UNIVERSITATEA „AUREL VLAICU” ARAD

FACULTATEA DE INGINERIE

PROIECT
REŢELE DE CALCULATOARE
IMPLEMENTARE ROUTER SOFTWARE PE SISTEM DE OPERARE LINUX

AUTOMATIZĂRI ŞI INFORMATICĂ APLICATĂ AN III STUDENT: DANITY SRGIAN PROF. COORD. PETCU MARIUS

0.0.168.255.255.0.0.222 ETH0:1=10.2. Cerinţa Se doreşte implementarea unui router pentru a face legătura a două reţele cu Internet-ul.3 10.2. Topoligie Reţea 10.0.2.0.1 ETH0:2=10.2.0. router-ul ce urmează a fi configurat şi gateway-ul ISP-ului.0. Masca 255.1.255.2 10.1.0.1.0 Reţea 10.2 .1.1.255.3 2x 2x SWITCH 8 PORTURI 1x ROUTER ETH0=192.1.0 10.1 FIREWALL (LIPSEŞTE) GATEWAY ISP 192. Masca 255.0. Resurse disponibile Se dispune de: 1) Computer dotat cu o singură placă de reţea 2) Sistem de operare linux cu acces la contul de ‘root’ 3) Două reţele de tip LAN cu 2 calculatoare in fiecare reţea 4) Switch cu 8 porturi 5) Legăturile fizice prin intermediul switch-ului între cele 2 reţele. III.2 10.I. II.168.

1.168.255.0.iptable_nat. d.iptable_nat.0 b.ip_tables ipv6 229909 36 B)Configurarea router-ului software a.nf_nat nf_conntrack 42669 4 ipt_MASQUERADE. 0.4-smp.15s 0.2. 1 user.nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 867 1 nf_conntrack_ipv4 iptable_filter 2026 0 ip_tables 8674 2 iptable_nat.255.255.255.00s 0.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20b:dbff:fe92:222/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 .1 netmask 255. Modulele încărcate root@poweredge:~# lsmod | grep ip ipt_MASQUERADE 1274 1 iptable_nat 4171 1 nf_nat 12555 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.168.nf_nat.1 netmask 255.00.255.6. Rezultatele configurării interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:/# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:192. 0.01s w c.0 root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:2 10.168.222 Bcast:192. Kernel-ul sistemului de operare (Slackware Linux 13. Implementarea soluţiei de routing a pachetelor A) Prezentarea situaţiei de la începutul procedurii a.1.255.33.167 18:24 0.1) root@poweredge:/# cat /etc/motd Linux 2.1.iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 9349 3 iptable_nat. Configurarea interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:1 10.iptable_filter x_tables 10626 3 ipt_MASQUERADE.0. Accesul la consolă root@poweredge:/# w 18:44:09 up 21 min. Utilzatorul root@poweredge:/# whoami root b.1.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 192.00.IV.255 Mask:255. load average: 0.

0.1 (10.032/0.2.2.0.1.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 eth0:2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:480 (480. Interogarea tebelului de rute root@poweredge:/# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway 10.0.255.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.0 0.0.1.2 Genmask Flags 255. 0% packet loss.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.0.2.255.2.1 Mask:255.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.0.0.034 ms --.0.0.1.255.005 ms root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.0 0. Interogarea stării interfeţelor root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:1 eth0:1: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.168.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.033/0.037/0.037 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0.168.1 Bcast:10.0 127.0 0. link ok d.0.2.255.3 KiB) TX bytes:525580 (513.255.255.0 255.035/0.255 Mask:255.0.0.0 192.0 255.1.0.255.033 ms --.0. 2 received.0.0.0.1.RX packets:1914 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1611 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:168255 (164.032 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.0 10. link ok root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:2 eth0:2: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.255 Mask:255.006 ms e. Trimiterea de semnal ICMP (ping) către interfeţele virtuale root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.1 PING 10.0.1.1. 2 received.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.0.0 255.1.255.0.034/0.0.2 Bcast:10.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.2.0.0.0.1.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.10. time 999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.0 B) TX bytes:480 (480.0.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.0.0 B) c. 64 bytes from 10.0.0.10. 64 bytes from 10. 0% packet loss.0 U 0.0.0.032/0.1 (10.2 KiB) eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0.0.0 Metric U U U 0 UG Ref 0 0 0 0 1 Use 0 0 0 0 0 Iface 0 0 0 lo 0 eth0 eth0 eth0 eth0 .255.0 192.0 0.2.255.0 0.1 PING 10. time 1000ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.0.0.0.

1. .0.00s 0.1.255.0. .1.0. .0 Default Gateway .3 Semnal ICMP din reţeaua 10.0. : 255.2 Subnet Mask . .0 către router C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10.1. load average: 0.2 16:39 0.1 Pinging 10. . 0. Received = 2. : 10.0. . Received = 2.1.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Reply from 10.0. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2 Semnal ICMP către propria interfaţă PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10. . . .2 Pinging 10. .1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10.01s 0. Maximum = 0ms.24. .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 10. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. . .1: Packets: Sent = 2.0.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Ping statistics for 10.1. Maximum = 0ms. Comenzi de control din reţeaua 10. . Interogarea stării rutelor .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 10. .1 f.0. .0. . .f. .1.1 Parametrii interfeţei de reţea PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .1. 1 user. : 10. .10.0.0. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Revenire la consola router-ului pentru continuarea configurării root@poweredge:~# w 16:40:04 up 22:17. .0.1. : IP Address.1. 0.05 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 10.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10.0. .1. Average = 0ms g.1.1.1. Lost = 0 (0% loss). . .1.2: Packets: Sent = 2.0 f. . .00s w h. .0.255. . Average = 0ms f.0.

. Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google.2. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . .125. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 98ms.1.ipv4.2. : .2 Subnet Mask .0. . .222 127.1 192.2. .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192. . .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10.87. : 10. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .168.0. Interogarea permisiunii de rutare a pachetelor root@poweredge:~# sysctl net. .168. : IP Address.87.104] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.ip_forward net.104: Packets: Sent = 2. .ip_forward = 1 j.0.1 10. . Revenire la consola PC2 din reţeaua 10.2 dev eth0 metric 1 i.1. . . .104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 74.125. .87.1 l. : 10.255. .1.0.0. Activarea neconditionată a mascheradei pachetelor dintre reţelele interne şi gateway-ul ISP-ului root@poweredge:~# iptables –t nat –A POSTROUTING –o eth0 –j MASQUERADE k.0.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Reply from 74. . .ipv4. Maximum = 98ms.87.1. .125.0.0. .255.125. . Accesarea consolei PC2 din reţeaua 10.1.0. Average = 98ms m. : 255. .0/8 dev lo scope link default via 192. . .1.0.0.1.168.com Pinging google. . Lost = 0 (0% loss).0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10. .root@poweredge:~# ip route 10.0.com [74.0 Default Gateway .1. . Received = 2. . .

200.0 Default Gateway . .2.87. Interogarea rutei până la gazda aflată la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>tracert google. .net [89. .2.236.87. . .225. .99: Packets: Sent = 2.45 82 ms 10.50.2.com Tracing route to google.1. .232. S-a stabilit tabelul de rute conform topologiei alese şi a gateway-ului furnizat de provider-ul serviciilor de Internet.com [74. . Calculatorul folosit pentru a servi ca şi router având o singură interfaţă de reţea conectată la cele 2 reţele private şi la Internet prin intermediul unui switch. Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google. s-a ales folosirea a două interfeţe virtuale (eth0:1 respectiv eth0:2). .254] 39 ms 10.0. . .IP Address.87. .205 84 ms 10.1e100.178 97 ms 72.168.125.net [74. .14.0. .99] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74. Average = 99ms o.0.2 39 ms adsl89-122-216-254.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Reply from 74.87. V. .0. : 10. . : 255.245. . : 10.248.22 83 ms 74.250 99 ms 209. Concluzii În urma comenzilor arătate am arătat că.1 n.romtelecom. .37 81 ms 10. .0.81 84 ms 209.2 Subnet Mask . pornind de la dotările fizice date s-a reuşit crearea de două reţele care comunică cu Internet-ul prin serviciile unui router software bazat pe sistemul de operare Linux.255.122.14. Lost = 0 (0% loss).0.43 98 ms 72.255. .200.125. . Received = 2. .125.216.125. .125.com Pinging google. . . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 99ms. Maximum = 99ms.255. .com [74. . .125.87.85.0.99] Trace complete.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Ping statistics for 74.125.87.99] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 <1 ms <1 ms 49 ms 39 ms 81 ms 90 ms 94 ms 84 ms 84 ms 105 ms 99 ms 107 ms 103 ms <1 ms <1 ms 39 ms 39 ms 82 ms 84 ms 82 ms 84 ms 84 ms 98 ms 99 ms 101 ms 120 ms <1 ms 10.85. .217 112 ms hb-in-f99.1 <1 ms 192. .

Având confirmarea configurării corecte până la această etapă. S-a interogat ruta completă de la o staţie din reţelele interne către gazda aflată la distanţă. verificându-se un total de 13 noduri cu timp total întârziere de 120ms.0. cu menţiunea că serviciile furnizorului sunt accesate printr-un modem ADSL. S-a testat configuraţia router-ului folosind semnale ICMP din reţelele interne către o gazdă Internet aflată la distanţă.1 respectiv 10. .2.0. s-a făcut activarea mascheradei pachetelor.Ulterior am configurat staţiile celor două reţele să folosească ca şi gateway adresele 10.1.1 aparţinând router-ului după care am verificat conexiunea dintre reţele şi router folosind semnale ICMP.