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UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST, FACULTATEA DE DREPT I TIINE ADMINISTRATIVE , TIMIOARA

DREPTUL MUNCII
SALARIZAREA

Prof. coordonator : Lect.drd. Ale andr! Po"a

Referent: #!nda Son$a M$r!na M$t! Oana Lar$%a Pano$! L!c$a Dan$ela

1. Repere istorice

Pr$&ele re'le&ent(r$ nor&at$)e $n do&en$!l %alar$*(r$$ a! )$*at a'r$c!lt!ra, re%"ect$)e Le'ea "entr! $n)o$el$le a'r$cole d$n +, dece&-r$e ./01. At2t "ro"r$etar$$ de "(&2nt , c2t %$ arenda$$, "entr! a folo%$ aran$$ ca &!nc$tor$ a$ "a&ant!l!$ tre-!$a! %a $nc3e$e c! ce$ $n ca!*a $n)o$le$ a'r$cole. Plata &!nc$$, core%"!n*ator "re!l!$ e$ , tre-!$a %a %e faca n!&a$ $n -an$, fara a "!tea f$ $nloc!$ta c! n$c$ o alta )aloare 4 &arf!r$ , -(!t!r$ .a5. . In $nd!%tr$e "r$&ele re'le&entar$ c! "r$)$re la %alar$! a! a)!t !n caracter ne'oc$at, de)an%2nd re'le&entarea le'al(. In decen$!l al tre$lea al %ecol!l!$ trec!t , %6a! $nc3e$at "r$&ele contracte colect$)e de &!nc( a)and ca o-$ect cond$t$$le de &!nc( $ %alar$$le+. Pr$n le'ea nr. 1178 ./9/ %6a real$*at !n "a% e%ent$al "e lan'a f$ecare $n%"ectorat al &!nc$$ a l!at f$$nta o co&$%$e &$ ta "entr! %ta-$l$rea %alar$$lor &$n$&ale $n cadr!l o"erator$$lor econo&$c$ %a! "e :!de or$ "e t$n!t. ;otarar$le co&$%$$lor %e a"ro-a! de &$n$%tr!l &!nc$$ %$ $ntra! $n )$'oare la data "!-l$car$$ lor $n Mon$tor!l of$c$al. Salar$*area $n do&en$!l ad&$n$%trat$e$ "!-l$ce a fo%t re'le&entata $n &od !n$tar , "r$n nor&e6cadr! c!"r$n%e $n Le'ea nr. .098./+9. A fo%t ado"tat Cod!l &!nc$$ d$n ./70 a"o$, care $n ca"$tol!l )$$ re'le&enta "r$nc$"alele a%"ecte ale %alar$*(r$$, detal$ate !lter$or "r$ntr6o &!lt$t!d$ne de acte nor&at$)e . Pr$nc$"alele caracter$%t$c$ ale re'le&entar$$ %alar$*ar$$ $n te&e$!l Cod!l!$ &!nc$$ d$n ./19 %$ $ndeo%e-$ ale Le'$$ nr. 718./1< a retr$-!$r$$ d!"a cant$tatea %$ cal$tatea &!nc$$ a! fo%t !r&atoarele 6 %e af$r&a ca o-$ect$) al %alar$*ar$$ $&-$narea $ntere%elor "er%onale c! cele %oc$ale 6 "r$n le'e 4 cea a -!'et!l!$ de %tat 5 era $ntrod!%a $n ec!at$a %alar$*ar$$ $deea ec3$tat$$, %e %ta-$lea %alar$!l &$n$& "e econo&$e. Tot "r$n le'e era %ta-$l$t n$)el!l "o%$-$l al %alar$!l!$ &a $& 6 re&!nerarea %e real$*a n! n!&a$ $n f!nct$e de cant$tatea %$ cal$tatea &!nc$$ , c$ %$ $n f!nct$e de $&"ortanta %oc$ala a &!nc$$9 Ince"and c! an!l .//0, "r$n Decret!l = Le'e nr. 978.//0 a! fo%t a-ro'ate o %er$e de acte nor&at$)e d$n do&en$!l %alar$*(r$$, "entr! ca , "r$n Le'ea %alar$*(r$$ nr. .<8.//. %a %e a-ro'ea Le'ea nr.718./1< a retr$-!$r$$ d!"a cant$tatea %$ cal$tatea &!nc$$ %$ %a %e $n%t$t!$e !n %$%te& de %alar$*are concordant c! no$le cond$t$$ %oc$ale %$ "ol$t$ce. Pr$n art$colele .7<6.>1 d$n Cod e%te cont!rat re'$&!l cadr! al %alar$*ar$$, $n cond$t$$le econo&$e$ de "$ata. Conco&$tent, %!nt $n )$'oare d$)er%e acte nor&at$)e refer$toare la %alar$*are.

. +

Ion Tra$an tef(ne%c! , Tratat de dreptul muncii, Ed. ?olter% @l!Aer, #!c!ret$ +001, "'. 71+ Ibidem, "'. 719 9 Ibidem, "'. 71<

Salar$!l "oate f$ def$n$t ca o contra"re%tat$a an'a:ator!l!$ "lat$ta "entr! &!nca "re%tata de %alar$at $n -a*a contract!l!$ $nd$)$d!al de &!nca. 4art. .7< CM5. A%tfel, "entr! &!nca "re%tata,f$ecare "er%oana are dre"t!l la !n %alar$! $n -an$, con)en$t la $nc3e$erea contract!l!$B altfel%"!%, %alar$!l c!"r$nde total$tatea dre"t!r$lor -ane%t$ c!)en$te, c! t$tl! "er&anent %alar$at!l!$, "entr! &!nca %a. S$%te&!l de %alar$*are e%te an%a&-l!l nor&elor "r$n care %e "re)ad o-$ect$)ele, ele&entele %$ for&ele %alar$*ar$$, ca$le %$ $n%tr!&entele %ale de $nfa"t!$re, deter&$nand!6%e cond$t$$le de %ta-$l$re %$ acordare a %alar$$lor. Salar$*area co&"orta: 6rele)area %$t!at$e$ %alar$at!l!$ 6a"rec$erea %alar$!l!$ $n e "re%$e a-%ol!ta %$ relat$)a 6%ta-$l$rea co&"!ner$$ %alar$!l!$ "e ele&ente e $%tente %a! "o%$-$le 6"rec$*area &od!l!$ de ac3$tare a %alar$$lor. I*)oarele: a5 $n %ector!l "r$)at: 6CM art. .7<6.>1 6cc& !n$c la n$)el nat$onal art. 9,67. -5 $n %ector!l "!-l$c: 6Le'ea nr. 9908+00/ ") %alar$*area !n$tara a "er%onal!l!$ "lat$t d$n fond!r$ "!-l$ce 6OUC nr. .8+0.0 6nor&ele d$n CM, $n &a%!ra $n care n! %!nt contrare. Salar$!l a a"(r!t Dn an!&$te cond$$$ econo&$co6%oc$ale, re%"ect$) odat( c! a"ar$t$a celor l$"%$$ de toate cond$$$le nece%are "entr! or'an$*area $ de%f(!rarea "rod!c$e$ Dn afar( de fora lor de &!nc( = &$:loc !n$c de e $%tena. Con%t$t!$e !n ade)(r fa"t!l c( cel care n! are dec2t fora %a de &!nc(, f(r( a d$%"!ne de &$:loace de "rod!c$e $ de ca"$tal -(ne%c, e%te, de re'!l(, o-l$'at %( &!ncea%c( "entr! alt!l, "r$&$nd Dn %c3$&-!l &!nc$$ %ale !n an!&$t %alar$!. D$&"otr$)(, o "er%oan( care de%f(oar( o act$)$tate econo&$c( $nde"endent( 4c!& ar f$, %"re e e&"l!, !n &e%er$a5 d$%"!ne de toate cond$$$le 4for( de &!nc(, !nelte de &!nc(, act$)e -(net$5 "entr! a "rod!ce o an!&$t( &arf(B %$t!a$a %a econo&$c( D$ "er&$te %( l!cre*e de %$ne %t(t(tor, "entr! %$ne, )aloarea no! creat( 4)en$t!l5 a"ar$n2nd!6$ Dn Dntre'$&e 4f$$nd Dn%( dator %( "l(tea%c( %tat!l!$ $&"o*$t!l "e )en$t5. Ceneral$*area %alar$!l!$ ca for&( de o-$nere a !n!$ )en$t d$n &!nc( %6a "rod!% Dn conte t!l or'an$*(r$$ ca"$tal$%te &oderne. Salar$!l con%t$t!$e o cate'or$e econo&$c(, dar,conco&$tent, $ !na :!r$d$c( Ca or$ce alt %$%te&, $ %$%te&!l de %alar$*are $&"l$c( e $%tena !n!$ an%a&-l! or'an$*at Dn "(r$ co&"onente care, "(%tr2nd!6$ $nd$)$d!al$tatea, de"$nd !nele de altele, real$*2nd!6%e a%tfel a%"ect!l de total$tate $ $nte'ral$tate.< F$$nd o $n%t$t!$e a dre"t!l!$ &!nc$$, %$%te&!l anal$*at re"re*$nt( an%a&-l!l nor&elor "r$n care %!nt %ta-$l$te "r$nc$"$$le, o-$ect$)ele, ele&entele $ for&ele %alar$*(r$$&!nc$$, re'le&ent2nd totodat( &$:loacele, &etodele $ $n%tr!&entele de Dnf("t!$re ale ace%tora, "r$n deter&$narea cond$$$lor de %ta-$l$re $ de acordare a %alar$$lor 4%alar$!l de -a*(, adao%!r$le $ %"or!r$le la ace%t %alar$!5. Potr$)$t art. .71 d$n Cod!l &!nc$$, %$%te&!l de %alar$*are %e %ta-$lete: 6 "r$n ne'oc$er$ $nd$)$d!ale %a!8$ colect$)e Dntre an'a:ator $ %alar$a$ %a! re"re*entan$$ ace%tora la %oc$et($le co&erc$ale, %oc$et($le $ co&"an$$le na$onale,re'$$le a!tono&e $ ce$lal$ an'a:ator$ "er%oane :!r$d$ce $ f$*$ceB

<

Ion Tra$an tef(ne%c! , Tratat de dreptul muncii, Ed. ?olter% @l!Aer, #!c!ret$, +001, "'. 7,7

6 "r$n le'e, "entr! "er%onal!l d$n a!tor$t($le $ $n%t$t!$$le "!-l$ce f$nanate $nte'ral %a! Dn &a:or$tate de la -!'et!l de %tat, -!'et!l a%$'!r(r$lor %oc$ale de %tat, -!'etele locale $ -!'etele fond!r$lor %"ec$ale, c! con%!ltarea ora'an$*a$$lor %$nd$cale re"re*entat$)e. S$%te&!l de %alar$*are e%te for&at d$n an%a&-l!l nor&elor :!r$d$ce "r$n care %e "re)(d o-$ect$)ele, ele&entele $ for&ele %alar$*(r$$, c($le $ $n%tr!&entele %ale de Dnf("t!$re, deter&$n2nd!6%e Dn ace%t fel, cond$$$le concrete de %ta-$l$re $ acordare %alar$$lor. Ca or$ce alt %$%te&, $ %$%te&!l de %alar$$ $&"l$c( e $%tena !n!$ an%a&-l! or'an$*at Dn "(r$ co&"onente care, "(%tr2nd!6$ $nd$)$d!al$tatea, de"$nd !nele de altele real$*2nd!6%e a%tfel a%"ect!l de total$tate $ $nte'ral$te.

2. Principiile salarizrii

D$n anal$*a te telor nor&at$)e care )$*ea*a %alar$*area %$ %$%te&!l de %alar$*are re*!lta !r&atoarele "r$nc$"$$ : 6"r$nc$"$!l e'al$tat$$ de trata&ent %$ el$&$nar$$ or$care$ d$%cr$&$nar$ B 6"r$nc$"$!l a%$'!rar$$ %alar$!l!l!$ &$n$& 'arantatB 6"r$nc$"$!l l$-ere$ ne'oc$er$ a %alar$!l!$ B 6"r$nc$"$!l caracter!l!$ conf$dent$al al %alar$!l!$ Principiul egalitatii de tratament si eliminarii oricarei discriminar$ Pre)a*!t de art..7< al$n 495 d$n Cod!l &!nc$$ , ace%t "r$nc$"$! e%te a%tfel e "l$c$tat La %ta-$l$rea %$ acordarea %alar$!l!$ e%te $nter*$%a or$ce d$%cr$&$nare "e cr$ter$$ de %e , or$entare %e !ala, caracter$%t$c$ 'enet$ce, )ar%ta, a"artenenta nat$onala, ra%a, c!loare, etn$e, rel$'$e, o"t$!ne "ol$t$ca, or$'$ne %oc$ala, 3and$ca", %$t!at$e %a! re%"on%a-$l$tate fa&$l$ala , a"artenenta %a! act)$tate %$nd$cala. Acea%ta "re)edere le'ala %e $n%cr$e $n "roce%!l de ar&on$*are a le'$%lat$e$ $nterne c! le'$%lat$a co&!n$tara %$ c! le'$%lat$a &!nc$$ $n 'eneral. A%tfel ace%t "r$nc$"$! e%te "re)a*!t $n Declarat$a Un$)er%ala a Dre"t!r$lor O&!l!$, $n Pact!l Internat$onal c! "r$)$re la dre"t!r$le econo&$ce, %oc$ale %$ c!lt!rale, $n Con)ent$a $nternat$onala "r$)$nd el$&$narea t!t!ror for&elor de d$%cr$&$nare ra%$ala, "rec!& %$ $n Tratat!l de la Ro&a al Co&!n$tat$$ Econo&$ce E!ro"ene %$ !lter$or $n Carta co&!n$tara a dre"t!r$lor %oc$ale f!nda&entale, care $n cont$n!t!l art .> "rocla&a e'al$tatea de trata&ent $ntre -ar-at$ %$ fe&e$ %$ o %er$oe de d$rect$)e %$ dec$*$$ refer$toare la e'al$tatea de trata&ent. 7 Principiul asigurarii salariului minim garantat Or'an$*at$a Internat$onala a M!nc$$ a %ta-$l$t , $nca de la con%t$t!$re , ca !n!l d$n %co"!r$le %ale e%te a%$'!rarea !nor cond$t$$ de )$ata decente "entr! tot$ l!crator$$. La P3$ladel"3$a, c! oca*$a Confer$nte$ d$n ./<<, %6a $n%t$t!$t conce"t!l de %alar$! &$n$& )$tal, conce"t ce a)ea %a f$e def$n$t "r$n Ra"ort!l re!n$!n$$ e "ert$lor con)ocat$ de Con%$l$! de ad&$n$%trat$e al Or'an$*at$e$ Internat$onale a M!nc$$ la cea de6a .>,6a %e%$!ne, la Cene)a , ./>1. A%tfel %alar$!l &$n$& ar re"re*enta n$)el!l de re&!nerat$e %!- care n! )a "!tea co-orD %!- n$c$ o for&a, a)and $n f$ecare tara forta le'$$ %$ f$$nd a"l$ca-$l la ne)o$e "r$n forta de con%tran'ere a %tat!l!$. Art. .7/ d$n Cod!l &!nc$$ "re)ede ca %alar$!l de -a*a &$n$& -r!t "e tara 'arantat $n "late, coore%"!n*ator "ro'ra&!l!$ nor&al de &!nca, %e %ta-$le%te "r$n 3otarare a '!)ern!l!$, c! con%!ltarea %$nd$catelor %$ "atronatelor. In ca*!l !n!$ "ro'ra& de &!nca nor&al &a$ &$c de , ore *$ln$c , %alar$!l de -a*a &$n$& -r!t orar %e calc!lea*a "r$n ra"ortarea %alar$!l!$ de -a*a &$n$& -r!t "e tara la n!&ar!l &ed$! de ore l!nar, confor& "ro'ra&!l!$ de l!cr! a"ro-at. Principiul liberei negocieri a salariului Salar$$le %e %ta-$le%c "r$n ne'oc$er$ $nd$)$d!ale %$8%a! colect$)e . La %ta-$l$rea %alar$!l!$ e%te f$re%c %a %e t$na %ea&a de cond$t$$le $n care %e "re%tea*a &!nca, de n$)el!l de "re'at$re al an'a:at!l!$ , de cer$ntele "e care an'a:ator!l le "!ne $n fata %alar$at!l!$ . Contract!l de &!nca
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C3$&"! Sanda $clea, Dreptul muncii, Ca%a de ed$t!ra %$ "re%( Ean%aF, #!c!re%t$, .//7, "'.90.

a)and caracter con%en%!al e%te f$re%c ca f$ecare ele&ent al contract!l!$ %a f$e ne'oc$at , &a$ ale% cand e%te $n d$%c!t$e o-$ect!l $n%!%$ al contract!l!$ = %alar$!l . Principiul caracterului confidential al salariului Art .7, d$n Le'ea nr.798 +009 = Cod!l &!nc$$ %tat!ea*a "r$nc$"$!l conf$dent$al$tat$$ Salar$!l e%te conf$dent$al , an'a:ator!l a)and o-l$'at$a de a l!a &a%!r$le nece%are "entr! a%$'!rarea conf$dent$al$tat$$. Pr$nc$"$!l conf$dent$al$tat$$ n! tre-!$e %a re"re*$nte o "$ed$ca $n a"ararea %$ "ro&o)area $ntere%elor %$ dre"t!r$lor %alar$at$lor, a%tfel ca n! %e "oate o"!ne conf$dent$al$tatea $n ra"ort!r$le c! %$nd$catele %a! c! re"re*entant$$ %alar$at$lor $n %tr$cta le'at!ra c! $ntere%ele %alar$at$lor %$ $n relat$a lor d$recta c! an'a:ator!l >.

3.Elemente (componente)
>

Ibidem, "'.90+

Confor& art. .77 d$n Cod!l &!nc$$ %$ art.9, al$n.< d$n contract!l colect$) de &!nca !n$c la n$)el nat$onal, %alar$!l c!"r$nde %alar$!l de -a*(, $nde&n$*at$$le, %"or!r$le %$ alte adao%!r$ la %alar$!l de -a*a. Salar$!l de -a*a con%t$t!$e ele&ent!l "r$nc$"al al %alar$!l!$ %$ %e %ta-$le%te "entr! f$ecare %alar$at $n ra"ort c! !r&ator$$ factor$ cal$f$carea, $&"ortanta, co&"le $tatea atr$-!$$lor de %er)$c$! , "re'at$rea %$ co&"etenta "rofe%$onala. Pentr! re*!ltate deo%e-$te, an!al, %alar$at$$ d$n a!tor$tat$le %$ $n%t$t!t$$le "!-l$ce "ot %a -enef$c$e*e de !n %alar$! de &er$t4 care face "arte d$n %alar$!l de -a*a %$ con%t$t!$e , a%tfel, -a*a de calc!l "entr! %"or!r$ %$ alte dre"t!r$ care %e deter&$na $n ra"ort c! %alar$!l de -a*a5. Inde&n$*at$$le con%t$t!$e %!&e "lat$te an!&$tor %alar$at$ "e%te %alar$!l de -a*a $n f!nct$e de cr$ter$$ %"ec$f$ce &!nc$$ 4 $nde&n$*at$$ de cond!cere5 %a! de c3elt!$el$le nece%are "entr! $nde"l$n$rea o-l$'at$$lor de %er)$c$! 4 $nde&n$*at$$ de dele'are, detaare etc.5 . S"or!l la %alar$! de -a*( re"re*$nta !n ele&ent acce%or$! %$ )ar$a-$l al %alar$!l!$ care %e acorda $n f!nct$e de cond$t$$le $n care %e "re%tea*a &!nca. S"or!r$le %e acorda n!&a$ la loc!r$le de &!nca !nde n! %!nt c!"r$n%e $n %alar$!l de -a*a. In %$%te&!l le'al act!al , %"or!r$le n! %!nt -on!%6!r$ 4 reco&"en%e, 'rat$f$cat$$5. Ele con%t$t!$e , $n "r$nc$"al, !n factor co&"en%ator$! "entr! an!&$te cond$t$$ de &!nca %a! "entr! $ntr!n$rea de catre cel $n ca!*a a !nor cer$nte %"ec$ale 4 "rofe%$onale %a! de )ec3$&e $n &!nca5 . S"or!r$le la %alar$! %e acorda daca %!nt $ntr!n$te !r&atoarele cond$t$$ f!nda&entale 6 %alar$at!l %a oc!"e !n "o%t $ntr6o %"ec$al$tate care $$ confera dre"t!l la !n an!&$t %"or 6 %alar$at!l %a l!cre*e efect$) $n cond$t$$le "re%cr$%e de le'e, de contract!l colect$) de &!nca %a!, d!"a ca*, de conctract!l $nd$)$d!al de &!nc(1 Adao%!l la %alar$!l de -a*a, &ent$onat de art. .77 d$n Cod!l &!nc$$ , re"re*$nta !n ele&ent acce%or$! %$ )ar$a-$l al %alar$!l!$ care %e acorda $n f!nct$e de "erfor&antele $nd$)$d!ale. El %e re'a%e%te $n le'$%lat$e %$ $n contract!l colect$) de &!nca !n$c la n$)el nat$onal $n !r&atoarele for&e 6 adao% "entr! re*!ltatele &!nc$$ $n acord 6 "re&$$le acordate d$n fond!l de "re&$ere calc!lat, $ntr6o an!&$ta "ro"ort$e de &$n$&!& .,7 G d$n fond!l de %alar$$ real$*at l!nar %$ c!&!lat 6 alte %"or!r$ con)en$te colect$) %a! 8 %$ $n$d$)$d!al c! an'a:ator$$ 4 c!& ar f$ "r$&a de conced$!5 6 "re&$!l an!al e'al c! %alar$!l de -a*a -r!t d$n !lt$&a l!na a an!l!$ 4 "entr! care %e face "re&$erea5 = $n ca*!l f!nct$onar$lor "!-l$c$ . Pre&$$le n! a! de re'!la, !n re'$& "re%ta-$l$t, con%tant %$ o-l$'ator$! 4 daca n! %!nt %ta-$l$te ca atare "r$n contractele de &!nca5. Ele a! caracter de -on!%6!r$ 4 'rat$f$cat$$5 %$ %!nt fac!ltat$)e, -ene)ole, )ar$a-$le., Pr$nc$"alele cate'or$$ ale %alar$!l!$ %!nt 6%alar$!l -r!t for&at d$n toate )en$t!r$le -r!te o-t$n!te d$n &!nca 4 %alar$!l de -a*a, $nde&n$*at$$, %"or!r$ %$ adao%!r$5 6%alar$!l de -a*a &$n$& -r!t "e tara 'arantat $n "lata deter&$nat "er$od$c "r$n act nor&at$)

1 ,

Ion Tra$an tef(ne%c! , Tratat de dreptul muncii, Ed. ?olter% @l!Aer, #!c!ret$ +001, "'. 7/+ Ibidem, "'. 7/9

6 %alar$! de -a*a deter&$nat , teoret$c, $n f!nct$e de %alar$!l &$n$& -r!t real , $ar "ract$c %e calc!lea*a "r$n $n&!lt$rea tar$f!l!$ %alar$al orar c! n!&ar!l de ore l!crate $ntr6o l!na %a! $ntr6 !n alt %e'&ent de t$&" 6 %alar$!l net for&at d$n %!&ele de -an$ "e care %alar$at!l le $nca%ea*a efect$), re%"ect$) %alar$!l -r!t corectat c! d$&$n!ar$le o-l$'ator$$ confor& le'$$ 4 $&"o*$t "e %alar$!, contr$-!t$$ la a%$'!rar$le %oc$ale, "entr! %o&a:. etc 5 6 %alar$!l d$rect con%ta $n %!&a "r$&$ta de %alar$at deter&$nata $n corelat$e c! cant$tatea de &!nca "re%tata , c! efectele e$ care de"$nd n! n!&a$ de cal$tatea &!nc$$ , dar %$ de n$)el!l %$ %tarea econo&$e$ %a! a %ector!l!$ econo&$c %$ a !n$tat$$ $n care %e "re%tea*a &!nca. In %alar$!l d$rect %e c!"r$nd %alar$!l net %$ alte )en$t!r$ care %e c!)$n %alar$at!l!$ 4 $nde&n$*at$a "entr! conced$! le'at , e)ent!al al .96lea %alar$! 5 . 6 %alar$!l no&$nal for&at d$n %!&ele de -an$ $nca%ate de %alar$at "entr! &!nca "re%tata, e "r$&ate $n "ret!r$le c!rente de "$ata, el dec!r'e d$n contract!l $nd$)$d!al de &!nca 6 %alar$!l real con%ta $n cant$tatea de -!n!r$ "e care o "oate c!&"ara !n %alar$at %$ de %er)$c$$ de care "oate -enef$c$a acela%$ %alar$at c! %alar$! no&$nal net $nca%at. In t$&" %alar$!l real %e afla $n relat$e d$recta c! &od$f$carea %alar$!l!$ no&$nal net %$ $n relat$e $nd$recta c! &od$f$carea "ret!r$lor de con%!&. 6 %alar$!l ef$c$ent re"re*$nta )aloarea %alar$!l!$ care %e con%$dera a deter&$na o contr$-!t$e &a $&a de efort a %alar$at!l!$ la act$)$tatea an'a:ator!l!$, el de"$nde de n$)el!l %alar$!l!$ "lat$t de an'a:ator!l $n ca!*a , de n$)el!l %alar$$lor "lat$te la alt$ an'a:ator$ "entr! f!nct$$8"o%t!r$ %$&$lare %$ de n$)el!l o&a:!l!$ 6 %alar$!l colect$) e%te for&at d$n %!&ele ce %e acorda t!t!ror %alar$at$lor $ncadrat$ la !n an!&$t a'a:ator "entr! "art$c$"area lor la re*!ltatele f$nanc$are %a!8%$ d$n fac$l$tat$le acordate %alar$at$lor re%"ect$)$ 6 %alar$!l $nd$rect %e afla $n corelat$e c! cel coelct$) %$ con%ta $n %!&ele care %e acorda fa&$l$e$ %alar$at!l!$ d!"a alte cr$ter$$ decat &!nca "re%tata 4 $n'r$:$re de %"ec$al$tate la an!&$te ca-$nete &ed$cale, acce% la cl!-!r$, -a*e %"ort$)e etc.5 6 %alar$!l :!%t $*)orat $n$t$al d$n l!area $n con%$derare a a%"ect!l!$ et$c al relat$$lor %oc$ale, 6 %alar$!l %oc$al %e acorda de catre %tat $n an!&$te $&"re:!rar$ , "entr! %alar$at$$ a:!n%$ $ntr6o %$t!at$e6l$&$ta

4. Dispoziii generale Salar$!l re"re*$nta contra"re%tat$a &!nc$$ de"!%e de %alar$at $n -a*a contract!l!$ $nd$)$d!al de &!nca./ Pentr! &!nca "re%tata $n -a*a contract!l!$ $nd$)$d!al de &!nca f$ecare %alar$at are dre"t!l la !n %alar$! e "r$&at $n -an$.La %ta-$l$rea %$ la acordarea %alar$!l!$ e%te $nter*$%a or$ce d$%cr$&$nare "e cr$ter$$ de %e ,or$entare %e !ala,)ar%ta,ra%a,etn$e,%$t!at$e %a! re%"on%a-$l$tate fa&$l$ala. Salar$!l e%te "ret!l &!nc$$ "re%tate,e "r$&ata $n -an$.At!nc$ cand &!nca %e de%fa%oara "entr! %$ne e%te o &!nca $nde"endenta %$ "rod!ce )en$t,$n %$t!at$a $n care %e real$*ea*a "entr! o terta "er%oana e%te o &!nca de"endenta %$ "rod!ce %alar$!.Salar$!l re"re*$nta o-$ect,dar %$ ca!*a contract!l!$ $nd$)$d!al de &!nca.E%te o-$ect deoarece el con%t$t!$e contra"re%tat$a "entr! &!nca efect!ata de catre %alar$atBe%te ca!*a "entr! ca $n )ederea o-t$ner$$ l!$ "er%oana f$*$ca %6a $ncadrat $n &!nca. Alat!r$ de fel!l &!nc$$ %$ de loc!l &!nc$$ ,%alar$!l e%te !n ele&ent e%ent$al al contract!l!$ de &!nca,o "arte co&"onenta a o-l$cat$$lor a%!&ate de !n$tate fata de %alar$at %$,totodata,ca!*a "entr! care %alar$at!l "re%tea*a &!nca. El con%t$t!$e total$tatea dre"t!r$lor -ane%t$ c!)en$te "entr! &!nca "re%tata. Art$col!l .7< al$n.495 C.&!nc$$ %!-l$n$a*a "r$nc$"$!l nond$%cr$&$nar$$ la %ta-$l$rea %$ acordarea %alar$!l!$,"r$nc$"$! con%t$t!t$onal con%f$nt$t %$ de art.<. al$n 4.5 d$n Con%t$t!t$a Ro&an$e$. Pr$nc$"$!l e'al$tat$$ de trata&ent $n do&en$!l %alar$*ar$$ $%$ 'a%e%te o de"l$na a"l$care n! n!&a$ $n acte nor&at$)e,c$ %$ $n contractele colect$)e de &!nca.De%$ n! %!nt $n%cr$%e "re)eder$ e "re%e $n acea%ta d$rect$e,a"l$carea concreta a "r$nc$"$!l!$ e%te a%$'!rata "r$n cond$t$$ !n$ce ned$%cr$&$nator$$. Salariul cuprinde salariul de baza indemnizatiile sporurile precum si alte adaosuri.1! Salariul de baza n! e%te altce)a decat "artea "r$nc$"ala a %alar$!l!$ total,ce %e c!)$ne "entr! f$ecare %alar$at,l!and $n con%$derare de re'!la n$)el!l %t!d$$lor,cal$f$carea %$ "re'at$rea "rofe%$onala,$&"ortanta "o%t!l!$,caracter$%t$c$le %arc$n$lor %$ co&"etentele "rofe%$onale. El con%t$t!$e n! n!&a$ "artea f$ a %$ "r$nc$"ala a %alar$!l!$,c$ %$ !n ele&ent de refer$nta $n ra"ort c! care %e calc!lea*a celelalte dre"t!r$ ale an'a:at$lor,c!& ar f$ de e e&"l!,d$fer$te $nde&n$*at$$,%"or!r$,c3$r$$,-!r%e etc. Salar$!l de -a*a %e deo%e-e%te de %alar$!l -r!t care con%ta $n %!&a "r$&$ta de an'a:at %$ care c!"r$nde toate dre"t!r$le %alar$ale neafectate de $&"o*$te,ta e,alte ret$ner$ de ace%t 'en,dar %$ de %alar$!l net care c!"r$nde %!&a de -an$ "e care %alar$at!l o "r$&e%te efect$) d!"a ce a! fo%t %ca*!te 4ret$n!te5 cotele le'ale %!- for&a $&"o*$t!l!$ "e %alar$!,contr$-!t$a de a%$'!rar$ %oc$ale,contr$-!t$a "entr! con%t$t!$rea Fond!l!$ "entr! "lata $nde&n$*at$e$ de %o&a: etc. "ndemnizatiile re"re*$nta %!&ele "lat$te %alar$at$lor "e%te %alar$!l de -a*a,c! %co"!l de a co&"en%a c3elt!$el$le "e care ace%t$a %!nt ne)o$t$ a le efect!a c! oca*$a $nde"l$n$r$$ !nor %arc$n$ de %er)$c$!.Inde&n$*at$$ "ot f$ acordate %$ c! %co"!l de a co&"en%a !n an!&$t re'$& de &!nca %"ec$f$c.

.0

Al.At3ana%$!,M.Volonc$!,L.D$&a,O.Ca*an,Codul Muncii-Co&entar$! pe articole,Ed$t!ra C.;.#EC@,Art..7< Ibidem,Art..77

Inde&n$*at$$le "ot f$: "entr! "er%oanele care $nde"l$ne%c f!nct$$ de cond!cere,"entr! dele'are,"entr! deta%are,"entr! "er%onal!l tr$&$% $n &$%$!ne "er&anenta $n %tra$natate,"entr! nonconc!renta etc. Sporurile con%t$t!$e !n ele&ent acce%or$! al %alar$!l!$ de -a*a "re)a*!t $n le'$%lat$e %$ contractele colect$)e de &!ncaBele re"re*$nta an!&$te "rocente d$n %alar$!l de -a*a,%$ %!nt acordate,d!"a ca*,$n ra"ort c! )ec3$&ea $n &!nca,c! cond$t$$le de &!nca,"entr! orele "re%tate %!"l$&entar "e%te "ro'ra&!l nor&al de l!cr! %a! $n t$&"!l no"t$$,"entr! %ta-$l$tate,conf$dent$al$tate etc. #daosurile "ot f$ %$ ele con%$derate ele&ente acce%or$$ ale %alar$!l!$ de -a*a,"re)a*!te $n le'$%lat$e %$ $n contractele colect$)e de &!nca %$ care %e acorda )ar$a-$l,$n f!nct$e de d$fer$te cr$ter$$,c!& ar f$ re*!ltate o-t$n!te,ca adao% $n ca*!l &!nc$$ "re%tate $n acord,ca "re&$$,"entr! co$ntere%area %alar$at$lor etc. Adao%!r$le %$ %"or!r$le la %alar$!l de -a*a for&ea*a "artea )ar$a-$la a %alar$!l!$ "entr! ca %e "late%c $n ra"ort c! "erfor&antele %$8%a! cal$tat$le $nd$)$d!ale ale f$ecar!$ %alar$at,"rec!& %$ "entr! t$&"!l $n care &!nca e%te "re%tata $n an!&$te cond$t$$ deo%e-$te 4 "entr! co&"en%area "e acea%ta cale a efort!l!$ de"!% $n "l!% %a! a r$%c!l!$ r$d$cat "e care $l "re%!"!ne &!nca5. Salariile se platesc inaintea oricaror alte obligatii banesti ale anga$atorilor.11 In %co"!l ocrot$r$$ dre"t!r$lor "r$)$nd %alar$*area &!nc$$,le'$%lat$a $n )$'oare c!"r$nde o %er$e de re'le&entar$. Toate dre"t!r$le -ane%t$ c!)en$te %alar$at$lor %e "late%c $na$ntea or$caror o-l$'at$$ -ane%t$ ale !n$tat$$,%ta-$l$nd!6%e a%tfel caracter!l lor de creanta "r$)$le'$ata.In%a confor& art..+9 "ct.+ d$n Le'ea nr.,78+00> "r$)$nd "roced!ra $n%ol)ente$,"entr! an'a:ator$$ aflat$ %!$nc$denta ace%te$ le'$,creantele $*)orate d$n ra"ort!r$le de &!nca %e afla "e loc!l + al ord$n$$ de "r$or$tate,$ar acea%ta doar "entr! %!&ele datorate "e cel &!lt > l!n$ anter$oare de%c3$der$$ "roced!r$lor le'$$ a&$nt$te ,re%t!l %$t!and!6%e "e loc!l , al ord$n$$ de "r$or$tate 4alte creante c3$ro'rafare5. Salariile se stabilesc prin negocieri indi%iduale sau&si colecti%e intre anga$ator si salariati sau reprezentanti ai acestora .Sistemul de salarizare a personalului din autoritatile si institutiile publice 'inantate integral sau in ma$oritate de la bugetul de stat bugetul asigurarilor sociale de stat bugetele locale si bugetele 'ondurilor speciale se stabileste prin lege cu consultarea organizatiilor sindicale reprezentati%e12 Ne'oc$erea %alar$$lor e%te o con%ec$nta a "r$nc$"$!l!$ con%t$t!t$onal "otr$)$t car!$a e%te 'arantat dre"t!l la ne'oc$er$ colect$)e $n cadr!l ra"ort!r$lor de &!nca Hart.<. al$n.475 d$n Con%t$t!t$a Ro&an$e$I. Le'ea nr..908.//> "r$)$nd contract!l colect$) de &!nca d$%"!ne ca ace%t contract re"re*$nta con)ent$a d$ntre "atron$ %$ %alar$at$ "r$n care %e %ta-$le%c,$n l$&$tele "re)a*!te de le'e,cla!*ele "r$)$nd cond$t$$le de &!nca,%alar$*area %$ alte dre"t!r$ %$ o-l$'at$$ ce dec!r' d$n ra"ort!r$le de &!nca.Re*!lta ca o-$ect$)!l ne'oc$er$lor colect$)e $l re"re*$nta re'le&entarea de "r$nc$"$! a %alar$*ar$$ an'a:at$lor carora le %!nt a"l$ca-$le contractele colect$)e,$ar o-$ect!l ne'oc$er$lor $nd$)$d!ale "!rtate c! "r$le:!l $nc3e$er$$ contract!l!$ $nd$)$d!al de &!nca e%te %ta-$l$rea concreta a %alar$!l!$ "er%oane$ $n ca!*a. Potr$)$t art..71 al$n.4+5 C.M!nc$$,%$%te&!l de %alar$*are %e %ta-$le%te dec$,"r$n ne'oc$er$ $nd$)$d!ale %$8%a! colect$)e la %oc$etat$le co&erc$ale %$ re'$$le a!tono&e,altele decat
.. .+

Ibidem Art .7> Ibidem Art .71

cele c! %"ec$f$c deo%e-$t,or$ "r$n le'e "entr! "er%onal!l d$n ad&$n$%trat$a "!-l$ca 4acte nor&at$)e %"ec$f$ce care re'le&entea*a %alar$*area "ol$t$%t$lor,d$"lo&at$lor,controlor$lor f$nanc$ar$,f!nct$onar$lor "!-l$c$5. Ca not$!ne a dre"t!l!$ no%tr!,con%$dera& ca %$%te&!l de %alar$*are e%te an%a&-l!l nor&elor "r$n care %!nt %ta-$l$te "r$nc$"$$le,o-$ect$)ele,ele&entele %$ for&ele %alar$*ar$$ &!nc$$,re'le&entand totodata &$:loacele %$ $n%tr!&entele de $nfa"t!$re a ace%tora,"r$n deter&$narea cond$t$$lor de %ta-$l$re %$ de acordare a %alar$$lor 4 %alar$!l de -a*a ,adao%!r$le %$ %"or!r$le la ace%t %alar$!5. Pre%ta-$l$rea %alar$$lor "r$n acte nor&at$)e "entr! an!&$te cate'or$$ de "er%onal con%t$t!$e o e ce"t$e de la "r$nc$"$!l ne'oc$er$$,f$$nd :!%t$f$cat de fa"t!l ca "re%!"!ne %alar$*area de la -!'et!l %tat!l!$. Pr$nc$"$!l conf$dent$al$tat$$ der$)a d$n caracter!l $nd$)$d!al,"er%onal al contract!l!$ $nd$)$d!al de &!nca,d$n "r$nc$"$!l ne'oc$er$$ d$recte a %alar$!l!$.Conf$dent$al$tatea :oaca !n rol %t$&!lat$) "entr! %alar$at$ %$ "er&$te "atron!l!$ %a "latea%ca %alar$$ confor& "erfor&antelor $nd$)$d!ale %$ re*!ltatelor &!nc$$ f$ecar!$a fara con)!l%$$ la loc!l de &!nca. A)and $n )edere "r$nc$"$!l conf$dent$al$tat$$ %alar$!l!$,acea%ta $n%ea&na ca el n! "oate f$ co&!n$cat n$c$!ne$ alte "er%oane f$*$ce %a! :!r$d$ce %$,&a$ &!lt,"atron!l tre-!$e %a $a &a%!r$ ca a%e&enea "er%oane %a n! "oata l!a c!no%t$$nta de )en$t!l !n!$ an!&$t %alar$at.In !nele contracte colect$)e de &!nca e%te "re)a*!t e "re% cla!*a de conf$dent$al$tate.Ma$ &!lt,$n "ract$ca,e $%ta re'!la&ente care "re)ad %anct$onarea d$%c$"l$nara a "er%oanelor c! atr$-!t$$ de %er)$c$! $n do&en$!l %alar$*ar$$ care n! re%"ecta "r$nc$"$!l conf$dent$al$tat$$ %alar$$lor. In %co"!l a"arar$$ dre"t!r$lor %alar$at$lor,conf$dent$al$tatea %alar$$lor n! "oate f$ o"!%a %$nd$catelor %a!,d!"a ca* re"re*entant$lor %alar$at$lor,$n %tr$cta le'at!ra $n%a c! $ntere%ele ace%tora %$ $n relat$a lor d$recta c! an'a:ator!l.

(. Salariul de baz minim brut pe ar garantat )n plat

In ra"ort!l re!n$!n$$ e "ert$lor con)ocat$ de Con%$l$!l de Ad&$n$%trat$e al Or'an$*at$e$ Internat$onale a M!nc$$ 4 O.I.M 5 %6a %ta-$l$t ca "r$n %alar$!l &$n$& %e $ntele'e n$)el!l de re&!nerat$e %!- care n! %e )a "!tea co-orD n$c$ $n dre"t, n$c$ $n fa"t, $nd$ferent care ar f$ &od!l %a! de calc!l. E%te %alar$!l care, $n f$ecare tara , are forta le'$$ %$ care e%te a"l$ca-$l %!"edea"%a %anct$!n$$ "enale %a! a altor %anct$!n$ %"ec$f$ce. Salar$!l &$n$& e%te con%$derat ca %!f$c$ent "entr! %at$%facerea nece%$tat$lor )$tale de al$&ente, $&-raca&$nte, ed!cat$e etc. Con%t$t!t$a Ro&an$e$ "re)ede la art. <. al$n4+5 ca $n%t$t!$rea !n!$ %alar$! &$n$& -r!t "e tara %a a%$'!re cetaten$lor !n n$)el de tra$ decent . Salar$!l &$n$& -r!t "e tara 'arantat $n "lata e%te %ta-$l$t "r$n 3otarare de C!)ern. Sta-$l$rea "entr! "er%onal!l $ncadrat "r$n $nc3e$erea !n!$ contract $nd$)$d!al de &!nca, de %alar$$ de -a*a %!- n$)el!l cel!$ %ta-$l$t de "re*enta 3otatare con%t$t!$e contra)ent$e %$ %e %anct$onea*a c! a&enda. Confor& art. .7/ C. M!nc$$ , an'a:ator!l n! "oate ne'oc$a %$ %ta-$l$ %alar$!l de -a*a "r$n contract!l $nd$)$d!al de &!nca %!- %alar$!l de -a*a &$n$& -r!t orar "e tara. El e%te o-l$'at %a 'arante*e $n "lata !n %alar$! -r!t l!nar cel "!t$n e'al c! %alar$!l de -a*a &$n$& -r!t "e tara. Un factor no!, deter&$nat de cal$tatea Ro&an$e$ de &e&-r! al U:E e%te acela al corelar$$ , "e cat "o%$-$l , $n f!nct$e de re%!r%e , a ace%t!$ %alar$! %$ c! n$)el!l %a! e $%tent $n d$)er%e %tate ale U:E. E%te !n factor care %e $&"!ne o-$ect$) "entr! a &ent$ne la !n n$)el re*ona-$l , d$n "!nct de )edere econo&$c %$ %oc$al, &$'rat$a forte$ de &!nca d$n Ro&an$a. A%adar , $n "of$da fa"t!l!$ ca U.E n! %e oc!"a de "ro-le&ele %alar$*ar$$, la %ta-$l$rea %alar$!l!$ &$n$& -r!t "e tara 'arantat $n "lata , n! %e "oate face a-%tract$e de n$)el!l )en$t!r$lor %alar$ale d$n alte %tate e!ro"ene 4 $n l$&$ta "er&$%a de factor$$ econo&$c$, de %tarea econo&$e$ %$ a o"erator$lor econo&$c$, de re%!r%ele -!'etare ale %tat!l!$ 5 . De re'!la , "r$n contract!l colect$) de &!nca !n$c la n$)el nat$onal %e %ta-$le%te !n %alar$! &$n$& -r!t "e tara &a$ &are decat cel %ta-$l$t de C!)ern 4 daca n! %6a a:!n% "r$n con%!ltar$ la !n n$)el al %alar$!l!$ de -a*a !nan$& acce"tat5 . .9 In rand!l %tatelor &e&-re ale U.E , %ta-$l$rea %alar$!l!$ &$n$& -r!t "e tara = d!"a &etodolo'$$ %a! 8 %$ or'an$%&e de dec$*$e d$fer$te6 con%t$t!$e o re'!la cert(. Ace%t %alar$! %e acorda o-l$'ator$! t!t!ror %alar$at$lor , c! e ce"t$a frec)enta, a !cen$c$lor la loc!l de &!nca. In S.U.A e $%ta !n %alar$! &$n$& -r!t la n$)el federal %$ cate !n a%tfel de %alar$! la n$)el!l f$ecar!$ %tat co&"onent 4 care re%"ecta "ra'!l &$n$& federal5 .

.9

C3$&"! Sanda $clea, Dreptul muncii, Ca%a de ed$t!ra %$ "re%( Ean%aF, #!c!re%t$, .//7, "'.9.9

*.Plata salariului

O-l$'at$a "r$nc$"ala a an'a:ator!l!$ e%te aceea de "lata a %alar$!l!$. Acea%ta o-l$'at$e are caracter %$nala'&at$c , deoarece re"re*$nta contra"re%tat$a "entr! &!nca $nde"l$n$ta de %alar$at. Salar$!l %e "late%te $n -an$, $ar art. 9, al$n 4+5 d$n Contract!l colect$) !n$c la n$)el nat$onal "e an$$ +0016+0.0 "re)ede ca la !n$tat$le "rod!catoare de "rod!%e a'r$cole o "arte d$n %ala$! %e "oate "lat$ %$ $n nat!ra , dar acea%ta n! "oate de"a%$ 90G d$n %alar$! . Salar$!l tre-!$e "lat$t $n le$. Confor& re'le&entar$lor #anc$$ Nat$onale a Ro&an$e$ n$c$!n cetatean ro&an, do&$c$l$at $n tara, n! "oate f$ "lat$t c! !n %alar$! $n )al!ta de catre or$ce %oc$tetate co&erc$ala, $ncl!%$) de catre cele c! ca"$tal $nte'ral %tra$n. Re'$&!l e%te acela%$ %$ "entr! "er%oanele :!r$d$ce fara %co" l!crat$). Pr$n e ce"t$e , %alar$!l "oate f$ "lat$t %$ $n )al!ta , $n total %a! $n "arte , at!nc$ cand cetaten$$ ro&an$ %!nt $ncadrat$ $n &!nca la a&-a%adele , con%!latele or$ la or'an$*at$$ $nternat$onale care f!nct$onea*a $n tara noa%tra. De a%e&enea e%te %alar$*at $n )al!ta "er%onal!l ro&an tr$&$% $n &$%$!ne "er&anenta $n %tra$natate. Plata %alar$!l!$ %e face "er$od$c , cel "!t$n o data "e l!na. Intra*$erea ne:!%t$f$cata a "lat$$ %alar$!l!$ %a! ne"lata ace%t!$a "oate deter&$na o-l$'area an'a:ator!l!$ la "lata de da!ne6 $ntere%e..< Plata %e face d$rect t$t!lar!l!$ dre"t!r$lor de %alar$*are %a!8%$ "er%oane$ $&"!tern$c$te de ace%ta, f$e "e -a*a de "roc!ra a!tent$f$cata , %"ec$ala %a! 'enerala, f$e $n ca*!l $n care "lata %e face !n!$ &e&-r! de fa&$l$e %a! !ne$ alte "er%oane $ncadrate $n aceea%$ !n$tate6 $n te&e$!l !ne$ $&"!tern$c$r$ )$*ata de %ef!l $erar3$c al t$t!lar!l!$ re%"ect$). Plata %alar$!l!$ %e do)ede%te "r$n %e&narea %tatelor de "lata , "r$n or$ce alte doc!&ente :!%t$f$cat$)e care de&on%trea*a efect!area "lat$$ catre %alar$at!l $ndre"tat$t. Se&narea %tatelor de "lata ate%ta fa"t!l ca %alar$at!l %e afla $n relat$e de &!nca c! an'a:ator!l %a! $nd$ferent de e $%tenta %cr$%a a contract!l!$ $nd$)$d!al de &!nca. Se&narea %tatelor de "lata e%te do)ada cea &a$ clara a "re%tar$$ act$)$tat$$ de catre an'a:at %$ a fa"t!l!$ ca acel %alar$at %$6a $nde"l$n$t cond$t$a corelat$)a fata de an'a:ator!l %a! "entr! a -enef$c$a de "lata %alar$!l!$. N! "oate f$ o"erata n$c$ o ret$nere c! t$tl! da!na d$n %alar$!, fara ca e $%tenta dator$e$ %a f$ fo%t %ta-$l$ta "r$n 3otarare :!decatorea%ca def$n$t$)a %$ $re)oca-$la. In cond$t$$le %tat!l!$ de dre"t , ra%"!nderea "atr$&on$ala "entr! da!ne %e $&"!ne %a %e %ta-$lea%ca de catre $n%tantele de :!decata. Or$ce e ec!tare %$l$ta tre-!$e %a a$-a la -a*a !n t$tl! e ec!tor$! )ala-$l. Acea%ta $n%a n! le*ea*a l$-ertatea contract!ala deoarece "art$le contractante "ot con)en$ de co&!n acord a%!"ra &odal$tat$lor de e ec!tare %a! de %t$n'ere a o-l$'at$$lor rec$"roce. Pre)eder$le art. .>7 C.&!nc$$ re"re*$nta a"l$carea nor&e$ de "r$nc$"$! a art.9, al acel!$a%$ act nor&at$) , $n %en%!l ca or$ce tran*act$e "r$)$nd ren!ntarea la dre"t!r$le rec!no%c!te de le'e e%te lo)$ta de n!l$tate. Ace%te dre"t!r$ %!nt a"arate de le'e $&"otr$)a or$caror $ncalcar$ %$ a or$caror &an$fe%tar$ de %!-$ect$)$%& %a! ar-$trar$!. De aceea, le'$!$tor!l a %ta-$l$t ca %$&"l!l acce"t al %alar$at!l!$ $n tot %a! $n "arte , "r$n %e&narea %tat!l!$ de "lata, n! "oate ec3$)ala c! o ren!ntare d$n "artea %alar$at!l!$ de a &a$ $n$t$a or$ce "retent$e c! "r$)$re la dre"t!r$le %alar$ale care con%$dera ca $ %e c!)$n.7. Art. .>> d$n al$n. 4.5 C. M!nc$$ re'le&entea*a e $%tenta ter&en!l!$ de "re%cr$"t$e e t$nct$)a de 9 an$ $n ceea ce "r$)e%te dre"t!l la act$!ne c! "r$)$re la dre"t!r$le %alar$ale,
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Al.At3ana%$!, M.Volonc$!,L.D$&a,O.Ca*an,Codul Muncii-Co&entar$! pe articole,Ed$t!ra C.;.#ecJ , #!c!re%t$, +0.., art..>. .7 I-$de&, art..>7

"rec!& %$ c! "r$)$re la da!nele re*!ltate d$n $ncalcarea o-l$'at$$lor "r$)$nd "lata dre"t!r$lor %alar$ale. Al$neat!l 4+5 al art. .>> C. M!nc$$ %ta-$le%te fara ec3$)oc a"l$carea $n &ater$e a "r$nc$"$!l!$ $n%cr$% $n art. .> al$n. 4.5 d$n Decret!l nr. .>18./7, "r$)$tor la "re%cr$"t$a e t$nct$)a. De &ent$onat ca rec!noa%terea de-$tor!l!$ tre-!$e %a atra'a $ntrer!"erea c!r'er$$ ter&en!l!$ de "re%cr$"t$e e t$nct$)a n! n!&a$ $n $"ote*a ne"lat$$ dre"t!r$lor %alar$ale , c$ %$ $n toate celelalte ca*!r$ de ra%"!ndere "atr$&on$ala "entr! or$ce "re:!d$c$$ &ater$ale.

+. Salariul minim la ni%el european Kn $an!ar$e +0.9, +0 d$n cele +1 de %tate &e&-re ale UE 4#el'$a, #!l'ar$a, Re"!-l$ca Ce3(, E%ton$a, Irlanda, Crec$a, S"an$a, Frana, Leton$a, L$t!an$a, L! e&-!r', Un'ar$a, Malta, (r$le de Lo%, Polon$a, Port!'al$a, Ro&2n$a, Slo)en$a, Slo)ac$a $ Re'at!l Un$t5, al(t!r$ de Croa$a $ T!rc$a, a)ea! le'$%la$$ na$onale "r$n care %e %ta-$lea %alar$!l &$n$& "r$n acord colect$) %a! "r$n acord $nter%ector$al. Var$a$a %alar$$lor &$n$&e o-l$'ator$$ Kn $an!ar$e +0.9, %alar$!l &$n$& o-l$'ator$! )ar$a de la .71 EUR la . ,1< EUR 6 c!ant!& l!nar -r!t5.

Craf$c!l . arat( n$)el!r$le &$n$&e ale %alar$$lor l!nare e "r$&ate Dn e!ro Dn UE6+1, Croa$a, T!rc$a $ Statele Un$te Dn $an!ar$e +0.9. Kntre %tatele &e&-re, %alar$!l &$n$& -r!t "e econo&$e a )ar$at de la .71 EUR 4Ro&2n$a5 la . ,1< EUR 4L! e&-!r'5. Cele +0 de %tate &e&-re Dn ca!*( D&"re!n( c! Croa$a, T!rc$a $ Statele Un$te "ot f$ D&"(r$te Dn tre$ 'r!"e, Dn f!nc$e de n$)el!l %alar$!l!$ &$n$& la . $an!ar$e +0.9. Pr$&a 'r!"( $ncl!de cele !n%"re*ece (r$ c! cele &a$ &$c$ %alar$$ &$n$&e, Dntre .00 EUR $ 700 EUR "e l!n(: Ro&2n$a, #!l'ar$a, Leton$a, L$t!an$a, Re"!-l$ca Ce3(, E%ton$a, Slo)ac$a, Un'ar$a, Croa$a, Polon$a $ T!rc$a. Cea de6a do!a 'r!"( e%te alc(t!$t( d$n c$nc$ %tate &e&-re 4Port!'al$a, Crec$a, Malta, S"an$a $ Slo)en$a5 $ Statele Un$te, c! !n n$)el $nter&ed$ar al %alar$!l!$ &$n$&, de la "e%te 700 EUR la "!$n %!- . 000 EUR "e l!n(. A tre$a 'r!"( c!"r$nde a%e %tate &e&-re 4Re'at!l Un$t, Frana, Irlanda, (r$le de Lo%, #el'$a $ L! e&-!r'5 Dn care %alar$!l &$n$& a fo%t de "e%te . +00 EUR "e l!n(. C! toate ace%tea, tre-!$e re&arcat fa"t!l c(, "entr! (r$le d$n afara *one$ e!ro 4, %tate &e&-re, Croa$a $ T!rc$a d$n "r$&a 'r!"(, "rec!& $ Re'at!l Un$t $ Statele Un$te5 n$)el!r$le $ $erar3$*area %alar$$lor &$n$&e e "r$&ate Dn e!ro %!nt afectate at2t de )alor$le %alar$$lor &$n$&e e "r$&ate Dn &onede na$onale, c2t $ de c!r%!r$le de %c3$&-.
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Al. At3ana%$!, M.Volonc$!, L.D$&a, O. Ca*an , Codul muncii. Comentariu pe articole, Ed$t!ra C.;.#ecJ, #!c!re%t$ , +0.. Ion Tra$an tef(ne%c! , Tratat de dreptul muncii, Ed. ?olter% @l!Aer, #!c!ret$ +001 C3$&"! Sanda $clea, Dreptul muncii, Ca%a de ed$t!ra %$ "re%( Ean%aF, #!c!re%t$, .//7 AAA.A$J$"Ad$a.co&