UNIVERSITATEA „AUREL VLAICU” ARAD

FACULTATEA DE INGINERIE

PROIECT
REŢELE DE CALCULATOARE
IMPLEMENTARE ROUTER SOFTWARE PE SISTEM DE OPERARE LINUX

AUTOMATIZĂRI ŞI INFORMATICĂ APLICATĂ AN III STUDENT: DANITY SRGIAN PROF. COORD. PETCU MARIUS

1 FIREWALL (LIPSEŞTE) GATEWAY ISP 192.2.0.0.2.3 2x 2x SWITCH 8 PORTURI 1x ROUTER ETH0=192.0.0.1.0.255.0.0.3 10. Resurse disponibile Se dispune de: 1) Computer dotat cu o singură placă de reţea 2) Sistem de operare linux cu acces la contul de ‘root’ 3) Două reţele de tip LAN cu 2 calculatoare in fiecare reţea 4) Switch cu 8 porturi 5) Legăturile fizice prin intermediul switch-ului între cele 2 reţele.255.I.1.168. router-ul ce urmează a fi configurat şi gateway-ul ISP-ului.2 . II.1.1.255.0.255.2.2 10. Cerinţa Se doreşte implementarea unui router pentru a face legătura a două reţele cu Internet-ul.0 10.2 10. III.168. Masca 255.1.222 ETH0:1=10. Topoligie Reţea 10.0.1 ETH0:2=10. Masca 255.2.1.0.0 Reţea 10.

0.222 Bcast:192.1) root@poweredge:/# cat /etc/motd Linux 2. Configurarea interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:1 10.nf_nat nf_conntrack 42669 4 ipt_MASQUERADE.2.nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 867 1 nf_conntrack_ipv4 iptable_filter 2026 0 ip_tables 8674 2 iptable_nat.168. Utilzatorul root@poweredge:/# whoami root b.168.1. Modulele încărcate root@poweredge:~# lsmod | grep ip ipt_MASQUERADE 1274 1 iptable_nat 4171 1 nf_nat 12555 2 ipt_MASQUERADE.0 b.00.168.nf_nat.01s w c.0 root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:2 10.1 netmask 255.167 18:24 0.00.4-smp.255.ip_tables ipv6 229909 36 B)Configurarea router-ului software a.iptable_nat.15s 0.1. Accesul la consolă root@poweredge:/# w 18:44:09 up 21 min. Rezultatele configurării interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:/# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:192.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 192. Kernel-ul sistemului de operare (Slackware Linux 13.255.255.iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 9349 3 iptable_nat.iptable_nat.255 Mask:255.1 netmask 255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20b:dbff:fe92:222/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 .iptable_filter x_tables 10626 3 ipt_MASQUERADE. 1 user. 0.255.33.1.6.255.IV.00s 0.1.0. load average: 0.255.0. Implementarea soluţiei de routing a pachetelor A) Prezentarea situaţiei de la începutul procedurii a. d.

2 received.0 192.255.0.0.2.0.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0. time 1000ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.0.2.255.1.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.0.0 U 0.255.0.0.0 0.1. 0% packet loss.0.1.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:480 (480.2.0. Trimiterea de semnal ICMP (ping) către interfeţele virtuale root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.0.1.1.0.1 (10.2 KiB) eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.255.0 B) TX bytes:480 (480.0. time 999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.2.255.033 ms --.2. 64 bytes from 10.1 PING 10.1) 56(84) bytes of data.0.0.0.255.0. 64 bytes from 10.006 ms e.1 Bcast:10.0.168.005 ms root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.0.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.1 Mask:255.034 ms --.10.0.0. 0% packet loss.0 0.RX packets:1914 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1611 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:168255 (164.037/0.0.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 eth0:2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.034/0. link ok root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:2 eth0:2: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control. 2 received.10.033/0.0.255.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.0 255.0.255.0 192.1 (10.0.0.0.0.0.0 0.0 10.0.035/0.0 127.2. Interogarea tebelului de rute root@poweredge:/# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway 10.0.168.0.0. link ok d.1.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0 0.255 Mask:255.037 ms 64 bytes from 10.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.0.0.1.0 255.0.0 255.0.255.032 ms 64 bytes from 10.2.0 0.1.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.032/0.2 Genmask Flags 255.255.3 KiB) TX bytes:525580 (513.1.0.0.1 PING 10.0.2 Bcast:10.255 Mask:255.0. Interogarea stării interfeţelor root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:1 eth0:1: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0 B) c.0 Metric U U U 0 UG Ref 0 0 0 0 1 Use 0 0 0 0 0 Iface 0 0 0 lo 0 eth0 eth0 eth0 eth0 .032/0.

24. Revenire la consola router-ului pentru continuarea configurării root@poweredge:~# w 16:40:04 up 22:17.00s 0.0 către router C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10.10. . .1: Packets: Sent = 2.0.0 Default Gateway .0.0. Average = 0ms g.0. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Average = 0ms f. Interogarea stării rutelor . : 10. .1.255.1. .1. Maximum = 0ms.2 Subnet Mask . Received = 2. .01s 0.1 f.1.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 10.1. . Maximum = 0ms. . Comenzi de control din reţeaua 10.0. . Lost = 0 (0% loss). .0. . 0. .0.1. Received = 2.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10.f.1.1. : 255.2 Pinging 10. Lost = 0 (0% loss). load average: 0.2: Packets: Sent = 2. 0.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 10.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Reply from 10.0.0.0. .1 Parametrii interfeţei de reţea PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .1 Pinging 10.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. . 1 user.2 16:39 0.0.0.05 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 10. .0 f. .1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Ping statistics for 10.1. . .3 Semnal ICMP din reţeaua 10. .0. .00s w h. .1. : IP Address. .1. : 10.2 Semnal ICMP către propria interfaţă PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10.0.1. . .1. . . . .0.1.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10. .

.222 127.ipv4.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10. .0.0. . . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 98ms.255.125. Average = 98ms m.1. .168. Maximum = 98ms. . Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google. .104] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74. Lost = 0 (0% loss). .0.255.1 l.0/8 dev lo scope link default via 192. .2.87.125. : IP Address. Revenire la consola PC2 din reţeaua 10. .com [74.1.125.0.1 192.168.com Pinging google.0.2 Subnet Mask . .0.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 74. .1 10.ip_forward = 1 j. Received = 2.87. : 255. Activarea neconditionată a mascheradei pachetelor dintre reţelele interne şi gateway-ul ISP-ului root@poweredge:~# iptables –t nat –A POSTROUTING –o eth0 –j MASQUERADE k.1. : 10. .1. .104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Reply from 74.root@poweredge:~# ip route 10.0.168.1.0.1. Interogarea permisiunii de rutare a pachetelor root@poweredge:~# sysctl net. Accesarea consolei PC2 din reţeaua 10. .2 dev eth0 metric 1 i.87. .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10.ipv4. . : 10.0. .104: Packets: Sent = 2. . .2. . .0. starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.ip_forward net.87. : . .125.1.1. . .0 Default Gateway . .0. . .2.0. . starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .

.125.0. .99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Reply from 74.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Ping statistics for 74. . V.254] 39 ms 10.com Pinging google.255.205 84 ms 10.125.2 Subnet Mask .87. .1e100. .0.22 83 ms 74.217 112 ms hb-in-f99.236.0.250 99 ms 209. .87.com Tracing route to google. .200.net [89.87.125. .99] Trace complete. .2.87. Maximum = 99ms.com [74.99] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.com [74.43 98 ms 72. S-a stabilit tabelul de rute conform topologiei alese şi a gateway-ului furnizat de provider-ul serviciilor de Internet.14. pornind de la dotările fizice date s-a reuşit crearea de două reţele care comunică cu Internet-ul prin serviciile unui router software bazat pe sistemul de operare Linux. : 10. .81 84 ms 209. Lost = 0 (0% loss). .1 n.122. : 10.45 82 ms 10. .87.178 97 ms 72. . .87. . : 255.232.0.200.14. Concluzii În urma comenzilor arătate am arătat că.0.50. s-a ales folosirea a două interfeţe virtuale (eth0:1 respectiv eth0:2).225.248.0. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 99ms.125. .85.romtelecom. .255.1. .IP Address.0 Default Gateway . . .85. Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google.125. .0. . Received = 2. .168. .37 81 ms 10.2 39 ms adsl89-122-216-254.245. . Average = 99ms o. Interogarea rutei până la gazda aflată la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>tracert google. .216. .net [74.99] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 <1 ms <1 ms 49 ms 39 ms 81 ms 90 ms 94 ms 84 ms 84 ms 105 ms 99 ms 107 ms 103 ms <1 ms <1 ms 39 ms 39 ms 82 ms 84 ms 82 ms 84 ms 84 ms 98 ms 99 ms 101 ms 120 ms <1 ms 10.2. Calculatorul folosit pentru a servi ca şi router având o singură interfaţă de reţea conectată la cele 2 reţele private şi la Internet prin intermediul unui switch.125. .2.1 <1 ms 192.99: Packets: Sent = 2.255. . .125.

0. cu menţiunea că serviciile furnizorului sunt accesate printr-un modem ADSL.2. Având confirmarea configurării corecte până la această etapă.0. S-a testat configuraţia router-ului folosind semnale ICMP din reţelele interne către o gazdă Internet aflată la distanţă.1 respectiv 10. .Ulterior am configurat staţiile celor două reţele să folosească ca şi gateway adresele 10.1.1 aparţinând router-ului după care am verificat conexiunea dintre reţele şi router folosind semnale ICMP. verificându-se un total de 13 noduri cu timp total întârziere de 120ms. S-a interogat ruta completă de la o staţie din reţelele interne către gazda aflată la distanţă. s-a făcut activarea mascheradei pachetelor.