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2.

Partile componente ale puntii dentare

PARTILE COMPONETE ALE PUNTII DENTARE

. Corpul de punte sau dintii intermediari c 939j98j are inlocuiesc


dintii pierduti de pe arcada

. Elementele de agregare de care este solidarizat corpul de punte


la extremitati si realizeaza fixarea (agregarea) prin cimentare pe dintii
stalpi ai intregii proteze. Elementele de agregare sunt in numar de cel
putin doua, asezate, in general, pe cei doi dinti limitati ai bresei edentare.

3.Caracteristicile puntii dentare

sunt fixate pe dintii stalpi prin cimetarea elementelor de agregare,


ceea ce le confera stabilitate pe o lunga perioada de timp

volumul care il ocupa in cavitatea bucala este mai mic sau, cel
putin, egal cu acela ocupat de dintii naturali

formele suprafetelor vestibulare si orale sunt asemanatoare cu ale


dintilor naturali

transmit fiziologic presiuni masticatorii, prin parodontiul dintilor


stalpi, de la nivelul fetelor ocluzale ale corpului de punte si ale
elementelor de agregare osului alveolar

sunt constructii rigide, nedeformabile, rezistente la rupere si


abraziune

d.p.d.v. fizionomic pot fi nefizionomice, fizionomice si partial


fizionomice

4.Ce este campul protetic

Puntea dentara are cu unele formatiuni anatomice raporturi de


contact, iar de altele se fixeaza ( dintii restanti, limitanti spatiului
edentate).Toate aceste elemente morfologice sunt cunoscute sub numele
de camp protetic.El influenteaza conceperea, functionalitatea si
prognosticul puntii dentare.Ofera in mod foarte vizibil toate elementele
anatomice.

5.Care sunt elementele campului protetic pentru puntea dentara

dintii stalpi in edentatiile frontale - dintii omologi de pe cealalta


hemiarcada - dintii antagonisti - creasta edentate.

6.Enumerati fazele tehnice de realizare a puntii dentare

Exista doua tehnici de obtinere a puntilor dentare : a turnarii dintr-


o bucata si a realizarii din elemente separate (metoda clasica)
FAZELE CLINICO-TEHNICE :

pentru puntea dintr-o bucata

1. hiinu (/kna/; Romanian: [kiinw] (listen), also known


as Kishinev (Russian: , tr. Kishinyov), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of
Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, and is located in the middle of
the country, on the river Bc. Chiinu as capital of Republic of Moldova consists of city itself and
nearby suburbs tightly interconnected, together making up the municipality of Chiinu. The number
of resident population in the Municipality of Chiinu (which includes other nearby communities) is
820,500.[5]
Chiinu is the most economically prosperous locality in Moldova and its largest transportation hub.

Contents
[hide]

1Etymology and names


2History
o 2.1Moldavian period
o 2.2Imperial period
2.2.1Pogroms and pre-revolution
o 2.3Romanian period
o 2.4World War II
o 2.5Soviet period
o 2.6After independence
3Geography
o 3.1Climate
4Law and government
o 4.1Municipality
4.1.1Cities/towns
4.1.2Communes
o 4.2Administration
o 4.3Local government
5Economy
6Demographics
o 6.1Ethnic composition
o 6.2Religion
7Cityscape
o 7.1Architecture
8Culture and education
o 8.1Events and festivals
o 8.2In popular culture
9Media
10Politics
o 10.1Elections
11Transport
o 11.1Airport
o 11.2Road
o 11.3Rail
o 11.4Public transport
11.4.1Trolleybuses
11.4.2Buses
11.4.3Minibuses
o 11.5Traffic
12Sport
13Personalities
o 13.1Natives
o 13.2Residents
14International relations
o 14.1Twin towns sister cities
15Notes and references
16Further reading
17External links

Etymology and names[edit]


The origin of the city's name is unclear, but in one version, the name comes from
the archaic Romanian word chila (meaning "spring", "source of water") and nou ("new"), because
it was built around a small spring, at the corner of Pukin and Albioara streets.[6]
The other version, formulated by tefan Ciobanu, Romanian historian and academician, holds that
the name was formed the same way as the name of Chiineu (alternative spelling: Chiinu) in
Western Romania, near the border with Hungary. Its Hungarian name is Kisjen, from which the
Romanian name originates.[7] Kisjen comes from kis "small" and the "Jen", one of the
seven Hungarian tribes that entered the Carpathian Basin in 896. At least 24 other settlements are
named after the "Jen" tribe.[8][9]
Chiinu is known in Russian as (Kishinyov [kinf]]). It is written Kiinv in the
Latin Gagauz alphabet. It was also written as "Chiineu" in pre-20th-century Romanian[10] and as
"" in the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet. Historically, the English language name for the city,
"Kishinev", was based on the modified Russian one because it entered the English language via
Russian at the time Chiinu was part of the Russian Empire (e.g. Kishinev pogrom). Therefore, it
remains a common English name in some historical contexts. Otherwise, the Romanian-based
"Chiinu" has been steadily gaining wider currency, especially in written language. The city is also
historically referred to as German: Kischinau, Polish: Kiszyniw, Ukrainian: ,
or Yiddish: Keshenev .

History[edit]
Main articles: History of Chiinu and Timeline of Chiinu

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for verification. Please help improve this article by adding
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Moldavian period[edit]
Founded in 1436 as a monastery village, the city was part of the Principality of Moldavia (which,
starting with the 16th century fell under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire). At the beginning of
the 19th century Chiinu was a small town of 7,000 inhabitants.
In 1812, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (18061812), the eastern half of Moldavia was
ceded to the Russian Empire and Chiinu became the capital of the newly
annexed oblast of Bessarabia.

Imperial period[edit]
Chiinu, 1889

By 1834, an imperial townscape with broad and long roads had emerged as a result of a
generous development plan, which divided Chiinu roughly into two areas: the old part of the town,
with its irregular building structures, and a newer city center and station. Between 26 May 1830 and
13 October 1836 the architect Avraam Melnikov established the Catedrala Naterea Domnului with a
magnificent bell tower. In 1840 the building of the Triumphal arch, planned by the architect Luca
Zaushkevich, was completed. Following this the construction of numerous buildings and landmarks
began.
On 28 August 1871, Chiinu was linked by rail with Tiraspol, and in 1873 with Corneti. Chiinu-
Ungheni-Iai railway was opened on 1 June 1875 in preparation for the Russo-Turkish War (1877
1878). The town played an important part in the war between Russia and Ottoman Empire, as the
main staging area of the Russian invasion. During the Belle poque, the mayor of the city was Carol
Schmidt, considered one of Chisinau's best mayors. Its population had grown to 92,000 by 1862,
and to 125,787 by 1900.[11]
Pogroms and pre-revolution[edit]
Main article: Kishinev pogrom
In the late 19th century, especially due to growing anti-Semitic sentiment in the Russian Empire and
better economic conditions, many Jews chose to settle in Chiinu. By the year 1900, 43% of the
population of Chiinu was Jewish one of the highest numbers in Europe.[citation needed]
A large anti-Semitic riot took place in the town on 67 April 1903, which would later be known as
the Kishinev pogrom. The rioting continued for three days, resulting in 47 Jews dead, 92 severely
wounded, and 500 suffering minor injuries. In addition, several hundred houses and many
businesses were plundered and destroyed. The pogroms are largely believed to have been incited
by anti-Jewish propaganda in the only official newspaper of the time, Bessarabetz ().
Mayor Schmidt disapproved of the incident and resigned later in 1903. The reactions to this incident
included a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on behalf of the American people by the US
President Theodore Roosevelt in July 1905.[12]
On 22 August 1905 another violent event occurred: The police opened fire on an estimated 3,000
demonstrating agricultural workers. Only a few months later, 1920 October 1905, a further protest
occurred, helping to force the hand of Nicholas II in bringing about the October Manifesto. However,
these demonstrations suddenly turned into another anti-Jewish pogrom, resulting in 19 deaths.[12]

Romanian period[edit]

Stephen the Great Monument

Following the Russian October Revolution, Bessarabia declared independence from the crumbling
empire, as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, before joining the Kingdom of Romania. Romania
granted important subsidies to its province and initiated large scale investment programs in the
infrastructure of the main cities in Basarabia and Northern Bucovina, expanded the railroad
infrastructure and started an extensive program to eradicate illiteracy. Only with the advent of
modern technology and industrialization, it slowly rose into prominence.[citation needed]
As of 1919, Chiinu had an estimated population of 133,000.[13] Between 1918 and 1940 the center
of the city undertook large renovation work. In 1927 the Stephen the Great Monument, by the
sculptor Alexandru Plmdeal, was erected.
World War II[edit]

Eternity a memorial complex dedicated to the soldiers who fell in World War II and the military conflict in
Transnistria

State Art Museum, during the Cold War period

Chiinu at night in 1980

Dacia Boulevard in Botanica District

In the chaos of the Second World War Chiinu was almost completely destroyed.[citation needed].A
devastating earthquake occurred on 10 November 1940. The epicenter of the quake, which
measured 7.3 on the Richter scale, was in eastern Romania and subsequently led to substantial
destruction.
After scarcely one year, the assault on the newly created Moldavian SSR by the German and
Romanian armies began. Beginning with June 1941 the city came under bombardment by Nazi air
raids. However, Romanian sources assign most of the responsibility for the damage to Soviet
NKVD destruction battalions, that operated in Chiinu until 17 July 1941, when it was captured by
invading Axis forces.[14]
Following the German occupation, the city suffered from the Nazi extermination policy of its Jewish
inhabitants, who were transported on trucks to the outskirts of the city and then summarily shot in
partially dug pits. The number of Jews murdered during the initial occupation of the city is estimated
at approximately 10,000 people.[15]
As the war drew to a conclusion, the city was once more pulled into heavy fighting as German and
Romanian troops retreated. Chiinu was taken by the Red Army on 24 August 1944 as a result of
the Jassy-Kishinev Operation.
After the war, Bessarabia was fully integrated into the Soviet Union. Most of Bessarabia became the
Moldavian SSR with Chiinu as its capital; around 30% of Bessarabia became parts of
the Ukrainian SSR.

examinarea pacientului si stabilirea indicatiilor tratamentului prin


punti

2. pregatirea campului protetic, slefuirea dintilor, viitorii dinti stalpi si


puntii

3. amprentarea campului protetic

4. turnarea modelului

5. modelarea machetei elementelor de agregare si a corpului de


punte, unite intre ele

6. confectionarea tiparului ( ambalarea )

7. turnarea metalului in tipar

8. dezambalarea si prelucrarea piesei protetice

9. proba puntii in cavitatea bucala si individualizarea reliefului ocluzal

10. realizarea componentei estetice prin utilizarea tehnicilor specifice

11. finisarea si lustruirea puntii ( componenta metalica)

12. fixarea puntii, prin cimentare, pe dintii stalpi

pentru puntea din elemente separate

1. examinarea pacientului si stabilirea indicatiilor tratamentului prin


punti

2. pregatirea campului protetic, slefuirea dintilor, viitorii dinti stalpi si


puntii

3. amprentarea campului protetic


4. turnarea modelului

5. modelarea machetei elementelor de agregare

6. ambalarea machetei elementelor de agregare

7. turnarea metalului in tipar

8. dezambalarea si prelucrarea elementelor de agregare

9. proba puntii in cavitatea bucala si individualizarea reliefului ocluzal

10. amprentarea campului protetic in vederea realizarii corpului de


punte

11. confectionarea modelelor

12. modelarea machetei corpului de punte

13. confectionarea tiparului corpului de punte

14. turnarea metalului in tipar

15. dezambalarea si prelucrarea corpului de punte

16. lipirea corpului de punte ca element de agregare

17. proba puntii in cavitatea bucala si individualizarea reliefului ocluzal

18. realizarea componentei estetice

19. finisarea si lustruirea puntii

20. fixarea puntii prin cimentare, pe dintii stalpi

7.Tehnica de pozitionare a arcadei dentare in intercuspidare


maxima

8.Examinarea amprentei

verificarea integritatii controlul pozitiei elementelor de


agregare daca antagonistii sunt bine reprezentati daca ocluzia este
corecta

9.Directia corpului de punte in zona laterala

Directia pe care este necesara sa o prezinte un corp de punte


intre elementele de agregare este impusa de conditii mecanice si
topografice.Fortele care actioneaza asupra corpului de punte sunt preluate de
elementele de agregare si transmise osului alveolar prin tesuturile dento-
parodontale, fapt ce conditioneaza ca toate presiunile ocluzale sa fie transmise
in axul lung al dintilor stalpi.Corpul de punte este realizat in linie dreapta.Pentru
zonele frontale nu este posibil sa se restaureze in linie dreapta.

10.Ce rol are refacerea reliefului ocluzal

Asigura

o efectuarea functiei de masticatie prin triturarea alimentelor,


astfel incat sa se obtina o eficienta masticatorie in limite
fiziologice

o relatii ocluzale functionale cu dintii antagonisti in static si in


dynamic

o libertatea miscarilor reflexe ale mandibulei

11.Dezavantajele modelajului ocluzal aplatizat

eficienta masticatorie este redusa

cresterea numarului miscarilor mandibulei, ceea ce se


traduce prin prelungirea cilului masticator

fortele de contractie ale muschilor ridicatori ai mandibulei


sunt mai mari; se produce un effort muscular

oboseala musculara, care apare din cauza prelungirii timpului


de masticatie si a efortului depus

suprasolicitarea fizica a lucrarii protetice este posibil sa o


deformeze sau sa o fractureze din cauza presiunilor ocluzale
mari

suprasolicitarea parodontiului dintilor stalpi din cauza


presiunilor ocluzale exagerat de mari

12.Ce efect are ingustarea corpului de punte

Are urmatoarele efecte nefavorabile :

scaderea rezistentei fizice

instabilitatea contactelor ocluzale

13.Enumerati caracteristicile celor doua tipuri de contacte


ocluzale functionale ale arcadei dentare normale

asigura sprijinul pentru mandibula in pozitia de IM

creeaza conditii favorabile pentru glisarea mandibulei


eficienta masticatorie

nu creeza senzatia de incorsetare la nivelul muschilor


mobilizatori ai mandibulei si la nivelul contactelor ocluzale

14.Definiti cele 2 tipuri de contacte ocluzale

1. contacte de tip tripodic

2. contacte de tip varf cuspid-planseu foseta

15.Descrieti corpul de punte cu contact in sa

o morfologie identical cu a dintilor normali

o prezinta forma si volumul coroanelor naturale

o igiena deficitara

o functional este refacuta functia fonetica si fizionomica

o fata mucozala este in contact intim cu mucoasa

o indicatii - zona frontala la maxilar si zona laterala atunci cand


exista creasta alveolara lata