UNIVERSITATEA „AUREL VLAICU” ARAD

FACULTATEA DE INGINERIE

PROIECT
REŢELE DE CALCULATOARE
IMPLEMENTARE ROUTER SOFTWARE PE SISTEM DE OPERARE LINUX

AUTOMATIZĂRI ŞI INFORMATICĂ APLICATĂ AN III STUDENT: DANITY SRGIAN PROF. COORD. PETCU MARIUS

router-ul ce urmează a fi configurat şi gateway-ul ISP-ului. Masca 255.0.0.0 10.0.3 2x 2x SWITCH 8 PORTURI 1x ROUTER ETH0=192.2 .0.2. Resurse disponibile Se dispune de: 1) Computer dotat cu o singură placă de reţea 2) Sistem de operare linux cu acces la contul de ‘root’ 3) Două reţele de tip LAN cu 2 calculatoare in fiecare reţea 4) Switch cu 8 porturi 5) Legăturile fizice prin intermediul switch-ului între cele 2 reţele.1.0.0.3 10.0 Reţea 10.255. III.255.2 10.1. Masca 255.0.255.1 ETH0:2=10.1.168.0.222 ETH0:1=10.2.I.0.255.2.0. II.1.1.168. Cerinţa Se doreşte implementarea unui router pentru a face legătura a două reţele cu Internet-ul.2 10.1.1 FIREWALL (LIPSEŞTE) GATEWAY ISP 192.2. Topoligie Reţea 10.

33.255.nf_nat.6. 0.1.0 root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:2 10. Kernel-ul sistemului de operare (Slackware Linux 13.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20b:dbff:fe92:222/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 .0.nf_nat nf_conntrack 42669 4 ipt_MASQUERADE.255 Mask:255.00.ip_tables ipv6 229909 36 B)Configurarea router-ului software a.00.0 b.255.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 192. Implementarea soluţiei de routing a pachetelor A) Prezentarea situaţiei de la începutul procedurii a.iptable_nat. Configurarea interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:1 10. Modulele încărcate root@poweredge:~# lsmod | grep ip ipt_MASQUERADE 1274 1 iptable_nat 4171 1 nf_nat 12555 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.iptable_filter x_tables 10626 3 ipt_MASQUERADE.167 18:24 0.4-smp.168.iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 9349 3 iptable_nat. Accesul la consolă root@poweredge:/# w 18:44:09 up 21 min.1 netmask 255.01s w c.222 Bcast:192. 1 user.255.1.15s 0.1) root@poweredge:/# cat /etc/motd Linux 2.2. Utilzatorul root@poweredge:/# whoami root b.1 netmask 255.IV.iptable_nat.255.255.00s 0.0.1.nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 867 1 nf_conntrack_ipv4 iptable_filter 2026 0 ip_tables 8674 2 iptable_nat. load average: 0.255.168. 0.168. d. Rezultatele configurării interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:/# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:192.1.

0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:480 (480.0.1 Mask:255.034/0.0 Metric U U U 0 UG Ref 0 0 0 0 1 Use 0 0 0 0 0 Iface 0 0 0 lo 0 eth0 eth0 eth0 eth0 .032/0.255. 64 bytes from 10.1. time 1000ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.032 ms 64 bytes from 10.035/0.033/0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.1) 56(84) bytes of data. time 999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.1 (10.0 0.0.0.3 KiB) TX bytes:525580 (513.2. 2 received.0 10.0.2.0.1.0 B) TX bytes:480 (480.0 U 0.037/0.0 255.0.1.2. 0% packet loss.0 192.0.255.168.2.255. Interogarea tebelului de rute root@poweredge:/# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway 10.034 ms --.10.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 eth0:2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.2 KiB) eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0 255.033 ms --.255 Mask:255.1.2 Genmask Flags 255.255 Mask:255.0.255.037 ms 64 bytes from 10.255.2. 0% packet loss. Trimiterea de semnal ICMP (ping) către interfeţele virtuale root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.0.0.1.032/0. link ok d.0.1.255.0 127.255.0.0.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.0.255.0.1 PING 10.0.0.0.2 Bcast:10.2.2.0 0.255.0 192.0.0 0.0.1.0 0.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.1 Bcast:10.RX packets:1914 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1611 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:168255 (164.168.0.0.0. Interogarea stării interfeţelor root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:1 eth0:1: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0.0.0.0.1.0.0 255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.1 PING 10.0. 2 received.0.0.0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.1 (10.005 ms root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.006 ms e. link ok root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:2 eth0:2: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0. 64 bytes from 10.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.10.0.0 0.0.0 B) c.1.0.0.0.0.0.

1. : 10. . load average: 0. . .1 Parametrii interfeţei de reţea PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .1.1.1 f.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10.0.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Lost = 0 (0% loss).1 Pinging 10. . . .1. .2: Packets: Sent = 2. Comenzi de control din reţeaua 10. . . : 255. 0.0. Received = 2. Maximum = 0ms. .0 Default Gateway . Revenire la consola router-ului pentru continuarea configurării root@poweredge:~# w 16:40:04 up 22:17. .1.1.1.1: Packets: Sent = 2.255.0.f.3 Semnal ICMP din reţeaua 10. .00s w h.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Reply from 10.0. 0.1. .05 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 10.1.01s 0.0. . Average = 0ms g.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 10. Received = 2. . . .255. Average = 0ms f.0.2 Pinging 10.0. . Interogarea stării rutelor . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.1. . .1. .0. .1. .2 16:39 0.00s 0.1.0 către router C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Ping statistics for 10. 1 user.0. : IP Address. .2 Semnal ICMP către propria interfaţă PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2 Subnet Mask .24. .0. Maximum = 0ms.0.0. : 10.0.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 10.1. .1.0.0.0 f. . . .10.

. : 10.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10. Received = 2.1. : IP Address. . . .com [74. .2 Subnet Mask .1. . .104] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.1.0.125.125.0.87.2.ipv4.0.ip_forward net.0.com Pinging google.255.2. . .1.125.0.ip_forward = 1 j.root@poweredge:~# ip route 10.ipv4.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10. .1 192.87.0.87. . Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google.0. Accesarea consolei PC2 din reţeaua 10.1 l.0.2 dev eth0 metric 1 i.255. .168. Revenire la consola PC2 din reţeaua 10. . . Interogarea permisiunii de rutare a pachetelor root@poweredge:~# sysctl net. .0 Default Gateway . .1. .222 127. . Lost = 0 (0% loss).1.1 10. . .1. : 10. : 255.2. : . .104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 74. . .87.0/8 dev lo scope link default via 192.0. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .0.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Reply from 74. .1. Average = 98ms m. Maximum = 98ms. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 98ms. .0. Activarea neconditionată a mascheradei pachetelor dintre reţelele interne şi gateway-ul ISP-ului root@poweredge:~# iptables –t nat –A POSTROUTING –o eth0 –j MASQUERADE k.0.104: Packets: Sent = 2. .168. .168. . .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.125.

2 39 ms adsl89-122-216-254. . Concluzii În urma comenzilor arătate am arătat că.87.99: Packets: Sent = 2.178 97 ms 72. Interogarea rutei până la gazda aflată la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>tracert google. . .125. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 99ms.com Tracing route to google.85.45 82 ms 10.22 83 ms 74.37 81 ms 10. : 255. . . .0. .87.2.200. Calculatorul folosit pentru a servi ca şi router având o singură interfaţă de reţea conectată la cele 2 reţele private şi la Internet prin intermediul unui switch.125. . : 10.245.87. Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google.85. .255.87.200.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Reply from 74. .14. .81 84 ms 209.87. .0 Default Gateway .125.1 n. .99] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 <1 ms <1 ms 49 ms 39 ms 81 ms 90 ms 94 ms 84 ms 84 ms 105 ms 99 ms 107 ms 103 ms <1 ms <1 ms 39 ms 39 ms 82 ms 84 ms 82 ms 84 ms 84 ms 98 ms 99 ms 101 ms 120 ms <1 ms 10.com [74.0. S-a stabilit tabelul de rute conform topologiei alese şi a gateway-ului furnizat de provider-ul serviciilor de Internet. Lost = 0 (0% loss). .216.254] 39 ms 10.225. .2 Subnet Mask .0.125.217 112 ms hb-in-f99.50.14.255. . .0.250 99 ms 209.125.99] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74. : 10. .0. . .99] Trace complete. pornind de la dotările fizice date s-a reuşit crearea de două reţele care comunică cu Internet-ul prin serviciile unui router software bazat pe sistemul de operare Linux. .43 98 ms 72.1 <1 ms 192. s-a ales folosirea a două interfeţe virtuale (eth0:1 respectiv eth0:2).236.125.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Ping statistics for 74. .205 84 ms 10.1e100.com [74. .248.255. Maximum = 99ms. .net [89. . . Average = 99ms o.2. .125. . .0.122. Received = 2. V.romtelecom.IP Address.2.1.com Pinging google. .168.87.0.232.net [74.

verificându-se un total de 13 noduri cu timp total întârziere de 120ms.2.1. cu menţiunea că serviciile furnizorului sunt accesate printr-un modem ADSL. .Ulterior am configurat staţiile celor două reţele să folosească ca şi gateway adresele 10.0.1 aparţinând router-ului după care am verificat conexiunea dintre reţele şi router folosind semnale ICMP. S-a interogat ruta completă de la o staţie din reţelele interne către gazda aflată la distanţă. s-a făcut activarea mascheradei pachetelor. Având confirmarea configurării corecte până la această etapă. S-a testat configuraţia router-ului folosind semnale ICMP din reţelele interne către o gazdă Internet aflată la distanţă.0.1 respectiv 10.

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