciuda prbuirii imperiilor coloniale will have specific forms in the third wave in
tradiionale i al dobndirii unei relative spite of the collapse of the traditional colonial
independene politice de ctre fostele colonii.

empires and of regaining a relative political

Aadar, revenim la Th.P.Millemann:

independence by the former colonies.

Epopeea american a fost n mod


categoric, cea mai radical. Descoperirea

Coming back to Th. P. Millemann:


The American epic was definitely the

Arhipelagului Bahamas, la 12 octombrie most

radical.

Discovery

of

Bahamas

1492, de ctre Cristofor Columb, dup Archipelagos on 12 October 1492 by


patruzeci i cinci de zile de navigaie, apoi a Christopher Columbus after 45 days of
Cubei, Haiti i a restului Antilelor a marcat navigation, then Cuba and Haiti and the rest
sfritul

populaiei

arawak.

Colonitii of Antilles marked the end of the Arawak

spanioli i-au exterminat pe aceti indieni population.


sortii

sclaviei

adevrate

lagre

The

Spanish

colonists

de exterminated these Indians meant to slavery

concentrare. n cele din urm, acestea au in real concentration camps. Finally they
preferat

sinuciderea

colectiv

locul preferred collective suicide to miserable life

condiiilor mizerabile de via impuse de conditions imposed on them by conquerors.


cuceritori.

Later on, Herman Cortes with a few

Apoi, puin mai trziu, Herman Corts, cu hundred people and horses conquered Mexico
cteva sute de oameni i civa cai, a cucerit and destroyed the Aztec Empire in 1521. The
Mexicul, distrugnd Imperiul Aztec, n 1521. native population was also slaughtered by
Populaia autohton a fost i ea decimat de epidemics and forced labour.
epidemii i de munca forat.

Their complex mythology, conveyed by

Mitologia lor complex, transmis de the great priests was responsible to a great
marii preoi a fost n mare msur extent for their defeat in the face of such a
responsabil de nfrngerea lor n faa unui small number of invaders. It is beyond doubt

16

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

numr att de mic de ndatoriri. Fr ndoial that if the priests had not had the idea to write
c, dac preoii nu ar fi avut niciodat ideea down in mythology about the apocalypse of
s nscrie n mitologie apocalipsa civilizaiei their civilization provoked by metal gods,
lor provocat de zei de metal, clare sau ceva riding or something similar, with weapons
asemntor, cu arme care scuipau fulgere, spitting fire, Cortes in armour, with his horse
Corts n armur, pe calul acoperit cu valtrap, covered with caparison and his men wearing
i oamenii lui narmai cu muschete ar fi fost muskets, the latter would have been the
cei exterminai!

exterminated ones!

Francisco Pissaro a distrus Imperiul Inca

Francisco Pissarro destroyed the Inca

n 1523, rezervnd aceeai soart poporului Empire in 1523 with similar treatment for its
su. n final, englezii i francezii au cucerit people.
America

de

Nord,

exterminnd

Finally,

English

and

French

ei conquered North America also exterminating

popoarele autohtone.

the native populations.

n acest fel, europenii au nimicit popoarele

As a result, the Europeans destroyed the

din cele dou Americi, fiind nevoii s peoples in the two Americas, and then sold
recurg la comerul cu sclavi11. Observnd the

native

as

slaves30.

Noticing

the

c exist unele diferenieri n privina differentiations concerning the modalities of


modalitilor prin care occidentalii au cucerit Westerners

to

conquer

the

American

continentul american, diferenieri date de continent, differentiations given by cultural


particulariti

culturale

ale

localnicilor, particularities of the native populations,

particulariti n care mitologia btinailor a which in the native mythology played an


avut rol esenial, judecnd n termeni de essential role, judging in terms of liabilities
responsabilitate

privina

efectelor, on effects, the only conclusion is that:

concluzia este una singur: colonizarea care a colonization following the conquering is
urmat acestor cuceriri este n ntregime fully responsible for the current political
responsabil de structurile politice actuale, structures and also for the economic, cultural,
dar i de situaia economic, cultural, social social and sanitary situation31. Accordingly,
i sanitar12. Aceasta face ca, i pe on

the

American

continent,

too,

the

continentul american, consecinele colonizrii consequences of colonization were different


s fie diferite, funcie de raporturile numerice varying with the numerical relation between

11

Ibidem, p. 32
Ibidem
30
Ibid,p.32
31
Ibid
12

17

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

dintre cuceritori i btinai, de modul n care the

conquerors

and

natives,

with

the

europenii au reuit s-i impun propria Europeans ways to impose their own culture
cultur sau s-i adapteze cultura proprie la or adapt their culture to that of the natives:
cea a populaiilor autohtone: Dac anglo- Whether the Anglo-Saxons in the North,
saxonii din nord, emigrai masiv, au creat o massively emigrated created a powerful and
zon prosper i puternic, salvndu-i prosperous area, saving their culture without
cultura, fr s se amestece cu alte rase, interfering with other races, the Spanish and
colonitii spanioli i portughezi, mai puin Portuguese colonists in a smaller number in
numeroi, n America Central i de Sud, au Central and Southern America failed since
euat, deoarece au fost nevoii s se integreze they had to integrate the environment,
n mediul ambiant, adaptndu-i cultura la adapting their culture to that of the natives
cea a populaiilor autohtone, cu care, prin with which by cross-breeding gave rise to
metisaj, au dat natere unor noi popoare.
Doar

cretinismul,

important,

new populations.
fost

pstrat, cu fervoare13.

Only the important Christianism was


preserved fervently32.

i epopeea african i are particularitile

The African epic had its particularities

ei, particulariti date de condiiile geografice given by the geographic conditions favorable
facilitatoare de epidemii, ndeletnicirile de to epidemics, basic occupations, poverty,
baz ale btinailor, starea de srcie i backwardness and the colonists interests. It
napoiere,

interesele

colonizatorilor. is important to observe the direct relation

Important de observat este relaia direct between the political and economic structures
dintre structurile politice i economice ale of the current states in Africa and the
statelor actuale din Africa i colonizarea colonization itself, relation substantiated
nsi, relaie concretizat n perpetuarea through perpetuating the endemic poverty.
strii de srcie endemic. Succint, Th. P. Th. P. Millemann presents the situation
Millemann prezint astfel situaia:

succinctly as it follows:

n Africa, amploarea comerului cu

In Africa, the amplitude of the slave

sclavi, coroborat cu condiiile climaterice i commerce corroborated with the climate and
sanitare adeseori defavorabile omului i sanitary conditions often unjust to man and
deplasrilor sale, a fost, ntr-o prim faz, n his mobility, was, in the first stage, directly
mod direct responsabil de slbiciunea responsible for the weakness of the African
populaiei negre africane. Totui colonizarea black people. Although, by fighting against

13

32

Ibidem
Ibid

18

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

european a inversat fenomenul, luptnd epidemics,

the

European

colonization

mpotriva epidemiilor. Portughezii au fost reversed the phenomenon. The Portuguese


primii care s-au instalat n Africa, datorit were the first to settle in Africa, due to
curajului lui Bartolomeo Diaz care a traversat Bartolommeo Diaz courage that crossed the
Capul Bunei Sperane, n 1487, i, ndeosebi, Cape of Good Hope, in 1487 and particularly
al lui Vasco da Gama, care a explorat to Vasco Da Gama, that explored the coasts
coastele, zece ani mai trziu, fapt ce va ten years later, thus enabling to open the
permite deschiderea contoarelor comerciale commercial channels by French, Dutch and
n Angola i Mozambic, apoi n Guineea i English in Angola and Mozambique, then
Senegal de ctre francezi, olandezi i englezi. Guinea and Senegal. In XIX century, the
n secolul al XIX-lea europenii i-au disputat Europeans disputed the whole continent.
ntregul continent.

The

current

political

and

economic

Structurile politice i economice actuale structures in Africa are directly connected to


ale Africii sunt n mod direct legate de colonization. Thus agriculture that would
colonizare. Astfel, agricultura, care furniza supply the necessary food to the local
hrana necesar

populaiilor locale, a fost populations

was

superseded

with

large

nlocuit cu plantaii mari de monocultur plantations of monoculture as oil, cocoa,


precum palmierul de ulei , cacao, cafea, coffee, peanuts, cotton palm trees etc.
arahide,

bumbac

etc.

Dup

cucerirea Though after gaining independence, the

independenei, schimbul de produse agricole exchange of agricultural produce with the


cu occidentalii, care se pot lipsi de ele, fixnd westerners, who might well give up on those
aadar preurile care le convin, pe produse produce and who settled convenient price,
alimentare

de

prim

necesitate,

foarte very high for necessary produce, caused an

scumpe, a provocat un important deficit important commercial deficit. This would not
comercial. Acest lucru nu s-ar mai ntmpla happen if the governments engage in selfdac guvernele ar recurge la o agricultur satisfying agriculture. The situation is similar
autosatisfctoare.

Situaia

este

identic for mining, which develops only the industry

pentru exploatarea minier care nu dezvolt necessary to extracting and transportation of


ca

element

necesare
minereurilor,

industrial
extraciei

dect
i

lsnd

structurile ore, leaving the importers to develop the


transportului processing infrastructure33.
The tools for maintaining the economic

importatorilor

infrastructurile de transformare14.

domination (domination also extended on

14

33

Ibidem p. 33
Ibid,p.33

19

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

Instrumentele
dominaia

prin

care

economic

se

menine political domain) by the former colonizers are

(dominaie

ce-i varied: balances of trade, price balances, the

extinde sfera i asupra politicului) a fotilor discretionary price policies, the mechanism of
colonizatori

sunt

diverse:

balanele monoculture and mono-industrialization etc.

comerciale, balanele de pli, politicile It goes without saying that the independence
discreionare de preuri, mecanismele de gained by the former colonies is formal, the
monocultur i monoindustrializare .a. Este practices

of

economic

neo-colonialism

de la sine neles c independena dobndit diminish the political regimes to ancilla:


de fostele colonii este una formal, practicile Gaining the independence Millemann
neocolonialismului

economic

reducnd ascertains did not alter this situation. On the

regimurile politice la rangul de ancilla: contrary, fostering the current regimes is


,,Dobndirea

independenei

constat useful only to the former colonists by no

Millemann nu a modificat cu nimic aceast means to native populations34.


situaie. Dimpotriv, susinerea regimurilor
existente

este

doar

folosul

The second wave, on which Alvin Toffler

fotilor debates, has nothing in common with

colonizatori, niciodat n folosul popoarelor sustainable development of the colonized


autohtone15.

states. Their future was both put in pawn and

Cel de-al doilea val de care vorbete A. sacrificed in favor of a present which only
Toffler nu are nimic n comun cu dezvoltarea apparently furnishes solutions to their own
durabil a statelor colonizate. Viitorul lor a peoples. The Western colonial societies were
fost i amanetat i sacrificat, n favoarea unui principally built on exploiting the internal
prezent care doar n aparen ofer soluii potential but also on the colonies resources;
propriilor popoare. Societile industriale with insignificant prices (in many cases for
occidentale s-au cldit n mare parte prin free) for colonists, but with overwhelming
explorarea potenialului intern, dar i n mai prices for colonies. The motive of the specific
mare parte pe seama exploatrii resurselor colonization of the second wave was not at all
coloniilor. Cu preuri insignifiante (n multe the concern for the native populations, but
cazuri chiar gratuit) pentru colonizatori, dar underlying their expansionist policies were
cu preuri mpovrtoare pentru colonii. Nu justifications of this type, the Westerners had
grija pentru popoarele btinae a fost always followed their aims. Third World is
mobilul colonizrilor specifice celui de-al not a natural born fact; Third World is a
doilea

val,

ci,

ntemeindu-i

politicile double produce. On the one hand it is the

15

34

Ibidem
Ibid

20

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

expansioniste pe justificri de acest tip, produce of concurring factors immanent to


occidentalii i-au urmrit mereu scopurile the respective societies (factors that produced
proprii. Lumea a Treia nu este un dat natural; and indulged underdevelopment and poverty)
Lumea a Treia este un dublu produs. Un and concomitantly, produce of the Western
produs al unui sistem de factori imaneni world.

It

is

for

these

reasons

that

societilor respective (sistem de factori care responsibilities have to be shared, and it is


a generat i perpetuat subdezvoltarea i beyond doubt that civilizing the conquered
srcia) i, concomitent, un produs al lumii populations is far from being the essential
occidentale.

Tocmai,

responsabilitile

de

trebuie

aceea motive and (the only motive) of the


partajate, colonization. The second wave found the

dovedindu-se fr echivoc, c civilizarea native populations in a factual condition:


popoarelor cucerite nu reprezint nici pe backwardness. It did not eradicate poverty,
departe

mobilul

esenial

(i

unic)

al but on behalf of colonization, it deepened the

colonizrilor. Cel de-al doilea val a gsit gaps.

Deepening

of

gaps

overlapping

populaiile btinae ntr-o stare de fapt: stripping of the Third World resources
aceea de napoiere. Dar n-a eradicat srcia, signified high and accelerated rhythms of
ci, pe seama colonizrii, a adncit decalajele. development for Westerners and insignificant
Aceast adncire a decalajelor peste care se rhythms (even unnoticeable) and very slow
suprapune despolierea de resurse a Lumii a (both as intensity and time) for the natives.
Treia, se traduce n termeni de ritmuri nalte The second wave effected in modernizing the
i rapide de dezvoltare pentru occidentali i Western

world

ritmuri insesizabile (chiar regres) i extrem de underdeveloped

and
the

impoverished
populations

in

and
the

lente (att ca intensitate, ct i ca durat) colonies; in other words, modernity vs. Third
pentru btinai. Cel de-al doilea val are ca World.
efecte

modernizarea

lumii

occidentale,

The idea according to which the colonized

srcirea i subdezvoltarea popoarelor din territories represented free sources of raw


colonii. Adic, modernitate vs. Lumea a Treia materials and cheap labour supply for
azi.

Westerners should not be enshrined in the

Ideea conform creia teritoriile colonizate museum of history. It is based on factual


au

reprezentat

pentru

occidentali

surse realities and is reflected in non-colonial

gratuite de materii prime i for de munc policies today.


ieftin nu trebuie abandonat n muzeul

The Western colonization of Arab world,

istoriei. Ea se bazeaz pe realiti factuale i revolving around the same scopes, its specific

21

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

are reflexe n politicile necoloniale i azi.

is originated in most of the problems in

Colonizarea occidental a lumii arabe, occurring in these areas and can be


circumscris acelorai scopuri, are un specific synthesized using the collocation Islam
n care se origineaz majoritatea problemelor conservation. In short, the Western states
din aceste zone, specific ce poate fi sintetizat after colonization did not achieve forced
n sintagma conservarea islamului. Pe scurt, evangelism and converting to Christianism of
statele

occidentale

n-au

realizat

dup the Mediterranean Arab world, on the

colonizare o evanghelizare i convertire contrary as Th. P. Millemann points out, they


forat

la

cretinism

lumii

arabe established dangerous relations and the

mediteraneene, ci, aa cum demonstreaz inclusion


Th.P.

Millemann,

au

stabilit

weapon;

Islamism

is

well

legturi structured in the consciousness of the

periculoase cu arma integrismului, islamul conquered peoples. Whether the Arabs


fiind extrem de bine structurat n contiina subdued and converted the conquered states
popoarelor cucerite. Dac arabii au supus i with the sword, noticing how strongly Islam
convertit prin sabie rile anexate, constatnd is rooted, the Westerners made use of it in
ct de puternic este nrdcinat islamul, order to keep their hegemonies.
occidentalii l-au folosit spre a-i pstra
hegemoniile.

The history of Mediterranean countries is


complex; After the Roman Empire and the

Istoricul rilor mediteraneene este unul Arab conquers in East and West of VII and
complex: Dup dispariia Imperiului Roman VIII centuries had collapsed, the Muslim
i cuceririle arabe din Orient i Occident din world in East was dominated by the Turkish
secolele al VII-lea i al VIII-lea, lumea Seljuk dynasty that extended their domination
musulman din Orient a fost dominat de in XI, XII and XIII centuries upon todays
dinastia turc a Selgiucizilor, care i-au extins Iran, Iraq, Armenia and Minor Asia.
dominaia n secolele al XI-lea, al XII-lea i

Then, in the beginning of XVII century,

al XIII-lea peste regiunile de astzi ale the ottoman sultans, the successors of Osman
Iranului, Irakului, Siriei, Armeniei i Asiei took the reins of the empire, conquering the
Mici.

Arab world entirely, first the Mediterranean

Apoi, de la nceputul secolului al XIV-lea, lands of Northern Africa, except Morocco


sultanii otomani, urmaii lui Osman au and Andalusia, back then in the hands of
preluat din nou friele imperiului, cucerind Almoravids that unified Maghreb, then those
ntreaga lume arab: mai nti, pmnturile from Middle East, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
mediteraneene ale Africii de Nord, cu They approached Europe too and besieged

22

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

excepia Marocului i a Andaluziei, aflate Vienne in 1529. The Ottoman Empire was at
atunci

n minile

succesorilor

dinastiei its heights. It was not until XIX century that it

Almoravizilor care unificaser Magrebul, lost its colonies, first by acknowledging


apoi cele din Orientul Mijlociu, cu Siria, Greece independence in 1830, then agreed to
Palestina i Egipt. Au btut i la porile annex Algeria to France, same year, and then
Europei, asediind Viena n 1529. Imperiul Egypt in 1840 became autonomous under the
Otoman se afla n acel moment la apogeu. i- English pressure35.
a pierdut coloniile abia n secolul al XIX-lea,

Once World War I ended, the Ottoman

mai nti recunoscnd independena Greciei Empire disappeared (the Empire later lost
n 1830, apoi acceptnd anexarea Algeriei de Serbia, Romania, Tunis and Bulgaria). In
ctre Frana, n acelai an, apoi Egiptul n 1922, Mustafa Kemal also called Ataturk
1840, care a devenit autonom sub presiunea took over the leadership and created modern
englez16.

Turkey.

ncheierea Primului Rzboi Mondial s-a

The disappearance of the Ottoman Empire

soldat i cu dispariia Imperiului Otoman effected also in the disappearance of the


(Imperiul

pierduse

anterior

Serbia, united Arab world, in those countries

Romnia., Tunisia i Bulgaria). n 1922 becoming colonies or protectors of the Great


Mustafa Kemal (numit i Atatrk) a preluat European Powers, especially France and
puterea i a creat Turcia modern.

Great Britain. Nevertheless all the peoples

Dispariia Imperiului Otoman a avut ca conquered by Westerners have always kept a


efect ncetarea existenei lumii arabe unite, unifying fundamental value Islam36. Islam
rile

respective

devenind

colonii

sau will be manipulated by the Westerners

protectorate ale marilor puteri europene, contextually and justifying, the shift as policy
ndeosebi ale Franei i Marii Britanii. Totui, has not been beyond some relations with
toate popoarele cucerite de occidentali i-au Islam.
pstrat ntotdeauna o valoare fundamental de

In referring to preserving the Islam,

unificare - islamul17. Islamul va fi mnuit de Millemann writes down: Not knowingly,


ctre occidentali contextual i justificativ, Europe has just laid the bases of a future
pretextul ca politic nefiind n afara unor independence, but above all established the
legturi cu islamul.

bases of an exquisite political counter-power,

16

Ibidem, p. 37
Ibidem, p. 38
35
Ibid,p.37
36
Ibid,p.38
17

23

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

Referindu-se la conservarea islamului, which finally fully furthered the interests of


Millemann consemneaz: Fr s tie, Western governments in XX century. On top
Europa tocmai punea bazele unei viitoare of that, it would solve the desire of some
independente,

dar

fundamentele

unei

mai

ales

stabilea countries for hegemonies due to the power

contraputeri

politice flowing from ownership of fossil fuels, thus

fenomenale care, pn la urm, a servit din exerting control not only over economy, but
plin interesele guvernelor occidentale ale also the politics both internal and external via
secolului XX. Pe deasupra, ea va rezolva, n the religious and military oppositions37. The
acelai

timp

veleitile

poteniale

de phenomenon is not rendered less grave; on

hegemonie ale anumitor ri, datorate puterii the contrary, as anybody can notice Islam is a
procurate de energiile bazate pe combustibili two-edged sword.
fosili, controlnd nu doar economia, dar i

Islams geo-political Mediterranean space

politica lor, att cea intern, ct i cea does not exclude diversity: Except for the
extern,

prin

opoziiilor conquests in Asia Millemann writes down

intermediul

religioase i militare18. Fenomenul nu se that imposed Islam, but whose countries


atenueaz n zilele noastre, dimpotriv. Dar, cannot really be considered Arab, the entire
cum se va vedea, islamul reprezint pentru current Arab world consists of warm and arid
countries, mostly desserts, rich in raw

occidentali o sabie cu dou tiuri.


Spaiul

geopolitic

mediteranean

al materials, particularly energetic or lacking

islamului este unul ce nu exclude diversitatea: completely resources. They are divided in
Exceptnd cuceririle din Asia - scrie more areas: North Africa or Maghreb (which
Millemann -, care au impus islamul, dar ale in Arabian signifies sunset), in other words
crei ri nu pot fi considerate cu adevrat Muslim West consisting of Morocco, Algeria,
arabe, ntreaga lume arab actual este Tunis and extended to Libya, Arabian
format din ri calde i aride, n mare parte Peninsula and Egypt, then Iran, Afghanistan
deertice, bogate n materii prime, ndeosebi and the republics of Soviet Union in Central
energetice, sau complet lipsite de resurse. Ele Asia.
se mpart n mai multe zone: Africa de Nord
sau

Maghrebul,

care,

limba

Turkey, though the Muslim country that

arab, dominated the Arab world, represents a

nseamn Asfinit, altfel spus, Occidentul special case with its own characteristics38.
musulman, format din Maroc, Algeria, Accordingly, the Islam countries are not all

18

Ibidem
Ibid
38
Ibid
37

24

Analele U
Universitii Constantin Brncui di n Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Socciale, Nr. 1/20
013

Tunisia,, i lrgit pn la Libia,


L
Peninnsula Arab
bian counttries, sincee there are many
Arabiei i Egipt, apoi Iran,, Afganistaan i Musslim counttries whichh are nott at all
republiccile

Uniunnii

Sovietice

din

bian, as the map showss.


Asia Arab

Central.Dei ara musulman care a dom


minat
lumea aarab, Turccia reprezin
nt un caz mai
special, avnd proppriile caraccteristici19. Prin
urmare, rile islaamice nu su
unt n totallitate
ri arabbe existnd n lume fo
oarte multe state
musulm
mane fr a fi
f state arabe.

19

Ibidem
m

25

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

Moreover, there are more and more

Mai mult, azi grupuri din ce n ce mai

numeroase de musulmani populeaz teritorii Muslim groups populating the Western


countries.

ale statelor occidentale.


Iat

un

tablou

imigraionist,
demografia

generat
galopant

al

The following lines present a picture of

fenomenului
ndeosebi

de immigration phenomenon caused particularly

insuficiena by

the

fast-growing

demography

and

resurselor: Africa de Nord Vest, dei are insufficient resources: North-Western Africa
minoriti berbere musulmane nearabe, ce is entirely Arabian, despite the fact that there
pun nc guvernelor locale probleme de are Berber minorities, non-Arabian Muslim
integrare, este n ntregime arab. Ea este that cause a lot of integration problems to
nchis

ntr-un

spaiu

plcut,

zona local governments. The region is enclosed by

mediteranean cuprins ntre mare i regiunea sea and Atlas Mountains, thus creating a very
muntoas a Atlasului. n rest, se ntinde picturesque Mediterranean area. Beyond this
deertul Sahara. Cele trei ri componente region, Sahara desert stretches. The three
dein resurse diferite, dar au o problem component countries own different resources,
comun pe care Frana nu o poate ignora i but have a common problem which France
care va deveni grija sa principal n urmtorii cannot ignore and will become its main
concern in the years to come: the fast-

ani: demografia galopant.

n Europa, procentul de natalitate nu growing demography.


depete

10,

exceptnd

natalitatea

In Europe, the birth rate does not exceed

imigranilor. n Maghreb el depete 30! 10%, except for immigrants. In Maghreb it


Jumtate din aceast populaie are sub exceeds 30%!
cincisprezece ani, iar sperana de via este

Half of the population is under 15 of age,

superioar vrstei de aizeci de ani. n and the life span is higher to 60 of age. The
momentul

dobndirii

independenei, moment

it

gained

its

independence,

Maghrebul avea jumtate din populaia Maghrebs population was half of Frances
francez de la acea vreme, adic mai puin de population that is less than 25 million
25 de milioane de locuitori. Astzi, el numr inhabitants. Today the population is 72
72 de milioane, iar n 2025 va depi 98 de million and in 2025 will exceed 98 million!
milioane!

Unlike Maghreb, the population of France

Populaia Franei crete doar cu imigraia grows only with immigrants and their birth
i natalitatea acesteia, n cea mai mare parte rate. When a French woman of European
musulman. Cnd o franuzoaic de origine origin for many generations Judeo-Christian

26

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

european de mai multe generaii iudeo most of the French populations derives
cretine majoritatea poporului francez from European immigration has a Christian
provine din imigraia european face un child, the immigrant in North Africa or the
copil, cretin, imigranta din Africa de Nord French woman of Maghreb origin has 4
sau franuzoaica de origine maghrebian face Muslim children. Without the immigrants
patru

musulmani.

Fr

contribuia contribution and their birth rate, France

imigranilor i a natalitii lor, Frana ar would have only 54 million inhabitants


numra doar 54 de milioane de locuitori, n instead of 60 million, the current population.
loc de 60 de milioane ct are la ora actual. The growth of 6 million of French belongs to
Creterea de 6 milioane de francez este, de its immigrants and in the first place of the
fapt, cea a imigraiei i, n primul rnd, a Muslim birth rate in the last 20 years53.
natalitii musulmane din ultimii douzeci de
ani39.

The great issue of Maghreb is the lack of


perspective, the unemployment rate exceed

Marea problem legat de maghrebieni 30% today, even if they can speak French and
este cea a lipsei de perspectiv, rata omajului know a lot of things regarding French culture.
depind azi 30% chiar n condiiile n care In front of the phenomenon described above,
vorbesc limba francez i cunosc cultura Millemann asks himself: Should France be
Franei. n faa fenomenului descris supra, ready to accept on its territory a great part of
Th.P. Millemann se ntreab: S fie oare the young people candidates to immigrant
Frana pregtit s accepte pe teritoriul ei o status, to accept their descent and finally a
bun parte a tinerilor candidai la imigraie, s Muslim country?54 His answer regards a
accepte descendena lor i s devin, n final, warning upon the costs caused by the disaster
o ar musulman?40. i ca rspuns, el of Muslim overpopulation. Morocco, Tunis,
avertizeaz asupra costurilor provocate de Algeria and Egypt also face the demographic
dezastrul

suprapopulrii

musulmane. explosion.

This

phenomenon

will

be

Marocul, Tunisia, Algeria, Egiptul sunt i ele discussed in detail in another study.
confruntate cu explozia demografic. Von
reveni asupra acestui fenomen ntr-un capitol
viitor.

2. c. Third Wave and the NeoColonization


The Industrial Age whose beginning is

39

Ibidem, p. 39
.
53
Ibid,p.39
54
Ibid
40

27

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

2.c. Cel de-al treilea val i noua envisaged by the second wave, last until the
end of the decade 8 of last century in the

colonizare

Epoca industrial ale crei nceputuri sunt modernized states, yet its particularities vary
prefigurate prin cel de-al doilea val se extinde with a number of factors (different levels of
ca durat pn spre sfritul deceniului al 8- development, industrial capital accumulation,
lea al secolului trecut n statele modernizate, geo-political

position,

the

share

of

dar se particularizeaz funcie de un complex occupations specific to the industrial sector,


factorial (niveluri diferite de dezvoltare, the cleavage urban-rural, the cleavages
acumularea capitalului industrial, poziia among the economic sectors etc.) Just as
geopolitic, ponderea ocupaiilor aferente modernization itself, one of its components,
sectorului industrial, clivajul urban-rural, industrialization was accomplished in distinct
clivajele dintre sectoarele economice etc.). Ca periods, speaking of time and intensity in
i modernizarea, i una din componentele sale medium intervals of time, fundamental
industrializarea s-a realizat n perioade differences

being

among

states

and

distincte, att ca durat, ct i ca intensitate geographical areas. The examples suggested


pe

durate

medii,

existnd

diferenieri by Samuel P. Huntington are to a certain

substaniale ntre state i zone geografice. sense self-evident, even if modernization is


Exemplele propuse de Samuel P. Huntington understood

in

the

first

place

as

sunt ntr-o anumit msur edificatoare, chiar democratization, the three <<waves>> of
dac modernizarea este neleas n primul democratization with its ebbs and flows
rnd ca democratizare, cele trei <<valuri>> justify the approach. We specify that in
de democratizri cu fluxurile i refluxurile lor Huntingtons opinion both economic and
justificndu-i demersul. Precizm c n opinia social

modernization

yield

political

lui Huntington, modernizarea economic i instability, the degree of instability is closely


social produce instabilitate politic, gradul related to the modernization rate. As a result
de instabilitate fiind legat de rata de the higher the modernity, the greater, the
modernizare. Prin urmare, cu ct rata political
schimbrii

ctre

modernitate

este

instability

will

be

(fathomed

mai statistically and dynamically).


Making use of some authors conclusions

ridicat, cu att instabilitatea politic

msurat statistic sau dinamic este mai such as: Feierbend and Conroe, Huntington
mare.

obtains a general picture of an unstable

Utiliznd concluzii ale unor autori precum country that is:


Feierabend

sau

Conroe,

Huntington

28

The embodiment of modernity;

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

Socially uprooted from the traditional

construiete un tablou general al unei ri


instabile care este:

life patterns;

expresia modernitii;
dezrdcinat

social

Imprinted with change pressures of its


de

modelele social and political;


Pestered with novel and <<better>>

tradiionale de via;

amprentat cu presiuni de schimbare a modalities to yield goods and services;


Frustrated

drumului social i politic;

by

the

process

of

bombardat cu modaliti noi i modernization regarding change generally


<<mai

bune>>

de

produce

bunuri and by the governments failure in fulfilling


the ever-growing hopes, particularly55.

economice i servicii;
frustrat de procesul modernizrii

It is certain that XX century was

privind schimbarea, n general, i de eecul characterized

by

spreading

political

guvernului n satisfacerea speranelor mereu inconstancy in states on the continents Asia,


n cretere, n particular41.

Africa, and Latin America the most

Cert este c secolul al XX-lea s-a exposed areas as a consequence of the fact
caracterizat printr-o rspndire a instabilitii that the modernity rate was faster than in the
politice n state din Asia, Africa i America countries earlier modernized. Europe and
Latin zonele cele mai expuse, de altfel , North America modernization Huntington
urmare a faptului c rata modernizrii aici a notices took a few centuries: broadly
fost

mult

mai

rapid

dect

rile speaking a crisis and an issue is tackled with

modernizate mai timpuriu. Modernizarea separately. Nonetheless, in modernizing the


Europei i a Americii de Nord observ other non-Western countries, the issues of
Huntington a durat cteva secole: n central authority, national integration, social
general, o problem sau o criz era rezolvat mobility, economic development, political
separat. n modernizarea celorlalte pri participation,
neoccidentale, totui, problemele centralizrii emerged

one

autoritii, integrrii naionale, mobilizrii simultaneously.

social

welfare

after

the

<<The

have

not

other

but

effect

of

sociale, dezvoltrii economice, participrii demonstration>> which the early modernized


politice, bunstrii sociale, nu s-au ivit una countries have on those modernized later first
dup

alta,

ci

simultan.

<<Efectul

de amplified their aspirations then aggravated

demonstraie>> pe care rile modernizate their frustrations56. By presenting some

41

S.P. Huntington, Ordinea politic a societilor n schimbare, Iai, Polirom, 1991, p. 41


S.P.Huntington,Ordineapoliticaasocietatilorinschimbare,Iasi,Polirom,1991,p.41
56
Ibid,pp.4849
55

29

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

timpuriu le au asupra celor ntrziate mai statistical aspects, Huntington enhances his
nti le-a intensificat aspiraiile ca mai apoi, arguments in the domain. Thus, England the
s

le

frustrrile42.

exacerbeze

prezentarea

unor

aspecte

Prin first modernized country, went through the

statistice, process of modernization in 183 years (1649-

Huntington i ntrete argumentaia n 1832); the United States of America, the


domeniu.

Astfel,

modernizat,

Anglia,
parcurs

prima

ar second modernized country went through this

procesul

de process in 89 years (1776-1865); 13 states

modernizare n 183 de ani (1649-1832); going through the process during Napoleons
Statele Unite ale Americii, cea de-a doua ar period, finished it in 73 years (1789-1862);
modernizat, a parcurs acest proces n 89 de for 21 of the 26 countries which started the
ani

(1776-1865);

13

state

intrate

n process in the first quarter of XX century the

modernizare n timpul perioadei napoleoniene process lasted on average 29 years57. The


au parcurs modernizarea n 73 de ani (1789- prolific positive contamination, about which
1862); 21 din 26 de ri care au nceput Gianfranco Pasquino talks, continues to have
modernizarea n primul sfert al secolului al an important role. With the only difference
XX-lea, au ca perioad medie, 29 de ani43. that as he noticed, it has to be observed that
Fecunda contaminare pozitiv despre care resting on comparative studies how fragile
vorbete Gianfranco Pasquino a avut i are pe some democratic political regimes may
mai departe un rol important n modernizarea become in front of the great difficulties of
politic. Numai c, aa cum constat chiar el, economic nature: The great inequalities at
trebuie

observat,

baza

unor

studii the level of socio-economic power cannot

comparatiste, ct de fragile devin chiar coexist with a political regime in which


regimurile

politice

democratice

faa power

should

be

somewhat

equally

marilor dificulti de natur economic: distributed. One can specify that the contrary
Inegalitile mari la nivelul puterii socio- is also possible, that it is democracy that
economice nu pot coexista cu un regim tends to diminish and control the sociopolitic n care puterea ar trebui distribuit economic inequalities and in case it fails to
ntr-o manier oarecum egalitar. Se poate do so, it opens the way for authoritarian
preciza

este

posibil

susinerea solutions58.

contrariului, adic democraia tinde s reduc

The relation modernization-modernity is

42

Ibidem, pp. 48-49


Ibidem, p. 49
57
Ibid,p.49
58
SeeGianfrancoPasquino,CursdeStiintapolitica,Iasi,InstitutulEuropean,2001
43

30

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

i s controleze inegalitile socio-economice, not a simple one, linear, since as a process


iar dac nu reuete, deschide calea unor modernization is not confined in domains and
soluii autoritare44.

contents only to political reforms leading to

Relaia modernizare modernitate nu este democracy,

inasmuch

as

modernity

as

una simpl, liniar ntruct, ca proces, produce has not a sole finality, the
modernizarea nu se limiteaz n sfer i democratic political regime. I am taking into
coninuturi doar la reformele politice ce account specialized studies of authors like:
converg spre democratizare, aa cum nici Seymour

Martin

Lipset,

Gianfranco

modernitatea ca produs nu are ca singur Pasquino, Dankwart Rustow, Robert Dahl,


finalitate regimul politic democratic. Am n Giovanni Sartori, without even mentioning
vedere studii consacrate ale unor autori the analyses undertaken by Weber, Olson,
precum Seymour Martin Lipset, Gianfranco Pridham, Herring, Sanford, Schumpeter and
Pasquino, Dankwart Rustow, Robert Dahl, others59. One thing is worth mentioning here:
Giovanni Sartori, fr a mai vorbi de economic and social modernization has
analizele

ntreprinse

de

Weber,

Olson, destroying

effects

upon

politics

and

Pridham, Herring, Sanford, Schumpeter .a.45. traditional political institutions, undermining


Un lucru este demn de semnalat aici: the loyalty towards the respective authorities.
modernizarea economic i social are efecte Therefore, political inconstancy may be
distrugtoare asupra politicii i instituiilor generated both by factors implied by the
politice tradiionale, subminnd loialitatea political

modernization

itself

(loyalty

fa de autoritile respective. Prin urmare, transfer, new sources of legitimacy etc.) and
instabilitatea politic poate fi generat att de the high rhythms enforced on development
factori pe care-i implic nsi modernizarea and economic-social modernization, rhythms
politic (transferul de loialiti, surse noi de originated in self-conscience on deepening
legitimitate etc.), precum i de

ritmurile the gaps and irreversible remain in the

nalte impuse dezvoltrii i modernizrii underdevelopment area. The relation political


economico-sociale,

ritmuri

originate

n modernization

(understood

as

upward

contiina de sine asupra adncirii decalajelor movement towards a stable democratic


i pericolului rmnerii ireversibile n zona regime) - economic development is one that
subdezvoltrii. Relaia modernizare politic clarifies the unity formal democracy

44

Vezi Gianfranco Pasquino, Curs de tiin politic, Iai, Institutul European, 2001
Vezi i Adrian Gorun, Dan R. Mateiu, Horaiu T. Gorun, Introducere n tiina politic. Regimurile politice.
Participarea politic. Elitele politice, Presa Universitar Clujean, 2003, pp. 214-233
59
SeeAdrianGorun,DanR.Mateiu,HoratiuT.Gorun,IntroducereinStiintapolitica.Regimurilepolitice.
Participareapolitica.Elitelepolitice.PresaUniversitaraClujeana,2003,pp.214233
45

31

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

(neleas ca ascensiune spre un regim substantial democracy and which clearly


democratic stabil) dezvoltare economic emphasizes

the

functional

priority

of

este una care clarific unitatea democraie economic development. In intelligible terms
formal democraie substanial i care the classic relation and all the more genesis
evideniaz cu claritate prioritatea funcional between market economy and democracy
a

dezvoltrii

economice.

termeni proves

insufficient

unless

the

attribute

inteligibili, relaia clasic i, totodat, de functional is added the collocation market


genez ntre economia de pia i democraie economy. This enables the rhythms of
i dovedete insuficiena dac sintagmei economic development to preserve stability
economie de pia nu-i este ataat epitetul and generate major inconsistencies when
funcional. Aceasta face ca ritmurile de these rhythms become unbearable in the
dezvoltare economic s conserve stabilitatea countries with weak economy and major
n rile dezvoltate i s genereze instabiliti unbalances. This aspect does not remain
majore atunci cnd aceste ritmuri devin unnoticed by the states that went through the
insuportabile n rile cu economie slab i Industrialization Age in favourable historic
dezechilibre majore. Ori, acest aspect nu moments

for

them.

On

the

contrary;

rmne neobservat de ctre statele care au concentrated too long on industrialization


parcurs era industrializrii n momente these states consolidated their own economies
istorice

favorabile

Concentrate

lor.

timp

Dimpotriv. and reached indices of wealth that can ensure

ndelungat

pe internal consistency and external supremacy.

industrializare, aceste state i-au ntrit The strategies were so well elaborated and
propriile economii i au atins indicatori ai applied that the clash of the former empires
bunstrii care le asigur stabilitate intern i did not lead to altering the situation, neosupremaie mondial. Strategiile au fost de colonialism being manifested in its pure
aa manier elaborate i aplicate nct form. This pure form is the main means
destrmarea fostelor imperii coloniale n-a which under the mask assistance awarded,
condus

la

schimbarea

situaiei, the states in course of modernization are

neocolonianismul manifestndu-se tot mai maintained both under economic domination


mult n pura sa substan. Adic, arma and political. This is the reason why,
principal prin care, sub masca ajutoarelor industrialization triggered by the second
acordate, statele n curs de modernizare sunt wave on which Alvin Toffler speaks was
meninute att sub dominaie economic, ct concluded long time ago in the modernized
i politic. Tocmai de aceea, industrializarea countries, always started or inexistent in so

32

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

declanat de cel de-al doilea val de care many other countries where the GDP is under
vorbete Alvin Toffler este demult ncheiat $100 per capita. Of course the analysis may
n rile modernizate, mereu nceput sau be enlarged, yet I consider it is worth
inexistent n attea alte ri n care Produsul mentioning a general observation:

Alvin

Naional Brut / locuitor este situat sub 100$. Toffler may be reproached and, as a matter of
Analiza poate continua, ns consider c este fact, political science generally and the
suficient o prim observaie de ansamblu: American one especially, with provincialism,
provincialismul,

descriptivismul

i descriptivism and formalism, when analyses

formalismul sunt imputabile i lui Toffler, ca are centred on a small number of states,
de altfel tiinei politice n general, celei without

taking

into

account

the

solid

americane, n special atunci cnd analizele se examinations based on rigorous and clear
centreaz doar pe un numr restrns de state comparisons. In short the three values on
ale

lumii,

examinrilor

fr

se

concrete,

acorda
n

atenie which the American futurologist speaks about

baza

unor are far from being encompassing, but

comparaii explicite i riguroase. Pe scurt, inclusive for some and exclusive for many
cele trei valuri din istoria omenirii despre and very many players. Generalizations are
care vorbete viitorologul american nu sunt from the start inefficient and do not do any
nici pe departe atotcuprinztoare, ci inclusive good to the political science. Speaking from
pentru unii, exclusive pentru muli i foarte the perspective of the civilizations composing
muli actori. Generalizrile sunt din capul it, the world is extremely heterogeneous. It
locului ineficace i nu aduc servicii tiinei has to be stated, at this point, that the
politice. Lumea este extrem de eterogen din normative judgement included, circumscribed
perspectiva civilizaiilor care o compun. to progress understood exclusively in terms
Tocmai de aceea trebuie remarcat c inclusiv enforced by the Westerners, have also a
judecile de tip normativ circumscrise justifiable role. The same way colonisations
progresului neles exclusiv n termenii and certain civilizations (shown as superior)
impui de ctre occidentali au i un rol were justified, just as the Information Age
justificativ.

Aa

au

fost

justificate

i and globalization. The approach is easy to

colonizrile i anumite civilizaii (prezentate reveal: the investigations are centred on a


ca superioare), aa sunt justificate i era group of states, definite criteria for that group
informatizrii i globalizarea. Demersul este are drawn (criteria that are applicable only to
unul

uor

de

decelat:

se

centreaz that group, thus particular), the criteria are

investigaiile pe un grup de state, se extrag generalized by applying them to other groups

33

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

criterii definitorii pentru grupul respectiv (in

many

situations

incompatible),

(criterii aplicabile exclusiv grupului, deci, widespread conclusions are drawn (though
particulare), se generalizeaz criteriile prin the comparative method is inadequate, and
aplicarea lor i altor grupuri (n multe situaii, the approach is incomplete and inadequate).
incompatibile), se extrag concluzii cu valoare We shall go on by insisting upon such aspects
universal (dei metoda comparativ este mentioning that the first wave comprised and
inadecvat,

iar

demersul

sufer

de entailed many populations, the second wave

incompletitudine i inadecvare). Vom insista comprised less populations, but extended its
n continuare pe asemenea aspecte cu consequences upon the most national players,
meniunea c primul val a cuprins i antrenat while the third wave comprises a smaller
multe populaii, cel de-al doilea val a cuprins group of national and transnational players
mai

puine

populaii,

dar

i-a

extins who

benefit

from

it,

yet

extending

consecinele asupra celor mai muli actori consequences upon the others who have been
naionali, n timp ce cel de-al treilea val during the first or second wave.
cuprinde un grup restrns de actori naionali

Francis Fukuyama defines the rules of the

i transnaionali care beneficiaz, extinzndu- game and in the subchapter After the
i consecinele asupra celorlali, aflai nc n Industrial Age60 he insists on Information
primul sau cel de-al doilea val.
Francis Fukuyama

Age characteristics. Nonetheless he admits

definete regulile that a small number of states are taken into

jocului i insist n subcapitolul Dup consideration: In the second half of the


Epoca Industrial46 asupra caracteristicilor century (XX century n.n.), the United States
erei informaiei. Recunoate, n schimb c of America and other states economically
doar un grup restrns de state sunt luate n advanced

passed

to

the

so-called

considerare: n ultima jumtate de secol Information Society, Information Age or


(sec. la XX-lea n.n.), Statele Unite i alte ri Industrial Age61.
The debut of the third wave took place

sputed the whole continent.

olitical and economic structures in Africa are concomitantly with the Cold War. Logically,
irectly connected to colonization. Thus the arming race and the need to maintain a
Thus agricultu

balance

through

Declanarea celui de-al treilea val coincide development

46

Fr. Fukuyama, op.cit. p. 11


Ibidem
60
Fr.Fukuyama,op.cit.p.11
61
Ibid
47

34

of

a
the

hard

to

believe

military

arsenal,

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

ca perioad cu Rzboiul Rece. n mod logic, particularly in USA and USSR required huge
cursa narmrilor i nevoia meninerii unui investments in intelligence and top capital.
echilibru printr-o dezvoltare inimaginabil a Scientific research intended for permanent
arsenalului militar, ndeosebi n SUA i modernization of vectors has become the
URSS, a necesitat investiii uriae de basic component of the Great military
inteligen i capital de vrf. Cercetarea Powers

geo-strategy

and

their

allies,

tiinific destinat modernizrii permanente particularly the allies of USA. All the more,
a vectorilor a devenit component de baz states like China and India, even if they
a geostrategiei marilor puteri militare i a applied a policy of non-alignment in front
aliailor, ndeosebi a aliailor SUA. Totodat, of the two military blocks, have also invested
state precum China i India, chiar dac au in developing the own military potential,
aplicat o politic de nealiniere fa de cele running on a parallel lane to the arming
dou blocuri militare, au investit i ele n race, which nevertheless has the same
dezvoltarea

propriului

potenial

militar, finality. The war is no longer conceived in a

alergnd pe un culoar paralel la cursa classic

manner,

narmrilor, care, ns, are aceeai finalitate. preponderantly

but

electronic.

it
Who

becomes
is

in

Rzboiul nu mai este conceput n mod clasic, possession of information has the power a
ci devine unul preponderent electronic. Cine slogan decrypted by any player since Francis
deine informaia deine puterea - o deviz Bacon. Japanese for instance, have finally
decodat de oricare actor de la Fr. Bacon understood that starting the conflict with
ncoace. Japonezii, de exemplu, au neles c USA was a huge mistake due to an
au svrit o eroare declannd conflictul cu incomplete piece of information furnished by
SUA datorit unei informaii incomplete an infantry general in exchange for some
oferite de un general infanterist contra unor disclosures of a well documented admiral.
dezvluiri fcute de un amiral documentat. i Their subsequent attitude is well known to
este cunoscut atitudinea lor ulterioar - invest in information and informatics, by
aceea

de

investi

informaie

i utilizing their only available assets, human

informatizare, utilizndu-i capitalul uman i capital and silicon. Fr. Fukuyama going along
siliciul - singurele bogii pe care le aveau Alvin Tofflers line accomplishes a succinct
la ndemn. Fr. Fukuyama, n linia lui Alvin picture of what is to come after Industrial
Toffler, realizeaz un tablou succint a ceea ce Age, on what the third wave yields as
vine dup epoca industrial, adic asupra a transition to Information Age. It is to be
ceea ce produce cel de-al treilea val, ca bore in mind that the wave entails only a

35

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

tranziie la era informaiei. De reinut c group of developed countries, subsequently


valul nu antreneaz dect un grup de state they enforcing cascades of desirable effects:
dezvoltate, ele impunnd ulterior, n cascad, Underlying
emerging

efecte dezirabile:

this

element

transition

are

more

correlated

one

each

Aceast tranziie const n apariia mai another. On the economic level, services
multor elemente corelate. Pe plan economic, supersede more and more production as
serviciile nlocuiesc n msur tot mai mare source of enrichment. Instead of working in a
producia ca surs de mbogire. n loc s still works or in an automobiles factory, the
lucreze ntr-o oelrie sau ntr-o uzin de typical worker in Information Age works in a
automobile, lucrtorul tipic dintr-o societate bank,

software

company,

restaurant,

informatizat este angajat ntr-o banc, firm university or for a social security office. The
de software, restaurant, universitate sau ntr-o role
agenie

de

asisten

social.

of

information

and

intelligence

Rolul concentrated both in people and more and

informaiilor i al inteligenei, concentrate more

sophisticated

technology

becomes

att n oameni, ct i n aparate din ce n ce encompassing and intellectual work tend to


mai sofisticate, devine atotcuprinztor, iar replace physical work. Production becomes
munca intelectual tinde s nlocuiasc global as the cheap technology of information
munca fizic. Producia se globalizeaz pe enables spreading the information beyond the
msur ce tehnologia ieftin a informaiei borders of different countries whereas the
permite tot mai mult rspndirea informaiilor sweeping communication through TV, radio,
dincolo de frontierele diferitelor ri, iar fax and e-mail pervades the borders of
comunicarea rapid prin televiziune, radio, traditional cultural communities62. It is a
fax i e-mail erodeaz graniele comunitilor radical change of lifestyle with extremely
culturale tradiionale48. Este o schimbare different

consequences

radical a modului de via, cu consecine communities,

for

individuals.

states,
The

extrem de diferite pentru state, comuniti, differentiations become major especially that
indivizi. Diferenierile sunt majore, mai ales there are geo-political areas that still go
c exist spaii geopolitice care nc parcurg through the transition generated by the
tranziia generat de primul sau cel de-al second wave, which emphasizes cleavages.
doilea val, ceea ce accentueaz clivajele. Se At the end of the last century the benefits of
rspndesc cu o rapiditate inimaginabil la information and human intelligence as well as
nceputul secolului trecut att binefacerile the tare of the consumerist society pervaded

48

62

Ibidem
Ibid

36

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

informaiei i inteligenei umane, ct i tarele with an unimaginable rhythm. The selfsocietii consumeriste. Contiina de sine conscience is projected in real world and in
este proiectat deopotriv n real i virtual, virtual world, even ontological has virtual
chiar forme ale ontisului mbrac atribute ale attributes. The informational universe with
virtualului. Universul informaional - cu different degrees of access for individuals
grade diferite de accesibilitate pentru indivizi allows spreading of communication with the
permite lrgirea ariei comunicrii cu ceilali, others, but also alienation, estrangement and
dar i nstrinare, alienare, angoas. Apoi, anguish. Subsequently the information is
informaia este filtrat i cenzurat, att de filtered and censured, both by the producerctre productorul - emitor, ct mai ales de transmitter and especially by the channels and
canalele

mijloacele

de

accesare

i means

of

access

decodare. Internaionalizarea permite att Internationalization

and

decrypting.

allows

widespread

universalizarea (valorilor i non-valorilor), (values and non-values) and conflicts among


ct i conflicte ntre valori. Se declaneaz o values. In a competition in which previous
nou lupt pentru supremaii i hegemonii inequalities become more prominent, and
ntr-o

competiie

care

inegalitile constraints for those lagging behind multiply

anterioare se accentueaz, iar constrngerile and amplify a new struggle for supremacy
pentru cei mereu rmai n urm se and hegemony starts. Large samples of
multiplic i se amplific. Excluilor care literate, but who for different reasons cannot
alctuiau armata de peste dou miliarde de communicate using lingua franca or are not
analfabei clasici li se adaug eantioane largi PC literate (they cannot utilize the modern
de tiutori de carte, dar care, din varii motive, and sophisticated electronic technologies) are
nu comunic n lingua franca sau nu tiu s added to those left aside, the army of over
utilizeze modernele i sofisticatele tehnologii two billion classic illiterate. The meaning of
electronice. Sensul cuvntului analfabet i the word illiterate changes, the illiterate of
schimb nelesul, analfabetul viitorului the near future may be the Ph D in science at
apropiat fiind chiar i doctorul n tiin la the sunset of his career.
The

apusul carierei.

Information

Age

through

the

Era informaiei, prin tehnologiile pe care technologies it imposes, set free a large
le impune, elibereaz o foarte mare cantitate quantity of labour supply on the one hand and
de for de munc, amplificnd omajul i on the other increases the number of
agravnd conflictul ntre munca fizic i unemployment and aggravates the conflict
munca intelectual. La rndul ei, fora de between the physical and intellectual work. In

37

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

munc angajat n domeniile dominate de turn the labour supply employed in the
munca intelectual, este supus, n intervale domains dominated by intellectual work will
scurte de timp, devalorizrii.

shortly be subject to devaluation.

Vorbind despre era informaiei Fr.

Speaking of the "Information Age", Fr.

Fukuyama i evideniaz att beneficiile, ct Fukuyama points out its benefits and negative
i

efectele

negative.

Tensiunea

dintre effects. The tension between epistemic and

epistem i doxa (paradoxul lui Taminaux) doxa (Taminiaux's paradox) is observed at


este

observabil

la

filosoful

american, the American philosopher, especially in

ndeosebi n abordarea aspectelor pozitive approaching positive aspects which can be


unde poate fi uor identificat propria-i easily identified by virtue of his own choice
opiune n virtutea apartenenei la civilizaia of belonging to American civilization: An
american: O societate bazat pe informaie information-based society tends to produce
are tendina s produc mai mult din cele more of the two things that people appreciate
dou lucruri pe care oamenii le preuiesc n in a modern democracy: freedom and
primul rnd ntr-o democraie modern: equality. Freedom of choice has exploded,
libertatea i egalitatea. A explodat libertatea whether it is cable television channels, the
de a alege, fie c e vorba de canale de budget shops filled with everything you need,
televiziune prin cablu, de magazine ieftine, or friends met over the Internet. Hierarchies
pline cu de toate, sau de prieteni cunoscui of any kind, whether political or corporate,
prin Internet. Ierarhiile de orice fel, fie are subjected to pressure and begin to
politice,

fie

corporatiste,

sunt

supuse collapse. Large and rigid bureaucracies,

presiunilor i ncep s se prbueasc. seeking to control what happens in their


Birocraiile vaste, rigide, care urmresc s sphere of activity through rules, regulations
controleze tot ce se ntmpl n sfera lor de and coercion, have been undermined by the
activitate

prin

intermediul

regulilor, shift to a knowledge-based economy, which

regulamentelor i constrngerii, au fost <<strengthens>> the people through the


subminate de trecerea la o economie bazat access provided to information. Just as rigid
pe cunoatere, care i <<ntrete>> pe corporate bureaucracies as the old IBM and
oameni prin accesul pe care l ofer la AT & T have given way to smaller
informaie. Aa cum birocraiile corporatiste competitors, with more limited activity, but
rigide, precum btrnul IBM i AT&T au with a wider participation of employees in
cedat locul n faa unor concureni mai mici, decision making. Soviet Union and East
cu activitate mai restrns, dar cu o Germany collapsed because of their inability

38

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

participare mai larg a angajailor la luarea to control and exploit information held by
deciziilor, Uniunea Sovietic i Germania de their citizens63.
Est s-au prbuit datorit incapacitii lor de a

From a certain perspective, the benefits of

controla i valorifica informaiile deinute de the information-based society are real. We


proprii ceteni49 .
Privite

dintr-o

consider enlarging the choices for available


anumit

perspectiv, area, imminent reducing the time to achieve

avantajele societii bazat pe informaie sunt impending operations in various spheres of


reale.

Avem

vedere

lrgirea

ariei activity, bureaucratic apparatus efficiency,

posibilitilor de a alege, reducerea iminent increased competitiveness, extending the


a timpului de realizare a operaiunilor din number of employee participation in decision
diverse sfere de activitate, eficientizarea making, disintegration of its traditional
aparatului

birocratic,

creterea monopolies through the decline of big

competitivitii, creterea sferei de cuprindere corporations and so on. With the only
prin extinderea participrii angajailor la difference
luarea

deciziilor,

dezagregarea

that,

reconsidering

normative

unor judgments depending on context, these "gifts"

monopoluri devenite tradiionale prin intrarea of the information society must be viewed
n declin a marilor corporaii .a.m.d. Numai with a certain reserve. Thus, Fukuyama's
c i aceste daruri oferite de societatea opinion on the fact that the new type of
informaional trebuie privite cu o anumit society

produces

more

freedom

and

rezerv, reconsidernd judecile normative equality in a modern democracy is in


funcie de contexte. Astfel, aprecierea lui contradiction
Fukuyama referitoare la faptul c noul tip de undermines

with
the

factual
very

reality

foundations

that
of

societate produce mai mult libertate i democratic regimes. Freedom and equality
egalitate ntr-o democraie modern intr n are values which originates principles that are
contradicie
submineaz

cu

realitatea

nsi

bazele

factual

care founding fundamental human rights. They are

regimurilor enshrined in the rules that ensure their

democratice. Libertatea i egalitatea sunt objectivity in the individual or group


valori n care se origineaz principii care conducts which does not undermine, but
ntemeiaz drepturi fundamentale ale omului. strengthen a particular order because of the
Ele sunt consacrate prin norme ce la asigur majority. An order with non-entropic role in
obiectivarea la nivelul conduitelor individuale that society (it must be specified that a
sau de grup, conduite ce nu submineaz, ci democratic society is in discussion). This is

49

63

Ibidem, p. 12
Ibid,p.12

39

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

ntresc un anumit tip de ordine dorit de where the problem is because the company
majoritate. O ordine cu rol de factor organized on a democratic basis requires
antientropic

pentru

societatea

respectiv equal freedom and equal rights distributed to

(precizez c este n discuie o societate cu all citizens and with each other, the law (rule)
regim democratic). Ori tocmai aici apare representing

standard

reporting

and

problema, ntruct, societatea organizat pe evaluation of conducts. Depending on the


baze democratice presupune libertate egal provisions of the rule it is estimated both
distribuit i o egalitate n drepturi a tuturor excess of power (coercion to freedom) and
cetenilor i a fiecruia cu ceilali, legea the excess of freedom (constraint on others
(norma) reprezentnd etalonul de raportare i freedom and contempt for rules). The
apreciere

conduitelor.

Funcie

de information society has created the most

dispoziiile normei se apreciaz att excesul suitable framework for the manifestation of
de putere (constrngere la libertate), ct i freedom but also to understand that excessive
excesul de libertate (constrngere la libertatea libertinism understood as freedom for some
celorlali

dispreul

fa

de

norme). and inevitable restriction of freedom for

Societatea informaional a creat cel mai others. Internet use is a significant example of
propice cadru pentru manifestarea libertii this view, under the circumstances that the
ns i cadrul pentru libertinaj neles ca exces unlimited access to everyone who has
de libertate pentru unii cu ngrdirea major abilities and a microprocessor, avoids the
i inevitabil a libertii celorlali. Exemplul responsibility. Both responsible people and
utilizrii Internetului este semnificativ din irresponsible people participate to the same
acest punct de vedere n condiiile n care extent to communication over the Internet
accesul la utilizare, absolut nelimitat pentru "posting" on various sites both useful
oricine

posed

abiliti

deine

un information

and

distorted

information,

microprocesor, derobeaz de rspundere. manipulating and misinformation, threats,


Persoane cu discernmnt, ca i persoane incitement to violence, to social-institutional
lipsite de discernmnt particip deopotriv disorder. In turn, the receiver, consisting of
la comunicarea prin Internet postnd pe both
diverse

site-uri

informaii

utile,

responsible

individuals

and

i irresponsible, take over the information (and

informaii distorsionate, manipulatorii, i surrogates information) and is able whether to


dezinformri, ameninri, instigri la violen, select or filter or is incapable to distinguish.
la dezordine social-instituional. La rndul The receiver can be a good auditor, but also a
lui, receptorul, constituit din indivizi cu part of the intoxicated mass. Anonymity is

40

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

discernmnt, dar i lipsii de discernmnt, the form in which individual responsibility is


preia

informaia

(dar

surogatele eliminated. Neither legal liability nor moral

informaionale) i are fie capacitatea de a o responsibility operate under conditions of


filtra sau selecta, fie incapacitatea de anonymity, especially since in many cases the
distincie. Receptorul poate fi un bun cenzor, transmitter

indicates

inexistent

sources,

dar i parte din masa de manevr intoxicat rumour sources or their own opinions when
de emitor. Anonimatul reprezint forma he puts forward his opinions he conceals his
prin

care

rspunderea

individual

este identity under pseudonyms (signed with

eliminat. Nici rspunderea juridic, nici 'aliases'). The transmitter uses intoxications
rspunderea moral nu opereaz n condiii de that create on the receiver feelings like fear,
anonimat, mai ales c n multe situaii apathy, withdraw in a sphere of cyberspace or
emitorul indic surse inexistente, surse- through incitement, rebellion, absolutely
zvon sau, atunci cnd lanseaz opinii proprii challenging spirit, participation in illegal
i ascunde identitatea sub pseudonime movements and so on. Intoxications have the
(semneaz

cu

nume

de

mprumut). role of pervasive ideas: put forward as

Intoxicrile la care apeleaz emitorul manipulative find ontological support in


cultiv asupra receptorului stri precum: intoxicated individuals and groups which,
teama, apatia, retragerea ntr-o sfer a through implementation, generates chaos and
virtualului sau, prin instigri, revolt, spirit disorder. Public and unlimited Internet access
absolut contestatar, participare la micri creates the appearance (in fact, false) of
ilegale .a.m.d. Intoxicrile au rolul ideilor- legitimacy,

transforming

simple

views

for: lansate cu rol manipulator ele i gsesc (plausible topics) into solid and truthful
suport ontic n indivizi i grupuri intoxicate information.
care, prin punere n practic, genereaz haos

Underlying the process of rendering the

i dezordine. Caracterul public i nelimitat al personal opinions and misinformation as


accesului la Internet creeaz aparena (de truthful information into the receiver mind is
altfel, fals) a legitimitii, fcndu-se din a complex of manipulating means based on
simple

opinii

(subiectual

verosimile) fetish channels of communication grounded

informaii cu caracter temeinic i veridic.

in their absolute assumption of credibility

La baza procedeului transformrii n (and legitimacy). Moreover, unlimited public


cunotina

receptorului

opiniilor

i access to communication channels induces

dezinformrilor n informaii veridice st un their official nature, and resting on transitive


complex de mijloace manipulatorii bazat pe legitimacy, at the level of public opinion, the

41

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

fetiizarea canalelor de comunicare, fetiizare conviction that this kind of information on


ntemeiat

prezumia

de such channels is official strengthens. This is

absolut

credibilitate (i legitimitate) a acestora. Mai the mechanism - delusive mechanism - of


mult, accesul public nelimitat la utilizarea states (through specialized bodies), groups
canalelor de comunicare induce i percepia and individuals utilized alike to manipulate.
caracterului

lor

oficial,

iar

We specified above that Fr. Fukuyama

baza

legitimitii tranzitive, la nivelul opiniei does not range among those who purport the
publice

se

ntrete

c information society as the perfect society. On

convingerea

informaiile ce circul prin asemenea canale the contrary, noticing its benefits he does not
sunt informaii cu caracter oficial. Acesta este hesitate to describe its baneful effects
mecanismul un mecanism dolosiv prin substantiated

in

dramatic

changes

and

care se manipuleaz, tehnicile manipulatorii synthesized in the collocation (juxtaposition)


fiind utilizate, deopotriv, de state (prin Great Breach. Passing to an information
society he writes was praised by almost

organisme specializate), grupuri, indivizi.

Precizam mai sus c Fr. Fukuyama nu se all

who

enlarged

upon

this

topic.

situeaz printre cei ce vd n societatea Commentators pertaining to the widest range


informatizat

societate

perfect. of domains like George Gilder, Newt

Dimpotriv, observndu-i beneficiile, el nu Gingrich, Al Gore, Alvin and Heidi Toffler,


evit

s-i

concretizate

descrie
n

nefaste, Nicholas

efectele

schimbri

dramatice, changes

Negroponte
as

considered

favourable

to

these

prosperity,

sintetizate n sintagma Marea Ruptur. democracy and freedom and society at large.
Trecerea la o societate informatizat It is certain that many advantages of the
consemneaz el a fost ridicat n slvi de information society are obvious, but I wonder
aproape toi cei care au scris sau au vorbit all of its consequences were necessarily
despre acest subiect. Comentatori de cele mai beneficial?64
diverse orientri politice, precum George

In

order

to

answer

this

question,

Gilder, Newt Gingrich, AL Gore, Alvin i Fukuyama presents a vast picture of Western
Heidi Toffler, Nicholas Negroponte, au society in the second half of XX century,
considerat

aceste

schimbri

favorabile

prosperitii,

ca

democraiei

fiind making clear that joining the Information Age


i with Internet emergence (90s of the last

libertii, dar i societii n general. Cu centuries) is incomplete since separating from


siguran c multe avantaje ale societii Industrial Age took place with only one

64

Ibid.

42

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

informatizate sunt evidente, dar oare toate generation before. Then he follows arguing
consecinele acesteia au fost neaprat att de that abandoning the industrial production in
faste?50

70s of XX century in more advanced

Pentru a rspunde la aceast ntrebare, countries once the de-industrialization of Belt


Fukuyama prezint un tablou amplu al lumii Rust economic region in North-East of
occidentale n a doua jumtate a secolului al USA (comprising the states Illinois, Indiana,
XX-lea,

preciznd

asocierea

erei Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania) that had for

informaiei cu apariia Internetului (anii '90 ai long played a dominant role, yet reaching
secolului trecut) este una incomplet ntruct global decline and chronic unemployment
desprinderea de epoca industrial a debutat cu generated serious social consequences.
o generaie n urm. Astfel, el argumenteaz

This period comprised between mid of

prin renunarea la producia industrial nc 60s and beginning of 90s was marked by
din anii '70 ai secolului al XX-lea n mai even harder social conditions in most
multe

ri

avansate,

dezindustrializarea

regiunii

odat

cu industrialized countries. Infringement of law

Rust

Belt and social disorder began to intensify; the

(Centura de rugin) - regiune economic din urban centres of the richest societies on earth
nord-estul SUA (Statele Ilinois, Indiana, became uninhabitable areas. The decline of
Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania) care a jucat kinship to which we had been attending for
mult vreme un rol economic dominant, dar more two hundred years, also intensified in
care a ajuns la declin global i omaj cronic the second of XX century. In most European
urmare a abandonrii uzinelor.

countries and Japan, fertility decreased so

Renunarea la producia industrial a much,

that

these

societies

would

be

generat consecine sociale de mare gravitate: depopulated next century, unless a massive
Aceast perioad, cuprins aproximativ ntre immigration occurred; marriages and births
mijlocul anilor '60 i nceputul anilor '90, a reduced; the divorces rates reached alarming
fost, de asemenea, marcat de condiii sociale quotas; in USA one third of the children were
tot

mai

grele

industrializate.
infracionalitatea

n
Au
i

majoritatea

rilor born

outside

marriage,

whereas

in

creasc Scandinavian countries more than half.

dezordinea

social, Finally, in the last 40 years, confidence in

nceput

centrele urbane ale societilor celor mai people and institutions was in decline. At the
bogate de pe pmnt transformndu-se n end of 50s, most of the inhabitants in Europe
zone aproape de nelocuit. Declinul relaiilor and USA expressed their confidence in

50

Ibidem

43

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

de rudenie ca instituii sociale, la care asistm government and their citizens; only a small
de mai bine de dou sute de ani, s-a precipitat share declared the same in the beginning of
n ultima jumtate a secolului XX. n the 90s. The nature of inter-human relation
majoritatea rilor europene i n Japonia, also altered. Though there are no clear
fertilitatea a sczut att de mult, nct aceste evidence that people established fewer social
societi se vor depopula n secolul urmtor, contacts, their relations tended to be shorter,
n lipsa unei imigrri masive; s-au mpuinat less intense and in smaller groups65. Can
cstoriile i naterile; rata divorurilor a atins these phenomena be neglected? The multiple
cote alarmante; n Statele Unite, o treime din phenomena enumerated above raise major
copii sunt nscui n afara cstoriei, iar n issues, if it is to take into consideration only
rile scandinave mai mult de jumtate. n the

perspective

sfrit, n ultimii 40 de ani ncrederea ntre necessity

against

of
the

the

counter-attack

entropic

factors

oameni i n instituii a intrat ntr-un declin regarding preservation of a society. These


accentuat. La sfritul anilor '50, majoritatea issues do not release from responsibility those
locuitorilor Statelor Unite i Europei i-au who lead communities, states or the world in
exprimat ncrederea n guvernele i n its entirety. They are not issues generated by
concetenii lor; numai o mic parte dintre ei natural

factors,

they

are

not

natural

mai declarau acelai lucru la nceputul anilor catastrophes, but they make the object of
'90. Natura relaiilor interumane s-a modificat management modalities for human society.
i ea. Dei nu exist dovezi c oamenii They are the effects of a long management in
stabileau

mai

puine

contacte

sociale, many irresponsible situations, centred on

legturile lor tindeau s fie de durat mai fragments of objectives and non-convergent
scurt, mai puin intense i n grupuri de in many situations: objectives circumscribed
oameni tot mai puin numeroase51. Sunt to the struggle for domination and hegemony,
aceste fenomene de neluat n seama? i on the powerful part and struggle for survival
numai din perspectiva nevoii de contracarare in the simplest possible way for an
a factorilor entropici n vederea conservrii absolute human majority. And the major
unei

societi,

multiplele

fenomene issues which we all meet today are deep

enumerate mai sus ridic probleme majore. rooted in history. Some of them have become
Aceste

probleme

nu

absolv

de so chronic that they cannot be solved

responsabilitate pe cei ce conduc comuniti, anymore. Others have solutions provided that
state, lumea n ansamblul ei. Ele nu sunt the decision-making factors really want that.

51

65

Ibidem, pp. 12-13


Ibid.p,1213

44

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

probleme generate de factori naturali, nu sunt Yet none of them is above responsibility. At
catastrofe

naturale,

ci

obiectul least the current ones have to involve

fac

modalitilor de gestiune a societii umane. responsibility. And in order to set working


Ele sunt efectele unor gestionri ndelungate the mechanisms to hold responsible, those
n multe situaii iresponsabile, centrate n who cause people troubles willingly or
scopuri segmentate i n multe situaii unwillingly, they have to be known. This is
neconvergente. Scopuri circumscrise luptei the

reason

why

we

ask

ourselves

pentru dominaie i hegemonie, din partea concomitantly with Serge Hutin: Are there
celor puternici i luptei pentru existen n unknown governors?66 This answer will be
cel mai simplu neles cu putin pentru o searched for in a future study.
majoritate uman absolut. Iar problemele
majore cu care ne confruntm deopotriv cu

Bibliography:

toii azi au rdcini adnci n istorie. Unele s-

1. Fukuyama Fr., Marea ruptur. Natura

au cronicizat ntr-att, nct nu mai pot fi

uman i refacerea ordinii sociale Editura

rezolvate. Altele au nc rezolvare, cu

Humanitas n 2002 i este prefaat de Liana

condiia existenei voinei decidenilor. Nici

V. Alecu.

unele,

nici

altele

nu

absolv

de

2. Serge Hutin, Guvernantii din umbra si

responsabilitate. Dar mcar cele din zilele

societatile secrete, Pro Editura si Tipografie,

noastre trebuie s implice rspunderea. Iar

Bucuresti, Original title: Gouvernantes invisibles

pentru a pune n micare mecanismele de

et societes secretes, Edition Jai Lu, 1971

3. S. P. Huntington, Ordinea politica a

tragere la rspundere, cei ce pricinuiesc lumii


cu

voie

sau

nepricepere

rele,

trebuie

cunoscui. De aceea, ne ntrebm odat cu


Serge

Hutin:

Exist

guvernani

necunoscui?52. Vom aborda rspunsul ntr-o

societatilor in schimbare, Iasi, Polirom, 1991

4. Adrian Gorun, Dan R. Mateiu, Horatiu T.


Gorun, Introducere in Stiinta politica. Regimurile
politice. Participarea politica. Elitele politice.
Presa Universitara Clujeana, 2003

alt parte a lucrrii.

5. Milleman Th. P., Faa ascuns a lumii


occidentale , Pro Editur i Tipografie,

Bibliografie:

Bucureti, 2008

1. Fukuyama Fr., Marea ruptur. Natura


uman i refacerea ordinii sociale Editura

6. Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, William


Morrow, New York, 1980

52

Sege Hutin, Guvernanii din umbr i societile secrete, Pro Editur i Tipografie, Bucureti, p.11, Titlul
original - Gouvernantes invisibles et socits secrtes, Editions J'ai Lu, 1971
66
SergeHutin,Guvernantiidinumbrasisocietatilesecrete,ProEditurasiTipografie,Bucuresti,p.11,Original
title:Gouvernantesinvisiblesetsocietessecretes,EditionJaiLu,1971

45

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2013

Humanitas n 2002 i este prefaat de Liana


V. Alecu.

2. Serge Hutin, Guvernantii din umbra si


societatile secrete, Pro Editura si Tipografie,
Bucuresti, Original title: Gouvernantes invisibles
et societes secretes, Edition Jai Lu, 1971

3. S. P. Huntington, Ordinea politica a


societatilor in schimbare, Iasi, Polirom, 1991

4. Adrian Gorun, Dan R. Mateiu, Horatiu T.


Gorun, Introducere in Stiinta politica. Regimurile
politice. Participarea politica. Elitele politice.
Presa Universitara Clujeana, 2003

5. Milleman Th. P., Faa ascuns a lumii


occidentale , Pro Editur i Tipografie,
Bucureti, 2008
6. Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, William
Morrow, New York, 1980

46