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Industrial chemistry procures raw materials from natural environments to convert them into

intermediates, which subsequently serve as base materials to every other kind of industry.

Raw materials
Crude oil
Nat. gas
Coal
Biomass

INTERMEDIATES
hydrocarbons
syngas, hydrogen,
halogenated compounds
oxigenated compounds
Sulfur and nitrogen compounds
.

consumer products
fuels, lubricants, solvents
plastics, fibers, rubber
drugs,
paints, pigments
Soap, detergents
..

Tehnologia (englez technology, francez technologie) este ansamblul metodelor,


proceselor, operaiilor fcute sau aplicate asupra materiilor prime, materialelor i
datelor pentru realizarea unui anumit produs industrial sau comercial.
Ingineria aplic imaginaia, judecata i disciplina intelectual cuno tin elor umane
existente pentru a crea sau folosi tehnologia n mod util i eficient.
Importana tehnologiei pentru dezvoltarea economic este larg recunoscut, avnd
n vedere impactul pe care l poate avea tehnologia asupra succesului, supravie uirii
sau insuccesului activitii economice a companiilor, n special ntr-un mediu de
concuren intensiv i global

Some reasons to develop new technologies:


-

Better compounds (higher purity, higher yield, and higher biodegradability).


Different raw materials (cheaper, lower concentrations, high level of impurities, use of
biomass);
Lower costs (milder conditions);
Lower emissions (CO2, acid gases, VOC, waste waters, etc.)

Exemple:
puritate ridicata : acid tereftalic
randament ridicat: etilen oxid;
biodegradabilitate ridicata: surfactanti
materii prime mai ieftine: trecerea de la acetilena la etena;
materii prime cu concentratie mai mica sau cu nivel de impuritati mai mare: gaze naturale,
petrol, carbune
conditii mai blinde: sinteza metanolului:
- ZnO + Cr2O3 presiuni de 250-350 at si temperatura de 300-4500C.
- CuO + ZnO presiune de 150 at si 3000C.
- CuO-ZnO stabilizat cu alumina 50 at si 220-2300C
Emisii mai scazute, odata cu utilizarea conditiilor mai blinde si emisiile sunt mai scazute.

SUSTAINABILITY IN THE
CHEMICALINDUSTRY
Grand Challenges and Research Needs
ISBN: 0-309-54817-9 , 168 pages, 6x9, (2005)

FIG. 1 The Grand Challenges (ovals) for Sustainability (large arrows) that address the
transition from current thinking to the ideal vision for the chemical industry over the next 100
years.

Cele 12 principii ale Chimiei Verzi


1. Prevenirea formarii deseurilor. Proiectarea proceselor
chimice in asa fel incit sa nu se produca deseuri care sa
necesite proceduri de tratare sau curatare
2. Obtinerea de produse chimice sigure Produsele chimice
obtinute trebuie sa fie eficiente dar si lipsite de toxicitate.
3. Utilizarea de procese chimice nepericuloase.
Proiectarea de sinteze care utilizeaza si genereaza substante cu
toxicitatea scazuta fata de om sau mediu.
4. Utilizarea de resurse regenerabile. Inlocuirea resurselor
neregenerabile cu cele regenerabile (obtinute din produse
agricole sau din culturi speciale sau ca rezidii)
5. Utilizarea catalizatorilor in locul reactantilor
stoechiometrici. Deseurile se pot minimiza prin utilizarea
catalizatorilor. Acestia se utilizeaza in cantitati mici si se pot
refolosi de mai multe ori.
6. Evitarea derivatizarii compusilor organici. Se va evita
pe cit posibil blocarea si protejarea grupelor functionale.
Procesele de derivatizare utilizeaza reactanti scumpi si produc
deseuri.
7. Maximizarea economiei de atomi. Sintezele se vor
proiecta in asa fel incit produsul final sa contina intr-o proportie
maxima materiile prime initiale. Pe cit posibil se vor reduce
pierderile de atomi.
8. Utilizarea de solventi si de conditii de reactie sigure.
Se vor evita pe cit posibil solventii, agentii de separare si
auxiliarii chimici. Daca totusi sunt necesare se vor utiliza
compusi nepericulosi
9. Cresterea eficientei energetice. Se vor utiliza pe cit
posibil procese chimice ce au loc la temperaturi si presiuni
apropiate de normal.
10. Proiectarea de chimicale si produse ce se pot
degrada dupa utilizare.
Se vor proiecta si obtine produse ce se degrdeaza dupa
intrebuintare in produsi nepericulosi si care nu se acumuleaza in
mediu.
11. Analiza in timp real pentru prevenirea poluarii. Se va
prefera introducerea in proces a monitorizarii in timp real
pentru a minimiza sau elimina formarea de produsi secundari
12. Minimizarea potentialului pentru accidente. Alegerea
formei de prezentare a produsilor chimici (solid, lichid sau

gazos) in asa fel incit sa se minimizeze potentialul pentru


accidente chimice, explozii, incendii sau eliberari necontrolate
in mediu.

Online Database of Chemicals from Around the World

http://www.chemblink.com/cas_list.htm

The primary literature includes journal articles, patents, theses, reports, and
conference papers. To read the primary literature the scientist needs access to a library.
Abstracting and indexing services (sometimes known as secondary information
services, or the secondary literature) are designed to help scholars keep abreast of the
primary literature.
Definitions of tertiary literature vary but here it is assumed to be evaluated literature
based on primary and secondary sources, including reviews, handbooks, and encyclopedias.

KirkOthmer. The Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology is commonly referred to


as KirkOthmer after the names of the original editors.
The fourth edition of KirkOthmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology began in
1996 and was completed in 1998. You can find this edition at CHIMINFORM DATA.
It consists of 24 volumes, a supplement, and an index, the main work containing over
1200 articles, 9106 words, 6000 tables, and 5000 figures. Chemical Abstracts Registry
Numbers were included.
The full text of this encyclopedia is available online and on CD-ROM.

Ullmann's. The fourth edition of Ullmanns Enzyklopdie der Technischen Chemie ,


in 25 volumes (in German) began in 1972 and was completed in 1984. The fifth edition, under
the title Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, is being published in 36 volumes in
English.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Fifth Edition, was published from
1985 to 1996. This is the first edition that was published in the English language.
Since 1997, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is available in electronic
format to ensure higher convenience and topicality. From 1998, the Sixth Edition has been
published in the form of annual updates.
The Beilstein Handbook. Beilstein's Handbook of Organic Chemistry is the oldest,
best-known reference work in organic chemistry. It takes its name from F RIEDRICH KONRAD
BEILSTEIN who produced the first edition between 1881 and 1883. Coverage goes back to the
beginning of organic chemistry (1830). Substances are included in Beilstein if they are
organic compounds; if they have known, verified constitutions; if they are pure; if syntheses
for them are known; and if data are available on them. Information is abstracted from
journals, patents, monographs, and other publications. Since 1985 electronic abstracting
methods have been employed .
Descriptions of compounds cover constitution and configuration; natural occurrence
and isolation from natural sources; preparation and manufacture; chemical and physical
properties; structural and energy parameters; characterization and analysis; and salts and
addition compounds.
http://www.library.pub.ro/Baze_stiintifice.html

http://www.uspto.gov/
http://www.worldometers.info/