UNIVERSITATEA „AUREL VLAICU” ARAD

FACULTATEA DE INGINERIE

PROIECT
REŢELE DE CALCULATOARE
IMPLEMENTARE ROUTER SOFTWARE PE SISTEM DE OPERARE LINUX

AUTOMATIZĂRI ŞI INFORMATICĂ APLICATĂ AN III STUDENT: DANITY SRGIAN PROF. COORD. PETCU MARIUS

0.2.0 Reţea 10.255.I.0.1. Cerinţa Se doreşte implementarea unui router pentru a face legătura a două reţele cu Internet-ul.2 10.2 10.2.0. router-ul ce urmează a fi configurat şi gateway-ul ISP-ului.222 ETH0:1=10.0. Masca 255.0.168. Resurse disponibile Se dispune de: 1) Computer dotat cu o singură placă de reţea 2) Sistem de operare linux cu acces la contul de ‘root’ 3) Două reţele de tip LAN cu 2 calculatoare in fiecare reţea 4) Switch cu 8 porturi 5) Legăturile fizice prin intermediul switch-ului între cele 2 reţele.1 ETH0:2=10.2 . III.3 10.168.0 10.2.255.0.1.1.0.2.1.255.1.0. II. Topoligie Reţea 10.0.1.255.3 2x 2x SWITCH 8 PORTURI 1x ROUTER ETH0=192. Masca 255.0.1 FIREWALL (LIPSEŞTE) GATEWAY ISP 192.

1. 0.iptable_nat.iptable_filter x_tables 10626 3 ipt_MASQUERADE.255.iptable_nat.33.1) root@poweredge:/# cat /etc/motd Linux 2.nf_nat nf_conntrack 42669 4 ipt_MASQUERADE. Modulele încărcate root@poweredge:~# lsmod | grep ip ipt_MASQUERADE 1274 1 iptable_nat 4171 1 nf_nat 12555 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.00s 0.01s w c. Configurarea interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:1 10.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20b:dbff:fe92:222/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 .222 Bcast:192.4-smp. Kernel-ul sistemului de operare (Slackware Linux 13.0 b. 1 user.255.255.255. Accesul la consolă root@poweredge:/# w 18:44:09 up 21 min.1.nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 867 1 nf_conntrack_ipv4 iptable_filter 2026 0 ip_tables 8674 2 iptable_nat.0.255.ip_tables ipv6 229909 36 B)Configurarea router-ului software a.1 netmask 255.iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 9349 3 iptable_nat.1 netmask 255.00.1.168.2.1. 0.0. d. load average: 0.255.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 192.6.255 Mask:255.IV.00.167 18:24 0. Utilzatorul root@poweredge:/# whoami root b.168. Implementarea soluţiei de routing a pachetelor A) Prezentarea situaţiei de la începutul procedurii a. Rezultatele configurării interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:/# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:192.nf_nat.15s 0.0 root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:2 10.168.

255.0.033/0.0. 2 received.032 ms 64 bytes from 10.0.034/0.037/0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.2.0 0.0 0.10.1.0.034 ms --.1 (10.0. Interogarea tebelului de rute root@poweredge:/# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway 10.1) 56(84) bytes of data.1) 56(84) bytes of data.0 U 0.0 10.0.255.2 Bcast:10.RX packets:1914 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1611 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:168255 (164.0.1.0.032/0.1.1.0.0. 0% packet loss.1 Mask:255.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0. 2 received.1.2.005 ms root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.032/0.0.0.0.2.0.255.0 255.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 127.033 ms --.0.0.0.0.0. 0% packet loss.10.0.0.0.0. link ok root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:2 eth0:2: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0.037 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.1.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.0 B) c.0. time 999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.255 Mask:255.0.0.1 (10.0.1.0.0.168.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 eth0:2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10. time 1000ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.0 192.0.0.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.1 Bcast:10. Interogarea stării interfeţelor root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:1 eth0:1: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control. link ok d.0.2.2.255.255.255.255.2.2.0 255.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.0.0.0 0.0 B) TX bytes:480 (480.0 0.0 255.2 KiB) eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.1 PING 10.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.0.0.2 Genmask Flags 255.0 0. 64 bytes from 10.255.006 ms e.0 Metric U U U 0 UG Ref 0 0 0 0 1 Use 0 0 0 0 0 Iface 0 0 0 lo 0 eth0 eth0 eth0 eth0 .0.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.0.0 192.3 KiB) TX bytes:525580 (513. Trimiterea de semnal ICMP (ping) către interfeţele virtuale root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.168.1.0.035/0. 64 bytes from 10.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:480 (480.1 PING 10.

0. Maximum = 0ms.1. 0.1.0. . .1.0.1.1. .0.1 Pinging 10.1. .0. Average = 0ms f. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2 Subnet Mask .0. 1 user. Interogarea stării rutelor . . Average = 0ms g.0.1.10. .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 10.0.2 Semnal ICMP către propria interfaţă PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10. : 10. . . Revenire la consola router-ului pentru continuarea configurării root@poweredge:~# w 16:40:04 up 22:17.1 Parametrii interfeţei de reţea PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Maximum = 0ms.05 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 10. .1: Packets: Sent = 2.00s w h.1.0. .255.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 10.1.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Ping statistics for 10. . 0.2 16:39 0. .1.0 Default Gateway . Lost = 0 (0% loss). .1.00s 0. : 255.0.1.0. .0.1. Received = 2.0.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10. Received = 2.3 Semnal ICMP din reţeaua 10. : IP Address. . . .01s 0.1 f. .2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10.1.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Reply from 10.0 f. . Comenzi de control din reţeaua 10.0 către router C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10. . .0. .1.255. . .24.2: Packets: Sent = 2. : 10.f. . . Lost = 0 (0% loss). .0. . load average: 0.2 Pinging 10. .

0. Lost = 0 (0% loss). .2 Subnet Mask . . . Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 74. : 10. .1. .0.1. : IP Address. Interogarea permisiunii de rutare a pachetelor root@poweredge:~# sysctl net.1.1.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10.104: Packets: Sent = 2. .ip_forward net.ip_forward = 1 j.0. . .0. . .0.104] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74. Accesarea consolei PC2 din reţeaua 10.255. Received = 2. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .com [74. .0.168. . .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10.ipv4.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192. .125.168.1 l.125. Activarea neconditionată a mascheradei pachetelor dintre reţelele interne şi gateway-ul ISP-ului root@poweredge:~# iptables –t nat –A POSTROUTING –o eth0 –j MASQUERADE k.1 10.com Pinging google.0.0.125.87.2. .222 127.0 Default Gateway . Revenire la consola PC2 din reţeaua 10.0.2. .0. . .1. : 10.1. . . .2. . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 98ms.0. .root@poweredge:~# ip route 10.1.2 dev eth0 metric 1 i. Average = 98ms m.1.ipv4.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Reply from 74.125. .87. .168.87.87. .1 192.255. : 255. Maximum = 98ms. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .0/8 dev lo scope link default via 192.0. : . . . .

com [74.22 83 ms 74. .200.45 82 ms 10. .87. . . Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google.1e100.178 97 ms 72.99] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 <1 ms <1 ms 49 ms 39 ms 81 ms 90 ms 94 ms 84 ms 84 ms 105 ms 99 ms 107 ms 103 ms <1 ms <1 ms 39 ms 39 ms 82 ms 84 ms 82 ms 84 ms 84 ms 98 ms 99 ms 101 ms 120 ms <1 ms 10. .125.125.37 81 ms 10.com Pinging google.1 <1 ms 192.125. .122. .1. Lost = 0 (0% loss).99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Reply from 74. .87. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 99ms.IP Address.125.81 84 ms 209.0. : 10.0.254] 39 ms 10.0. : 255.com [74. .2 39 ms adsl89-122-216-254. . . s-a ales folosirea a două interfeţe virtuale (eth0:1 respectiv eth0:2).85.99] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.1 n.com Tracing route to google. Received = 2.0.236. Maximum = 99ms. . . .216.225.99] Trace complete. .245. . . .net [74.205 84 ms 10. Calculatorul folosit pentru a servi ca şi router având o singură interfaţă de reţea conectată la cele 2 reţele private şi la Internet prin intermediul unui switch.87. .0 Default Gateway .99: Packets: Sent = 2.87.14. Average = 99ms o.0.2.2. .232.250 99 ms 209.217 112 ms hb-in-f99. Concluzii În urma comenzilor arătate am arătat că.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Ping statistics for 74.255.50.200.87.0. S-a stabilit tabelul de rute conform topologiei alese şi a gateway-ului furnizat de provider-ul serviciilor de Internet.0. V. .125. . . Interogarea rutei până la gazda aflată la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>tracert google.125.85.87. . .2 Subnet Mask . . .romtelecom.125. pornind de la dotările fizice date s-a reuşit crearea de două reţele care comunică cu Internet-ul prin serviciile unui router software bazat pe sistemul de operare Linux.255.net [89.2.255.168.43 98 ms 72. . .248. .14. : 10.

Având confirmarea configurării corecte până la această etapă.1 respectiv 10. s-a făcut activarea mascheradei pachetelor.Ulterior am configurat staţiile celor două reţele să folosească ca şi gateway adresele 10. S-a interogat ruta completă de la o staţie din reţelele interne către gazda aflată la distanţă.0. cu menţiunea că serviciile furnizorului sunt accesate printr-un modem ADSL.0. verificându-se un total de 13 noduri cu timp total întârziere de 120ms.1 aparţinând router-ului după care am verificat conexiunea dintre reţele şi router folosind semnale ICMP.2.1. . S-a testat configuraţia router-ului folosind semnale ICMP din reţelele interne către o gazdă Internet aflată la distanţă.

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