UNIVERSITATEA „AUREL VLAICU” ARAD

FACULTATEA DE INGINERIE

PROIECT
REŢELE DE CALCULATOARE
IMPLEMENTARE ROUTER SOFTWARE PE SISTEM DE OPERARE LINUX

AUTOMATIZĂRI ŞI INFORMATICĂ APLICATĂ AN III STUDENT: DANITY SRGIAN PROF. COORD. PETCU MARIUS

2 .168.2 10.255.2. Masca 255.1.0.0.1.1.2 10.0.0.0.1.3 2x 2x SWITCH 8 PORTURI 1x ROUTER ETH0=192.I. III.168.255.0 Reţea 10.0. Masca 255.0. II.0.1 ETH0:2=10.1.0.2. Topoligie Reţea 10.1 FIREWALL (LIPSEŞTE) GATEWAY ISP 192.222 ETH0:1=10.2.255.1. Resurse disponibile Se dispune de: 1) Computer dotat cu o singură placă de reţea 2) Sistem de operare linux cu acces la contul de ‘root’ 3) Două reţele de tip LAN cu 2 calculatoare in fiecare reţea 4) Switch cu 8 porturi 5) Legăturile fizice prin intermediul switch-ului între cele 2 reţele.0. router-ul ce urmează a fi configurat şi gateway-ul ISP-ului.255.0 10.2. Cerinţa Se doreşte implementarea unui router pentru a face legătura a două reţele cu Internet-ul.3 10.

255.00. Configurarea interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:1 10.255.168. load average: 0.nf_nat nf_conntrack 42669 4 ipt_MASQUERADE. Accesul la consolă root@poweredge:/# w 18:44:09 up 21 min. Kernel-ul sistemului de operare (Slackware Linux 13.01s w c.iptable_filter x_tables 10626 3 ipt_MASQUERADE. Utilzatorul root@poweredge:/# whoami root b. 1 user.255.167 18:24 0. 0.6.1 netmask 255.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 192.255. Implementarea soluţiei de routing a pachetelor A) Prezentarea situaţiei de la începutul procedurii a.33.1.iptable_nat.168.168.nf_nat.ip_tables ipv6 229909 36 B)Configurarea router-ului software a. d.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20b:dbff:fe92:222/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 .255.222 Bcast:192.1 netmask 255.255. Rezultatele configurării interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:/# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:192. Modulele încărcate root@poweredge:~# lsmod | grep ip ipt_MASQUERADE 1274 1 iptable_nat 4171 1 nf_nat 12555 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.00s 0.nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 867 1 nf_conntrack_ipv4 iptable_filter 2026 0 ip_tables 8674 2 iptable_nat. 0.0.1) root@poweredge:/# cat /etc/motd Linux 2.15s 0.1.iptable_nat.IV.0.2.4-smp.00.255 Mask:255.1.iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 9349 3 iptable_nat.0 b.0 root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:2 10.1.

2 KiB) eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0. 64 bytes from 10.0.0 U 0.0 255.006 ms e.0.0.1 PING 10.1. link ok d. time 1000ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0. 0% packet loss.0. 0% packet loss. 2 received.0 B) c.0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.0.0.255.0 0.1) 56(84) bytes of data. link ok root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:2 eth0:2: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0 10.035/0.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127. 2 received.1 PING 10.RX packets:1914 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1611 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:168255 (164.0 255.0.0.0 127.10.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.0.0.0.0 0.033/0.255.255.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.2.255.0.0.255.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 eth0:2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0 B) TX bytes:480 (480. 64 bytes from 10.0 Metric U U U 0 UG Ref 0 0 0 0 1 Use 0 0 0 0 0 Iface 0 0 0 lo 0 eth0 eth0 eth0 eth0 .0 192.034 ms --.1.255.1.032 ms 64 bytes from 10.255 Mask:255.034/0.033 ms --. Interogarea tebelului de rute root@poweredge:/# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway 10.0 0.0 0.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.032/0. Interogarea stării interfeţelor root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:1 eth0:1: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0.0.1. Trimiterea de semnal ICMP (ping) către interfeţele virtuale root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.0.0.0.0.0.1.0.0.2.255 Mask:255.2.1 Mask:255.0.0.0.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:480 (480.0.255.1 Bcast:10.3 KiB) TX bytes:525580 (513.1 (10.037 ms 64 bytes from 10.10.0.1 (10.255.037/0.2 Genmask Flags 255.0.2.2.0.2.0.0.1.2.0.032/0.1.0.0.2 Bcast:10.255.0.0.168.0 255.1.168.0.0.005 ms root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.1.0.255.0 0.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0. time 999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.0 192.

: 10. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.1 Parametrii interfeţei de reţea PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .01s 0.2 Pinging 10. .2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10. Lost = 0 (0% loss). .0.2 Semnal ICMP către propria interfaţă PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10.2 Subnet Mask . Received = 2.0.1. .05 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 10. 0. Interogarea stării rutelor . . 1 user.1.0 către router C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10. Average = 0ms f.10. . .00s w h.1. Maximum = 0ms.0. .0 f. .0.0.1.1.1.0. Lost = 0 (0% loss).2: Packets: Sent = 2.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 10.1. . .0.24. .0. .1.0. .1.255. Comenzi de control din reţeaua 10.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Ping statistics for 10. Revenire la consola router-ului pentru continuarea configurării root@poweredge:~# w 16:40:04 up 22:17. . : IP Address. Average = 0ms g.f.1 Pinging 10. : 10. .1.1.2 16:39 0. .0. .0.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10. Maximum = 0ms.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 10. .0.0 Default Gateway . . . . .1. .1.0.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Reply from 10.1: Packets: Sent = 2. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.00s 0. .255. 0. : 255.0. . . .0. .1 f. .1. load average: 0.3 Semnal ICMP din reţeaua 10.1. Received = 2.

125.1.0/8 dev lo scope link default via 192.87. .1 192. .104: Packets: Sent = 2.168.87.2.2.0. Received = 2.0.ip_forward = 1 j.125. . . . starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .1. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .1. .1.1 10. Maximum = 98ms.0.2 Subnet Mask .168.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168. . Revenire la consola PC2 din reţeaua 10. Average = 98ms m.0 Default Gateway .0. .1. .com Pinging google.0. Interogarea permisiunii de rutare a pachetelor root@poweredge:~# sysctl net.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10. . : .ipv4. .0.0. . .com [74.ipv4.125. .0. .104] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.125. . : 255. .ip_forward net. .222 127. .104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 74.2 dev eth0 metric 1 i.0. Lost = 0 (0% loss). . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 98ms.1 l.root@poweredge:~# ip route 10. .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10. . . Activarea neconditionată a mascheradei pachetelor dintre reţelele interne şi gateway-ul ISP-ului root@poweredge:~# iptables –t nat –A POSTROUTING –o eth0 –j MASQUERADE k. . Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google. .87.0.1.1.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Reply from 74.0.2.255.255. : 10. : 10. Accesarea consolei PC2 din reţeaua 10. .0. : IP Address. . .87.1. .

. . Maximum = 99ms.14. .87.45 82 ms 10. .romtelecom. Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google. .net [89.2.255. .43 98 ms 72. s-a ales folosirea a două interfeţe virtuale (eth0:1 respectiv eth0:2).1 <1 ms 192. pornind de la dotările fizice date s-a reuşit crearea de două reţele care comunică cu Internet-ul prin serviciile unui router software bazat pe sistemul de operare Linux.0.178 97 ms 72.com Tracing route to google. Interogarea rutei până la gazda aflată la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>tracert google.87.50. .255.125.125.87.125.217 112 ms hb-in-f99.1 n.2 Subnet Mask .87.216.122. Calculatorul folosit pentru a servi ca şi router având o singură interfaţă de reţea conectată la cele 2 reţele private şi la Internet prin intermediul unui switch. .200.2 39 ms adsl89-122-216-254. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 99ms. Received = 2.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Reply from 74. .99] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.0. .99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Ping statistics for 74.81 84 ms 209.87. .0 Default Gateway .2. V.125.IP Address. .168.205 84 ms 10.1e100. .com [74.255.200.99: Packets: Sent = 2. Concluzii În urma comenzilor arătate am arătat că.236. : 10.125. .com Pinging google.125.0. .250 99 ms 209.com [74. .99] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 <1 ms <1 ms 49 ms 39 ms 81 ms 90 ms 94 ms 84 ms 84 ms 105 ms 99 ms 107 ms 103 ms <1 ms <1 ms 39 ms 39 ms 82 ms 84 ms 82 ms 84 ms 84 ms 98 ms 99 ms 101 ms 120 ms <1 ms 10. . . . . .14.0. .0. .0.125. Average = 99ms o.245. .22 83 ms 74.37 81 ms 10. Lost = 0 (0% loss).85. .232. . .254] 39 ms 10. . S-a stabilit tabelul de rute conform topologiei alese şi a gateway-ului furnizat de provider-ul serviciilor de Internet.0. . .248.99] Trace complete.225.net [74.87.1. : 255. : 10.2.85.

1 aparţinând router-ului după care am verificat conexiunea dintre reţele şi router folosind semnale ICMP.0. s-a făcut activarea mascheradei pachetelor.1 respectiv 10.Ulterior am configurat staţiile celor două reţele să folosească ca şi gateway adresele 10. verificându-se un total de 13 noduri cu timp total întârziere de 120ms. cu menţiunea că serviciile furnizorului sunt accesate printr-un modem ADSL.2. S-a testat configuraţia router-ului folosind semnale ICMP din reţelele interne către o gazdă Internet aflată la distanţă.1. .0. S-a interogat ruta completă de la o staţie din reţelele interne către gazda aflată la distanţă. Având confirmarea configurării corecte până la această etapă.

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