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Physical layer

The OSI Physical layer provides the means to transport across the network
media the bits that make up a Data Link layer frame.

The delivery of frames across the local media requires the following Physical
layer elements:
 The physical media and associated connectors
 A representation of bits on the media
 Encoding of data and control information
 Transmitter and receiver circuitry on the network devices

Scopul este de a crea semnalul electric/optic/microunda ce reprezinta bitii din


fiecare frame

1. Functii
Descrie tot ce tine de fizic: Cabluri, NIC-uri, antene, mufe
Intrarea componentelor fizice
Semnalizare-cum variaza semnalele pe fir, reprezentarea bitilor pe fir.
Specifica mediului de transmise. Ajuta la diferentierea datelor de jitt(zgomot)
Encodare- transforma un sir de biti in alt sir de biti

Metode de semnalizare
 Variind ampliturdinea
 Variind frecventa
 Variind faza
 t- timpul pe care il are fiecare bit de a se afla pe mediu... S.n bit time

Modele:
Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) -> 2 setari on/off
 Vulnerabil la EMI
 Incet, doar pt viteze mici
 Consum mare de energie

Manchest encoding
 Daca ampliturdinea creste in timpul T am 1 , daca scade am 0
 Mai rezistent la EMI
 10 base T

Encoding
Transforma grouping bits in predefined code bits
Scade consumul de energie
Scade nr de biti
Foloseste biti de control pentru a marca start of frame și end of frame
Start of frame 4B/5B
Code groups
 Reduce erorile la nivel de biti
 Consum redus de energie
 Face deosebirea intre bitii de date si cei din media
 Imbunatateste media error detection

Bandwidth- latime banda teoretic


Throughput- latime de banda efectiva, cu toti factorii luati in calcul
Goodput-cantitatea de data transmisa intro perioada de timp (ceea ce ne
intereseaza)

Standards for copper media are defined for the:


 Type of copper cabling used
 Bandwidth of the communication
 Type of connectors used
 Pinout and color codes of connections to the media
 Maximum distance of the media

Tipuri de medii: cupru-coaxial- thinnet și twinnet

Thinnet 10base2 =10mb/s pentru 200m, maxim 300noduri


Thicknet 10base 5 =10mb/s 500m, max 100noduri

UTP unshieled twisted pair


STP shieled twisted pair

UTP100m
SPT 100m

Fibra optica
Fabircata din sticla sau plastic ce ghideaza impulsurile de la sursa la destinatie
Este imuna la EMP
Genereaza semnal cu lasere sau LED
Deoarece sunt subtiri si au pierderi putine ele transmit informatia pe distante
mult mai mari decat cuprul fara signal regeneration
Single mode
 core 8-10 um-10km
 un singur fascicul,
 generat de obicei de laser(unidirectional)
Multi mode
core de 62.5 um
2km-mai multe fascicule
Generat de LED (mai multe directii -modal dispersion)

Optical fiber media implementation issues include:


 More expensive (usually) than copper media over the same distance (but
for a higher capacity)
 Different skills and equipment required to terminate and splice the cable
infrastructure
 More careful handling than copper media

Folosit ca backbone pentru high-traffic point-to-point connections intre diverse


facilitati si pentru conectarea cladirilor aflate la distante mari.
Pentr full duplex este nevie de 2 fibre

Wireless
802.11 b,a,g și n
Bluetooth=PAN=personal area network
Wimax pe 50 km2 wifi

UTP
8 fire
Standarde :
T568A : wg,g,wo,b,wb,o,wbr,br
T568B: wo,o,wg,b,wb,g,wbr,br
Streight through...la fel la ambele capete
Cross-over t56 8a- t56 8b
Rollover t56 8b - toate firele inversate

Streight-through
Sw-router
Hub-router
Pc-sw
Pc-hub
Server- sw/hub

Cross-over
Pc-pc
Sw-sw
Router-router
Server-server
Pc-router
Server-router
Hub-hub

Rollover
Proprietar cisco
Pentru a te conecta cu hostul la consola unui echipament pentru configurarea
initiala

Avem 2 tipuri de interfete


MDI media dependent interface
MDIX--------//-------------------------x

MDI foloseste pinii1 și 2 ptteansmisie și 3 și 6 ptreceptie


MDIX foloseste 1&2 la receptie 3&6 trensmise
Echipamentele intermediare MDIX
end equip au MDIX

Exista și auto-mix

Four common data communications standards that apply to wireless media are:
 Standard IEEE 802.11 - Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi, is a Wireless LAN
(WLAN) technology that uses a contention or non-deterministic system
with a Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
media access process.
 Standard IEEE 802.15 - Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
standard, commonly known as "Bluetooth", uses a device pairing process
to communicate over distances from 1 to 100 meters.
 Standard IEEE 802.16 - Commonly known as Worldwide Interoperability
for Microwave Access (WiMAX), uses a point-to-multipoint topology to
provide wireless broadband access.
 Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - Includes Physical layer
specifications that enable the implementation of the Layer 2 General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) protocol to provide data transfer over
mobile cellular telephony networks.

Wireless LAN
In general, a wireless LAN requires the following network devices:
 Wireless Access Point (AP) - Concentrates the wireless signals from users
and connects, usually through a copper cable, to the existing copper-
based network infrastructure such as Ethernet.
 Wireless NIC adapters - Provides wireless communication capability to
each network host.
IEEE 802.11
 a- 5 GHz / 54 Mbps / smaller coverage area / nu trece de ziduri
 b- 2.4 GHz/ 11 Mbps / longer range / trece mai usor prin ziduri
 g- 2.4 GHz/ 54 Mbps/ combina a & b
 n- 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz / 100 Mbps to 210 Mbps /70m