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LIMBA ENGLEZA

Traim intr-un secol al comunicarii. Indiferent de locul in care ne aflam, suntem


permanent conectati cu lumea. La scoala, la serviciu sau in calatorii avem nevoie de cunoasterea
limbii engleze pentru a putea comunica oriunde, cu oricine, in cele mai diverse scopuri. Tocmai
de aceea, cursul de comunicare in limba engleza este propus pentru toti aceia care vor sa se
bucure de cunoasterea celei mai utilizare limbi din lume si sa o foloseasca in mod curent.
Structura cursului permite asimilarea rapida a cuvintelor noi si a elementelor gramaticale,
astfel incat participantii la ore, intr-o perioada de timp relativ scurta, sa poata sustine o
conversatie uzuala pe teme de interes general.

Modul 1
Formule de salut-Greetings
Hello;
Good morning;
Good afternoon;
Good evening;
Good night;
Good bye;
Introduction:
Hello! How are you?
My name is..../Whats your name?/How old are you?/Where are you from?
Numeralul cardinal :
zero = zero = 0
one = unu = 1
two = doi = 2
three = trei = 3
four = patru = 4
five = cinci = 5
six = sase = 6
seven = sapte = 7
eight = opt = 8
nine = noua = 9
ten = zece = 10

Atentie la o deosebire de limba romana. In limba engleza se foloseste virgula in locul


punctului din romana.
hundred = suta = 100
thousand = mie = 1,000
million = milion = 1,000,000
Astfel ceea ce scriem in romana 1,7 - in engleza vom scrie 1.7 = one point seven.
Numeralul ordinal :
first = prim;
second = al doilea
third = al treilea; a treia
De la patru in sus , numealul ordinal se formeaza din numeralul cardinal + th (dar
atentie ca -y se inlocuieste ci - ieth ).
fourth = al patrulea
fifth = al cincilea
sixth = al saselea
seventh = al saptelea
eighth = al optulea
ninth = al noualea
tenth = al zecelea
eleventh = al unsprezecelea
twelfth = al doisprezecelea
thirteenth = al treisprezecelea
twentieth = al douazecilea
thirtieth = al treizecilea
fiftieth = al cincecilea
Datele se exprima in limba engleza cu numeralul ordinal :
The first of May sau May the first
Numeralul multiplicativ :
once = o data;
twice = de doua ori;
De la trei in sus , numeralele multiplicative se formeaza din cel cardinal + times
three times = de trei ori
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four times = de patru ori


Numeralele fractionale :
one whole = un intreg (o unitate)
one half = o jumatate = 1/2
one third = o treime = 1/3
one quarter = un sfert, o patrime = 1/4
one tenth = o zecime = 1/10
The Family -Familia

grandmother
uncle
father
cousin
brother
brother-in-law
nephew
daughter

bunica
unchi
tata
var
frate
cumnat
nepot (de unchi)
fiica

grandfather
mother
aunt
sister-in-law
sister
husband
niece
son

bunic
mama
matusa
cumnata
sora
sot
nepoata (de unchi )
fiu

People and relationships


woman
husband
baby
children
girl
granddaughter

femeie
sot
bebelus
copii
fata
nepoata

man
wife
parents
boy
grandparents
grandson

barbat
sotie
parinti
baiat
bunici
nepot

JOBS-Locuri de Munca

accountant
actor
air steward
architect

personal assistant
shop assistant
author
baker
barman / barmaid / bar person
builder
businessman / businesswoman / executive
butcher
caretaker
chef
civil servant
clerk
computer operator / programmer
cook

dentist
designer

company director
film director
doctor
driver bus / taxi / train driver
garbageman (refuse collector)
economist
editor
electrician
engineer
farmer
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fisherman

flight attendant
hairdresser
head teacher
jeweler
journalist
judge
lawyer
manager
miner
musician
news reader / news presenter
nurse
optician
painter
photographer
pilot
plumber
police officer
politician
printer
prison officer / warder
receptionist
sailor
salesman / saleswoman /salesperson
scientist
secretary
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soldier
surgeon
tailor
teacher

travel agent
TV cameraman
TV presenter
vet
waiter
writer
Travel Air
airport
check-in
fly
land
landing
plane
take off
Travel - General Related Words
destination
journey
passenger
route
travel
travel agent
trip
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Travel - Holidays
camp
go camping
charger flight
cruise
excursion
(youth) hostel
hotel
luggage
motel
package holiday
self-catering holiday
sightseeing
go sightseeing
suitcase
tour
tourism
tourist
vacation
Travel - Land
bicycle
bike
bus
bus station
car
coach
coach station
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lane
motorbike
motorway
rail
go by rail
railway
railway station
road
main road
minor road
taxi
traffic
train
tube
underground
subway

Travel - Sea
boat
crossing
ferry
port
sail
sea
set sail

ship
voyage
Travel - Verbs
board (boat / plane)
go by
go on board
get on board
hitch-hike
set off
GRAMATICA-GRAMMAR
Conjugarea verbului To Be (a fi) la afirmativ
SINGULAR
I am- eu sunt
You are- tu esti
He is- el este
She is- ea este
It is- el/ea este
PLURAL
We are- noi suntem
You are- voi sunteti
They are- ei sunt/ele sunt
FORMELE DE AFIRMATIV, INTEROGATIV SI NEGATIV
Forma de interogativ:
Se obtine fcnd inversiunea ntre subiect/pronume personal si verbul Be, la singular
sau plural.
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Exemple:
You are - Are you?
He is- Is he?
Mary is - Is Mary/is she?
It is - Is it ?
They are - Are they?

Substantivul
Substantivul, in limba engleza, are patru genuri:
- genul masculin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen masculin
(boy, man, son , brother, king)
- genul feminin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen feminin
(woman, mother, girl, wife, sister)
- gen neutru = substantivele care denumesc obiecte si animale
(dog, , purse, window, cat)
- genul comun = substantivele care au aceeasi forma atat la masculin cat si la feminin
(teacher, doctor, friend, author)
Deosebirea dintre substantivele feminine si masculine se face astfel:
- se folosesc forme diferite pentru feminin si masculin :
Feminin
aunt = matusa
daughter = fiica
girl = fata
hen = gaina
nice = nepoata
sister = sora
mother = mama
wife = sotie
woman = femeie

Masculin
uncle = unchi
son = fiu
boy = baiat
cock = cocos
nephew = nepot
brother = frate
father = tata
husband = sot
man = barbat

- se adauga un sufix:
prince - princess
actor - actress
waiter - waitress
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- pentru locuitorii unei tari, terminate in sh si ch, genul persoanei se indica folosind
cuvintele: man si woman.
an Englishman - an Englishwoman
a Romanianmam - a Romanianwoman

Pluralul substantivelor :
1)- In general se realizeaza adaugand "-s" la substantivul la singular:
cat + "s" = cats
dog + "s" = dogs
2)- pentru substantivele terminate in "s", "x", "sh", "ch","zh", "z" sau "j" pluralul se
formeaza adugand "-es" sau "-s", daca substantivul se termina in "e" mut.
bus + "es" = buses
box + "es" = boxes
dish + "es" = dishes
church + "es" = churches
mirage + "s" = mirages
prize + "s" = prizes
bridge + "s" = bridges
3)- a) - pentru substantive terminate in "y" pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand
"-s", daca "y" final este precedat de o vocala(a, e, i, o, u).
boy + "s" = boys
- b) - pentru substantivele terminate in "y", unde "y" final este precedat de o consoana,
pluralul substantivelor se formeaza astfe: se transforma "y" in "i" si apoi se
adauga "-es"
baby - y + "s" = babies
4)- a) - pentru substantivele terminate in "o", pluralul substantivelor se formeaza
adaugand "-s", daca "o" este precedat de o vocala (a, e, i, o, u).
radio + "s" = radios
- b) - pentru substantivele terminate in "o", unde "o" este precedat de o consoana,
pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-es".
tomato + "es" = tomatoes
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Atentie : - pentru substantivele legate (referitoare) de muzica - pot forma


pluralul adaugand "-s", chiar daca "o" este precedat de o consoana
piano + "s" = pianos
5)-pentru substantivele terminate in "f" sau "fe", pluralul substantivelor se face
adaugand "-s".
roof + "s" = roofs
giraffe + "s" = giraffes
- Exista exceptii la aceasta regula.Unele substantive terminate in "f" sau "fe" fac
pluralul schimband pe "f" in "-ves". Iara aceste exceptii :
calf - calves = vitel/ vitei
elf- elves = spiridusi/i
half - halves = jumatate/jumatati
knife - knives = cutit/cutite
leaf - leaves = frunza/frunze
loaf - loaves = franzela,paine/franzele
life - lives = viata/vieti
penknife - penknife = briceag/bricege
sheaf - sheaves = snop/snopi
staff - staves = portativ
scarf - scarves = esarfa, fular/esarfe,fulare - dar si scarfs
self - selves = ins, fiinta
shelf - shelves = raft/rafturi
thief - thieves = hot/hoti
wolf - wolves = lup/lupi
wife - wives = sotie/sotii
6)- urmatoarele substantive nu respecta nici o regula in formarea pluralelor :

Singular
alga
alumna
alumnus
antenna (on a bug's head)
antenna (on a television)
appendix
bacterium
bison
buffalo

Plural
algae
alumnae
alumni
antennae
antennas
appendixes, appendices
bacteria
bison
buffalos, buffaloes, buffalo
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bus
cactus
child
corps
criterion
crisis
datum
deer
die
dwarf
foot
fish
goose
half
hippopotamus
hoof
louse
man
medium
memorandum
moose
mouse
octopus
ox
scarf
series
sheep
staff (stick or line for
charting music)
staff (group of workers)
stegosaurus
swine
talisman
tooth
wharf
woman

buses, busses
cacti, cactuses
children
corps
criteria
crises
data
deer
dice
dwarfs, dwarves
feet
fish, fishes
geese
halves
hippopotami, hippopotamuses
hoofs, hooves
lice
men
media
memoranda
moose
mice
octopi, octopuses, octopodes
oxen
scarves, scarfs
series
sheep
staves
staffs
stegosauri
swine
talismans
teeth
wharfs, wharves
women

Pronumele
Pronumele personale :
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Nominativ :
I = eu
you = tu, dumneata, dumneavoastra
he = el, dansul, dumnealui
she = ea, dumneaei
we = noi
you = voi
they = ei,ele, dansii, dansele, dumnealor
Acuzativ-dativ :
me = mi-, ma, pe mine, imi
you = ti, te, pe tine, iti, dumitale, dumneavoastra
him = i-, l-, pe el, ii,(lui)
her = i-, -o, pe ea, ii
us = ne-, noua, pe noi
you = v-, voua, pe voi
them = i-, le-, loe, pe ei, pe ele
Pronumele posesiv :
mine = al meu, a mea, ale mele, ai mei
yours = al tau, a ta, ale tale, ai tai
his = al lui, a lui, ale lui, ai lui
hers = a ei, ale ei, al ei, ai ei
ours = a noastra, al nostru, ale noastre, ai nostri
yours = al vostru, a voastra, ai vostri, ale voastre
theirs = al lor, a lui, ai lor, ale lor
Pronumele demonstrative sunt identice ca forma cu adjectivele demonstrative(numai ca in
cazul pronumelor, acestea inlocuiesc substantivele).

Verbul HAVE GOT


Singular
I have got
You Have got
He/she/it has got
Plural
We have got
You have got
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They have got

Articolul
Articolul nehotarat (care se traduce in romana prin un , o ):
a = inaintea unei consoane (a car)
an = inaintea unei vocale (an inkpot)
Articolul nehotarat este acelasi pentru toate genurile. Trebuie tinut cont atunci cand vorbim ca
articolul nehoratat nu se accentueaza si nici nu se face pauza dupa el. La plural nu exista articol
nehotarat(atunci cand este cazulse folosestie some = niste, unele).
Exista unele exceptii :
a ewe = o oaie/mioara
a Europian = un european
a union = o uniune, un sindicat
a university = o universitate
Articolul hotarat:
Articolul hotarat in limba engleza este THE , atat la singular cat si la plural, la toate genurile.
Ca si la articolul nehotarat, in vorbire, articolul hotart nu se accentueaza si nici nu se face pauza
dupa el.
MODUL II

Vocabular-Vocabulary
DAYS OF THE WEEK
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
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Saturday
Sunday
THE COLOURS
red
orange
yellow
green
blue
indigo
violet
brown
gold and silver
purple, scarlet, and crimson
gray
white
black
Time - Timpul
second
minute
hour
day
week
month

secunda
minut
ora
zi
saptamana
luna

season
year
decade
century
millennium
eternity

anotimp
an
deceniu
secol
mileniu
eternitate

morning

dimineata

evening

seara
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noon

pranz / amiaza

night

afternoon

dupa amiaza

midnight

noapte
miez de noapte

Verbul
In limba engleza sunt doua categorii de verbe:
-verbe regulate
-verbe neregulate
Verbele regulate:
Cele mai multe verbe in limba engleza sunt regulate. Ele se conjuga astfel:
Indicativ prezent :
I call
You call
He calls
She calls

I do not call
You do not call
He does not call
She does not call

We call
You call
They call

We do not call
You do not call
They do not ask

Forma interogativa:

Forma interogativ-negativa:

Do I call ?
Do you call ?
Does he call ?
Does she call ?

Don't I call ?
Don't you call ?
Doesn't he call ?
Doesn't she call ?

Do we call ?
Do you call ?
Do they call ?

Don't we call ?
Don't you call ?
Don't they call ?

- La indicativ prezent, numai prsoana a treia (III-a) singular, verbele primesc un "-s", celelalte
ramanand neschimbate.
- Pentru verbele terminate in "ch", "sh", "ss", "x" - la persoana III-a singular va fi "-es".
-Verbele terminate in "y" precedate de o consoana, schimba pe "y" in "i" si primesc terminatia "es".
-Verbele terminate in "o" primesc terminatia "-es"
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Toate verbele din limba engleza (cu exceptia celor doua verbe auxiliare: HAVE = a avea si
BE = a fi) se conjuga la formele simple interogative si negative cu ajutorul auxiliarului
DO/DOES.
Past tense :
La Imperfect si Perfect Simplu verbele neregulate primesc terminatia "-ed".
I called
You called
He called
she called
We called
You called
They called
Forma negativa:
I did not call
You did not call
He did not call
She did not call
We did not call
You did not call
They did not call
Forma interogativa:

Forma interogatv-negativa:

Did I call ?
Did you call ?
Did she call ?
Did he call ?

Didn't I call ?
Didn't you call ?
Didn't she call ?
Didn't he call ?

Did we call ?
Did you call ?
Did they call ?

Didn't we call ?
Didn't you call ?
Didn't they call ?

Future Tense:
Viitorul in limba engleza se formeaza cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare SHALL/WILL urmate de
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infinitiv.
- auxiliarul SHALL - pentru persoana I singular si plural
- auxiliarul Will - pentru restul persoanelor
I shall call
You will call
He will call
She will call
We shall call
You will call
They will call
Forma negativa :
I shall not (shan't) call
You will not call
He will not call
We shall not call
You will not call
They will not call
Forma interogativa :
Shall I call ?
Will you call ?
Will he call ?
Will she call ?
Shall we call ?
will you call ?
Will they call ?
Mai-mult-ca-perfect(past perfect):
M.m.c.p se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar HAVE la trecur (adica HAD) +participiu
trecut al verbului.
I had called
You had called
He had called
She had called

19

We had called
You had called
They had called
Conditionalul prezent
Se formeaza cu verbele auxiliarele SHOULD/WOULD + infinitivul verbului.
I should call
You would call
Conditionalul trecut :
Se formeaza din conditionalul prezent al verbului HAVE + participiu trecut al verbului
I should have called
you would have called
He would have called
She would have called
We should have called
You would have called
They would have called

Participiu prezent:
Se formeaza adaugand "-ing" la infinitivul verbului.
to call = a striga, a suna -> calling = strigand
Participiu trecut :
Se formeaza adaugand "-ed" la infinitivul verbului
call -> called

Nr. Tense

1.

Present Tense
Simple

Form

Used to express

Romana

S + V1
Do/Does + S +
V1
S + Do/does +
not + V1

1.actiuni obisnuite repetabile


2.adevaruri general valabile
3.repros, constatari
4.in loc de viitpr- pentru actiuni planificate
oficial

Prezent

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2.

3.

4.

Present Tense
Continuous

1.actiuni care se petrec in momentul


vorbirii(now, at present, at the moment)
S + To be + V- 2.actiuni temporare(today, this week, this
ing
mounth)
3.repros accentuat aproape de prezent.
4.actiuni oficiale planificate neoficial

Prezent

Present Perfect
Simple

1.actiune termiata in moment trecut


neprecizat (lately, just, always, offe, ever,
S + have/has +
never)
V3
2.actiune terminata in perioada de timp
Have/has + S +
neterminata (today, this week)
V3
3.actiune terminata care are legatura cu
prezentul

Perfect
compus

Present Perfect
Continuous

S + have/has +
been + v-ing
Have/has +
been + S + Ving

Past tense
5.
simple

actiune inceputa in trecut care se continua si


in prezent sau al carui rezultat se vede acum
in prezent
prezent
For + perioada de timp
Since + inceputul de timp

S + V2
Did + S + V1 Actiunitrecute terminate in momentul
S + did + not + precizat(ago, last, yesterday, in 1990)
V1

perfect
compus

imperfect

6.

Past tense
continuous

actiune trecuta in progres:


S + was/were +
while + timp continuu
V-ing
when + timp simple

7.

Past perfect
simple

S + had + V3

Past perfect
8. continu
ous

exprima o actiune trecuta terminata inaintea


m.m.c.p.
altei actiuni trecute

S + had + been actiune trecutain progres, inceputa inaintea


+ V-ing
altei actiuni trecute

imperfect

In limba engleza este foarte important sa stim conjugarea celor doua verbe auxiliare :HAVE
si BE.
TO HAVE = a avea
Indicativ prezent :
I have
you have
He has
She has
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We have
You have
They have
Imperfectul si perfect simplu:
I had
you had
He had
She had
We had
You had
They had
M.m.c.p.
I had had
you had had
He had had
She had had
We had had
You had had
They had had
Viitorul:
I shall have
You will have
He will have
She will have
We shall have
You will have
They will have
Conditional prezent :
I should have
You would have
He would have
She would have
We would have
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You would have


They would have
Conditional trecut :
I should have had
You would have had
He would have had
She would have had
We would have had
You would have had
They would have had
Participiu prezent: having
Participiu trecut : had
TO BE = a fi
Indicativ prezent :
I am
You are
He is
She is
We are
You are
They are
Imperfectul:
I was
You were
He was
She was
We were
You were
They were
M.m.c.p.:
I had been
You had been
He had been
She had been
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We had been
You had been
They had been
Viitor:
I shall be
You will be
He will be
She will be
They shall be
You will be
Yhey will be
Conditional prezent:
I should be
We would be
...
Conditionalul trecut :
I should have been
He would have been
...
Participiu prezent : being
Participiu trecut : been

Adjectivul
Adjectivele, in limba engleza , sunt invariabile ( nu se acorda cu substantivele in gen,numar si
caz ).
Adjectivele stau inaintea substantivelor (I like Chinese food) sau dupa anumite verbe auxiliare
(to appear, to be, to become, to feel, to get, to look, to keep,to seem, to taste, to make,to smell,to
sound, to turn, to taste).
Desi stau dupa verbe, ele nu descriu verbul si subiectul propozitiei (in majoritatea cazurilor substantivesau pronume).
Ex: The examination did not seem difficult.
Your friend looks nice.

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Unele din adjectivele care pot sta numai dupa verbele auxiliare: asleep, awake, afraid, alike,
alive, alone, annoyed, difficult, ill, nice, sorry, upset, well
(She is alone.).
Care este ordinea corecta pentru adjective ?
1)
Ordinea generala: opinion, fact
Ex : a nice French car (not a French nice car)
"Opinion" este ceea ce crezi despre subiectul propozitiei/frazei .
"Fact" este ceea ce este adevarat despre subiectul propozitiei/fraziei.
2)
Ordinea normala a adjectivelor este :
size, age/temperature , shape, colour, material, origin:
Ex : a big, old, square, black, wooden Chinese table
Size : small, little, thiny, big
Age/Temperature : old, new, hot, cold
Shape : round, square
Color : yellow, red, blue
Material : plastic, silver
Origin : Chinese, Romanian, Franch
3) Determiners usually come first, even though they are fact adjectives:
articles (a, the)
possessives (my, your...)
demonstratives (this, that...)
quantifiers (some, any, few, many...)
numbers (one, two, three)

Here is an example with opinion and fact adjectives:


adjectives

noun

determiner

opinion

two

nice

fact
age

shape

colour

old

round

red

candles

Cand vrem sa folosim doua adjective care se refera la o culoare folosim


and.
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Ex: Newspapers are usually black and white.


Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor :
-gradul pozitiv : arata prezenta normala a unei calitati a obiectelor (fara
comparatii)
Ex : She is beautiful.
-gradul comparativ : compara doua sau mai multe obiecte
in masura egala : comparativul de egalitate : he is as tall as his
brother
in masura inegala :- comparativul de superioritate : he is taller then
she.
- compartivul de inferioritate : not as tall as
-gradul superlativ: este de doua feluri : relative(in comparative cu alte
elemente)
Ex : The biggest : Cel mai mare
The smallest = Cel mai mic
The most important = Cel mai important
absolute (fata de el insusi)
Ex : Very big = Foarte mare
Very small = Foarte mic
Very/Highly important = Foarte important
Adverbul
Adverbul este cel care ne spune mai mult despre verb, care intareste verbul.
Majoritatea adverbelor se formeaza din adjective.
Ele seformeaza astfel:
- pentru majoritatea adverbelor - la adjectiv se adauga teminatia -ly :
bad - badly
hard - hardly
- pentru adjectivele care se termina in -le, ca sa formam adverb, se schimba
terminatia -le
in -ly
simple - simply
26

probable - probably
-pentru adjectivele care se termina in y, precedat de o consoana, ca sa formam
adverb
schimbam pe y in i si apoi adauga terminatia -ly
easy - easily
happy - happily
Exceptii :
well = bine; cum trebuie
fast = repede; strns
very = foarte; chiar; prea
never = niciodata; deloc
always = totdeauna
often = adesea
still = nca; si mai; totusi
Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor sunt aceleasi ca si la adjective si se
formeaza in
acelasi moduri.
Pozitiv

Comparativ

badly
far
late

worse
farther
further
later

little
well

less
better

Superlativ

the worst
the farthest
the furthest
the latest
the last = ultimul
the least
the best

Adverbele sunt de mai multe feluri :


- de loc
- de mod
- de timp - precizat
- neprecizat : already = deja, pana acum
always = intotdeauna
ever = totdeauna, vreodata
just = tocmai
27

often = adesea
never = niciodata
sometimes = uneori, cateodata
seldom = rareori
still = inca, mai
O modalitate usoara de a tine minte adverbele de timp si care ne arata cat de
des cineva
face ceva :
100%

50%

0%

always
usually
frequently
often
sometimes
occasionally
rarely
seldom
hardly ever
never
Vocabulary

Women's clothing - Men's Clothing - Haine pentru femei si barbati


Women's clothing
blouse
dress
glasses
sunglasses
strap
jewellery

bluza, camasa
rochie
ochelari
ochelari de soare
panglica, curea
bijuterie

skirt
zipper
lens
purse
jewellery box
ring

fusta
fermoar
lentila
geanta
cutie pentru bijuterii
inel

28

earring
necklace
locket
bra(ssiere)
panties
pijanas

cercel
colier, sirag
medalion
sutien
chiloti
pijamale

bracelet
beads
veil
slip
hose, stockings
nightgown

high heel shoe

pantof cu toc inalt

coat

sweater
mittens

jerseu, pulover
gloves
manusi cu un deget scarf

bratara
margele
voal
combinezon
ciorapi
camasa de noapte
haina, palton,
jacheta
manusi
esarfa, sal, basma

Men's Clothing
shirt
tag
pocket
t-shirt
tie
pants
belt
hat
socks
shoe laces
boots
slippers
vest
leather jacket

camasa
eticheta
buzunar
tricou
cravata
pantaloni
curea
palarie
sosete
siret-uri
ghete
papuci de casa
vesta
haina de piele

sleevet
collar
buttons
suit
knot
shorts
buckle
underwear
shoes
sole
sandals
bathrobe
watch
cap

mneca
guler
nasturi
costum
nod
pantaloni scurti
catarama
lenjerie de corp
pantofi
talpa
sandale
halat de baie
ceas (de mna)
basca, sapca

MODUL IV
Conjunctia
Conjunctia este partea de vorbire care leaga cuvinte sau propozitii.
Conjunctiile pot sa fie:

29

- coordonatoare = atunci cand leaga doua propozitii de acelasi fel;


- subordonatoare = atunci cand leaga o propozitie principala cu una
secundara.
Conjunctiile coordonatoare
Conjunctiile coordonatoare arata ca elementele pe care ele le unesc sunt
identice(similare)
in importanta si structura.
Intotdeauna conjunctiile coordonatoare se gasesc intre cuvintele sau
propozitiile pe care
le leaga.
I like [tea] and [coffee].
[Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee].
Conjunctiile coordonatoare sunt sapte (7) la numar. Ele sunt cuvinte simple,
formate din
doua sau trei litere.
Iara un mod usor si distractiv de a tine minte conjunctiile coordonatoare :
F

For

And

Nor

But

Or

Yet

So

Conjunctiile subordonatoare
Cele mai comune conjunctii subordonatoare sunt :
after
although
as
because
before
how
if

30

once
since
than
that
though
till
until
when
where
whether
while
Conjunctiile subordonatoare leaga o propozitie secundara de una principala.
Intotdeauna
conjunctia subordonata se gaseste in fata propozitiei secundare.
Ram went swimming although it was raining.
Ram went swimming although it was raining.
Although it was raining, Ram went swimming.
Atentie la urmatoarele constructii :
...either ...or = ...sau ...sau
...neither ...nor = ...nici ...nici
...nor only ...but also = ...nu numai ...ci(dar)si
...both ...and = ...ata ...cat si
MODUL V
VOCABULARY
The Body -Corpul omenesc
31

face
chin
shoulder
elbow
armpit
chest
abdomen
hip
thigh
calf

fata
barbie
umar
cot
subsuoara
piept
abdomen
sold
coapsa
gamba

mouth
neck
arm
forearm
back
waist
buttocks
leg
knee

gura
gat
brat
antebrat
spate
talie, mijloc
buca, fesa
picior
genunchi

The hand - Mana


wrist

ncheietura minii

knuckle

fingernail

unghie

thumb

index finger

degetul aratator

middle finger

ring finger
palm

degetul inelar
palma

little finger

ncheietura a
degetelor
deget mare (de la
mna)
degetul mijlociu(de
la mijloc)
degetul mic

The Head - Capul


hair
ear
nose
jaw
mustache
tooth

par
ureche
nas
falca
mustata
dinte

forehead
cheek
nostril
beard
tongue
lip

frunte
obraz
nara
barba
limba
buza

32

The Eye - Ochiul


eyebrow
eyelashes
pupil

sprnceana
gene
pupila

eyelid
iris

pleoapa
iris

The Foot - Piciorul


ankle
instep
toe
toenail

glezna
heel
scobitura piciorului big toe
deget de la picior little toe
unghia de la picior

calci
degetul mare
degetul mic

The Internal Organs - Organele interne


brain
throat
esophagus
lung
liver
intestines
artery
pancreas

creier
gt
esofag
plamn
ficat
intestine
artera
pancreas

spinal cord
windpipe
muscle
heart
stomach
vein
kidney
bladder

sira spinarii
trahee
muschi
inima
stomac
vena
rinichi
vezica

Months of the Year


January
February
March
April
May
June
to wet

Ianuarie
Februarie
Martie
Aprilie
Mai
Iunie
wet

July
August
September
October
November
December
wet

Iulie
August
Septembrie
Octombrie
Noiembrie
Decembrie
a uda
33

Seasons
spring
summer

primavara
vara

fall, autumn
winter

toamana
iarna

MODUL VI
Grammar
Prepozitia
Prepozitiile sunt cuvintele care fac legatura intre partile de vorbire.
Sunt peste 150 de prepozitii in limba engleza.Lista cu cele mai uzuale prepozitii le gasiti la
Cuvinte necesare/Prepozitii.
Prepozitii de loc:
In general se tine cont de urmatoarele reguli:
at = pentru un punct, un reper
in = pentru o anumita zona
on = pentru o suprafata
Exemple :

at

in

on

punct, un reper

zona

suprafata

at the corner

in the garden

on the wall

at the bus stop

in London

on the ceiling

at the door

in France

on the door

at the top of the page

in a box

on the cover

at the end of the road

in my pocket

on the floor

at the entrance

in my wallet

on the carpet

at the crossroads

in a building

on the menu

34

at the entrance

in a car

on a page

Exista expresii standard cu prepozitiile de loc:

at

in

on

at home

in a car

on a bus

at work

in a taxi

on a train

at school

in a helicopter

on a plane

at university

in a boat

on a ship

at college

in a lift (elevator)

on a bicycle, on a motorbike

at the top

in the newspaper

on a horse, on an elephant

at the bottom

in the sky

on the radio, on television

at the side

in a row

on the left, on the right

at reception

in Oxford Street

on the way

Prepozitiile de timp :
at = atunci cand timpul este precizat
in = pentru luni, ani, secole si perioade lungi
on = pentru zile si date
Exemple:

at

in

on

timp precizat

luni, ani, secole si perioade lungi

zile si date

at 3 o'clock

in May

on Sunday

at 10.30am

in summer

on Tuesdays

at noon

in the summer

on 6 March

at dinnertime

in 1990

on 25 Dec. 2010

at bedtime

in the 1990s

on Christmas Day

35

at sunrise

in the next century

on Independence Day

at sunset

in the Ice Age

on my birthday

at the moment

in the past/future

on New Year's Eve

Atunci cand folosim last, next, every, this - nu folosim si at, in, on.
Exemple:
I went to London last June. (not in last June)
He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)

Vocabulary
Fruits - Fructe

apple

mar

apple core

cotorul marului
(miezul cu samburi)

apple slice

felie de mar

seed

samanta
coaja (de fruct)

banana

banana

peel

orange

portocala

grapefruit

grepfrut

lemon

lamie

lime

lamie verde

plum

pruna

prune

pruna uscata

peach

piersica

apricots

caise

avocado

fruct de avocado

pear

para

melon

pepene

watermelon

pepene verde

pineapple

ananas

coconut

nuca de cocos

mango

mango

cherries

cirease

grapes

struguri

raisins

stafide
36

olives

masline

strawberry

capsuna

raspberry

zmeura

blackberries

mure

Vegetables - Verdeturi, zarzavat


pepper
potato
lettuce
carrot
artichoke
cucumber
corn
cauliflower
onion
celery
zucchini
peas
pod

ardei
cartof
salata verde
morcov
anghinare
castravete
porumb
conopida
ceapa
telina
dovlecel
mazare
pastaie

eggplant
chili pepper
cabbage
asparagus
beet
garlic
broccoli
tomato
mushrooms
pumpkin
beans
radish
spinash

vanata
ardei iute
varza
sparanghel
sfecla
usturoi
broccoli
(patlagica) rosie
ciuperci
dovleac
fasole
ridiche
spanac

MODUL VII
Evaluare: Exercitii recapitulative

37