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TRANSFORMAREA TEHNOLOGIEI INFORMAIEI (IT) NTR-O TEHNOLOGIE VERDE MAKING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY: THE GREEN IT

Prof.dr.sc. Zeljko PANIAN UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

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Rezumat: Astzi, asistm la creterea gradului de contientizare a responsabilitii noastre individuale i colective pentru a proteja planeta noastr i pentru a-i conserva resursele. Iniiativele privind aceste eforturi sunt adesea numite iniiative verzi. Tehnologia Informaiei (IT) ia parte la aceste iniiative, devenind, de asemenea, verde. Exist multe motive pentru care ntreprinderile ar trebui s pun n aplicare strategii Green IT i care sunt discutate pe scurt n prezentul articol. Transformarea tehnologiei IT ntr-o tehnologie ecologic necesit o strategie cuprinztoare format dintr-o serie de pai, care sunt, de asemenea, analizai n prezenta lucrare. n cele din urm, sunt prezentate unele rezultate preliminare ale unui sondaj privind iniiativele Green IT din Croaia, precum i unele sugestii pentru aciuni ulterioare. Cuvinte cheie: tehnologia informaiei, tehnologia verde, mediu, calitate

Abstract: Today, we are witnessing a growing awareness of our individual and collective responsibility for guarding our planet and preserving its resources. Initiatives concerning these efforts are often called green initiatives. Information Technology (IT) takes part in these initiatives becoming green, too. There are many reasons why businesses should implement Green IT strategy and they are briefly discussed in the paper. Making IT environmentally friendly requires a big-picture strategy filled with incremental steps, which are also analyzed. Finally, some preliminary results of a survey of Green IT initiatives in Croatia are presented, as well as some suggestions for further actions.

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Key words: information technology, green technology, environment, quality.

1. Introducere

De-abia n zilele noastre am nceput s realizm ct de fragil este planeta pe care trim. Se poate observa existena unui trend cresctor a contientizrii individuale i colective privitor la protejarea planetei i la preuirea resurselor acesteia, pentru a menine o planet sntoas pentru generaiile viitoare, dar i pentru noi. Problemele de natura proteciei mediului sunt urgente i evidente, asemenea titlurilor de pe prima pagin a jurnalelor. Suntem mai contieni ca niciodat de creterea preului energiei, de problemele legate de eliminarea deeurilor i a materialelor periculoase, precum i de efectul acestora asupra mediului. Se discut la nivel mondial de nclzirea global i de scderea nivelului resurselor naturale.Apa, petrolul, hrana i energia devin subiecte fierbini. Serviciile din domeniul Tehnologiei Informaiei (IT) fac parte din mediul global de afaceri i ar
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1. Introduction

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Today, we are just beginning to realize the fragility of the planet on which we live. There is a growing awareness of our individual and collective responsibility for guarding our planet and preserving its resources, not only for future generations, but also for our own lives and in our own lifetimes. The problems are as immediate and obvious as this mornings headlines. We are more conscious than ever of the rising cost of energy, mounting e-waste disposal problems, and hazardous materials and their effect on the environment. We read about global warming and the scarcity of natural resources. Water, oil, food, and electricity are all becoming flash points. Information Technology (IT) services are, of course, a part of global business and should also take part in common efforts concerning environmental protection. But, The

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trebui s contribuie la efortul comun de protecie a mediului. ns, n 2007, Agenia de Protecie a Mediului (EPA) din Statele Unite a publicat un studiu n care se detaliaz evoluia consumului de energie de ctre centrele informatice. Conform acestui studiu, energia consumat de ctre centrele informatice (inclusiv de serverele de date) s-a dublat pe parcursul ultimilor cinci ani de zile, i se estimeaz c se va dubla din nou n urmtorii 5 ani. n cadrul studiului se estimeaz c acest consum va atinge valoarea de 100 miliarde de kWh. Exist totui o veste bun, i anume companiile acord o importan din ce n ce mai mare proteciei mediului, i aceast tendin se manifest i n domeniul tehnologiei informaiei. Aceste iniiative sunt adesea denumite Green IT IT verde i au o istorie proprie.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released in August 2007 a report detailing whats in store energy-wise for data centers in the next few years [7]. According to this report, the he energy consumption of data centers (and servers) has doubled in the past five years and is expected to almost double again in the next five years. The report estimates it will reach close to 100 billion kWh. The good news is that companies are focusing more and more on the environment, and this is no less true in information technology than in other areas of business. Such initiatives are commonly called Green IT and they have their own history.

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2. O scurt istorie a iniiativelor verzi


Emergena acestor recente iniiative verzi este adeseori privit ca o nou revoluie, nscut odat cu secolul XXI. Nimic nu poate fi mai fals. Contientizarea proteciei mediului i impactul economic aferent sunt totui probleme abordate de maimuli ani. De exemplu, Theodore Roosevelt a fost un conservaionist. Acesta a creat, la mijlocul secolului XX, noiunea de Parc Naional, definindu-se prin aceasta un sistem de protecie a monumentelor naturii. Embargoul petrolier impus n anul 1973 a definit o nou form de conservaionism conservarea economic: creterea masiv a preurilor produselor derivate din petrol n special combustibili utilizai de motoarele auto a determinat conservarea resurselor prin reducerea consumului. Astfel, productorii din industria auto au trebuit s caute soluii de reducere a consumului de combustibil la suta de kilometri. n istorie, eforturile de conservare a resurselor i de protejare a mediului au fost vzute ed cele mai multe ori ca msuri mpotriva afacerilor i mpotriva consumatorilor. n acest context, cei considerai a acorda o importan prea mare naturii n detrimentul rutinei zilnice erau peiorativ numii iubitori de copaci. n cel mai bun caz, iniiativele de protecie a mediului erau considerate pure puncte de vedere ale persoanelor cu vederi liberale, care au pierdut contactul cu realitatea cotidian.

2. A Brief History of Green Initiatives


The emergence of green initiatives in recent times is often looked upon as a new revolution freshly begun with the turn of the 21st century. Nothing could be further from the truth. Environmental awareness and the accompanying economic impact has in fact, been around for years. Theodore Roosevelt was a conservationist. At the turn of the 20th century, he initiated the National Parks system to preserve pristine areas of natural beauty for future generations. The 1973 oil embargo set forth another kind of conservationism economic conservation: The sharp rise in the prices of petroleum products especially gasoline forced consumers to conserve resources because of the cost of such commodities. Resulting governmental mandates dictated to automobile manufacturers new, increased mileage requirements for their vehicle offerings. Historically, efforts to conserve resources and protect the environment have been viewed as anti-business and anti-consumer. Tree-hugger was the common axiom used for persons thought to be irrationally focused upon their estimation of nature to the detriment of common work-a-day folk. At best, green initiatives were the purview of well-off liberal-leaning persons that were out of contact with mainstream reality.

Recent s-a putut observa o modificare masiv a modului de percepere fa de problema protejrii mediului. Evoluia ascendent a economiei Chinei, respectiv a Indiei, a strnit competiia mondial pentru petrol. Chiar i consumatorul american s-a orientat ctre o poziie protecionist fa de mediu: pescuitul tonului astfel nct s se evite capturarea accidental a delfinilor, producia de alimente organice, migrarea ctre combustibili auto hibrizi sau pe baz de etanol, iluminat fluorescent n locul celui incandescent, panouri de energie solar i centrale eoliene pe scurt, consumatorii se reorienteaz ctre produsele i activitile care prin natura lor protejeaz mediul i conserv resursele naturale. n acest context, la nceput de secol XXI, suntem martorii apariiei strategiilor de conservare a mediului i n domeniul IT. ncep s se contureze politici de responsabilitate fa de mediu, politici care afecteaz deciziile din domeniul IT.

Recent times have seen a tremendous shift in thinking when it comes to environmental issues. The emergence of the economies of China and India has sparked world-wide competition for oil. Even the American consumer is shifting to an environmentally aware position: dolphin-free tuna, organically grown produce, a move toward hybrid cars and ethanol-based fuel, fluorescent over incandescent light bulbs, solar panels and wind mills consumers are voting with their wallets in favor of products and activities that are conservation-oriented and environmentally friendly. At the beginning of the 21st century we are witnessing the delivery of Green IT strategies. Environmental responsibility is starting to shape policies and affecting IT decisions.

3. Motive pentru implementarea unei strategii de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT

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3. Reasons for Implementing the Green IT Strategy


There are many reasons why businesses should implement Green IT strategy. Only the most important among them are:

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Exist mai multe motive pentru care afacerile ar trebui s apeleze la strategii de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT. n continuare vor fi enumerate doar cteva dintre cele mai importante: Strategiile de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT conduc la performane mai bune echipamentele IT consum n total aproape nou procente din totalul energiei consumate de firmele de afaceri, aflate pe poziia a treia n topul sectorului comercial. Apelnd la o serie de politici care s vizeze managementul consumului de energie, companiile vor avea un control mbuntit asupra sistemului informatic propriu nu vor ti doar ct energie este consumat, dar i cnd i n ce mod sunt alimentate cu energie echipamentele din dotare. Acest nou control le va permite companiilor s execute cu eficien mai mare operaiile de actualizare i de mentenan a proiectelor, prin intermediul sistemelor informatice. De asemenea, n condiiile utilizrii unor instrumente corespunztoare de msur i raportare, vor avea o mai mare vizibilitate asupra performanei i a eficienei ntregii reele de calculatoare. Variaia preului energiei va avea o influen mai mic asupra costurilor companiei se estimeaz c vnzrile n domeniul energiei
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Green IT means high performance IT IT equipment accounts for nine percent of all energy consumed by businesses the third-largest source of power for the commercial sector. With the right power management policies in place, companies will have better control over their entire information system not only over how much power is consumed, but also how and when computers are powered down. This new control allows them to more successfully execute updates and maintenance for projects throughout their information systems. And, with the right measurement and reporting tools in place, they will also have high visibility over the performance and efficiency of their entire computer installation.

Lower exposure to climbing energy prices Energy sales are expected to grow 50 percent worldwide by 2030, and will grow 75 percent in

vor crete cu 50% pn n anul 2030, sectorul comercial prezentnd n acest interval de timp o cretere cu 75%. De fapt, conform prediciilor unor experi n domeniu, energia consumat numai pentru domeniul IT s-a putea dubla n aproximativ cinci ani [4]. Companiile nu au nici un control asupra nivelului cu care va crete preul energiei n anii urmtori, ns pot controla cantitatea de energie pe care o vor consuma. Sustenabilitate i reducerea costurilor Fiecare companie caut permanent modaliti de reducere a costurilor. n acelai timp, din ce n ce mai multe echipe de conducere caut soluii astfel nct organizaiile pe care le conduc s aib un impact ct mai mic asupra mediului. Conform lui Michael Bell, Gartner Group, energia consumat de computere i monitoare se traduce printr-un nivel de 40% emisii de carbon din totalul emisiilor realizate pentru domeniul IT aproape dublu fa de emisiile datorate centrelor de date i serverelor [2]. n fiecare an, companiile irosesc milioane prin alimentarea cu energie a unor dispozitive ce nu sunt utilizate dect ocazional. Introducerea unor idei care s reduc costurile cu energia ar putea conduce la o scdere dramatic a nivelului emisiilor de carbon amintit, i la economisirea unui volum financiar considerabil n cadrul acestui proces. Creterea reputaiei i a imaginii companiei Conform BBMG, n ziua de azi majoritatea oamenilor nu se ateapt doar la produse declarate ca avnd un impact mic asupra mediului, ci doresc intens ca aceste pretinderi s fie susinute de practici concrete [1]. n plus, marea majoritate a consumatorilor declar c vor alege branduri de firme funcie de nivelul implementrii unor politici cu impact ct mai mic asupra mediului. Prin realizarea de investiii masive n programe sustenabile (care pot fi corelate cu protecia mediului n domeniul IT), i prin popularizarea acestora printre consumatori, poate conduce la o mbuntire impresionant a reputaiei i a imaginii companiei. Motivarea angajailor Practicile de sustenabilitate ce produc un efect vizibil i msurabil vor motiva i angajaii. Acetia vor fi mndri c lucreaz n organizaii care contribuie la protejarea mediului. Focalizarea asupra unor practici efective de protecie a mediului poate aduce o contribuie semnificativ la efortul general de sustenabilitate. Atunci cnd utilizatorul final realizeaz c nivelul de energie consumat de calculatorul pe care l folosete s-a redus la

the commercial sector alone in that time. In fact, according to some expert predictions, IT energy consumption could double in approximately five years [4]. Companies have no control over how high the cost of energy will go next year, but they have control over how much of that energy they will need.

Cost savings and sustainability Every company, all the time, is looking for ways to cut costs. And increasingly, their leadership teams want ways for the entire organization to be more green-friendly. According to Michael Bell from Gartner Group, PCs and monitors account for 40 percent of global IT device carbon emissions nearly double that of data and server centers [2]. Each year, enterprises waste millions powering devices that are not in use. Introducing ideas that significantly cut energy costs can dramatically scale back IT-related carbon emissions, and save the organization a significant amount of money in the process.

Improved reputation and brand value According to the BBMG, the vast majority of people nowadays not only expect business leaders and marketers to provide environmentally conscious products, but theyre adamant that those greenfriendly claims are backed up with legitimate practices [1]. Even more significantly, the vast majority of consumers say they will choose brands and service providers based on how well theyre adhering to sustainability and green friendly practices. Investing in a strong sustainability program (which can be led with Green IT), and communicating it to customers, can do wonders for companys reputation and brand value. Inspiring employees Meaningful and measurable sustainability practices are inspiring and motivating to employees. Employees feel a deep sense of pride working in organizations that do their part for the environment. A focus on effective Green IT practices can make a significant contribution to your companys overall sustainability efforts. When end users know their computers are using less than half the power they used to, with
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jumtate din ct consuma nainte, i asta fr a reduce productivitatea, vor contientiza c ei nii contribuie la reducerea emisiilor de carbon datorate organizaiei. Atragerea i meninerea clienilor Conform studiului citat mai sus, realizat de Gartner, ntreprinderile pot reduce emisiile de carbon datorate calculatoarelor cu pn la 200 de kilograme pe an pentru fiecare calculator utilizat. n cazul ntreprinderilor mari i foarte mari, se poate realiza reducerea cu volume de ordinul miilor de tone de carbon, pur i simplu prin controlul atent al energiei consumate de acestea i toate acestea fr a reduce nivelul productivitii. Comparnd aceste economii cu echivalente din societatea curent (arbori salvai, echivalarea cu consumul unui automobil, etc.) controlul intern al energiei consumate de calculatoare se poate traduce ntr-un mesaj puternic adresat clienilor. i conform studiilor, companiile care pot demonstra efectul i sustenabilitatea iniiativelor luate, vor obine loialitatea clienilor lor. Strategia de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT conduce la economisirea unor volume financiare mari Controlul consumului de energie poate conduce la economii cuprinse ntre 15 dolari i 40 de euro pentru un calculator, ceea ce pentru companiile mari i foarte mari se poate traduce prin economii cu sume de 67 numere. n cazul multor organizaii, aceste sume pot reprezenta o reducere cu 5-15% a consumului de energie.
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no impact on productivity, they will know they personally are helping to reduce the companys carbon footprint. Attracting and retaining customers According to the Gartners research cited above, enterprises can cut PC carbon emission by as much as 200 kg per year per PC. For large enterprises, this can literally mean savings of thousands of tons of carbon each year, simply by managing PC power consumption and all without impacting user productivity. By comparing these savings with their environmental equivalents (cars off the road, trees saved, etc.), internal PC power management can be translated into powerful customer messages. And research has shown that companies that can demonstrate effective and measurable sustainability initiatives are earning greater loyalty from their customers.

Green IT saves a lot of money Power management can cut energy costs by $15 to 40 euros per PC, which can translate to six and seven-figure annual savings for large enterprises. For many organizations, this can mean a 5-15% reduction in overall, organization-wide energy consumption.

4. Strategia de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT

4. The Green IT Strategy

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Pentru a obine un domeniu IT cu un impact redus asupra mediului, este necesar implementarea incremental a unei strategii la scar larg. Paii care trebuie urmai sunt: Implementarea unei funcii de Responsabilitate Social Corporativ Companiile ar trebui s aib o funcie activ de Responsabilitate Social Corporativ (RSC) ce cuprinde politici globale care includ managementul etic al sistemului de aprovizionare, pentru a se asigura c strategia IT de achiziii publice este compatibil cu legislaia local i este robust din punct de vedere ecologic.

Making IT environmentally friendly requires a big-picture strategy filled with incremental steps. These are: Implement an active Corporate Social Responsibility function A company should have an active Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) function with comprehensive policies that include ethical supply chain management to ensure that the IT procurement strategy is compliant with local legislation and is ecologically robust. This function should have executive sponsorship as, without this, any of the following steps will prove difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.

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Determinarea amprentei de carbon a companiei Lund n considerare aspecte precum iluminarea, nclzirea, sistemele de aer condiionat, centrele de date, flota de automobile i camioane (consumul mediu i nivelul emisiilor de carbon la suta de kilometri), cltoriile de afaceri, sortarea i reciclarea, se determin o valoare de referin realist i apoi se propun, pentru viitor, valori reduse agresiv dar totui posibil de realizat (pentru atingerea lor se pot considera intervale de timp de 5 sau poate 10 ani). Determinarea Eficienei Consumului de Energie pentru centrele de date Eficiena Consumului de Energie este nivelul de energie utilizat de centrul de date pentru a alimenta dispozitivele IT, i este o metric definit pentru eficiena centrului de date. Omogenizarea proteciei mediului cu obiectivele afacerii Dorina de a implementa sisteme cu impact redus asupra mediului nu trebuie s intre n conflict cu necesitile mediului de afaceri. Dimpotriv, o strategie de reducere a impactului asupra mediului trebuie s fie aliniat i s se ncadreze n necesitile mediului de afaceri. Pe de alt parte, mediul de afaceri ar trebui s contientizeze potenialele beneficii ale unor astfel de strategii, ca de exemplu creterea eficienei costurilor i mbuntirea practicilor la locul de munc. Este necesar o abordare unitar pentru a se asigura c att obiectivele afacerii ct i dorina de a reduce impactul asupra mediului pot fi realizate simultan, pentru un beneficiu reciproc. Atingerea obiectivelor prin responsabilizarea tuturor Implic utilizarea portalului companiei, a e-mailului, reelei intranet, avizierelor sau a oricror metode de comunicare intern pentru a furniza actualizri periodice al evoluiei valorilor propuse la punctul 2 i transmiterea unor sfaturi simple, realizabile (reciclai, nchidei calculatorul nainte de a prsi locul de munc, etc.) Considerarea ntregului ciclu de via a produsului n cadrul procesului de modernizare echipamentelor Este suficient faptul c noul echipament va fi mai eficient din punct de vedere energetic pentru a contrabalansa impactul asupra mediului reprezentat de eliminarea echipamentului vechi, fabricarea echipamentului nou, i transportul acestuia la locul de amplasare? Orice decizie aduce un impact asupra mediului. Pentru a lua o deci

Benchmark the companys carbon footprint Consider aspects such as lighting, heating, air-conditioning, datacenters, car and truck fleets (mileage and carbon emission), business travel, vending and recycling. Determine a realistic benchmark and then set attainable but aggressive targets (perhaps over five or ten years).

Benchmark the Power Usage Effectiveness of the datacenter The Power Usage Effectiveness is the ratio of power entering the datacenter used to power the IT hardware, and is an established metric for datacenter efficiency. Ensure IT and business work together The pursuit of Green IT cannot come at the expense of business needs. Instead, a green IT strategy should fit within, and be aligned with, business needs. Business, however, should understand the potential benefits of pursuing green IT, such as cost-efficiency creation and improved workplace practices. A shared approach is necessary to ensure both Green IT and business objectives can be pursued simultaneously and for mutual benefit.

Make achieving targets everyones responsibility Use the company portal, e-mail, intranet, notice boards or other means of internal communication to deliver regular updates on progress against targets and advise on simple, achievable steps (e.g. recycling, turning off PCs before leaving in the evening).

Consider the whole product lifecycle when contemplating technology upgrades While newer hardware will be more energy efficient, is this enough to outweigh the environmental impact of disposing of old hardware, manufacturing new hardware, and having it transported to certain facilities? Any decision will have an environmental impact. Consider all of the factors to make a green decision.
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zie care prin natura sa s protejeze mediu, trebuie luai n considerare toi aceti factori. Colaborai cu furnizorii pentru a mbunti amprenta de carbon datorat IT a companiei Trebuie discutat cu furnizorii de echipamente i, dac este relevant, cu furnizorii de servicii tip centru de date. Aceast discuie ar trebui s se extind dincolo de grania eficienei financiare a achiziiei. Trebuie determinat ce rol pot juca acetia n procesul companiei de a reduce amprenta de carbon. Ar trebui avantajai furnizorii care pot prezenta dovezi n acest sens, sub forma unor poveti de succes. nelegerea faptului c mai multe echipamente IT nu nseamn neaprat un impact negativ mai mare asupra mediului O cretere a infrastructurii IT nu conduce, n mod obligatoriu, la creterea amprentei de carbon sau la creterea impactului negativ asupra mediului [6]. De exemplu, dac se investete n tehnologie de videoconferin sau n software de colaborare on-line, se poate reduce volumul cltoriilor internaionale. n cadrul birourilor, utilizarea calculatoarelor client, care s foloseasc n comun, de la distan, puterea de calcul a unui singur calculator performant, poate contribui la reducerea global a consumului de energie i a zgomotului, n timp ce sistemele de control pot regla nclzirea, iluminarea i aerul condiionat, prin aceasta reducndu-se consumul de energie i costurile. Informarea asupra noilor tehnologii Noile concepte IT, precum serviciile de calcul prin reea, virtualizarea sistemelor de calcul, software furnizat ca serviciu (SaaS) i software open source reprezint n primul rnd tehnologii care sunt utile n primul rnd scopului afacerii, dar au i un impact mai redus asupra mediului, comparativ cu tehnologiile actuale. De exemplu, calculatoarele client i SaaS reduc cantitatea de energie consumat, precum i volumul de dispozitive hardware i software produs i transportat [3]. Din punctul de vedere al obiectivelor afacerii, crete mobilitatea utilizatorului iar informaia este stocat la nivel central, crescnd gradul de securitate i controlul asupra acesteia. Cutarea de ajutor n domeniu Trebuie determinat dac exist vreo organizaie dedicat sustenabilitii n sectorul industrial n care compania i desfoar activitatea. Aceast organizaie ar putea s ofere consultan 12 n propunerea i realizarea obiectivelor de Work with suppliers to improve IT carbon footprint Talk to hardware suppliers and, if relevant, datacenter services supplier. This should be more than a cost-based, procurement conversation. Determine what part they can play in improving your IT carbon footprint. Remember, there are benefits in it for them if they can cite green credentials as a success story.

Understand that more IT does not automatically mean less green An increase in IT spending and the IT infrastructure does not necessarily mean a larger carbon footprint or a more negative environmental impact [6]. For example, investing in video-conferencing technology and collaboration-enabling software can help to reduce international travel. In the office, thin-client desktops can reduce power consumption and noise while control systems can regulate heating, lighting and air-conditioning, thus reducing energy consumption and costs.

Take a position on new technology IT concepts like cloud and utility computing, virtualization, Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Desktop-as-a Service and open source software represent technologies that serve business needs first, yet are also greener than existing technologies. Thin-client desktops and SaaS, for example, reduce the amount of power consumed, and volume of physical hardware and software produced and shipped [3]. From a business point of view, user mobility is increased and data is centrally stored, better controlled and more secure.

Consider enlisting help Investigate whether a body dedicated to sustainability already exists in the companys industry sector. It may be able to provide guidance in setting and realizing green goals. In the absence of (or in addition to) industry-specific bodies, there are

protecie a mediului. n absena acestor organizaii specifice (sau pe lng acestea), exist o serie de organizaii care pot ajuta, ca de exemplu organizaiile specializate n determinarea amprentei de carbon, consultani n domeniul afacerilor, consultani n domeniul tehnic, organisme guvernamentale, specialiti n infrastructura centrelor de date, i aa mai departe.
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many organizations that can help like specialist carbon-benchmarking organizations, business consultants, technology consultants and outsourcers, governmental bodies, datacenter infrastructure specialists, and many others.

5. Importana proteciei mediului n domeniul IT: Cazul Organizaiilor Croate


n primvara anului 2009 [5] n Croaia s-a realizat un studiu al iniiativelor de protecie a mediului din domeniul IT. Directorii departamentelor IT din 124 de companii mici, medii i de mari dimensiuni au fost chestionai n legtur cu noile tendine de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT. Rezultatele acestui studiu au artat cteva diferene interesante n modul de formulare, evaluare i implementare a strategiilor de protecie a mediului n cadrul organizaiilor de mari dimensiuni fa de cele din cadrul organizaiilor mici i mijlocii. n figura 1 sunt prezentate cteva rezultate i trsturi de baz.
Figura 1 Structura de baz a companiilor supravegheate i atitudinea acestora fa de iniiativele de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT

5. Importance of Green IT: The Case of Croatian Organizations


In Croatia, a survey of Green IT initiatives was conducted during spring 2009 [5]. IT executives from 124 small, midsize and large enterprises were asked about significant new trends emerging in green computing, and the research revealed some interesting differences in the way green computing strategies are formulated, evaluated and implemented in enterprise-class organization versus those in the small to midsize sector. Some basic features and results of the research are shown in Figure 1.

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Figure 1 Basic structure of companies surveyed and their attitudes towards Green IT initiatives

51 de procente din totalul companiilor incluse n studiu accept sau iau n considerare aplicarea iniiativelor de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT. ns ntreprinderile mari sunt mai receptive la aceste iniiative n comparaie cu IMM-urile 55 de procente din totalul ntreprinderilor mari, fa de numai 41 de procente din totalul IMMurilor. Exist o serie de motive care justific aceast discrepan. Dei toi cei chestionai consider economiile ca un factor important n implementarea proiectelor de protecie a mediului, ntreprinderile de mari dimensiuni evoc i ali factori, precum politica grupului industrial cruia i aparin, alinierea la diverse reglementri, presiunea exterioar exercitat de ctre clieni i investitori. De cealalt parte, sub constrngerea resurselor i a costurilor,

51 percent of all companies surveyed accept or is contemplating about accepting Green IT initiatives. But, Croatian enterprise companies evince more interest in Green IT initiatives than SMBs 55 percent of the large companies, versus 41 percent of the SMBs. There are several reasons driving that disparity. Although all respondents cite cost savings as an important driver for green IT projects, enterprise companies report other factors as well, such as corporate citizenship, regulatory compliance and outside pressure from customers and investors. And driven by cost and resource constraints, SMBs tend to have more difficulty defining business value as well as finding the money for Green IT projects.
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IMM-urile tind s aib dificulti mai mari n a defini valoarea adugat dar i n gsirea resurselor financiare a proiectelor de protecie a mediului. Dei protecia mediului n domeniul IT prezint o cretere a popularitii n rndul companiilor, exist cteva discordane n modul n care organizaiile i acord importan. De exemplu, studiul menionat anterior arat c ntreprinderile adopt conceptul ntr-un ritm mai rapid. Dintre acestea, 41 de procente consider ca adoptarea conceptului este critic sau foarte important, n timp ce numai 26 de procente din rndul IMMurilor acord o importan similar. Aceast discrepan se menine i cnd se discut despre implementare. Dup cum se poate observa din Figura 2, n mod curent 44 de procente din totalul respondenilor utilizeaz, testeaz programe pilot sau intenioneaz s implementeze sisteme/soluii de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT n urmtoarele 12 luni. ansele ca deja s se fi nceput implementarea acestor sisteme sunt mai mari n cazul ntreprinderilor mari 53 de procente, fa de 40 de procente n sectorul IMM-urilor. Although Green IT continues to grow in significance across the corporate landscape, there is some disparity in how organizations rate its importance. For example, a research mentioned shows that enterprise companies are embracing the concept with more urgency. Of them, 41 percent rated it as critical or very important, whereas only 26 percent of the SMB companies gave a similar rating. The similar disparity holds true when it comes to implementation. As it can be seen in Figure 2, currently 44 percent of the total respondents are using, pilot-testing or planning to implement Green IT solutions/systems within the next 12 months. However, enterprise-size companies are more likely to have already moved into action 53 percent, versus 40 percent in the SMB sector.

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Figura 2 Adoptarea soluiilor de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT Figure 2 Adoption of Green IT solutions

Conform studiului citat, este clar c, n Croaia, dimensiunea companiei conteaz atunci cnd este vorba de recunoaterea valorii proteciei mediului IT n cadrul afacerii. Comparativ cu respondenii din rndul IMM-urilor, un numr semnificativ mai mare din cadrul ntreprinderilor mari (42 de procente fa de 32 de procente) sunt de acord complet sau ntr-o oarecare msur c valoarea adugat afacerii prin implementarea unei soluii de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT este evident. Dimpotriv, IMM-urile, comparativ cu ntreprinderile mari, consider c soluiile de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT au o importan redus sau nu sunt deloc importante 36 de procente, fa de 21 de procente. Pentru multe dintre acestea este o chestiune de resurse financiare. Acele companii care manifest o lips de interes consider c nu obin avantaje prin implementarea acestor soluii sau nu pot construi un studiu de caz favorabil implementrii. Alte companii nu pot ncorpora n buget astfel de cheltuieli.

According to the research cited, it is clear that company size in Croatia also matters when it comes to recognizing the business value of green IT. Compared to the respondents in SMB companies, significantly more respondents in the enterprise companies (42 percent vs. 32 percent) strongly or somewhat agree that the business value proposition of green computing is clear to them.

Conversely, the SMBs were more likely than their bigger brethren to rate green IT as not very or not at all important 36 percent, versus 21 percent. For many, its a matter of money. Those companies reporting a lack of interest say that they are unable to get ROI from switching to green IT or cannot build a good business case for it. Others dont have room in the budget.

6. Provocrile i viitorul proteciei mediului n domeniul IT

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6. Challenges and Future of Green IT


One of the major challenges in going green in Croatia is that less than one-fifth of companies have allocated budgets for overall green purchases. This represents a major hurdle for most IT departments when making spending considerations. But we suppose that as enterprises begin to translate concern for green into practice on a company-wide level, budget incentives for investing in environmentallyfriendly technologies and tools, particularly in Green IT, will follow. But, what is most disturbing is the fact that government agencies do not appear to care very much. Many government agencies have a difficult time implementing new technologies due in part to their conservative organizational structures and budget constraints. Unless the science behind climate change develops a more optimistic view of the problem, or progress in technology development and adoption, along with behavioral changes, unfolds more quickly than expected, companies should anticipate that they will be motivated and forced to make significant improvements to energy and material efficiency [8].

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Una dintre provocrile majore a adoptrii soluiilor de protecie a mediului n domeniul IT n Croaia este c doar o cincime dintre companii au alocat bugete pentru investiii generale n protecia mediului. Acest lucru reprezint o problem major pentru majoritatea departamentelor IT atunci cnd iau n calcul cheltuielile. Dar se presupune c atunci cnd companiile vor ncepe s implementeze soluii de protecie a mediului la nivelul ntregii organizaii, aceste neajunsuri se vor diminua. ns cel mai nelinititor este c ageniile guvernamentale nu prezint un interes deosebit n acest sens. Multe dintre acestea au dificulti n implementarea noilor tehnologii din cauza structurilor organizaionale conservative i a constrngerilor bugetare. Cu excepia cazului n care studiile ce vizeaz schimbrile climatice dezvolt o viziune mai optimist a problemei, sau dac progresul n dezvoltarea tehnologic i adoptarea acesteia se va derula mai repede dect este estimat, companiile ar trebui s anticipeze c vor fi motivate i forate s fac mbuntiri semnificative n ceea ce privete eficiena energetic i eficiena materialelor [8].

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. Concluzii 7.
Protecia mediului n domeniul IT pare s fie soluia ideal ntr-o perioad n care degradarea mediului, mai ales datorit industriei, crete exponenial. Conservarea energiei devine o problem critic n a asigura un mediu sntos. Protejarea mediului n domeniul IT implic eforturi prin care tehnologia calculatoarelor poate fi utilizat pentru a familiariza att segmentul industrial ct i cel al utilizatorului final cu probleme de tipul utilizrii eficiente din punct de vedere energetic a unitilor centrale de procesare, serverelor i dispozitivelor periferice, procesarea corespunztoare a deeurilor electronice, virtualizarea serverelor, eficiena energetic a centrelor de date, i alinierea la reglementrile oficiale. n ceea ce privete iniiativele de protecia mediului n domeniul IT din Croaia, acestea devin n mod cert o prioritate pentru corporaii, indiferent de dimensiunea lor. Totui, ntreprinderile mari par s aprecieze mai mult valoarea proteciei mediului n domeniul IT, deoarece dispun de resursele fizice i financiare necesare dar i de nevoia de a aborda iniiative strategice i de amploare. ntreprinderile mici i mijlocii (IMM), care trebuie s i utilizeze resursele cu o precauie mai mare, ntmpin probleme n implementarea acestor soluii. n ciuda acestpr dificulti, interesul continu s creasc pentru ambele sectoare.

7. Conclusions
Green IT seems to be an ideal solution at a time when the degradation of the environment, especially damage caused by companies, is increasing exponentially. The conservation of energy becomes a critical issue in ensuring a green environment. Greening of IT involves efforts through which computer technology can be used meaningfully by acquainting both the corporate and consumer segments with issues such as energy-efficient usage of central processing units, servers, and peripherals, proper handling of electronic waste, server virtualization, data center energy efficiency, and regulatory compliance.

As far as Green IT initiatives in Croatia are concerned, they have clearly become a significant priority for corporations, regardless of size. However, enterprise companies are more likely to see the business value of green IT, because they have the physical and financial resources as well as the need to tackle larger and more strategic Green IT initiatives. Small and medium businesses, which must delegate resources more carefully, have a harder time making a business case for Green IT. Despite these challenges, interest continues to rise for both sectors.

Biblografie

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References

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[1] BBMG. Conscious Consumer Report. May, 2008 (http://www.bbmg.com) [2] Bell, Michael. Data Center Cooling: The Bright Side Comes in 2011. ZDNET, April 27, 2007 (http:// www.zdnet.com) [3] Davis, Euan; Parker, Andrew; Gray, Benjamin; King, Onica. Green Benefits Put Thin-Client Computing Back On The Desktop Hardware Agenda. March 10, 2008 (http://www.forrester.com) [4] IDG Research Services Group.Survey the greentech landscape. InfoWorld, November 21, 2007 (http://www.infoworld.com) [5] Panian, Z. Et al. Istraivanje inicijativa za Zelenu IT: preliminarni rezultati. Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, 2009 (in Croatian) [6] Schulz, Greg. The Green and Virtual Data Center.

[1] BBMG. Conscious Consumer Report. May, 2008 (http://www.bbmg.com) [2] Bell, Michael. Data Center Cooling: The Bright Side Comes in 2011. ZDNET, April 27, 2007 (http:// www.zdnet.com) [3] Davis, Euan; Parker, Andrew; Gray, Benjamin; King, Onica. Green Benefits Put Thin-Client Computing Back On The Desktop Hardware Agenda. March 10, 2008 (http://www.forrester.com) [4] IDG Research Services Group.Survey the greentech landscape. InfoWorld, November 21, 2007 (http://www.infoworld.com) [5] Panian, Z. et al. Istraivanje inicijativa za Zelenu IT: preliminarni rezultati. Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, 2009 (in Croatian) [6] Schulz, Greg. The Green and Virtual Data Center.

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Auerbach Publications, Boca Raton (Fl.), 2009 [7] The U.S. Environmental Protecting Agency (EPA). Energy-Wise Data Centers. August, 2007 (http:// www.epa.org) [8] Vig, Norman J.; Kraft, Michael E. Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-first Century. CQ Press, Washington, 2009
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Auerbach Publications, Boca Raton (Fl.), 2009 [7] The U.S. Environmental Protecting Agency (EPA). Energy-Wise Data Centers. August, 2007 (http:// www.epa.org) [8] Vig, Norman J.; Kraft, Michael E. Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-first Century. CQ Press, Washington, 2009
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Despre autor:
Scurt CV

About author:
Short CV

Zeljko Panian este profesor la Facultatea de Economie din Zagreb i preedinte postuniversitar n Managementul Informatiei, de zece ani. Interesele sale profesionale se concentreaz pe Informatica Aplicata i disciplinele conexe cum ar fi gestionarea informaiilor, e-business, IT, inteligena ntreprinderilor i, aplicaiile IT inovatoare. Z. Panian a publicat 20 de cri ca un singur autor, precum i 16 n calitate de co-autor. El a publicat, de asemenea, aproape 200 de lucrri tiinifice i profesionale i a participat activ la circa 60 conferine internaionale din ntreaga lume. El a efectuat o multitudine de proiecte tiinifice i profesionale n Croaia i n strintate. n calitate de profesor invitat el a lucrat la Universitatea Popular din Beijing (China), Florida, Universitatea de Stat din Tallahassee (SUA), Universitatea din Maribor (Slovenia), i Universitatea din Mostar (Bosnia i Heregovina). Prof. univ. sc. Zeljko Panian Facultatea de Economie i Afaceri Universitatea din Zagreb 10000 Zagreb J. F. Kennedy Sq. 6 CROAIA Telefon: + 385 1 238 3217 E-mail: zpanian@efzg.hr

Zeljko Panian is the full professor at Faculty of Economics in Zagreb and the chair of the postgraduate study in Information Management for ten years. His professional interests focus on applied informatics and related disciplines like information management, e-business, IT governance, business intelligence and innovative IT applications. Z. Panian has published 20 books as a single author, as well as 16 as co-author. He also published nearly 200 scientific and professional papers and actively participated at about 60 international conferences all-over the world. He conducted plenty of scientific and professional projects in Croatia and abroad. As a guest professor he worked at Peoples University in Beijing (China), Florida State University in Tallahassee (USA), University of Maribor (Slovenia) and University of Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Prof. dr. sc. Zeljko Panian Faculty of Economics and Business University of Zagreb 10000 Zagreb J. F. Kennedy Sq. 6 CROATIA Phone: ++385 1 238 3217 Email: zpanian@efzg.hr

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