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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

1/2009

ASUPRA CARACTERISTICILOR DE

ABOUT WORKING CHARACTERISTICS

FUNCIONARE ALE MOTOARELOR LA

OF THE ENGINE AT NON SINUS

TENSIUNE DE FORM NESINUSOIDAL

VOLTAGE

Conf. univ. dr. ing. Evtim Kartzelin Univ.


Mine si Geologie Ivan Rilski Sofia, Bulgaria
Prof. univ. dr. ing. Cozma Vasile Universitatea Constantin Brncui din Trgu-Jiu

Assoc. Prof. PhD. Eng. Evtim Kartzelin


Mining and Geology Univ. Ivan Rilski
Sofia, Bulgaria
Prof. PhD. Eng. Cozma Vasile
Constantin Brncui University of Trgu-Jiu

Rezumat: n lucrare se prezint unele aspecte


referitoare la caracteristicile de funcionare ale
motoarelor electrice alimentate la tensiune de form
nesinusoidal.

Abstract: this paper presents some aspects


about the working characteristics of the electric engines
powered by a non sinus voltage

Cuvinte cheie: motoare electrice, motoare cu forma


nesinusoidala.

Key words: electric engines, electric engines powered by a


non sinus voltage.

n sistemele de frecven variabil, larg se


utilizeaz CSF cu forma nesinusoidal a curbei
de variaie a tensiunii de ieire, deoarece
obinerea formei sinusoidale este legat de
complicarea sistemului de comand a CSF, de
creterea preului de cost i a gabaritului lui.
Nesinusoidalitatea tensiunii n sistemele
autonome cu CSF, i fr CSF poate fi
determinat i din alte motive: ex, cuplarea n
paralel a MEFV cu sursa de alimentare
(generatorul de c.a. - sarcina redresorului). n
legtur cu acestea, interes prezint influena
armonicelor superioare asupra pierderilor i
momentului motorului la diferite frecvene ale
alimentrii.
Dup cum este cunoscut, motorul asincron
(MA), ce lucreaz la tensiune nesinusoidal, se
poate prezenta sub forma unei serii de motoare
echivalente cu arbore comun, fiecruia dintre ele
aplicndu-i-se tensiune sinusoidal de frecven
corespunztoare obinut prin descompunerea n
serie Fourier a tensiunii nesinusoidale aplicate.
Deoarece n sistemul corect proiectat lipsesc
armonicele pare i armonicele multiplu de trei
(ultimele cel puin la cureni), prima armonic
superioar este cea de ordinul cinci. Ca urmare a

In variable frequency systems, it is


widely used SFC with the non sinus shape of
the output voltage curve, since obtaining
sinusoidal shape is related to complicating the
command of SFC, to increasing the cost and
dimensions. The non sinus voltage in
autonomous systems with and without SFC can
be determined for other reasons: eg, coupling
EMVF in parallel with the power source
(alternative current generator the load of the
rectifier). According to this, the influence of
higher harmonics on losses and moment of the
engine at different frequencies of feeding
shows interest.
As is known, asynchronous motor
(AM), working at non sinus voltage may be
presented as a series of engines equivalent to a
joint tree, to each of them applying sinusoidal
voltage of corresponding frequency produced
by decomposition in Fourier series of applied
non sinus voltage.
Since in properly designed systems
even and multiples of three harmonics lack (the
last at least for currents), the first high
harmonic is the fifth order one. As a result, the
slipping of any harmonic of order in the

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 1/2009

acesteia, alunecarea oricrei armonici de ordinul


n domeniul de lucru al motorului (s=0-1
pentru prima armonic - fundamentala) este
apropiat de unitate la orice frecven a
fundamentalei. n consecin, motorul asincron
alimentat cu tensiunea de armonic , se poate
examina ca motor cu rotorul blocat, a crui
schem echivalent este prezentat n fig. 1.
X1

working domain of the engine (s=0-1 for the


first harmonic - the fundamental one) is close
to one at any frequency of the fundamental.
Consequently, asynchronous motor powered by
harmonic voltage, can be examined as engine
with blocked rotor, whose equivalent scheme is
shown in fig.1.

R1

I1 = I 2

Fig. 1
Motorul sincron (MS) n raport cu armonica de
ordinul a tensiunii reprezint chiar motorul
asincron (MA) cu rotor nesimetric blocat, a
crui schem echivalent se poate construi
analog.
Se determin pierderile n nfurrile
motorului asincron determinate de armonicele
de ordinul ale curenilor:

Pcu. =

m1 R K I 2

Mrimile referitoare la regimurile de


funcionare ale MEFV la frecvene nominale,
se scriu cu indicele n, iar cele referitoare la
frecvenele curente (variabile) cu indicele f.
Atunci raportul ntre pierderile datorate
armonicelor ale curentului la frecvene
curente ale alimentrii motorului i pierderile
determinate de armonicele de ordinul la
frecvena nominal este egal cu:
2

Pcu..f I .f R K.
=

Pcu..n I .n R K..n

The synchronous engine (SM) in


relation to the harmonica of the voltage is
even asynchronous motor (AM) with
asymmetrically locked rotor, whose equivalent
scheme can be built similarly.
The losses in asynchronous motor
winding are determinate by the order
harmonics of the currents:

Pcu. = m1 R K I 2
The relating to the operating regimes of
MEFV at nominal frequencies are written with
the index "n" and those referring to current
(variable) frequencies with the index "f". Then
the ratio between losses due to harmonic of
the current at current frequency of the engine
and those at nominal frequency is equal to:
2

Pcu..f I .f R K.
=

Pcu..n I .n R K..n
or (in agreement with fig.1):
2

2
2
Pcu..f U .f R K..f R Kn
+ X Kn
=

2
2
Pcu..n U .n R K..n R Kf
+ X Kf

sau (n acord cu fig.1):


2

2
2
Pcu..f U .f R K..f R Kn
+ X Kn
=
2

2
Pcu..n U .n R K..n R Kf
+ X Kf

(1)
If it is allowed that:

(1)

U f
f
(ie the
=
U n f n

current regulator of the engine is missing) and

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 1/2009

Dac se admite c:
regulatorul

X
f K
U f
f
= (adic lipsete considering that: K..f = xf , where KX X K..n fn K xn
U n f n

de

curent al motorului) i
X
f K
considernd, c K..f = xf , unde Kx
X K..n fn K xn
coeficientul de raportare, ce consider variaia
reactanei
datorit
refulrii
curentului
(Kxf/Kxn>1), atunci expresia (1) se poate scrie
sub forma urmtoare:

Pcuf R Kf
=
Pcun R Kn

the reporting coefficient, which considers that


the reactants variation due to the currents
pressing (Kxf/Kxn>1), then expression (1) can
be written as follows:

f K xf
2
2
2

R Kn + X Kn
f
K
K
xn n 2xn 2
R Kf + X Kn
K xf

As experience in calculating the


parameters of the engine shows, the following
Experiena de calcul a motorului arat, c inequalities always occur:
totdeauna au loc inegalitile:
2
f K xf 2
2
2
RKf/RKn <1 and
f K xf 2
R Kn R Kf
2
RKf/RKn <1 i
f n K xn
R Kn R Kf
f n K xn
Therefore, if f<fn then Pcuf/Pcun <1, ie
Prin urmare, dac f<fn, atunci Pcuf/Pcun <1, if the frequency of the power supply is reduced,
adic cu reducerea frecvenei de alimentare, then the losses due to higher current harmonics
pierderile datorate armonicelor superioare de in the same conditions, is diminishing.
curent n alte condiii identice, se micoreaz.
In the presence of the current regulator
n cazul prezenei regulatorului de curent i and the constant flux throughout the whole
meninerii pe ntreg domeniul de frecven a frequency domain, we can write:
fluxului constant, putem scrie:
U
f
f

U f
f
= c1
U n
fn

U n

= c1

fn

However in this case, as analysis shows,


Totui i n acest caz, cum arat analiza, it is always respected the inequality:
totdeauna se respect inegalitatea:
P
cu..f

Pcu..f
<1
Pcu..n

Pcu..n

n consecin, pierderile maxime datorate


armonicilor superioare au loc la frecvene
maxime ale alimentrii motorului. Dup cum sa artat aceste pierderi sunt mici. Totui,
concluzia a fost obinut fr s se in seama
de creterea rapid a rezistenei motorului (n
special a nfurrii rotorice n scurtcircuit)
pentru armonicele superioare de curent datorit
creterii coeficientului de refulare a curentului.
Calculele efectuate pentru motoare din seria A2
i de asemenea pentru motoarele DK-712 A
(Pn=50 kW, fn=50 Hz) i DK715 A (Pn=200

<1

Consequently, the maximum losses due


to higher harmonics occur at maximum
frequencies of engine power. As already stated
these losses are small. However, the conclusion
has been obtained without taking into account
the rapidly increasing engines resistance
(especially the short circuited winding of the
rotor) for higher harmonics of current due to
the growth rate of the currents pressing
coefficient. Calculations for series A2 engines
and also for DK-712 A (Pn=50 kW, fn=50 Hz)
and DK-715 A engines (Pn=200 kW, fn=50
Hz), showed that losses due to higher

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 1/2009

kW, fn=50 Hz), au artat c pierderile datorate


armonicelor superioare de curent la funcionare
cu CSF 1 ajung pn la 2530 % din pierderile
datorate fundamentalei, ceea ce este necesar a
se considera la proiectarea i alegerea
motorului.
Se determin pierderile n miezul magnetic al
motorului. Dac se admite ca Uf, atunci
BU/f , unde - fluxul magnetic i B inducia.
Atunci obinem:

harmonics of current when working with SFC 1


reach up to 25 30% of losses due to
fundamental harmonic, which it is necessary to
consider at the design and the choice of engine.
The magnetic core losses of the engine
are determined. If Uf is admitted then
BU/f, where - magnetic flux and B induction.
Then we get:

P Fe. B2 f 1,3 U 2 f 1,3 f12


=
=

PFe.1 B12 f11,3 U12 f11,3 f 2

P Fe. B2 f 1,3 U 2 f 1,3 f12


=
=

PFe.1 B12 f11,3 U12 f11,3 f 2


2

U f
PFe=PFe1 1
U1 f

U f
PFe=PFe1 1
U1 f

0,7

0,7

Iron losses due to higher harmonics are


insignificant because they are proportional to
the square of amplitude and inversely
proportional to harmonics frequency with 0.7
exponent, ie the iron losses are reduced rapidly
with the increase of the harmonics number.
Even at sensitive deviations from the voltage
curve, their values do not exceed 2-3% of total
iron losses and consequently they can be
neglected.
It is quite clear that the conclusions
obtained can be extended even for the engine
that works at low frequencies, moreover, that in
this case the base losses in the magnetic iron
are reduced too.
Moments, caused by higher harmonics,
in the sliding working area of the engine are
small and their influence on its functioning can
be neglected. Lets examine the variation of
these moments at low frequencies:

Pierderile n fier datorate armonicelor


superioare sunt nensemnate deoarece ele sunt
proporionale cu ptratul amplitudinii i invers
proporionale cu frecvena armonicii la puterea
0,7, adic pierderile n fier se reduc rapid cu
creterea numrului armonicii. Chiar la abateri
sensibile de la forma curbei tensiunii, valorile
lor nu depesc 2-3% din pierderile totale n
fier i n consecin ele se pot neglija.
Este cu desvrire clar, c concluziile obinute
se pot extinde i pentru cazul funcionrii
motorului la frecvene reduse, cu att mai mult,
c la acestea se micoreaz i pierderile de baz
n fierul magnetic.
Momentele, determinate de armonicele
superioare, n zona alunecrilor de lucru ale
motorului sunt mici i influena lor asupra
funcionrii lui se pot neglija. S examinm
variaia acestor momente la frecvene reduse:
2

M f.red. U f R 2f f n R K2 n + X K2 n
=
2

2
M n.red U n
R 2n or
f afterRtransformations:
K f + X K f
sau dup transformri:
2

M f.red fn R 2f
=
M n.red f R 2n

f K xf
2
2

R Kn + X Kf
f K xn
n
2
2
R Kf
+ X Kf

K
xn
K xf

(2)

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Analiza rel.(2.) permite a concluziona, c la


reducerea frecvenei, momentele datorate
armonicelor superioare se amplific, deoarece
turaia se reduce mai repede dect puterea.
Totui, la orice frecvene, aceste momente sunt
mici. Astfel, spre exemplu, n raport cu
momentul datorat fundamentalei la frecven
joas (f0,1fn) n regim de scurtcircuit,
momentele datorate armonicelor superioare
sunt egale (neglijnd X2K1f n comparaie cu
R2K1f ):

Analysis of (2) relations allows to


conclude that reducing the frequency, amplifies
the moments due to higher harmonics, because
the speed is reduced faster than power.
However, at any frequency, these
moments are low. Thus, for example, in
relation to the moment due to low frequency
fundamental (f0,1fn) at short circuit regime,
the moments due to higher harmonics are equal
(neglecting X2K1f compared to R2K1f):
2

M f.red U f 1
=
K1 ;
M1f.red U1f

M f.red U f 1
=
K1 ;
M1f.red U1f

K1 =

R 2f
R 21f

R K1f

R Kf

2
X Kf
1+

R Kf

K1 =

i totodat K11.
Pentru valoarea maxim posibil a lui K1:

R 2f
R 21f

R K1f

R Kf

2
X Kf
1+

R Kf

and K11 also.


For maximum possible value of K1:

M f.red U f 1
=

M1f.red U1f

M f.red U f 1
=

M1f.red U1f

La forma dreptunghiular a tensiunii, pentru


armonica de ordinul 5, acest raport reprezint
mai puin de 1%. Chiar la abatere considerabil
a formei curbei cu armonica 5 puternic
exprimat.
Mred.5/Mred.10,03-0,05.
Uneori n sistemele de frecven variabil este
util a realiza pornirea direct a motorului
asincron. Determinm pentru acest caz
creterea puterii absorbite a motorului asincron,
determinat de nesinusoidalitatea tensiunii, n
regim de pornire, adic cu rotor blocat,
deoarece totodat n nfurrile motorului se
aloc ntreaga putere absorbit. La frecvene
nominale, considernd cunoscute expresiile
pierderilor i neglijnd R2k n raport cu X2k,
obinem:

At a rectangular shape of voltage, for


order 5 harmonica, this report represents less
than 1%. Even at considerable deviation of the
shape of fifth harmonica curve strongly
expressed.
Mred.5/Mred.10,03-0,05.
Sometimes in variable frequency
system it is useful to start directly the
asynchronous motor. We determine for this
case the increase of absorbed asynchronous
engine power, caused by the non sinus tension
in the startup regime, ie with locked rotor,
because in the winding of the engine is also
allocated the entire absorbed power. At
nominal frequency, considering the expressions
of the losses known and neglecting R2k against
X2k, we obtain:

Pcu..n U n 1 R Kn
=

Pcu.1.n U1n 2 R K1n

K
x1n
K xn

Pcu..n U n 1 R Kn
=

Pcu.1.n U1n 2 R K1n

(3)

K
x1n
K xn

(3)

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RK=KK1R1+KR2R2;
RK1= KR11R1+KR21R2
unde:
KR1 i KR2 coeficienii de refulare
corespunztori pentru stator i rotor.
Analiza expresiilor pentru coeficienii de
refulare permite a trage concluzia ca raportul
RK/RK1 este cu att mai mare, cu ct este mai
ridicat ordinul armonicii, i de asemenea
(pentru crestturi rotorice nu adnci) i
frecvena primei armonici (adic n motorul,
calculat la 400 Hz, acest raport pentru ordinul
corespunztor armonicii este mai mare, dect n
motorul la 50 Hz).
Pentru frecvenele reduse de alimentare
(f<0,1fn, cnd XK<<RK1) expresia pierderilor
relative datorate armonicii de ordinul a
curentului capt forma:
2

Pcu..f U f
=
K2
Pcu.1.f U1f

R K1f

R Kf

1
X
1 + Kf
R Kf

Pcu..f U f
=
K2
Pcu.1.f U1f
where:

unde:

K2 =

RK=KK1R1+KR2R2;
RK1= KR11R1+KR21R2
where:
KR1 and KR2 - corresponding pressing
coefficients for stator and rotor.
Analysis of expressions for the repression
coefficients allows to conclude that RK/RK1
report is the higher, the higher the harmonics
order is, and also (for not so deep rotor slot) the
first harmonic frequency (ie for the engine,
calculated at 400 Hz, this report is higher than
the 50 Hz engine for the corresponding order of
the harmonic).
For low frequencies power supply
(f<0,1fn, when XK<<RK1) the expression for
relative losses due to order harmonica of the
current becomes:

K2 =

R K1f

R Kf

1
X
1 + Kf
R Kf

In fig.2 are presented the curves


n fig.2 sunt prezentate curbele, ce characterizing the dependence of the K2
caracterizeaz dependena coeficientului K2 de coefficient from engine parameters.
parametrii motorului.

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1,0
0,9

K
1

0,8
0,7

0,6

0,5
4

0,4

0,3

XK
1

2
3
4
Fig.2.
1-RK1f/RKf=1; 2-RK1f/RKf =0,8; 3RK1f/RKf =0,6;
4-RK1f/RKf =0,4; 5-RK1f/RKf=0,2;
Chiar n condiiile cele mai nefavorabile
rapoartele minime XKf/RKf, ce au loc la frecvene
minime ale alimentrii (f=3-4% fn), valoarea lui K2 nu
depete 0,9; cu creterea ordinului al armonicii, el
scade.
Astfel, cu ct este mai joas frecvena primei armonici,
cu att sunt mai mari pierderile relative datorate
armonicilor superioare.
Comparaia dintre (1-3) i (1-4) arat ca n motorul
asincron blocat, pierderile relative datorate armonicilor
superioare la frecvene reduse pot fi de ordin mai mare
dect la frecvene normale. Aceasta se explic prin
diferena ntre curenii de pornire ai primei armonici, care
la frecvene normale sunt de 5-7 ori mai mari dect cei
nominali, iar la joase frecvene - doar de dou ori datorit
cos nalt n ultimul caz n tot intervalul de lucru. Totui
la cele mai nefavorabile combinaii ale parametrilor
motorului, creterea puterii absorbite, determinat de
nesinusoidalitatea tensiunii n cazul formei
dreptunghiulare a curbei tensiunii, nu depete 6-7% la
frecvene reduse.
Aceste pierderi nu pot apare esenial la alegerea
parametrilor CSF i cu att mai mult a sursei de
alimentare, deoarece la frecvene reduse puterea
absorbit a motorului asincron scade rapid. La frecvene
normale creterea puterii absorbite reprezint

Even in the most unfavorable conditions, the


minimum reports XKf/RKf, occur at minimum
frequencies of the power supply (f = 3-4% fn), the
value of K2 does not exceed 0.9; with the increase of
the order of the harmonica, K2 decreases.
Thus, the lower the first harmonic frequency
is, the higher the relative losses due to higher
harmonics are.
Comparison between (1-3) and (1-4) relations
shows that in the blocked asynchronous motor,
relative losses due to higher harmonics at low
frequencies can be higher than at normal frequency.
This is explained by the difference between the
starting currents of the first harmonic, which, at
normal frequencies are 5-7 times higher than the
nominal ones, and at low frequencies - only twice due
to high cos in the latter case throughout the whole
working interval. However in the most unfavorable
combination of parameters of the engine, increasing
power absorbed, due to the non sinus shape of the
voltage curve as in the rectangular shape, does not
exceed 6-7% at low frequencies.
These losses may not appear essential to
choosing the parameters of SFC and more for the
power supply, because at low frequency the absorbed
power of the asynchronous motor decreases rapidly.

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aproximativ 1%. Prin urmare, creterea analog a puterii


absorbite la pornire, chiar la abateri mai eseniale ale
formei curbei tensiunii nu se poate evidenia. n
regimurile staionare ale motoarelor sincrone, ca i la
motoarele asincrone, armonicele superioare creeaz
momente suplimentare, care se suprapun momentului
sincron datorat armonicii de baz a tensiunii de
alimentare. Totui, valorile acestor momente sunt mici.
Aa de exemplu, la forma dreptunghiular a curbei
tensiunii, momentul datorat armonicelor de ordinele
maxime 5 i 7 reprezint mai puin de 1% fa de
momentul de baz.
Valoarea relativ a armonicelor superioare ale curenilor
din motorul sincron i pierderilor datorate acestora are
acelai ordin de mrime, ca i n motorul asincron. De
aceea toate dependenele obinute pentru motorul
asincron sunt valabile i pentru motorul sincron.
Prezint interes analiza influenei armonicelor de
frecvene joase ce apar la funcionarea CSF. ntr-o serie
de lucrri, se arat, c n funcie de raportul frecvenei de
intrare i ieire a CSF cu legtura indirect, n curba
tensiunii de ieire a convertorului apare ntregul spectru
de armonici a cror frecvene sunt inferioare celei de
baz.
Potrivit raportului acestor armonici, motorul asincron
funcioneaz ori n regim de frn electromagnetic,
dac sensul de rotaie al armonicii este opus cmpului de
baz, ori n regimul de generator dac sensurile de rotaie
coincid. n toate cazurile, n motoare apar pierderi
suplimentare, a cror mrime depinde de amplitudinile i
frecvenele armonicilor corespunztoare; tiind aceste
date, uor se calculeaz regimul de funcionare al
motorului asincron, momentele de frnare i pierderile.
La frecven joas a armonicii, aciunea ei corespunde
frnrii dinamice a motorului. Pierderile i momentele
datorate armonicelor de frecvene joase sunt considerabil
mai mari, dect cele datorate armonicilor superioare
temporare. De aceea, la perfecionarea acionrilor cu
comand n frecven se prevd msuri, ce exclud
prezena rapoartelor temporare a frecvenelor de intrare i
ieire ale CSF.

At normal frequency the increase of absorbed power


is approximately 1%. Therefore, a similar increase in
absorbed power at startup, even at essential deviations
of the voltage curve shape cant be revealed. In
stationary regimes of synchronous and asynchronous
engines, superior harmonics create additional
moments, which overlap due to the base harmonica of
the power supply voltage. However, the values of
these moments are low. So, for example, for a
rectangular voltage curve, the moment due to
maximum 5 and 7 order harmonics is less than 1%
when compared to the base moment.
Relative value of higher harmonic of the
currents of synchronous motor and losses due to them
is the same as in the asynchronous motor. Therefore
all of the dependencies obtained for the asynchronous
motor are available for synchronous motor.
The analysis of the influence of low
frequency harmonics that occur in operating SFC
shows interest. In a series of works it is shown that,
depending on the input and output frequency of SFC
with indirect contact, in the output voltage curve of the
converter appears the full spectrum of harmonics
whose frequencies are lower than the base one.
According to the report of these harmonics,
the
asynchronous
engine
works
under
electromagnetic brake regime, if the rotation direction
is opposite to the base harmonicas field, or under
generator regime, if the rotation directions coincide. In
all cases, additional losses appear in the engines,
whose magnitude depends on the amplitudes and
corresponding harmonics of the frequencies; knowing
this, is easily calculated the asynchronous engine
working regime, braking moments and losses. At a
low frequency harmonica, its action corresponds to
the dynamic engine braking. Losses and moments due
to low harmonics are considerably higher than those
due to temporary higher harmonics. Therefore, to
improve controlling the engine by modifying the
frequency, there are measures that exclude the
presence of the reports between temporary input and
output frequencies of SFC.

Bibliografie:
1. A.E.Zagorski: Motoare electrice de frecven Bibliography:
1. A.E.Zagorski: Variable Frequency Electric
variabil; ed. Energia, Moscova, 1975
2. A.E.Aleckseev: Maini electrice de traciune i Motors; ed. Energia, Moscova, 1975
2. A.E.Aleckseev: Traction Electric Engines and
convertoare, Ed. a II-a revizuit, Moscova, 1976
Convertors, Ed. a II-a revizuit, Moscova, 1976
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