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Articolul Definitie: - reprezinta un determinant substantival care contribuie la realizarea intelesului unui substantiv intr-o propozitie.

Tipuri de Articolul Hotarat Articolul Nehotarat A Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata) Articolul hotarat THE: Cand folosim articolul hotarat? articole: THE AN

- Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat in textul respectiv: Exemplu: A man knocked at the door and a girl opened it. The man was her father. Inaintea substantivelor care sunt unice: Exemplu: the moon, the earth, the star, the sun, the air Inaintea numeralelor ordinale: Exemplu: the first, the second, the third, the twenty-first, the seventeenth In realizarea superlativului: Exemplu: the best year, the youngest girl, the most important, the fastest, the tallest

Cuprins Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

- Inaintea substantivelor care reprezinta nume de colectivitati si institutii: Exemplu: the army, the crowd, the government, the police, the parliament - Inaintea unor nume proprii (nume de familie, muzee, teatre, ziare, hoteluri, etc): Exemplu: the Browns, the Johns, the National Theatre, the Marriott Grand Hotel, the New York Times, the Beatles - Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de locuri geografice, munti, fluvii, oceane, mari etc: Exemplu: the Alps, the Atlantic, the Thames, the Danube, the Red Sea, the Sahara Articolul nehotarat A / AN

Utilizam articolul nehotarat A: Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o consoana: Exemple: a girl, a boy, a teacher, a family, a classroom Utilizam articolul nehotarat AN: Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u): Exemple: an elephant, an apple, an interview, an onion, an action

Articolul nehotarat - exceptii: - Folosim articolul nehotarat AN inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "h", doar atunci cand este vorba despre un "h mut". Exemple: an hour, an honour - Folosim articolul nehotarat A inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "u" sau grupul de litere "eu", doar atunci cand acestea se pronunta ca "you" Exemple: a European, a university, a unit

Cand folosim articolul nehotarat A/AN? - Inaintea unui substantiv concret nedeterminat si numarabil: Exemple: A boy entered into the classroom. The reporter took an interview. - Inaintea unui substantiv concret cu functia de nume predicativ: Exemplu: She is a teacher. Ronnie is an elephant. Articolul zero Nu folosim articol in urmatoarele situatii: - Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume proprii la singular: Exemplu: Paul is going to the school. - Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de tari, orase si limba acestora: Exemple: France is a European country. You speak English fluently. Bucharest is the capital of Romania. - In unele expresii invariabile: Exemplu: by car, at school, in church, by train - Inaintea substantivelor abstracte, care indica nume de culori, stiinte, arte, materii etc: Exemplu: beauty, health, dinner, lunch, breakfast, truth, green, gold, silver, mathematics, physics

Pronumele 1. Pronumele personal a) cu functie de subiect b) cu functie de complement a) Forma pronumelui personal cu functie de subiect: I --- eu You --- tu, dumneata, dumneavoastra He --- el She --- ea It --- el, ea (neutru), pentru nume de obiecte, lucruri, animale We --- noi You --- voi, dumneavoastra They --- ei, ele, dumnealor Exemple: I am a big girl. He lives near the school. We like chocolate very much. Do you like football? b) Forma pronumelui personal cu functie de complement: me - mie, imi, mi (complement indirect) - pe mine, ma, m (complement direct) you - tie, iti, ti, dumitale, dumneavoastra (complement indirect) - pe tine, te, pe dumneata, pe dumneavoastra (complement direct)

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him - lui, ii, i (complement indirect) - pe el, il (complement direct) her - ei, ii, i (complement indirect) - pe ea, o (complement direct) it - lui, ei, ii, i (complement indirect)

- pe el, il, pe ea, o (complement direct) us - noua, ne, ni (complement indirect) - pe noi, ne (complement direct) you - voua, va, vi, dumneavoastra (complement indirect) - pe voi, va, pe dumneavoastra (complement direct) them - lor, le, li (complement indirect) - pe ei, ii, i (complement direct) Exemple: I watch my brother playing tennis. You gave me a nice gift. Give them a kiss from me! 2. Pronumele reflexive si de intarire myself --- ma, insumi, insami yourself --- te, insuti, insati himself --- se, insusi herself --- se, insesi itself --- se, insusi, insasi (neutru) ourselves --- ne, insine, insene yourselves --- va, insiva, inseva themselves --- se, insisi, insesi Exemple: I found myself very smart. We did ourselves all the exercises. 3. Pronumele demonstrativ this --- acesta, aceasta, asta, asta that --- acela, aceea, ala, aia these --- acestea, acestia, astia, astea those --- acelea, aceia, aia, alea Exemple: This is my brother. Those are his parents. 4. Pronumele posesive

mine --- al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele yours --- al tau, a ta, ai tai, ale tale his --- al sau (a lui), a sa (a lui), ai sai (ai lui), ale sale (ale lui) hers --- al sau (a ei), a sa (a ei), ai sai (ai ei), ale sale (ale ei) its own --- al sau, a sa, ai sai, ale sale (neutru) ours --- al nostru, a noastra, ai nostri, ale noastre yours --- al vostru, a voastra, ai vostri, ale voastre their --- al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor Exemple: My brother is tall, but yours is taller. His car is old, but hers is older. I lost my pencil, can you lend me yours? 5. Pronumele nehotarat some + body, one, thing any + body, one, thing no + body, one, thing Exemple: I want something from you. She didn't find anything in the fridge. There was no one in the room. 6. Pronumele relativ who --- care whom/who --- pe care whose --- al (a, ai, ale) carui, careia, carora what --- ce, ceea ce which --- care, pe care (pt. lucruri, obiecte ...) that --- care Exemple: My brother, who is a doctor, lives in Bucharest. Tom, whose car was stolen, bought another one last week. I found a cat that was lost. I didn't like what I saw. 7. Pronumele interogativ who? --- cine? whom? who? --- pe cine? whose? --- al (a, ai, ale) cui? what? --- care?, pe care,ce?

which? --- (pe) care dintre? Exemple: Whom did you see last Sunday? Whose shoes are those? What are you doing? Which do you like more?

Verbul Verbul "TO BE" - a fi Forma afirmativa: I am (I'm) - Eu sunt You are (You're) - Tu esti He is (He's) - El este She is (She's) - Ea este It is (It's) - El/Ea este We are (We're) - Noi suntem You are (You're) - Voi sunteti They are (They're) - Ei/Ele sunt Forma interogativa: Am I? - Sunt eu? Are you? - Esti tu? Is he? - Este el? Is she? - Este ea? Is it? - Este el/ea? Are we? - Suntem noi? Are you? - Sunteti voi? Are they? - Sunt ei/ele? Forma negativa: I am not (I'm not) - Eu nu sunt You are not (You aren't) - Tu nu esti He is not (He isn't) - El nu este She is not (She isn't) - Ea nu este It is not (It isn't) - El/Ea nu este We are not (We aren't) - Noi nu suntem You are not (You aren't) - Voi nu sunteti They are not (They aren't) - Ei/Ele nu sunt

Cuprins Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

Verbul "TO HAVE" - a avea

Forma afirmativa: I have (I've) - Eu am You have (You've) - Tu ai He has (He's) - El are She has (She's) - Ea are It has (It's) - El/Ea are We have (We've) - Noi avem You have (You've) - Voi aveti They have (They've) - Ei/Ele au Forma interogativa: Have I? - Am eu? Have you? - Ai tu? Has he? - Are el? Has she? - Are ea? Has it? - Are el/ea? Have we? - Avem noi? Have you? - Aveti voi? Have they? - Au ei/ele? Forma negativa: I have not (I haven't) - Eu nu am You have not (You haven't) - Tu nu ai He has not (He hasn't) - El nu are She has not (She hasn't) - Ea nu are It has not (It hasn't) - El/Ea nu are We have not (We haven't) - Noi nu avem You have not (You haven't) - Voi nu aveti They have not (They haven't) - Ei/Ele nu au Verbul "TO DO" - a face Forma afirmativa: I do - Eu fac You do - Tu faci He does - El face She does - Ea face It does - El/Ea face We do - Noi facem You do - Voi faceti They do - Ei/Ele fac Forma interogativa: Do I? - Fac eu? Do you? - Faci tu? Does he? - Face el?

Does she? - Face ea? Does it? - Face el/ea? Do we? - Facem noi? Do you? - Faceti voi? Do they? - Fac ei/ele? Forma negativa: I do not (I don't) - Eu nu fac You do not (You don't) - Tu nu faci He does not (He doesn't) - El nu face She does not (She doesn't) - Ea nu face It does not (It doesn't) - El/Ea nu face We do not (We don't) - Noi nu facem You do not (You don't) - Voi nu faceti They do not (They don't) - Ei/Ele nu fac

Substantivul

Cuprins

A. Tipuri de substantive 1. 2. Substantive Substantive comune proprii

1. Substantivele comune desemneaza fiinte (oameni si animale) si obiecte / lucruri. Exemple: - fiinte: man, woman, grandmother, teacher, brother, pupil, doctor, nurse - obiecte (lucruri): pencil, school, car, hotel, medicine, shop, power, health 2. Substantivele proprii desemneaza nume de familie si prenume, nume de munti, orase, tari, ape etc. Exemple: - nume de familie si prenume: Ewing, Brown, Sawyer, John, Mary, Helen nume de munti: Alps, Himalaya, Everest nume de orase: Bucharest, Paris, Venice nume de tari: France, Italy, Croatia - nume de ape: Mississippi, Danube, Thames

B. Genul substantivelor 1. Genul masculin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal he) Exemple: man, doctor, driver, father, boy

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2. Genul feminin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal she) Exemple: woman, mother, girl, actress, sister. 3. Genul neutru (nume de lucruri, obiecte si animale; se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal it) Exemple: cat, dog, pencil, butterfly, car, notebook. C. Numarul substantivelor Substantivele pot fi la singular sau la plural.

Formarea pluralului: a) pluralul cu "-s" Exemple: a dog ---> two dogs a school ---> two schools a car ---> two cars a book ---> two books b) pluralul cu "-es" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh) Exemple: a bus ---> two buses a fax ---> two faxes a church ---> two churches Atentie: a tomato ---> two tomatoes a potato ---> two potatoes dar radio ---> radios photo ---> photos c) pluralul cu "-ies" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -y) Exemple: lady ---> ladies baby ---> babies fly ---> flies dar: day ---> days boy ---> boys Reguli: - pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o consoana, pluralul se va face in ies - pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o vocala, pluralul se va face in -s d) pluralul cu "-ves" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -f sau -fe) Exemple: leaf ---> leaves calf ---> calves shelf ---> shelves

wife ---> wives wolf ---> wolves Exceptii: chief ---> chiefs proof ---> proofs belief ---> beliefs e) pluralele neregulate Exemple: child ---> children man ---> men woman ---> women foot ---> feet goose ---> geese mouse ---> mice tooth ---> teeth f) substantive invariabile care nu primesc "-s" Exemple: deer (cerb) duck (rata) sheep (oaie) trout (pastrav) fish (peste) fruit (fructe) g) substantivele cu sens colectiv care nu au forma de plural Exemple: advice (sfat) baggage (bagaj) luggage (bagaje) information (informatii) furniture (mobila) people (oameni) crowd (multime) police (politie) h) pluralul substantivelor proprii Exemple: the Browns

the Johnsons the Thompsons D. Substantive compuse Exemple: classroom schoolboy schoolgirl blackboard dining-room breakfast Adjectivul Adjectivele in a) nu b) se limba engleza au urmatoarele caracteristici: variaza dupa gen si numar aseaza inaintea substantivelor Cuprins Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

Exemplu: a good cake ---> good cakes A. Tipuri de adjective opinion adjectives (adjective de opinie): descriu ceea ce credem despre cineva sau ceva. Exemple: beautiful, great, nice, expensive, cheap, ugly etc.

fact adjectives (adjective de fapt): descriu ceea ce fiintele sau obiectele determinate sunt cu adevarat Exemple: short, large, long, green, round etc.

! Adjectivele de opinie stau inaintea adjectivelor de fapt B. Adjectivul demonstrativ

Desemneaza fiinte sau lucruri pe care le aratam precizand in acelasi timp apropierea sau departarea in timp sau spatiu. Forme: singular: - this (acest, aceasta) - that (acel, acea) plural: - these (acesti, aceste) - those (acei, acele)

Exemple: This man is a doctor. That girl is a pupil. These children are small. Those boys are playing in the scoolyard. C. Adjectivul posesiv Desemneaza raportul de posesie dintre un posesor si ceea ce acesta poseda: Forme: singular: - my (meu, mea, mei, mele) - your (tau, ta, tai, tale) - his (lui, sau, sa, sai, sale) - her (ei, sau, sa, sai, sale) - its (lui, ei, sau, sa, sai, sale) plural: - our (nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre) - your (vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre) - their (lor) Exemple: This is my house. It is his car. That is our shop. Those are your books. D. Comparativul adjectivelor a) Comparativul de egalitate / inferioritate: "as ... as" (tot atat de / la fel de)

"not as ... as" (nu atat de / nu la fel de) "not so ... as" (nu atat de / nu la fel de) Exemple: She is as pretty as her mother. He is not as tall as his brother. b) Comparativ de superioritate: - pentru adjective scurte (monosilabice) se adauga terminatia "-er" la finalul adjectivului respectiv - pentru adjective lungi, acestea sunt precedate de adverbul "more"

Adverbul A. Adverbe de mod arata modul in care se petrece o actiune

Mod de formare: - de obicei, aceste adverbe se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly la finalul unui adjective. Exemple: beautiful sad capable slow easy ---> easily B. Adverbe de loc - arata locul in care se petrece o actiune Exemple: here, there, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, outside, inside C. Adverbe de timp arata timpul in care se petrece o actiune

---> ---> ---> --->

beautifully sadly capably slowly

Exemple: today, yesterday, tomorrow, Saturday, Monday, now, finally, later, soon, just, still D. Adverbe de durata

Cuprins Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

arata

perioada

de

timp

unei

actiuni

Exemple: forever, shortly, long, permanently E. Adverbe de comparatie - arata gradul de intensitate al unei actiuni Exemple: extremely, greatly, hugely, partially, perfectly, strongly, totally, almost, very, entirely F. Adverbe de frecventa - arata gradul de repetabilitate al unei actiuni Exemple: always, constantly, often, rarely, regularly, seldom, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, never G. Adverbe de probabilitate - arata gradul de probabilitate a unei actiuni Exemple: certainly, perhaps, maybe, possibly, definitely Exercitii: Prepozitia Cuprins

A. Prepozitii de miscare Exemple: to, arata miscarea

through,

across

to - utilizam "to" pentru a arata deplasarea catre o destinatie anume. Exemplu: I went

to

Chicago

two

years

ago.

through - utilizam "through" pentru a sugera deplasarea dintr-o parte in alta a unui spatiu inchis. Exemplu: The cars

went

through

the

tunnel.

across - utilizam "across" pentru a sugera miscarea dintr-o parte in alta a unei suprafete. Exemplu: She

flew

across de

the

sea. miscare:

Alte prepozitii along, down, over, off, round, into

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B. Prepozitii de loc - arata locul in care se situeaza obiectele definite Exemple: at, on, in at - folosim "at" pentru a arata un anumit loc sau o anumita pozitie. Exemplu: Someone is at the door. on - folosim "on" pentru a arata pozitia pe o suprafata verticala sau orizontala. Exemplu: The dog is on the roof.

in - folosim "in" pentru a arata ca un anumit obiect este imprejmuit sau inchis. Exemplu: The parrot is in the cage. Alte prepozitii de loc: after, among, behind, between, in front of, next to, beside, by, over, above, under, below. C. Prepozitii de timp - pentru a specifica timpul unei actiuni Exemple: at, on, in at - pentru a arata timpul exact. Exemplu: She left at 7.00 a.m. on - pentru anumite date sau zile Exemple: She arrived on Monday. Her birthday is on 23rd of October. in - pentru o perioada de timp nespecificata, necunoscuta din timpul unui an, zi, luna, anotimp. Exemple: It is very cold in Winter. I left Romania in 1989. Alte prepozitii de timp: after, by, since, during, for, throughout Exercitii: ! Verbelelor care se termina in ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o li se adauga terminatia -es" Exemple: I kiss He kisses I wish He wishes I catch He catches

I mix He mixes I go He goes ! La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o consoana, se inlocuieste litera y cu litera i, iar apoi se adauga terminatia -es" Exemple: I fly He flies I study He studies I cry He cries ! La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o vocala, se adauga terminatia -s" Exemple: I pay He pays I stay He stays I play He plays C. Folosim Prezentul Simplu pentru: activitati zilnice, saptamanale, lunare, anuale Exemple: I go to the mountains every month. We have breakfast at 7.30 every morning. obiceiuri, hobby-uri Exemple: She plays tennis in her free time. In the summer, they go to the seaside. situatii permanente Exemplu: He lives in Paris. I work as a manager. a exprima actiuni care respecta un anumit program Exemple: The bus for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday. I have Maths Friday at 11.30. situatii emotionale Exemple: I love my girlfriend very much. He hates cats. adevaruri generale Exemple:

The earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100C. D. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Simplu: every day/ week/ month/ year etc., every morning/ evening/ afternoon/ night, usually, always, sometimes, often, never, in the morning/evening/night etc. Exemple: 1. He goes to the gim every day. 2. I play football every week. 3. We go to the dentist every year. 4. She watches TV every evening. 5. She usually studies hard for her exams. 6. I always do my homework. 7. He sometimes goes shopping. 8. I often play pool with my friends. 9. She never go to school by bus. 10. In the evening we play Monopoly.

Prezentul Simplu

A. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv (la persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia -s" sau -es") Exemple: 1. I go 2. He reads 3. She

to a lives

school book in

every every

day. month. Bucharest.

Interogativ: Do / Does (pers.III, sg.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv Exemple: 1. Do you 2. Does he 3. Does

go read she

to school every day? a book every month? live in Bucharest?

Negativ: Subiect + do / does (pers.III, sg.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv Se folosesc adesea contractiile don't (do + not) si doesn't (does + not) Exemple: 1. I don't go 2. He doesn't read 3. She doesn't live in Bucharest.

to a

school book

every every

day. month.

B. Reguli pentru adaugarea terminatiei -s" sau -es" la afirmativ pentru persoana a III-a singular ! La majoritatea verbelor se adauga terminatia -s" la persoana a III-a singular la afirmativ Exemple: I talk He talks I work He works I sleep He sleeps ! Verbelelor care se termina in ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o li se adauga terminatia -es" Exemple: I kiss He kisses I wish He wishes I catch He catches

I mix He mixes I go He goes ! La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o consoana, se inlocuieste litera y cu litera i, iar apoi se adauga terminatia -es" Exemple: I fly He flies I study He studies I cry He cries ! La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o vocala, se adauga terminatia -s" Exemple: I pay He pays I stay He stays I play He plays C. Folosim Prezentul Simplu pentru: activitati zilnice, saptamanale, lunare, anuale Exemple: I go to the mountains every month. We have breakfast at 7.30 every morning. obiceiuri, hobby-uri Exemple: She plays tennis in her free time. In the summer, they go to the seaside. situatii permanente Exemplu: He lives in Paris. I work as a manager. a exprima actiuni care respecta un anumit program Exemple: The bus for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday. I have Maths Friday at 11.30. situatii emotionale Exemple: I love my girlfriend very much. He hates cats. adevaruri generale Exemple:

The earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100C. D. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Simplu: every day/ week/ month/ year etc., every morning/ evening/ afternoon/ night, usually, always, sometimes, often, never, in the morning/evening/night etc. Exemple: 1. He goes to the gim every day. 2. I play football every week. 3. We go to the dentist every year. 4. She watches TV every evening. 5. She usually studies hard for her exams. 6. I always do my homework. 7. He sometimes goes shopping. 8. I often play pool with my friends. 9. She never go to school by bus. 10. In the evening we play Monopoly.

Prezentul Continuu

Cuprins

A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ: Subiect + to be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. I'm 2. They 3. She is

writing an article are playing having lunch at this

now. football. moment.

Interogativ: To be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. Am I writing an article now? 2. Are they playing football? 3. Is she having lunch at this moment? Negativ: Subiect + to be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + not + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile isn't (is + not) si aren't (are + not) Exemple: 1. I'm not writing an article now. 2. They aren't playing football. 3. She isn't having lunch at this moment

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B. Reguli pentru adaugarea terminatiei -s" sau -es" la afirmativ pentru persoana a III-a singular
! La majoritatea verbelor se adauga terminatia -ing" fara nici o modificare: Exemple: play playing try trying drink drinking sing - singing

go - going draw - drawing cook - cooking learn - learning send - sending wash - washing ! La verbele care se termina in litera e precedata de o consoana, se renunta la litera e si se adauga terminatia "-ing" Exemple: make making come coming leave leaving ! La verbele formate dintr-o singura silaba (monosilabice) care se termina intr-o consoana precedata de o vocala, se dubleaza consoana si apoi se adauga terminatia "-ing" Exemple: get getting sit sitting hit hitting

C. Folosim Prezentul Continuu pentru:


activitati care se petrec in momentul vorbirii Exemple: She is watching TV now. Mother is washing the dishes at this moment. actiuni care se desfasoara pe o perioada mai mare de timp, incluzand si momentul vorbirii Exemple: John is studying Maths for his exam. My brother is writing a book. a vorbi despre o intalnire sau despre un aranjament din viitorul apropiat Exemple: He is flying to New York next week. I'm meeting Susan next Sunday.

D. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Continuu:


now, at this moment, these days, this week, today, tonight etc. Exemple: 1. Paul is repairing his car now. 2. I'm having lunch at this moment. 3. He is working hard for a project these days. 4. They are going to the basketball game this week. 5. I'm writing a letter today. 6. I'm watching TV tonight.

Trecutul Simplu
A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ: Subiect + Vb.II (terminatia "-ed" pentru verbele regulate) Exemple: 1. I wrote 2. He went to 3. We played Interogativ: Did +

book last year. a football game last week. in the park yesterday.

Subiect

Vb.I?

Exemple: 1. Did you write a book last year? 2. Did he go to a football game last week? 3. Did you play in the park yesterday? Negativ: Subiect

didn't

Vb.I

Exemple: 1. I didn't write a book last 2. He didn't go to a football game last 3. We didn't play in the park yesterday.

year. week.

Cuprins Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

B. Folosim Trecutul Simplu pentru:

activitati terminate care s-au petrecut in trecut Exemple: She was in France 2 years ago. We bought a new washing machine 2 weeks ago. actiuni incheiate care s-au petrecut la un moment determinat in trecut Exemple: They were in England in 1981. I left Bucharest in april 1994.

C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Trecutul Simplu:


yesterday, at this time yesterday, 2 days ago, 2 months ago, last year, last week, the day before yesterday

Exemple: 1. Diana went in Belgium 3 years ago. 2. I was having lunch at this time yesterday. 3. They played football 2 hours ago. 4. Paul taught English and French 3 months ago. 5. She left town the day before yesterday.

Trecutul Continuu
A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ: Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. I was learning a poem at this time yesterday. 2. You were watering the flowers at this time yesterday. 3.They were mending the radio at this time yesterday. Interogativ: Was (pers.I/III sg) / Were (restul pers.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. Was I learning a poem at this time yesterday? 2. Were you watering the flowers at this time yesterday? 3. Were they mending the radio at this time yesterday? Negativ: Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile wasn't (was + not) si weren't (were + not) Exemple: 1. I wasn't learning a poem at this time yesterday. 2. You weren't watering the flowers at this time yesterday. 3.They weren't mending the radio at this time yesterday.

Cuprins Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

B. Folosim Trecutul Continuu pentru:


a exprima o actiune in desfasurare ce a avut loc in trecut Exemple: She was playing in her room at this time yesterday. They were listening music at this time last Saturday. a exprima o actiune repetata de-a lungul unei perioade de timp Exemple: Did she ask any questions? Oh, she was asking questions all the time. Did he buy any sweets?. Oh, he was buying sweets all the time.

C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Trecutul Continuu:


at this time yesterday, from ... to ..., all day, for ... Exemple: 1. Tom was typing some letters at this time yesterday . 2. She was playing quitar from 6 to 8 o'clock. 3. They were laughing all day. 4. She was living in an old building for 6 years.

Prezentul Perfect Simplu

Cuprins

A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ: Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + vb. la forma a III-a Exemple: 1. I 2. He 3. We

have washed has written have learnt our

blouse. his homework. English lesson.

her

Interogativ: Have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + Subiect + vb. la forma a III-a Exemple: 1. Have I washed 2. Has he written 3. Have we learnt our

blouse? his homework? English lesson?

her

Negativ: Subiect + have/has (pers. a III-a sg.) + not + vb. la forma a IIIa Se folosesc adesea contractiile haven't (have + not) si hasn't (has + not) Exemple: 1. I haven't washed 2. He hasn't written 3. We haven't learnt our English lesson.

her his

blouse. homework.

Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

B. Folosim Prezentul Perfect Simplu pentru:


a exprima o actiune incheiata de curand, dar nu se cunoaste cu exactitate momentul incheierii acesteia Exemple: I have cooked a delicious steak. They have finished their homeworks. a exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut care se continua si in prezent; efectele actiunii se resimt si in prezent Exemple:

I have lived here since 1994. We have started classes for 3 hours.

C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu:


already, just, yet Exemple: 1. He has already finished his classes. 2. Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary. 3. They haven't written the exercise yet. never, ever, often Exemple: 1. I have never heard such a thing. 2. Have you ever read this news? 3. I have often travelled by car to the countryside. ever and before Exemplu: Have you ever heard this song before? for and since Exemple: 1. I've had my own car for four years. 2. She has been ill since yesterday. until now, so far, up to now Exemple: 1. I haven't had any Math problems up to now. 2. So far, he hasn't complained about his wage. 3. Until now, I haven't heard about this English singer.

Prezentul Perfect Continuu


A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ: Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + vb. la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. I have been waiting for your reply since yesterday. 2. He has been sending me letters for 3 months. 3. We have been crying for 3 hours. Interogativ: Have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + Subiect + been + vb. la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. Have I been waiting for your reply since yesterday? 2. Has he been sending me letters for 3 months? 3. Have we been crying for 3 hours? Negativ: Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + not + vb. la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile haven't (have + not) si hasn't (has + not) Exemple: 1. I haven't been waiting for your reply since yesterday. 2. He hasn't been sending me letters for 3 months. 3. We haven't been crying for 3 hours.

Cuprins Lectia 1 Lectia 2 Lectia 3 Lectia 4 Lectia 5 Lectia 6 Lectia 7 Lectia 8 Lectia 9 Lectia 10 Lectia 11 Lectia 12 Lectia 13 Lectia 14 Lectia 15 Lectia 16 Lectia 17 Lectia 18 Lectia 19 Lectia 20 Lectia 21 Lectia 22 Lectia 23 Lectia 24 Lectia 25 Lectia 26 Lectia 27

B. Folosim Prezentul Perfect Continuu pentru:


a exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut si care nu s-a incheiat inca Exemple: She has been eating for ten minutes. They have been working for several hours. a descrie stari sau sentimente care au inceput in trecut si au continuat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente in momentul vorbirii

Exemple: I have lived here since 1994. We have started classes for 3 hours.

C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Perfect Continuu:


since Exemplu: You have been living in Paris since 1996. for Exemplu: They have been watching TV for 3 hours. so far Exemplu: So far, there have been arriving 10 passengers from London. ever Exemplu: Have you ever been listening to the radio? never Exemplu: I have never been travelling to France until now.