UNIVERSITATEA „AUREL VLAICU” ARAD

FACULTATEA DE INGINERIE

PROIECT
REŢELE DE CALCULATOARE
IMPLEMENTARE ROUTER SOFTWARE PE SISTEM DE OPERARE LINUX

AUTOMATIZĂRI ŞI INFORMATICĂ APLICATĂ AN III STUDENT: DANITY SRGIAN PROF. COORD. PETCU MARIUS

3 10.0.222 ETH0:1=10.0.1.1 FIREWALL (LIPSEŞTE) GATEWAY ISP 192.2 10.168.2.1 ETH0:2=10.0 Reţea 10.255.2.168.0. II.1.255.2. Masca 255.0.0.2 .0.2 10.1.0 10.I. Cerinţa Se doreşte implementarea unui router pentru a face legătura a două reţele cu Internet-ul.0.255.0. Masca 255.3 2x 2x SWITCH 8 PORTURI 1x ROUTER ETH0=192.1.1.0.1. Topoligie Reţea 10.255.0. Resurse disponibile Se dispune de: 1) Computer dotat cu o singură placă de reţea 2) Sistem de operare linux cu acces la contul de ‘root’ 3) Două reţele de tip LAN cu 2 calculatoare in fiecare reţea 4) Switch cu 8 porturi 5) Legăturile fizice prin intermediul switch-ului între cele 2 reţele. router-ul ce urmează a fi configurat şi gateway-ul ISP-ului. III.2.

nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 867 1 nf_conntrack_ipv4 iptable_filter 2026 0 ip_tables 8674 2 iptable_nat. Implementarea soluţiei de routing a pachetelor A) Prezentarea situaţiei de la începutul procedurii a.0 b. d.168.00s 0.0 root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:2 10.255.168. Utilzatorul root@poweredge:/# whoami root b.0.iptable_nat. Configurarea interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:~# ifconfig eth0:1 10.nf_nat nf_conntrack 42669 4 ipt_MASQUERADE.1.IV.167 18:24 0.33.6. 0.4-smp.iptable_nat.iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 9349 3 iptable_nat.255.255.00. Accesul la consolă root@poweredge:/# w 18:44:09 up 21 min.nf_nat.01s w c.iptable_filter x_tables 10626 3 ipt_MASQUERADE.1.0. load average: 0.1. 0.ip_tables ipv6 229909 36 B)Configurarea router-ului software a. 1 user.00.1) root@poweredge:/# cat /etc/motd Linux 2.168.222 Bcast:192.2.1 netmask 255.255.1.255. Modulele încărcate root@poweredge:~# lsmod | grep ip ipt_MASQUERADE 1274 1 iptable_nat 4171 1 nf_nat 12555 2 ipt_MASQUERADE. Rezultatele configurării interfeţelor de reţea virtuale root@poweredge:/# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:192.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 192. Kernel-ul sistemului de operare (Slackware Linux 13.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20b:dbff:fe92:222/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 .15s 0.255 Mask:255.255.1 netmask 255.

1) 56(84) bytes of data.255.255.037/0.0.0.006 ms e.0.255.0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.0 255.2 Genmask Flags 255.0.032/0.0.0.0 0.0 192.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.RX packets:1914 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:1611 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:168255 (164.1.0.035/0.1.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127. time 999ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.2.0.0 10.1.1.0.0 B) c.2.255. Interogarea stării interfeţelor root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:1 eth0:1: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0.10.032/0.0 0.034/0.1 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted.0.1.1.0 U 0.0. 64 bytes from 10. link ok d.0 0.0.255 Mask:255. 2 received.0.034 ms --.0.0.2.255.255.255.0.0.1 (10.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.255.168.0.1 PING 10.0 0.2.255 Mask:255.0.005 ms root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.0. 0% packet loss.0.0.0.2 Bcast:10.0.0.033/0.1 Mask:255.0 255.032 ms 64 bytes from 10.3 KiB) TX bytes:525580 (513.0.255.1 PING 10.0. Interogarea tebelului de rute root@poweredge:/# route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway 10.0.2.0.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 eth0:2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0.1.2 KiB) eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0b:db:92:02:22 inet addr:10.0. link ok root@poweredge:/# mii-tool eth0:2 eth0:2: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control.0 255.0.0.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.1 (10.10. time 1000ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.0 Metric U U U 0 UG Ref 0 0 0 0 1 Use 0 0 0 0 0 Iface 0 0 0 lo 0 eth0 eth0 eth0 eth0 .037 ms 64 bytes from 10.0 192.0.1.2.0. Trimiterea de semnal ICMP (ping) către interfeţele virtuale root@poweredge:/# ping -c 2 10.168.1.1 Bcast:10.1) 56(84) bytes of data.0 B) TX bytes:480 (480.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:480 (480.0.0 0.0 127.0.0. 0% packet loss.255. 2 received.033 ms --.0.2. 64 bytes from 10.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.

Lost = 0 (0% loss).255.1.00s w h.2 Semnal ICMP către propria interfaţă PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10.0.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255. . .1: Packets: Sent = 2.0.1 Pinging 10. .05 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT root pts/0 10.1.1. .0.0.1.1.24.2 Subnet Mask . .1. .0. .1.1.0.0. .1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 10. .2 16:39 0.1 f.1.0.1.0.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Ping statistics for 10. : 10. : 255.00s 0.0.1 Parametrii interfeţei de reţea PC2 C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . 1 user. Average = 0ms f. .1. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. .f. : 10. Interogarea stării rutelor .0 către router C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 10. 0. 0. .0. Comenzi de control din reţeaua 10. .0. . Revenire la consola router-ului pentru continuarea configurării root@poweredge:~# w 16:40:04 up 22:17. : IP Address.1. .2 Pinging 10.1. Received = 2.0. .3 Semnal ICMP din reţeaua 10. . . Average = 0ms g. .01s 0. .0 Default Gateway . Received = 2.1.0.0 f.1: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64 Reply from 10. . .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 10. . load average: 0.0. Maximum = 0ms. Maximum = 0ms. .10. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. .2: Packets: Sent = 2. . .2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10. . .

root@poweredge:~# ip route 10.125.87.104: Packets: Sent = 2. .ipv4. Revenire la consola PC2 din reţeaua 10.87.2. : 10. . Maximum = 98ms.87.ipv4. : . .1. Interogarea permisiunii de rutare a pachetelor root@poweredge:~# sysctl net.ip_forward = 1 j. . Average = 98ms m.255.0. .1. Accesarea consolei PC2 din reţeaua 10. .168. .1 10.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 74.0. Received = 2. . . . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 98ms.com Pinging google. . . starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .255. Activarea neconditionată a mascheradei pachetelor dintre reţelele interne şi gateway-ul ISP-ului root@poweredge:~# iptables –t nat –A POSTROUTING –o eth0 –j MASQUERADE k. . : 255.168.104] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.2. .1.125. Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.1 192. .0/8 dev lo scope link default via 192.0.104: bytes=32 time=98ms TTL=52 Reply from 74. .0.0 Default Gateway . .1.0.2 dev eth0 metric 1 i. : IP Address.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10. . . . .1. .0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10.2 Subnet Mask .1.125.0.0.1. .1.1 l.87.0.0.com [74.168. .125. . .ip_forward net.0.222 127.0. Lost = 0 (0% loss). starea interfeţei C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix .0. .2. . : 10.

248.22 83 ms 74. : 255. . Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 99ms.200.50.200.225. V. Concluzii În urma comenzilor arătate am arătat că.232.85. .178 97 ms 72. .125. .254] 39 ms 10.1e100. .0.14. s-a ales folosirea a două interfeţe virtuale (eth0:1 respectiv eth0:2). .250 99 ms 209.87.2.87.1.87.0.com [74. .romtelecom.85. . Interogarea rutei până la gazda aflată la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>tracert google. pornind de la dotările fizice date s-a reuşit crearea de două reţele care comunică cu Internet-ul prin serviciile unui router software bazat pe sistemul de operare Linux.2. .255.net [74.2 39 ms adsl89-122-216-254. .122.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Ping statistics for 74. .168. S-a stabilit tabelul de rute conform topologiei alese şi a gateway-ului furnizat de provider-ul serviciilor de Internet. Maximum = 99ms. Received = 2.com Tracing route to google.236. . . : 10. .0 Default Gateway . .0.217 112 ms hb-in-f99. Average = 99ms o. .0.205 84 ms 10.99: Packets: Sent = 2. . . .87.245.87. . .0.255. Calculatorul folosit pentru a servi ca şi router având o singură interfaţă de reţea conectată la cele 2 reţele private şi la Internet prin intermediul unui switch.125. . .14. .2.125.IP Address.255.99: bytes=32 time=99ms TTL=51 Reply from 74.1 n.37 81 ms 10.99] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 74.0.0.125. : 10.net [89.1 <1 ms 192.43 98 ms 72.125.com [74. . Semnal ICMP către o gazdă la distanţă C:\Documents and Settings\Programare2>ping -n 2 google. .99] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 <1 ms <1 ms 49 ms 39 ms 81 ms 90 ms 94 ms 84 ms 84 ms 105 ms 99 ms 107 ms 103 ms <1 ms <1 ms 39 ms 39 ms 82 ms 84 ms 82 ms 84 ms 84 ms 98 ms 99 ms 101 ms 120 ms <1 ms 10.com Pinging google.125.99] Trace complete.81 84 ms 209.216. .45 82 ms 10.125. . .2 Subnet Mask . Lost = 0 (0% loss).87. .

2. . verificându-se un total de 13 noduri cu timp total întârziere de 120ms.1. s-a făcut activarea mascheradei pachetelor.0.0.1 aparţinând router-ului după care am verificat conexiunea dintre reţele şi router folosind semnale ICMP. cu menţiunea că serviciile furnizorului sunt accesate printr-un modem ADSL.1 respectiv 10. S-a interogat ruta completă de la o staţie din reţelele interne către gazda aflată la distanţă.Ulterior am configurat staţiile celor două reţele să folosească ca şi gateway adresele 10. S-a testat configuraţia router-ului folosind semnale ICMP din reţelele interne către o gazdă Internet aflată la distanţă. Având confirmarea configurării corecte până la această etapă.

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