Sunteți pe pagina 1din 18
United States Patent 1 Inoue [54] METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING A SMALL AND DEEP HOLE INTO OR THROUGH A WORKPIECE [75] Inventor: Kiyoshi Inoue, Tokyo, Japan. [73] Assignee: Inowe-Japax Research Incorporated, Yokohama, Japan [on] Appl. Nox 182,423, oy 4,393,292 f4s]__Sul, 12, 1983 [56] ‘References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 3,072,777 1/1963 McKechnie 219/60 V 3488737 7/1969 Pau et al 219/69 D 3758739 9/1973 Delongh et al 219/68 V 3.928.163 12/1975 Ullmann etal 219/69 D 4930;321 2/1976. Bertrand et al 0 219/69 V 4208256 6/1980 Inove 219/60 D FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 21718 10/1989 United Kingdom Primary Examiner—C. C. Shaw, ‘Attorney, Agent or Firm—Karl F. Ross; Herbert Dubno Serer va Froese : oe ee erate eriseaeraal Go] oo ee ees discharge machining of a small and deep hole of a diam- Jal 17, 1979 [TF] Japan . 55-98266 eter of | mm or less and a depth-to-diameter ratio of at Ag 2 epee 54110552 Jegst $ into or through a workpiece wherein a water ‘Aug. 31, 1979 [JP] Japan. vm $4-111427 machining fluid medium is used having a specific resis- Hor. 5 208 BE) epee rotentne 34-144117 tivity of at least 10* ohm-cm and is pumped through a ‘Nov. 29, 1979 [JP] Japan +» 4155107 tubular elongated electrode ‘the machining gap at a Bee 8 Pel Peng ‘54172887 pressure of at least 20 kg/cm®, preferably 40 kg/cm’. oy may ee ee oes ral tes Seana a ees en eee nen re eae rere , fea ou ee I : U.S. Patent sul. 12, 1983 Sheet 1 of 9 4,393,292 FIG. | | FIG. 2A = | 3. 3a : 3b 4 3 5 A 2a _' FIG. 2B a SS = ww 2 78 [3c ‘ | Ts ing ie | L beats 7 | wo-l| is | 2 a [3e | 10 9x Bb Be 1 [3c j 7 Z 13d 8 9 ee] iy 14 13a] ee FIG. 2C U.S. Patent — tut. 12, 1983 Sheet 2 of 9 4,393,292 FIG. 3 ZG ACCUMULATOR 24 31 pup [POMP 20 sips 0 i TON Exch. canine. 21-1 6 ig _ 7 Keo WN ES 23 a fyi r+—| | [EH © x [x Vistirenarone| A a AS . 5 FIG le asa NS apf Caed FIG. 6A as a 1 424 oes ol it FIG. 6B 45'0 E ‘4 U.S. Patent 40 30) 20) REMOVAL RATE Sul. 12, 1983 Sheet 3 of 9 FIG. 4 10 20 3050 100 FLUID PRESSURE 4,393,292 cc/min FLOW QUANTITY 200 Xg/em2 U.S. Patent sul. 12, 1983 Sheet 4 of 9 4,393,292 151 x & mm ; INTERRUPTION a VIBRATION 7 _ * 2 55 33 FIG. 9 22 a min ° ees ea So MACHINING TIME U.S. Patent sul. 12, 1983 Sheet 5 of 9 4,393,292 FIG. 10 | 17104 157. H 159 N tO L postition 155 $ Ann | ise ib 1o2 54a Sy ee Be f 01 156 6 pala tua Stee feared 4 FIG. II Zon Toft Tonk opel onl ei) oe ee U.S, Patent Jul. 12, 1983 Sheet 6 of 9 4,393,292 RE 150, 163, ii 162 104 64d 103 w ’ loz 101 a 150 Jsuerr cee Wr" U.S. Patent Jul. 12, 1983 Sheet 7 of 9 4,393,292 MACHINING POWER SUPPLY 156-4 1g91-—~ =n 192 U.S. Patent sul, 12, 1983 Sheet 8 of 9 4,393,292 FIG. 16 MACHINING POWER SUPPLY TUL us U.S. Patent jul. 12, 1983 Sheet 9 of 9 4,393,292 FIG. 19 104 Fl Se: 172 103 Ot 7s 72 102 ~ larry ls 101 lsoPcy| \ f= — 104 cee res FIG. 20 es ik. 102 190”, i fone} 4,393,292 1 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING A SMALL AND DEEP HOLS INTO OR THROUGH A WORKPIECE 5 FIELD OF THE INVENTION ‘The present invention relates to an electrical dis- charge machining (EDM) method and apparatus in Which a tool electrode i justaposed with # workpiece cross a fluid filled machining gap and aseries of eleci- cal discharge pulses are passed between the tool elec- trode and the workpiece across the machining exp to remove material from the workpiece. More particu- larly, the invention relates to an electrical discharge ‘machining method and apparatus of the type described ‘whereby a small and deep cavity, hole or throughgoing- ‘opening is produced in a workpiece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION ‘The production of a small and deep hole or of a throughgoing opening of a diameter, say, 1 mm or less and a large depth-to-diameter ratio is extensively re- quired in industry. For example, itis desirable to pro- duce such holes or openings for drawing dies, fuel- injection nozzles in a diesel engine and fiber-pinning nozzles and also to form an initial hole in a workpiece to bbe machined by a traveling-wie or wire-cutting EDM ‘operation. It has generally been recognized that machining of these holes, openings or cavities can be achieved by ‘electrical discharge machining with limited advantages Decause of various complicated measures and machin- ing accessories required. A comparatively long machin- ing time has been required for a comparatively small amount of stock removal and does not justify resort to the EDM technique for machining of small/deep hole formations, especially where the machining is to be carried out on a mass-production bass. OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is an object ofthe present invention to provide an improved method and apparatus for electrical discharge ‘machining to allow a small and deep cavity, hole or throughgoing opening to be machined ina workpiece ‘with ease and at an increased speed. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION ‘This and other objects which will become more readily apparent hereinafter are attained in accordance with the present invention by providing, ina first aspect ‘hereof, a method of the electrical discharge machining of a small and deep cavity, hole or through-opening, hereinafter “hole”, into oF through a workpiece, the hole having a diameter of 1 mm or less and a depth-io- diameter ratio of at least 5, and even of at least 10, ‘which method comprises the steps of: juxtaposing a thin and elongated tubular electrode with the workpiece across « machining gap; supplying a water machining ‘uid, preferably ofa specific resistivity in excess of 10¢ ‘ohm-cm through the tubular electrode into the machin- ing aap ata pressure of at least 20 ka/em; preferably 25 kg/em?; more desirably 40 kg/em?; applying a series of clectrical machining pulses between the tubular eleo- ‘rode and the workpiece to cause time-spaced electrical discharges through the machining gap thereby remov- ing material from the workpiece; and advancing the 0 o “ 2 tubular electrode in its longitudinal direction relatively into the workpiece. ‘The invention provides n asecond aspect thereof, an apparatus for the clecrical-discharge machining of a ‘small and deep hole into or through a workpiece, the hole having a diameter of | mm or less and a depth to diameter ratio of at least 5, and even of at least 10, ‘which apparatus comprises a thin and elongated tubular clectrode adapted to be juxtaposed with the workpiece across a machining gap; supply and pumping means for alivering a water machining Muid, preferably ofa spe- cific resistivity in excess of 10° ohmem through the tubular electrode into the machining gap at a pressure of at least 20 kg/em?, preferably 25 kg/em? and more ‘esirably 40 kg/em?s power supply means for applying ‘series of elecirical machining pulses between the tubu- lar electrode and the workpiece to produce time-spaced clectrical discharges through the machining gap thereby removing material from the workpiece; and drive means for relatively displacing the tubular elec- trode and the workpiece to cause the tubular electrode to be advanced in its longitudinal direction into the ‘workpiece to form the hole therein or therethrough. Preferably, a further step of means is included of or for imparting to the tubular electrode an ultrasonic vibration whose frequency preferably ranges in some applications less than 30 KH, in some other applications in excess of 50 KHz and in still other applications be- ‘ween I and 10 MHz. ‘The vibrational energy of the ultrasonic vibration {imparted to the tubular electrode may be held at nil or fata reduced value as long as the machining proceeds Under satisfactory gap conditions and may be increased When the gap state i altered into unsatisfactory condi- tions. The vibration may be imparted to the tubular clectrode in ts axial direction but i preferably imparted transversely to the axis of the tubular electrode. "The water machining Avid may be a distilled water having a specific resistivity in excess of 10Sohm-cm and means is preferably provided to maintain the tempera ture thereof at a preselected value or in a preselected range ‘The clevated delivery pressure of the water machin- ing fluid is preferably increased continuously or in a plurality of steps as the machining depth of the hole Tas also be found to be advantageous to maintain the amount of the water machining fuid supplied to the machining gep substantially two or more times the amount of gases produced in the machining gap. "As machining Or drilling of the hole proceeds in the ‘workpiece with the tubular electrode, a projection for- ‘mation integral with the workpiece tends to build up in the drilled hole. Thus, in accordance with a further specific feature of the invention, the inner diameter of the tubular electrode is dimensional and the electrical ‘machining conditions in the power supply are prefera- ‘ly set so as to maintain the ratio 1 to be not greater ‘that 1/5 where lis the depth of the hole being machined and Iis the height ofthe projection being formed inthe hole. ‘The supply and pumping means, in accordance with another feature ofthe aforementioned second aspect of the invention, includes a water supply pump having a delivery pressure of at least 20 kg/emt preferably 25 kkg/em# and more desirably 40 kg/em?; pressure-exist- ant conduit means for feeding the water output of the ‘pump through the tabular electrode into the machining 4,393,292 3 p defined between the latter and the workpiece and a high-pressure accumulator coupled to the pressure- resistant conduit means between the pump and the tubs- lar electrode. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING ‘These and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be more readily appreciated from the following description of certain embodiments thereof made by way of example only and taken with reference 10 to the accompanying drawing in which: FIG. 1 is a schematic view, partly in section, dia- grammatically illustrating an apparatus according tothe vertical sectional view diagrammatically ilastrating a tubular electrode, a support thereof and portion of an ultrasonic vibratile horn in the apparatus Of FIG. 1; FIG. 2B isa transverse cross-sectional view diagram- matically illustrating an electrode positioning guide Structure in the apparatus of FIG. 1; FIG. 2C is a vertical sectional view taken along the line 2C—2C in FIG. 2B; FIG. 3 is schematic view essentially in block form diagrammatically illustrating a water machining Muid supply system for use, in conjunction with the apparatus of FIG. 1 or any of those shown elsewhere herein, in ‘embodying the present invention; FIG. 4 « graph illustrating typical machining char- 59 acteristics gained in accordance with an electrical dis- charge machining method of the present invention; FIG. 5 is a fragmentary vertical view diagrammati- cell illustrating a preferred arrangement for imparting fan ultrasonic vibration to a tubular electrode in accot= 55 dance withthe invention; FIGS, 6A and 6B are plan views diagrammatically illustrating certain forms in which the ultrasonic horn is disposed in engagement withthe tool electrode, accord- ing to the invention; ” FIG. Tisa schematic view diagrammatically illustrat. jing an apparatus including an ultrasonic vibration sys- tem for controlling the amplitude of the vibration im- parted to the tubular electrode while responding to the ‘machining gap condition in accordance with 2 further 45 feature ofthe invention, FIG. 8 is a waveform diagram illustrating a modified series of vibration signals to be imparted to the tubular electrode in accordance with the invention; FIG. 9isa graph showing a comparison of machining so characteristics gained in the system of FIG. 7 under different sets of machining conditions, FIG, 10 is @ schematic view diagrammatically illas- trating an apparatus including a signal source for ener- sizing the EDM power supply and the ultrasonic vibra- 55 tor in accordance with a further feature of the inven FIG. 11 isa waveform diagram illustrating a series of signal pulses in time-spaced succession produced from the signal source of FIG. 10; © FIG. 12 is a schematic view diagrammatically ius- ‘ating an apparatus with means for changing the ampli- tude of the ultrasonic vibration according to machining purposes in accordance with a further feature of the Invention; 6 FIG. 13 is a schematic view diagrammatically ilus- ‘ating an apparatus with means for changing the azmpli- tude of the ultrasonic vibration in response to the 4 progress of an EDM operation in accordance with further feature of the invention; FIG. 16 is schematic view diagrammatically illu trating en apparatus with means for changing the ampli- tude of the ultrasonic vibration in conjunction with changes in machining conditions in a given course of EDM operations including roughing and finishing in accordance with a further specific feature ofthe inven- FIG. 18 is @ schematic view diagrammatically llus- ‘ating an apparatus with an vibrator assembly includ- ing a high-frequency vibrator and a low-frequency Vi- ‘orator for imparting a composite vibration to the ma- cchining electrode in accordance with a further feature of the invention; FIG. 16 is a schematic view diagrammatically lus ‘rating a modification of the assembly of FIG. 15; FIG. 17 is 2 schematic view diagrammatically lus- ‘rating an apparatus which may be used to carry out @ ‘method of the present invention; "FIGS. 18, 19 and 20 are schematic views diagrammat- ‘cally illustrating various arrangements using an EDM power supply and a series L/C circuit across the ma- Chining gap operative in resonance with the output of ‘the power supply for producing an ultrasoni vibration ‘and imparting the vibration to the machining electrode in accordance with a further feature of the invention, and FIG. 21 isa schematic view diagrammatically ilus- ‘rating an apparatus in which the machining elongated ‘electrode is continuous and fed into the machining zone ‘conti ‘oF successively in accordance with a fur- ther feature ofthe invention. ‘SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION ‘Reforrng firs to FIG. 1, an apparatus embodying the present invention makes use of a tool electrode 1 in the form of a slender tube or thin tubular wire. The t electrode 1 may be composed of copper, brass Or any other suitable material and may have an outer diameter of 05 mm and an inner diameter of 0275 mm and a — | length of 400 mm. ‘The electrode 1s supported by an electrode holder 2 having a chuck 22 as shown in FIG. 2A. The electrode holder 2 extends from ahora 3 of an ultrasonic assembly 4 which may comprise a piezoelectric or elecirostric- tion transducer 4a energized by a high-frequency AC power supply or pulse source 4 with an output fre- quency, say, of 20 to 30 kHz. As shown in FIG. 2A, the hhorn 3 is formed with an internal cavity 3a which ex: tends in its longitudinal direction and into which the end of the electrode T reaches and where itis tightly held by a packing ring 3h, ane The horn 3 has also a liquid supply plug § which ‘communicates with a source (not shown) of water ma- cchining fluid via flexible and pressure resistant Nuid ‘conduit (not shown) and is open to the cavity 3a to ‘convey the water machining fluid under an elevated Pressure into the tubular electrode 1 ‘The horn and vibrator arrangement 3, 4 carrying the electrode 1 is carried by a ram head 6 mounted on a ‘machine column (not shown) which in turn is mounted upright on a machine bed (not shown). The head 6 ‘contains a servo unit 7 adapted to displace the assembly 3,4 vertcaly (ie. along a Z-axis) and hence the elec ‘ode in its longitudinal direction. 'A base 8 on the machine bed carries a worktable 10 ‘which in tum carries a workpiece 11 secured thereon by 4,393,292 5 ‘means of clamp 12. The workable 10i inthe form of 1 crose-eed arrangement having a air of tervo motors x and y and is thereby driven on the base 8 in an X-Y plane orthogonal to the Z-axis to adjust the position of {he workpiece I relative to the ais ofthe elecizode 1. ‘To provide precise axial positioning, the electrode 1 Sidably-aulded slong a. porton of i lena on the rachining side By a ig unit or HOTGET™13 which is se tured on the base 8 by mesma of an L-shaped arm 13a ‘A power supply 15 for providing « succesion of clectical machining pulses hs one terminal electrically Contested tothe tool electrode 1 via the guide unit 13 nd the other terminal electrically comested 10 the ‘workpiece 11 via the clamp 12 For a amall and deep hole machining operation, is desirable to have ma: chining pulses ofa duration generally not greater than 30 microseconds and preferably around 5 microseconds cor. | ana the pose supply 15 may Tachige «capacitor of = Sir | Sepsctance of dl tof microfarad connected aero the 65" | machining gp 6. “The servo motor 9x and 9y may each bea stepping rotor ors B@motor equipped with an encoder and/or 2 rate generator and may Be operated by a numerical Control (NC) snit 14 for automatically posoning the electrode 1 a one or more predetermined machining postions on the workpiece 1 Referring to FIGS. 2B and 2C, the electrode posi- tioning fig 13 comprises an outer cylinder 130 and an inner cylinder 18¢ shown arranged generally Coaxial with one another. The outer cylinder 135 i Bxedly cored to the arm 1 and has atleast thee bots 13d threaded through the wall thereof at equkspaced posi- tions. The ends of the bolls KA come in engagement with the outer wall of the Inger cylinder T3e in which three cylindrical members fae ae anigly accommo ated 10 Torm an interspacing adapted to slidably e- teive the electrode 1. The contact postions ofthe bots 13d withthe Inner cylinder 13e are adjusted to accom modate the electrode 1 inthe spacing and to establish ts proper axial machining position within the jig assembly & fe pe FIG. 3 shows a fluid supply and circulation system which can be used in conjunction with the electrode assembly 1 and the machining gap (G) in the apparatus of FIG, 1 and any other embodiment hereinafter de- scribed. The system includes a reservoir 16 divided into ‘clean water tank 16a and a spent water tank 166. The ‘spent water in the tank 168 flows from a worktank or ‘housing W (omitted for illustration in FIG. 1) disposed to carry the workpiece 10 juxtaposed with the too! electrode 1. The machining products, chips or sludges, inthe spent machining fluid are allowed to settle in the tank 16) and the purified water is drawn by a pump 17 and fed by an ultrafiltration device or fine filter 18 t0 the tank 162, ‘A conductivity sensor 19 monitors the conductivity cor resistivity of the clarified water stored in the tank 4c, When an increased conduit ie sensed or the specifi resistivity drops preset threshold value, say 4X10‘ ohm-om, the sensor 19 acts on a pump 20 to draw the water from the tank 62 and bring it into ‘contact with an ion-exchanger unit in a cartridge 21 to } make the water more distilled or less conductive and then permit the water to be returned to the tank 62, The fe gh | seme ib opens contasoaly ao ta th water as NE. ce?” | tank 60 may be held substantially at a preset resistivity ot" | Greonductivty erin apres ange of erat. ny of the order of 10% ohm-cm. *° 4s 0 58 « 6 ‘A ater temperature control wit 2 having a temper sire sentor 29 and heter/ cooler element (2 shows) iano ewocifed wit he tank 6 aati the water inthe tank 6 soem tan optimam tempers. Supping the water machining fist an elevated delivery prestre aginst the cond reance gener ay renal ns fd temperature, risen the temperate also is cased by the ection of spark di {Sgerin tho machning gap. A te nthe tepersture of te water machining HOM caus an ners i andoctie anda thetame ine acop ls voy, ‘A dropin the water temperature onthe contrary cates fo ncrene.n te coy which in tor cet eater reotane of te Wnt to How trough the ‘Euchining en. Al tet tendencies ae tan into 9 ev, aio conncton with electode and works plese mera, porposes of machining and machining onions sled to establish an opimam temper fare tng andthe dered empeatte sting andthe Ganved temperature conrel i erected "A high rung prsure delivery pump 24 of plunger ov ay‘otter pe may be eed fo dre the pricd wate fromthe tk 160 esl one shown, vi ine Tier 25 by mean of an unary pump 26 and drets Trai Wo the fl condul cousmucaing Wi te plug’ The uid condutnlade chock valve 27 and Spltnaly high presne fit storage chamber 28 and farther «igh prewure accumulator 29 conneced Teal othe cond and profenbly wo the chamber 28 ‘Nel vaive 3 returns potion ofthe water supply © {the tank tec and adjmable towable snd epee Inte a deed supply pressure ofthe water machining fuid vo he wool eeetfode 1 sna the machining gap: ‘he prwure read ats gauge 3. The ud suply a onde sytem sts designed to ensure delivery of the re weer aching Haid Wit i ‘ap vis ue tool doatode Ls fpparat tht the method ofthe ivnton oan eso thuly be cared out withthe Hid sapply md colt System of FIG. 8 wih the arrangement of FIG. EXAMPLE A tabular copper electrode of 023 mim an inn dames 012 Soran sgt of {SOs eed with an rangcment > generally son in FIGS. 10 50 dla bole throvgh sstnis(SUS- 304 of Japanese Industrial Standard) workpiece of ‘Bikes OFZ sam The pave sppy ond = an toragpe EDM Geist having texpactor of Oa Became acca an aay ep eat [sted to provide machining plac with apse dors ‘on ron) of microsecond pentyl (oof mmecmn Flee ving (V0) of Wat + i current (Ip of smperes and x mean curs (i) Of amperes. The machintag foi is dated water of spools eit of 108 ohm-om and a epee tute of 2¢° and supplied at varios presurey The tmachining refs ae shown by carve Ante graph in moval fate (s/n) Poted common lutte vee and tbe Dsore of the water Mud ploted slong the abscis Toon common lpariimle tal: Contopoeding 12 ove As the graph oF FIG. 4 also carrie curve © with the ow quity (e/a) and cure D wth te ow iia fh ate machi pes soe Tot cade edits both het aga fare wc ede Nf oesip [ar aa eae 2 F “> minomfh. é cuter dimatr of 29 3 Hap Bs, 4,393,292 1 From the graphs it can be seen that for given machin- ing conditions, the removal rate is given ata function of the water fluid pressure. Curve A indicates that the removal rate sharply rises in the vicinity where the pressure exceeds 10 kg/cm? reaches a maximum vale 5 (=28 mm/min) when the pressure is about 60 Ke/em?, ‘and then levels down when the presture exceeds 70 10 80 ke/em?, eventually saturating at a constant level, ‘While a precise reason why the level-down occurs has rot yet Been ascertained, it can be assumed that this is due to the energy density of machining discharges being insufficient to meet with the increased flow quantity or rate of the fluid. When the energy density is increased by changing any one or more of machining pulse pa- rameters: ron, roff and Ip and/or changing or eliminat- ing the capacitance of the capacitor to increase the ‘mean current (Im), itis found thatthe region of satura- tion of the removal rate shifts towards the higher pres- sure side and its maximum possible level is increased. EXAMPLE Il Example Tis followed except that the water machin- ing fluid has a temperature of 60° C. and machining pulses have a pulse duration (ron) of 6 microseconds, 8 pulse interval (roff) of 2 microseconds and a peak cUr- Tent (Ip) of 16 amperes and a capacitor ofa capacitance 0f0.1 microfarad is connected across the machining gap to-adjust the mean cucrent at 4 amperes. Its found that with a fuid pressure of 100 kg/em?, the removal rate reaches 40 mm/min. ‘in both Example I and Il, holes formed through the ‘workpiece have a diameter of 0.35 mm with an overcut ‘of 0.025 mm, a surface roughness of 3 microns Rmax. ‘The relative electrode weat or the electrode wear dic 55 vided by the workpiece stock removal is proportional {o the mean machining current and ranges between 100 and 120%. 1 has been found that gases in an amount of 330 to 350 cm! are generated in the machining process pet 1 4p ‘gram of stock removal of the workpiece, the amount being found to be dependent only upon the machining ‘uid’ and independent from electrode and workpiece iaterials and electrical machining conditions. Tt has been found advantageous to supply the water machin- {ng fuid in an amount two or more times in quantity or volume greater than the gases produced, viz. 660 to 700 com per I gram of stock removel, In the machining of a greater depth to diameter ratio hhole or with a greater jength to diameter (L/D) ratio 9 electrode, it has been found advantageous to limit the formation of projection integral with the workpiece in the hole being machined because it tends to cause a shortcircuiting between the tool electrode and the ‘workpiece on one hand and also to impede the passage ‘of the water machining fluid through the gap on the ‘other hand. Therefore, preferably the tool electrode should be dimensioned as to its inner diameter and the ‘machining conditions as to, for example, the conductiv- ity of the water machining fluid and parameters of the 60 ‘machining current pulses, should beset so as to Tmt the formation of the projection toa smallest possible extent EXAMPLE IIL ‘Example Is followed except that an ultrasonic vibra- 65 tion of s frequency of 28 kHz and an output power of 20 ‘watts i imparted to the tool electrode and the machin- ing results are shown by curve B inthe graph in FIG. 4 0 20 30 “s 8 It is seen that by imparting an ultrasonic vibration axially to the tool electrode, the removal rate is in- creased to two to several times greater than without the Vibration. FIG. 5 shows « modified arrangement 44 for impart ing an ultrasonic vibration to the tool electrode. The arrangement includes a pipe 42 for coaxially receiving the tubular electrode 1 and having the end plate of an arm 43 welded thereto. An ultrasonic horn 44 has a tip 45 held in tangential engagement and in light contact with the elongated tool electrode. The exemplary forms of the portion of the horn in engagement with the tool electrode are shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B. In the em- bodiment of FIG. 6A, the tip 45 is formed on is for- ward sutface with an elongated V-slot 45a to slidably receive the electrode 1 therein. In the embodiment of FIG. 6B, the tip 48' is formed with a V-slot ring 45% ‘with which the tool electrode 1is brought into engage- ‘ment transversely to the axis ofthe horn 44, Tn the arrangement of FIG. 8, the too! holder element 42 is advantageously afforded a protection from dam- age by the ultrasonic vibration. Further, the tool elec- ‘rode can be rotated during a course of machining with ‘out the necessity to rotate the vibrator assembly. EXAMPLE IV Workpieces of various materials are machined using copper electrodes and the same clectrical pulse condi- tions as used in Example I, applying a fuid pressure of 50 Kg/em? to a water machining fluid as used in Ex- ‘ample I and imparting transversely to the electrode an tltrasonic vibration with a frequency of 28 kHz and an ‘output power of 20 wats. The machining results are ‘summarized in Table below. TABLE 1 Work piece Removal TEE eterrode “ite Rettive Wortsitce ‘sess lame an” cade taseral Gam) “(umd_ i) _ Wear 0) Remon Sear Teo a ee er) we 6 0 10 Sn 8 8 =pn 8s kato epee ica sue a ‘Spector sus ate Sra el vo, ‘The ultrasonic vibration ata frequency in the range between 2 to 30 kHz has been found to provide similar results. Further when the electrode is composed of ‘copper-zine alloys, tungsten or molybdenum and de- pending upoa the sizes of outer and inner diameters and the length ofthe too electrode, lengths ofthe electrode above and below the holder, the rate of flow of the ‘water machining fluid and the mean machining current density, it has been found that a frequency in the range between 0 kHz and 100 kHz or a frequency in the range between 1 and 10 MHz, say, L6 MHz with 5 ‘Watts are satisfactory and may yicld even a better result tan the frequency of 25 KHz with 10 watt ‘The ultrasonic vibration may be generated by means of an electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element. Be- Sides, a combination of an electric field and » magnetic 4,393,292 field maybe lie, In letra charge machining, econ creat a posed tnoogh tn cies ment ata high equeney, sy, 100 ile and the erntag lect Ned srs ro thi inert Garret ptage ean be wed in onjncion wih «uid ftclond or lranog mapas fod whlch my eer Illy be applied erheporlly tothe tool electrade fo prokece tf uwouis Hatin of te ol eeoose ‘Tact i thu provide an nproved EDM meted and appari which permis hole of a dameter a Suite mm or es Sd wep io nse ral a large as 5 to 10 to be machined efficiently. The hirer enbodinen of teevgrenton show FIG. Yaslender tube oth tlt Sectre 101 Jomupioed witra worgloss HER spore by 2 thelr formed at tee oa hor 108 eerzed >y te ultwonle brag oon tc a hgh rere ‘ter machining Old fom source bw nrodueed throu apg 08 iv the clecuode 101 and supled to ut machlsng gap © whe achning punt are toned tor an EBM power supply 15 between the {Sir cectrode 01 und the wontpce ae prvomly cased: The vraling eloneat 104 eerpzcd by © hishteqicney power suppy 180 fo prosoce an a ‘onl vibrato Sigua which sampled by the 10s and thereby Sameated tothe oe scrote To taues it to vrs aa quency fa the ngs beter 10 1000 kil: ‘The hghtfeqency wbraion of the Hea eee een eee ing prods Com tb pgion ofthe machining pap © ‘wil prompt cxinpusing an ar ducharge ortho ‘oullng a occu Beige te tol eleuode 01 Gnd the ortpisce 8, ho pring tna da ‘harge ob repel produced through he gap © witaneakaned sity Te ampli of the eae ton ranges berveent wat 20 ort In tt sem of FIGST-a power aupply cut includes aga lage etc town by nestor 31 connie rb te nny gap 0, moat the Contin ofthe machining gape Pc egal Sever peat ie redor 91 rpoeing ihe rexnmactinng Stage ston the gap Gand nfo oa treba eu Tez op a Schmit igger ota coubonton of Schmit inge cout WGN has ¢sogle or 2 ual of ‘heh levels preset therein and an output fed fo 4 ontel circu 12 for conoling the super power ot thc high fequency power spy 160 When th te ta cl 102s an reted gap mean vag the contol crt 10 sets onthe poe py 0065 to redus iy ouput power mpled To the element {os Urey reduce apes vraon i parted (ote elec 101, When the rtd cru Tt indiats a redoed gap mean vliage, the conta cheat 159 acts on tke power suply 10 0 10 ie Crea f2 up power supplied fo the sleent 104 ‘hereby increing the ample of virion fparted icfedette haope ote t the elocuode 101 in pene fete op valine pe Senting change in the gap Soman it chs schioved ‘When the gap volage rope elow apres vac Tecsing wt wacenive fecumuluice of mashing producti the pap © whch nds to come aa di Saige he nmtade of inden te Inrened to's Hie vale eh 10 micon tole femal ofthe cumulated aechning protects Th con partion fey urge in ding El ele oe per sal lice caeieom eaunasneduscce » 2s 38 4s 50 © 6 10 EXAMPLE V A WC-496Co workpiece is drilled with a tubular copper electrode of 0.5 mm diameter and using a water ‘machining luid ofa specific resistivity of 10 ohm-cm st room temperature. A highefrequency vibration at a frequency of 28 kHz is applied to the electrode and machining pulses have a pulse duration (ron) of 1 mi- ‘erosecond, a pulse interval (ff) of 3 microseconds, a peak curreat p) of 20 and a'mean current (la) ‘of 45 amperes. The mode of vibration is controlled in respi 16 the machining gap condition in such a man- ner that when the gap voltage exceeds 20 volts the vibration has an amplitude reduced to 10 1820 microns and when the gap voltage drops below 20 vols, the vibration has an amplitude increased to 30 to $0 mic rons, The relationship between the machining depth and the machining time is represented by curve A inthe graph A of FIG. 9. Curve B in the same graph shows tho corresponding relationship found inthe case where the amplitude of vibration is held ata constant value the range between 10 and 20 microns. Tris seca that gap vollage responsive amplitude control permits ma- Chining to continue without substatal drop in removal MM, practical limit of the machining depth FIG. 8 shows the waveform of a modified output signal ofthe high-frequency power supply 180 for ener- izing clectrical mechanical transducer element 108, ‘The signal compriss a series of time-spaced trains of plies im which the pulses are produced at a high fre ‘quency, say, 28 KHz and are periodically interrupted at {low frequency, say, 100 Hz to 10 kHz, to provide intermittently occuering train. Accordingly the horas 103 transmis the modified vibration signal to vibrate the tool electrode 101 intermittently. This form of v- bration has been fund to be advantageous to avoid an ex al the holder or interfacial portion J (Chek) 102 and ts consequcntial damage ‘ Inthe arrangement of FIG. 10, single power supply 154 is used both to provide machining pulses between the fool electrode 101 and the workpece IIT and to ‘energize the clectromechanical transducer 104 for vi tating the electrode 101. In this embodiment as well, the horn 103 as the vibration amplifier is shown sup- porting longitudinally the tool electrode 108 and having them coupled a a holder 102. ‘The power supply 154 here comprises a DC source 4155 and a power switching transistor 156 whose prini- pal electrodes are. connected in ith the DC Source 185 across load terminals 154a and 154b which fre none hd connected (othe tpol electrode 103 and the Workplece 111 and on the other connected tothe ‘tansducer 104 via an RC coupling 187 which consti tutes a filter network The contre electrodes of the Switch 156 are fed by an AND gate 158 having a frst input fed by a high-frequency oscillator 159 and a fond input fed by low-frequency oscilla oscillator 189 provides output signal pulses of a fre ‘guency between 100 KHz and 10 MHz and an on-time ‘roa and an off-time rofT while the oscillator 160 pro- ‘ides output signal pulses of a frequency between 10, [lz and 100 kits and having an on-time Ton and an off-time Toff, The logical-product coupling of the out- pls ofthe two oscillators 159 and 160 by the gate 158 produces signal pulses in a succession of time-spaced {rains as shown in FIG. 11 at the inpt tthe transistor MO 1 othe ach? Fate with increase in machining depth and increases the Zo 52 \e ak b 5, al 4,393,292 nn 156 and hence across the output terminals 1840 and 1840 of the power supply 154. ‘A. succession of trains (Ton, Tof) of pulses (rom, off) are on one hand applied across the tool electrode 4301 and the workpiece 111 to produce the correspond- 5 ing trains of machining pulses across the gap G flooded with the water machining fluid under an elevated pret- sure as described previously to remove material from the workpiece 111. On the other hand the same trains of signal pulses are applied via the iter 157 to energize the 10 ransducer 106 to bring the tool electrode 101 into an intermittent vibration with a duration of vibration Ton ‘and 2 duration of interruption or an interval of succes- five vibrations Toff EXAMPLE VI A WC4%Co workpiece is machined with an ar- rangement generally shown in FIG. 10 and using @ tubular copper electrode of 0.5 mm diameter and a distilled water as the machining fluid of a specific resis- 20, tivity of 10% ohm-cm. The high-frequency oscillator 159 Jnas an output frequency of 200 kHz while the low-fre- ‘quency ofcillator 160 has an output frequency of 28 Fiz. When the machining pulses have a mean mach ing current of 4.5 amperes, a hole of 6 mm depth is ‘machined in the workpiece in 2 period of S minutes. ‘The arrangement of FIG. 12 includes 2 setting unit 161 for selectively changing the output power of the high-frequency power supply 180 for energizing the transducer 104, thereby selectively changing the ampli- tude of vibration imparted to the tool electrode 101, say in throe steps (1) 3 to 10 microns, 2) 10 to 20 microns and (3) 20 10 30 microns. Selective changes inthe ampl tude of vibration have been found to be desirable cording to particular mechining purposes, for example, 35 ‘when different overeuts are desied, EXAMPLE VIE A ferrous workpiece is machined using a copper electrode and a water machining fluid of specific 40 resistivity of 108 ohmem, Machining pulses have an ‘on-time Ton= 10 microseconds and an of-time roft=10 microseconds. A hole of 10 mm depth is machined while vibrating the tool electrode ata frequency of 28 Fiz and with various amplitudes. The hole has an over- 45 ut of 32 microns when no vibration is imparted, an overcui of 8 microns when the baton has an ampli S.mlcrous, an overcut of 82 microns when the vibration amplitude is 20 microns and an overcut of 170 microns when the amplitude is 50 microns. Tis seen that with no change in electrical machining settings, a desired overcut is obtainable simply by ad~ Justing the amplitude of vibration imparted to the tool ‘electrode. The setting unit 183 may be formed with a plurality of setting positions which can be selectively set in accordance with a particular overcut desired. The setting can also be switched from one position to an- other during a given course of machining operation where the hole should have stepped overcuts in the

S-ar putea să vă placă și