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Ana-Maria Trantescu Camelia Manolescu

LIMBA ENGLEZ PENTRU ECONOMIE I AFACERI


- nivel încep tori i mediu -
(note de curs)
Editura AIUS PrintEd este acreditat de CNCSIS

ISBN 978-973-1780-98-6
Ana-Maria Trantescu Camelia Manolescu

LIMBA ENGLEZ
PENTRU
ECONOMIE I AFACERI

- nivel încep tori i mediu -


(note de curs)
CUVÂNT INTRODUCTIV

Aceast lucrare a fost conceput ca un instrument de


lucru pentru cei ce doresc s studieze limba englez conco-
mitent cu perfec ionarea în domeniul lor de activitate, a celor
care sunt angaja i în institu ii i societ i comerciale ce
colaboreaz cu institu ii sau societ i comerciale str ine, unde
personalul este vorbitor sau cunosc tor al limbii engleze, sau a
celor ce urmeaz s lucreze în institu ii sau societ i
comerciale unde cunoa terea limbii engleze este obligatorie.
Necesitatea cunoa terii limbii engleze, cel pu in la un
nivel mediu din punct de vedere lexical i gramatical,
precum i însu irea unui vocabular specific domeniului
afacerilor, a crescut odat cu aderarea rii noastre la spa iul
comunitar, cu dezvoltarea economic i cre terea
investi iilor str ine în România.
Având în vedere c abordarea lucr rii vizeaz nivelul de
încep tori i mediu, cursul nostru este util tuturor celor ce
doresc s se prezinte cât mai bine pe pia a for ei de munc .
Cursul, care cuprinde un num r de 24 lec ii - ca
material de baz - i unde se insist asupra unor probleme
necesare în înv area unei limbi str ine (lexicale,
gramaticale, de dezvoltare a deprinderilor de vorbire sau de
scriere, i în general to ii factorii care alc tuiesc complexul
unei limbi i asigur o înv are temeinic i de durat ), este
structurat în dou p r i.

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Prima parte cuprinde 13 cursuri i insist în special
pe însu irea no iunilor de baz , lexicale i gramaticale,
pornind de la texte simple care s -i ajute pe cursan i s se
deprind cu înv area limbii engleze. Cea de-a doua parte
cuprinde urm toarele 11 cursuri i urm re te însu irea unui
vocabular de specialitate i dezvolt parcursul gramatical din
prima parte.
Am avut în vedere urm toarea structur : texte simple
necesare înv rii elementelor de baz ale limbii engleze,
texte care s urm reasc însu irea în mod gradual a
necesarului de cuvinte i structuri; texte din domeniul
economiei i afacerilor, dar i un vocabular general i
specializat de uz curent, f r no iuni care s necesite
explica ii sau cuno tin e deosebite de specialitate, explica ii
pentru folosirea activ a vocabularului; explica ii gramaticale
bazate pe structuri i tipare pentru însu irea modului de
utilizare a principalelor categorii gramaticale cu frecven
mai mare în limbajul de specialitate; exerci ii de vocabular i
gramatic cu teme de discu ie i compozi ie de interes
contemporan. În final, am considerat util ata area listei de
verbe neregulate.
Inten ia noastr a fost s oferim o baz general i un
spectru relativ larg legat de problemele lexicale i grama-
ticale care s asigure diversificare i specializare, un punct
de plecare în înv area unei limbi atât de necesar în
domeniul afacerilor.
Autoarele

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CONTENTS

PART ONE
LESSSON 1 Socialising ...................................................9
LESSON 2 My Room ...................................................17
LESSON 3 In the Office ...............................................23
LESSON 4 A House .....................................................29
LESSON 5 At the Hotel ................................................37
LESSON 6 The Brief of My Job ....................................44
LESSON 7 In the Park .................................................51
LESSON 8 At the Market .............................................59
LESSON 9 A. At the Restaurant ...................................68
B. The Time ...............................................70
LESSON 10 The Seasons ..............................................80
LESSON 11 A. Everyday Activities ................................99
B. What Are You Doing ...........................106
LESSON 12 Marks & Spencer .....................................124
LESSON 13 In A New Town ........................................138

PART TWO
LESSON 14 Types of Businesses................................149
LESSON 15 The Business Partnership .......................157
LESSON 16 Plastic Money in a Cashless Society ......164
LESSON 17 How Corporations Raise Capital .............172
LESSON 18 Applying for a Job ...................................180
LESSON 19 Socialising in Business ............................185
LESSON 20 Market Economy and Centrally Planned
Economy ................................................193

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LESSON 21 Starting a Business .................................201
LESSON 22 Banking and Finance ...............................206
LESSON 23 Management ...........................................217
LESSON 24 Issues in International Trade ...................220
ROLE CARDS ...............................................................224
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS ......................................229
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................236

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PART ONE

LESSON 1

SOCIALISING
Maria: Hello! My name is Maria. What is your name?
Jane: Hello! I am Jane. Glad to meet you.
Maria: Glad to meet you, too. I am from Italy. Where are you
from?
Jane: I am American. I am from Chicago. My best friend is
Italian.
Maria: What is he like?
Jane: He is tall and thin.
Maria: What is his name?
Jane: Marco. He is always busy and he is very efficient.
Maria: What is he?
Jane: He is a sales manager.
Jane: Good morning, Bill!
Bill: Good morning, Jane! How are you?
Jane: Fine, thank you.
Bill: She is Betty, our new colleague.
Jane: My name is Jane. How do you do!
Betty: How do you do! Glad to meet you.
Jane: What do you do, Betty?
Betty: I am an office-assistant. What are you, Jane?
Jane: I am an advertising agent.

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Vocabulary

morning – diminea tall - înalt


office-assistant – secretar who - cine
How are you? - Ce mai faci? thin - sub ire
What is she like? - Cum arat ea? what - ce
I'm fine - Sunt bine efficient - eficient
old - b trân busy - ocupat
smart - inteligent name - nume
sales manager - director de vânz ri new - nou

Exercises

/. Answer the following questions:


1. Is Betty a doctor? 2. What is she? 3. Is Marco young and
smart? 4. What is Jane? 5. What is Marco like? 6. What is
Maria? 7. Is Marco efficient? 8. Who is busy? 9. Is Jane the
marketing director? 10. Who is the advertising agent?

//. Decide if the statements are true or false:


1. It is morning.
2. Betty is an economist.
3. Marco is a doctor.
4. Bill is young and smart.

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Grammar

INDICATIVUL PREZENT AL VERBULUI "TO BE"


(THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF THE VERB "TO BE" )

Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ/ (-Negativ)

I am I am not Am I (not) ?
You are You are not Are you (not) ?
He is He is not Is he (not) ?
She is She is not Is she (not) ?
It is It is not Is it (not)?
We are We are not Are we (not) ?
You are You are not Are you (not) ?
They are They are not Are they (not) ?

I'm, I'm not,


you're, you're not (you aren't), Aren't you?
he's, he's not (he isn't), isn't he?
Forme she's, she's not (she isn't), isn't she?
contrase it's, it's not (it isn't), isn't it?
we're, we're not, (we aren't), aren't we?
you're you're not (you aren't), aren't you?
they're they're not (they aren't) aren't they?

În vorbire se folosesc de preferin formele contrase

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PRONUMELE PERSONALE
(PERSONAL PRONOUNS)

Singular Plural

I I We

II You You

He They
III She
It

- Pronumele personal "I" se scrie întotdeauna cu majuscul .


- Pronumele personal persoana a lll-a sg. neutru "it"
înlocuie te substantive ce denumesc obiecte, animale si
no iuni abstracte.

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ARTICOLUL
(THE ARTICLE)

1. ARTICOLUL NEHOT RÂT


(THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE)

Reguli Exemple

- se a eaz înaintea substantivului pe a book - o carte


care îl determin ;

- are forma "a" când cuvintul care a teacher - un profesor


urmeaz începe cu un sunet a good economist - un
consonantic sau semivocalic; economist bun

- are forma "an" când cuvântul care a woman - o femeie


urmeaz începe cu un sunet vocalic; an economist -un economist
an English book - o carte de
englez

- are aceea i form indiferent de a man – un b rbat


genul i cazul substantivului a woman - o femeie
pe care îl determin ; a book - o carte

- când substantivul pe care îl a book - books


determin trece la plural, articolul o carte – c r i
nehot rât dispare;

- se întrebuin eaz înaintea I am an engineer. – Sunt


substantivelor cu func ia sintactic de inginer.
nume predicativ. I am a Romanian. – Sunt
roman.
I am a man. - Sunt b rbat.

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2. ARTICOLUL HOTARÂT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE )

Forma unic : e.g. the the doctor


the economist

- se a eaz înaintea substantivului pe care îl determin ;

- se cite te [ ] când cuvântul care urmeaz începe cu un


sunet consonantic sau semivocalic: the book, the pen, the
window.
- se cite te [ i] când cuvântul care urmeaz începe cu un
sunet vocalic: the egg, the apple.

Se folose te înaintea unui substantiv ce denume te o


no iune deja men ionat :

a) o no iune deja men ionat :


A man is in the office. The man is tall and fat.
b) În structura prepozi ie + the + substantiv:
He is in the office.

ADJECTIVUL (THE ADJECTIVE)

a) nu se acord în gen, num r i caz cu substantivul pe


care îl determin ;
b) precede substantivul pe care îI determin ;
c) adjectivele care denumesc na ionalitatea se scriu cu
majuscul : Romanian, English

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Exercises

/. Fill in with the necessary forms of the verb to be:


1. I ... very tired today. 2. We ... busy. 3. He ... not an
accountant. 4. They ... not in the office. 5. You .. an
economist. 6. Bill and Jane ... tall and thin. 7. It... a nice
office. 8. I and Mike ... efficient. 9. She ... not the new office-
assistant. 10. Bill... a sales manager.

//. Fill in with the necessary article:


1. He is ... economist. 2. We are in ... office. 3. ... doctor is
here now. 4. I am ... sales manager. 5. ... woman is at the
door. 6. Jane Brown, ... colleague from England, is in ...
meeting hall. 7. She is ... office assistant. 8. What... nice
surprise! 9. ... man over there is fat. 10. They are in ... park.

III. Give the negative, interrogative and the interrogative-


negative forms of the following sentences:
1. She is an office assistant. 2. We are in the office. 3. You
are an engineer.
4. The office is very nice. 5. A man is in the park. 6. They are
tall and thin. 7. I am a doctor. 8, Bill is the sales manager. 9.
You are very busy now. 10. We are tired.

IV. Translate into English:


1. Cine e ti tu? 2. Ce e ti tu? 3. Cum arat el / ea? 4. El este
economist? 5. Este Jane noua secretar ? 6. Nu este ea o

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secretar eficient ? 7. Ei sunt foarte ocupa i? Nu, nu sunt. 8.
Ea este înalt i sub ire. 9. Ce mai faci? 10. M numesc Bill
Jeffries i sunt director de vânz ri.

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LESSON 2

MY ROOM

This is his room. It is small and bright. This is a table and


these are chairs. That is the bed. That is a lamp and those
are his pencils and ballpoint pens. These are the windows.
They are wide. There is a nice picture on the wall near those
book shelves.
This is an office. It is large and bright. There are many things
in this office: three desks, five chairs, two computers, a
bookcase, a lot of files and flowers.

Bill: How many offices are there in the building?


Jane: There are ten offices in this building.
Bill: Have you got an office?
Jane: Yes, I have a very nice office.
Bill: Is it large?
Jane: No, it isn't large, but it is bright and there are a lot of
things in it. I have a desk with a computer on it.
Bill: Is there a bookcase in the office?
Jane: Yes, there is a small bookcase.

Vocabulary

office - birou pencil - creion


lamp - lustr , lamp bright - luminos
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large - mare, spa ios ballpoint pen – pix
there are - exist window - fereastr
thing - lucru wide - larg
desk - birou picture - tablou, fotografie
bed - pat wall - perete
chair - scaun near - lâng
bookcase - bibliotec file - dosar
book shelves - rafturi de c r i flower – floare
building - cl dire

Exercises

/. Answer the following questions:


1. Is the office large and bright? 2. Are there many things in
an office? 3. What is there in the office? 4. Is there a
computer in the office? 5. Is this a desk? 6. Are those the
windows? 7. Is that the bookcase? 8. Are these the files? 9.
Has he an office? 10. Have you a desk?

//. Decide if the following statements are true or false:


1. This is a building.
2. This office is large and bright.
3. In the office there is a table.
4. There are many things in the office.
5. In the office there isn't a bookcase.
6. The windows are wide.
7. There are nine offices in this building.

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8. Jane has a very nice office.
9. Jane has a bright office.
10. Jane hasn’t a bookcase in the office.

Grammar

There is... / There are...

There is = exist , se afl , este (un singur obiect)


There are = exist , se afl , sunt (mai multe obiecte)

Negativ Interogativ Interogativ-negativ


There isn't... Is there...? Isn't there ...?
There aren't... Are there...? Aren't there...?

PLURALUL SUBSTANTIVELOR (THE PLURAL


OF NOUNS)

Reguli Exemple
Pluralul substantivelor se formeaz a student - students
ad ugând termina ia "-s" la forma un student - studen i
de singular. a teacher - teachers
un profesor – profesori

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Urm toarele substantive formeaz pluralul ad ugând termi-
na ia -es la forma de singular

1. substantivele 2. substantivele 3. substantivele 4. substantivele


terminate în: terminate în: terminate în: terminate în:
- ch, sh, s, -y precedat de con- -f,-fe (f se -o precedat de
- ss, -x, -zz: soana (y se trans- transform în v): consoan :
watch - watches form în i) shelf- shelves potato -
(ceas - ceasuri) lady - ladies (raft- rafturi) potatoes
brush - brushes (doamn - doamne) housewife - (cartof - cartofi)
(perie – perii) dictionary - housewives tomato-
bus – buses dictionaries (gospodin - tomatoes
(autobuz - (dic ionar- gospodine) (ro ie - ro ii)
autobuze) dic ionare)
dress - dresses secretary -
(rochie - rochii) secretaries
box - boxes (secretar -
(cutie - cutii) secretare)
N.B. Substantivele
terminate în y pre-
cedat de vocal for-
meaz pluralul
ad ugând la forma
de singular
termina ia - s, iar y
r mâne neschimbat
boy - boys
(baiat - baie i)
day – days
(zi - zile)

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PRONUMELE I ADJECTIVELE DEMONSTRATIVE
(DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES)

Apropiere Dep rtare


Singular this (acesta, aceasta) that (acela, aceea)

Plural these (ace tia, acestea) Those (aceia, acelea)

This is a desk. (pron.)


This desk is nice. (adj.)
These are the files. (pron.)
These files are interesting. (adj.)
That is a window. (pron.)
That window is open. (adj.)
Those are the pictures. (pron.)
Those pictures are old. (adj.)

Exercises

I. Give the plural of the sentences below:


1. There is a desk in the office. 2. This watch is new.
3. I have a box with files. 4. That bus is old. 5. There is a
book on that shelf. 6. There is a leaf in the garden.
7. This knife is on the table. 8. There is a good factory in our
town. 9. That is an interesting city. 10. There is a potato in
the bag.

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II. Answer the following questions according to the model:
Model: Is this a desk? (a chair)
Yes, it is.
No, it isn't. It's a chair.

1. Is this a door? (window) 2. Is that a shelf? (a picture)


3. Are these pencils? (flowers) 4. Are those books? (files)
5. Is that a lamp? (desk) 6. Is this a bookcase? (room)
7. Are these files? (ballpoint pens) 8. Are those men?
(women)

III. Translate into English:


1. Eu am un birou frumos. 2. În biroul meu sunt o mul ime de
lucruri; o bibliotec , scaune, birouri, tablouri. 3. Biroul meu
are dou ferestre. 4. Sunt o mul ime de flori lânga ferestre.
5. Acesta este scaunul meu. 6. Biroul acela este mare.
7. Acel tavan este alb. 8. Acei pere i sunt zugr vi i.
9. Podeaua aceasta este maro. 10. Ai un coleg în birou?

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LESSON 3

IN THE OFFICE

Maria has a nice room. It is her room. It is hers.


I have a car. It is my car. It is mine.
You have a red flower. It is your red flower. It is yours.
They have a small wastepaper bin. It is their wastepaper bin.
It is theirs.
We have many paper clips. They are our paper clips. They
are ours.
He has a printer in his office. It is his printer. It is his.

Jane: Bill, is this your telephone?


Bill: Yes, it is mine. It is not theirs.
Jane: This is my carbon paper. Where is yours?
Bill: Mine is on the desk. Where is their photocopier?
Jane: Theirs is in their office. Where is my rubber?
Bill: All the rubbers are in that box. Have you a ruler?
Jane: No, I haven't. Mary has a ruler. This is her ruler.

Vocabulary

car - ma in photocopier - fotocopiator


printer – imprimant flat - apartament
house – cas fax-machine - fax
typewriter - ma in de scris filing cabinet - fi ier

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Grammar
INDICATIVUL PREZENT AL VERBULUI „TO HAVE”
(THE PRESENT INDICATIVE OF THE VERB ”TO HAVE”)

Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ


(Negativ)
I have I have not Have I (not)?
You have You have not Have you (not) ?
He has He has not Has he (not) ?
She has She has not Has she (not) ?
It has It has not Has it (not) ?
We have We have not Have we (not) ?
You have You have not Have you (not) ?
They have They have not Have they (not)?
Forme I've, I’ve not (I haven’t) Haven’t I?
contrase you've, You’ve not (you haven’t) Haven’t you?
he’s,she’s, He’s not (He hasn’t) Hasn’t he?
it’s, It’s not (it hasn’t) Hasn’t it?
we’ve, We’ve not (we haven’t) Haven’t we?
you’ve, You’ve not (you haven’t) Haven’t you?
they’ve They’ve not (they haven’t) Haven’t they?

PRONUMELE I ADJECTIVUL POSESIV


(THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS)

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (Adjectivele posesive)

Singular Plural
I my Our

II your your

III his their


her
its

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Reguli Exemple
Adjectivul posesiv
-se ata eaz întotdeauna my book – cartea mea
înaintea substantivului pe
care îl determin ;

-are aceea i form , indiferent my son – fiul meu


de genul, cazul i num rul my daughter – fiica mea
substantivului pe care îl my watch – ceasul meu
determin ; my pencils – creioanele mele
our house – casa noastr
N.B. Substativele
determinate de un adjectiv
posesiv nu se articuleaz .

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (Pronumele posesive)

Singular Plural
I mine ours

II yours yours

III his theirs


hers

Exercises:

I. Answer the following questions:


1. Have you a new English book? Where is it? And where is
your exercise - book? 2. Has she a Romanian - English
conversation guide - book? 3. What colour is her dress?
Is it a smart dress? 4. Have you new shoes? 5. Has he new
gloves? 6. Haven't we all wrist watches? 7. Have they

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English - Romanian dictionaries ? 8. Are their dictionaries on
their desks? 9. Have we our English classes in the evering?

//. Fill in with the correct form of the verb "to have":
1. This room... four white walls. 2. Those typists... new
typewriters. 3. That schoolboy... a new school bag.
4. Mrs. Smih... a new smart dress. 5.... your house four
rooms? 6. All the students... good English - Romanian
dictionaries.

///. Change the following sentences into interrogative,


negative and interrogative-negative ones:
1. We have a new classroom. 2. They all have wrist
watches. 3. The teacher has a red pencil. 4. You all have
conversation guide books. 5. Mary has new smart shoes.
6. All the students have good dictionaries.

IV. Choose the correct answer:


1. This office is .... a) theirs b) their c) they
2. Where is ... new bookcase? a) our b) ours c) our's
3. Are these flowers ... ? a) you b) yours c) your
4. This chair is ..., it is not yours. a) mine b) my c) mines
5. That is ... typewriter. a) he's b) hes c) his
6. These are our paper clips. Where are ...? a) you b) yours
c) your
7. ... telephone is on the desk. a) her b) her's c) hers
8. These files are not... . a) our's b) our c) ours

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V. Fill in with the correct possessive pronouns and adjectives:
1. I have a new bookcase in ... office. 2. Bill has a filing
cabinet. ... is modern, ... is not modern. 3. He has an
interesting file. ... file is on my desk. 4. Jane has flowers,
... flowers are very beautiful. 5. You have a wastepaper
bin. ... wastepaper bin is near... desk. 6. Those men have a
typewriter. ... typewriter is on that desk. Where is ...?
7. We have a new printer. This new printer is ... .
8. There is a computer on my desk but it is not...
9. She hasn't a rubber. This rubber isn't... . 10. They have a
new photocopier. This old photocopier isn't....

VI. Put the following sentences into the plural:


1. Where is my chair? 2. That flower is not hers. 3. The
wastepaper bin is near his desk. 4. Is this your typewriter?
5. My file is on my desk. 6. The bookcase is near her
painting. 7. Where is his telephone? 8. Has my office a wide
window? 9. You have your programme in the morning.
10. Your bookshelf has a book on it.

VII. Translate into English:


1. Cartea mea este pe mas . Unde este a ta? 2. Aceste
dosare sunt ale lui. 3. Florile ei sunt acolo lâng fereastr .
4. Fi ierul lor este maro, al nostru este gri. 5. Biblioteca
voastr nu este destul de mare pentru aceste dosare.
6. Scaunele noastre sunt confortabile, ale lor nu sunt.

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7. Este acest copiator al vostru? 8. Aceat ma in de scris
este a ei, nu este a noastr . 9. Biroul vostru este lânga al lor.
10. Calculatorul lui este nou?

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LESSON 4

A) A HOUSE

This is a three-storeyed house on a beautiful avenue. It is


made of brick. On top of the roof there is a TV aerial. The
storeys of the house are: the ground floor, the first floor, the
second floor, the top floor with the attics and the loft. Below
the ground floor there is a basement where we have a cellar.
The house has two entrances - the front entrance and the
back entrance.
In front of the house there are a lawn, shrubs and some
flowerbeds. At the back of the house there are a small
orchard and a vegetable garden. At one side of the house
there is a garage. To get into the house you open the gate,
walk along the path to the front door and enter the house. A
staircase leads to the second floor where the guest room is
situated. In the flower garden, one can admire a variety of
flowers.

B) A FLAT

To get into a flat on the second floor one has to get into a lift.
On the landing there are many doors. The entrance door
opens into the hall. From the hall one can enter the other
rooms: the study, the dining room, the living room, the

29
bedroom. Next to the bedroom there is the nursery. Between
the bedroom and the nursery there is the bathroom, and on
the other side of the corridor there are a kitchen and a pantry.

***

Two friends, Tom and Jack, are in a waiting room.


Tom: Have you got a house?
Jack: Yes, I have.
Tom: Is your house big?
Jack: Yes, it is. But my friend's house is bigger. Have you
got a house, too?
Tom: No, I haven't. I have a flat. It is my parents' flat.

Vocabulary

ground floor – parter cellar - pivni


basement – subsol attic - mansard
block of flats - bloc de apartamente loft – pod
flat - apartament roof - acoperi
bachelor flat - garsonier verandah - verand
storey - etaj (subdiviziune exterioar porch - prisp
a cl dirii)
front entrance - intrare principal hall - hol
floor - etaj (subdiviziune interioar stairs - sc ri
a cl dirii)
back entrance - intrare de serviciu pantry - c mar

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entrance door - usa de la intrare staircase - scar
nursery - camera copiilor kitchen - buc t rie
banister - balustrad bathroom - baie
corridor - culoar landing - palier
room - camer balcony - balcon
living room - camera de zi floor – podea
dining room - sufragerie study - birou
parquet floor - podea de parchet wall - perete
bedroom - dormitor
two-storeyed house - cas cu dou etaje

Exercises

/. Answer the following questions:


1. Is the house big? 2. What is the house made of? 3. What
is in front of the house? A. What is below the ground floor?
5. What is next to the bedroom? 6. Has Jack a house?
7. Has Tom a flat? 8. Whose flat is it? 9. Who has a house?
10. Who is Jack?

//. Decide if the following statements are true or false:


1. Jack has a flat.
2. Jack's flat is big.
3. Tom's house is bigger.
4. On the landing there is a door.
5. There is a bathroom between the living room and the
bedroom.

31
6. Tom's parents have a flat.
7. The house has four storeys.
8. They have a cellar in the basement.
9. The house has one entrance.
10. There are shrubs and flowerbeds in front of the house.

///. Fill in with the words in the box:


in, of, on, next to, near, with, at
1. Her room is ... mine.
2. She has a flower... her desk.
3. The lamp is ... that table.
4. There are three pictures ... the walls.
5. All the chairs are ... the kitchen.
6. Their office is endowed ... a new computer.
7. There are two men and a woman ... this room.
8 The colour... the door is brown.
9. He has his books ... home.
10. Their sofa is ... the window.

32
Grammar
SUBSTANTIVE CU PLURAL NEREGULAT
(THE IRREGULAR PLURAL OF NOUNS)

Singular Plural
Man – b rbat Men – b rba i
Woman – femeie Women – femei
Child – copil Children – copii
Foot – picior Feet – picioare
Tooth – dinte Teeth – din i
Goose – gâsca Geese – gâ te
Mouse – oarece Mice – oareci
Die - zar Dice - zaruri

THE GENITIVE
A. GENITIVUL SINTETIC
(THE SYNTHETIC GENITIVE)

Posesor ‘s obiect posedat


- substantiv la singular
- substantiv la plural neregulat
- nume propriu care nu se termin în -s

This is that man's chair.


Those women's dresses are smart.
Tom's file is on the desk.
Yesterday's newspaper isn't interesting.
His office is at a mile's distance.
Romania's landscapes are wonderful.

33
Posesor ‘ obiect posedat
- substantiv la plural regulat
- nume propriu care se termin în -s

My colleagues' office is very large.


James' car is in front of the building.

Posesorul poate fi:


- o fiin
- o unitate de timp
- o unitate de m sur
- nume de ri

B. GENITIVUL ANALITIC (THE ANALYTIC GENITIVE)

Obiect posedat of articol Posesor

The door of the room is open.


The colour of the wall is white.
The desk of my friend is next to mine.
The name of the man over there is Tom.
Posesorul poate fi:
- substantive care denumesc obiecte
- substantive care denumesc fiin e atunci când:
- accentul cade pe obiectul posedat sau posesorul este
determinat

34
Exercises

/. Put the following sentences into plural:


1. That man's car is white. 2. The door of this room is open.
3. This student's book is interesting. 4. My friend's office is
large and bright. 5. The colour of the wall is white. 6. The
window of this room is narrow. 7. This is that woman's file.
8. Is this your colleague's name? 9. Have you today's
newspaper? 10. The desk of my friend's colleague is modern.

//. Replace the analytic genitive with the synthetic genitive if


it is possible:
1.She is the colleague of my friend. 2. The files of those
women are on the desk 3. The colour of his desk is brown.
4. The name of that girl is Betty. 5. The door of that room is
open. 6. The typewriters of those office-assistants are new.
7. The dresses of these women are smart. 8. There is a nice
picture on the wall of this room. 9. The patients of this doctor
are sick. 10. The clients of the businessman are busy now.

///. Answer the following questions:


1. Is this Jane's office? (Bill) 2. Is that Mr. Jonson's car? (Mr.
Brown) 3. Are those that woman's files? (that man) 4. Is this
Bill's desk? (Nick) 5. Are these these men's pencils'? (those
boys) 6. Are these that colleague's documents? (that
engineer) 7. Is that the office assistant's typewriter? (the

35
typist) 8. Is this the secretary's computer? (that accountant)
9. Is this Tom's friend? (Jane) 10. Is that your picture? (John)

IV. Translate into English:


1. Casa aceea este ta nu a lui Tom. 2 Pe rafturile acestei
biblioteci sunt multe c r i noi. 3. U a acestei camere este
defect . 4. ApartamentuI colegilor mei este în blocul acela.
5. Este acel b rbat colegul tau? 6. Pere ii acestei camere
sunt albi 7. ApartamentuI lui Bill are multe camere.
8. Culoarea p rului colegei mele este negru. 8. Ma ina de
scris a colegei prietenei mele este pe acel birou. 9. Toate
tablourile din acest birou sunt ale lui John. 10. Contabilul
acestei firme este nou venit.

36
LESSON 5

AT THE HOTEL

This is a hotel for businessmen therefore it is endowed with


faxes, telephones, computers connected to the Internet and
a conference hall.

Receptionist: Good morning! Can I help you?


Tom Hammer: I need a single room for two nights.
R: Yes, of course. We have one on the second floor...
TH: The second floor is perfect
R: I need your identity card to fill the form.
TH: Here it is.
R: Thank you ... Will you sign here, please! This is the key
of room 215.
TH: Thank you.
R: I hope you'll enjoy staying in our hotel.

Practice

Work in pairs. One of you is the receptionist, the other is the


guest:
- you need the telephone number of the railway station;
- there is no light in your room;
- you must wake up at seven o'clock in the morning;
- you are very busy and you must have dinner in your room;
37
- you cannot open the window;
- you cannot lock the door.

***
Dialogue

Jane: May I come in?


Bill: Of course, you may.
J: Can you help me with this report?
B: Yes, I can. Can you tell me what to do?
J: I can't type it because my computer is out of order.
B: Can't your colleague, Mary, type it?
J: No, she can't because she is too busy.
B: Give me the report. It is very long.
J: May I ask you a question?
B: Yes, you may.
J: Can I replace this page with some recent information?
B: You must do this immediately.
J: Must I change all the text?
B: No, you needn't. You must change only two or three
pages.
J: May I come back later?
B: Yes, of course. I have to send three letters and I can
finish them in half an hour.
J: I can come back in half an hour.
B: Don't be late, please!
J: Thank you very much, Bill.

38
Vocabulary

businessman - om de afaceri to send - a trimite


therefore - prin urmare, deci balcony - balcon
connected to - conectat la form – formular
running water - ap curent report - referat
conference hall - sala de conferin e shower - du
receptionist - recep ioner to sign - a semna
to replace - a înlocui key - cheie
certainly - cu siguran , desigur later - mai târziu
single room - camer simpl half – jum tateon
the second floor - la etajul doi to finish - a termina
identity card - card de identitate
to fill in - a completa
to change – a schimba

Exercises:

I. Answer the following questions:


1. Can Jane type her report? 2. Why can't Jane type the
report? 3. Who can help her? 4. Can't her colleague, Mary,
help her? 5. Why can't her colleague help her? 6. Must she
replace two or three pages of the report?
7. Must she change all the text? 8. Can Bill help Jane?
9. May Jane come back later? 10. Can Bill finish the letters
in half an hour?

39
II. Decide if the following statements are true or false:
1. Jane cannot finish her report.
2. Jane cannot type her report.
3 Jane's computer is out of order.
4. Mary can help Jane later.
5. Bill can help Jane.
6. Jane must replace two pages of her report
7. Jane may not come back later.
8. Bill is not very busy.
9. Bill has to finish three letters.
10. Bill can finish the letters in an hour.

Grammar

VERBELE MODALE (MODAL VERBS)

Trasaturi generate:
- nu sunt precedate de particula to
- au o singur form pentru toate persoanele, inclusiv
persoana a Ill-a singular;
- sunt urmate de un verb la infinitiv scurt (f r particula to)
- formeaz singure negativul (cu nega ia not) i
interogativul (prin inversiune cu subiectul)

40
1. Abilitate fizic i intelectual
Can
I can type this letter.
Can you swim?
He cannot/can’t read the text.
Could
I could help you with this letter.
Could you answer the phone?

2. Permisiune
May (formal, oficial)
May I enter this room?
He may leave now.
You may not take my pencil.
Can
Can I go now?
He can go home.
She cannot leave the office because it is too early.

3. Obliga ie
Must: obliga ie intern
I'm thirsty. I must drink some water.
Must you type this letter?
He mustn't leave early. (interdictie) may
Have to: obligatie externa:
It is half past seven. I have to go to the office.
Should: ar trebui
You are tired, you should stay at home today.

41
4. Posibilitate
May
Tom is not in his office. He may be ill.
This desk may be made of wood.

MODUL IMPERATIV (THE IMPERATIVE MOOD)

- La persoana a ll-a singular i plural se folose te forma de


infinitiv scurt a verbului
- La negativ infinitivul verbului este precedat de forma don't
Go to the window, please!
Don't enter that office, please!

Exercises

/. Give the negative and the interrogative of the following


sentences:
1. I must translate this letter. 2. We can type these
documents. 3. Bill can finish his letters in half an hour.
4. Jane must come back later. 5. They must finish their
reports. 6. You may come in. 7. She may use my computer.
8. I can drive this car. 9. We must replace a page of this
report. 10. You can use the phone.

//. Fill in with the necessary modal verb:


1. ... I open the window? 2. He ... sit down. 3. ... I go back to
my office? 4. They ... finish the report today. 5. He ... be at

42
the office at 8 o'clock in the morning. 6. You ... use my
typewriter. 7. ... you help me with my work? 8. ... he drive?
9. ... you write this letter now? 10. They ... (not) type.
11. It is late, she ... come soon. 12. Farmers ... get up early.
13. ... I borrow your umbrella? 14. We ... drive fast; we have
time. 15. You .. bring the umbrella; it is going to rain.

///. Give short answers to the following questions:


1. Can you type? 2. Must you send this letter today? 3. May
we leave the room? 4. Can I help you with your work?
5. May I borrow your pen? 6. May he be at home? 7. Must
they walk to the theatre? 8. Can he translate this text into
Romanian? 9. Must she be at the office at 9 o'clock in the
morning? 10. May they leave their office for lunch?

IV. Translate into English:


1. Mergi la fereastr , te rog! 2. Nu bate la ma in aceast
scrisoare, te rog! 3. Condu mai repede, te rog, este târziu !
4. Nu deschide u a! 5. Trebuie s termin aceste dosare
pân la prânz? 6. Pot s folosesc computerul t u?
7.Ar putea el s m ajute la acest referat. 8. tie ea s
conduc aceast ma in ? 9. Putem s intr m în birou?
10. Trebuie s ajungi la birou la 9 diminea a. 11. Ea poate
s plece mai devreme ast zi. 12. tii s ba i la ma in ?

43
LESSON 6

THE BRIEF OF MY JOB

The brief of Jane's job is to get to work at 9 o'clock in the


morning. She has to read the mail, answer some letters,
work with her boss on a project, answer the phone, do the
filing, send the letters by fax or e-mail. She has a coffee
break at about 11 o'clock and a lunch break at 1 p.m. The
programme is over at 5 p.m.

Bill: Hello, Jane!


Jane: Yes, Mr. Jeffries.
Bill: Come to my office, please.
Jane: Yes, Mr. Jeffries.
Bill: I need the address of an institution. Can you give it to me?
Jane: What institution?
Bill: "Sunny Days", I must send them a letter.
Jane: I can show you the list of addresses that I have. I
haven't this institution on the list.
Bill: Could you fetch that list for me? I may find something
else.
Jane: Yes, of course. I can fetch it in a moment.
Jane: Here is the list.
Bill: Thank you, Jane. You may leave now.
Jane: Mr. Jeffries, I can bring you some new offers from the
internet.

44
Bill: Yes, please. Jane, could you tell Mr. Johnson to come
to my office?
Jane: Certainly.

***

Tom: Must you show her the building?


John: No, I needn't but I must show her the office.
Tom: Can I see it?
John: Certainly. Come with us.
Tom: May l ask you a question?
John: Yes, you can.
Tom: Could you find a new chair for my office?
John: I can try. Perhaps tomorrow.
Tom: Thank you, John.

Vocabulary

the brief of the job - fi a postului some - ni te


to bring - a aduce lunch – prânz
to do the filing - a face îndosarierea offer - ofert
to send - a trimite address - adres
to be over - a se încheia to find - a g si
to show - a ar ta to try - a încerca
to fetch - a se duce i aduce perhaps - poate
something else – altceva tomorrow - mâine
to leave - a pleca

45
Exercises

/. Answer the following questions:


1. Can Jane go to Mr. Jeffries' office? 2. Can Jane give Bill
the address of an institution? 3. Must Bill send them a file?
4. Can Jane show him the list of addresses? 5. What may he
do with the list? 6. Can Jane bring Bill something else?
7. Must John show her the building? 8. May Tom ask a
question? 9. What can John find for Tom? 10. When can
John find the chair for Tom?

//. Decide if these statements are true or false:


1. Jane mustn't go to Bill's office.
2. She cannot give him the address.
3. Bill must send "Sunny Days" a letter.
4. Jane can show Bill a list of addresses. .
5. Jane has the institution on the list.
6. She can fetch the list in an hour.
7. Jane must bring some new offers.
8. John must show her the building.
9. Tom can go and see the building.
10. John cannot try to find a new chair for Tom.

///. Speak about the brief of your job using the phrases below,
if necessary:
- work on the computer
- analyse data

46
- draw a project
- design
- meet with a customer / supplier
- attend a conference / meeting
- take part in negotiations
- prepare a presentation

Grammar

PRONUMELE PERSONAL ÎN CAZUL DATIV I


ACUZATIV (THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE
ACCUSATIVE AND DATIVE)

Pronume Pronume personal Pronume


personal Nominativ Dativ personal Acuzativ

I (to) ME ME
I fax letters He gives me a letter. He sees me in the
every day. office.
YOU (to) YOU YOU
You are a salesperson He gives you a letter. He sees you
in the office.
HE (to) HIM HIM
He writes letters. I give him a letter. I see him
in the office.
SHE (to) HER HER
She has a report. I give her a letter He sees her in the
office.

47
IT (to) IT IT
It is a good report. He gives it food. He sees it in the office.
WE (to) US US
We like to negotiate. She shows us He sees us in the
the plan. office.
YOU (to) YOU YOU
You are accountants She shows you He sees you in the
the plan. office.
THEY (to) THEM THEM
They draw a report. She shows them He sees them in the
a plan. office.

Nr. Ordinea complementelor direct (AC) i indirect (D)


crt în propozi ie
1. D+ AC
Jane gave Mike the financial report.
Jane gave him the financial report.
2. Ac + to D
Jane gave the financial report to Mike.
Jane gave the financial report to him.
3. Numai AC + to D – când complementui direct este exprimat
prin pronume:
Jane gave it to Mike.
Jane gave it to him.

MODUL IMPERATIV (THE IMPERATIVE MOOD)


Persoana I, III, singular i plural

Afirmativ
Let me type the letter!.
Type the letter!.
Let him type the letter!.
Let her type the letter!.

48
Let us type the letter!.
Type the letter!.
Let them type the letter!.

Negativ
Don't let me type the letter!.
Don't type the letter!.
Don't let him type the letter!.
Don't let her type the letter!.
Don't let us type the letter!.
Don't type the letter!.
Don't let them type the letter!.

Exercises

I. Replace the italic words with the appropriate pronouns:


1. Tom can give Mark the address. 2. We may show our
colleagues the project. 3. She can see Peter in the street.
4. They must send you a letter. 5. I have to read the mail by
10 o'clock. 6. You can give your friend another chance.
7. Jane must bring the report as soon as possible. 8. Show
the man over there this report. 9. Answer the phone because
I am-busy right now. 10. Fax these letters, please!

II. Change the places of the direct object and indirect object
in the sentences above, if it is possible.

49
III. Translate into English:
1. Jane trebuie s -i trimit acest referat efului ei. 2. Arat -le
noul t u birou !. 3. Ofer -i o alt ans , este la început !.
4. S mergem în sala de conferin e !. 5. Prezint -le situa ia
fabricii, te rog !. 6. Poate Tom s -i arate lui John lista cu
adresele institu iilor? 7. Nu participa la aceast sedin , este
plictisitoare. 8. Ai putea s r spunzi la aceat intrebare?
9. R spunde-le, te rog, sau s-ar putea s plece. 10. la
scaunul acela i d -i-l lui John, te rog! 11. Ele sunt înca în
birou pentru c trebuie s analizeze ni te date. 12. Ea nu
poate preg ti prezentarea pân la sfâr itul s pt mânii.
13. Trebuie s ajung la birou la 9 diminea a. 14. Îl v d pe
Tom în sala de conferin e. 15. Adu-mi lista de oferte, te rog !.

50
LESSON 7

IN THE PARK

It is autumn. The weather is fine. Tom, Bill and Jane have


some spare time before the conference so they can visit the
central park of the town. The park is very large and beautiful.
There are a lot of people walking along the alleys and
children playing. Tom and Bill want to go boating but Jane is
afraid of water. She can look at the swans on the lake. There
is a nice zoo in the park. The man who has a nice dog is
with his child. The woman whom they can see sitting on that
bench is a colleague from another town.

Jane: We must see the zoo.


Tom: We may not have enough time.
Bill: We should also eat something.
Jane: Well, I have an idea. Let's buy some hamburgers and
see the animals. I want to take some photos with the lion,
the tiger and the elephant.
Tom: Well, let's go then.
Bill: Fine, but we should also see the old castle and the
bridge over the lake which is very beautiful.

Vocabulary
tree - pom flower - floare
rabbit – iepure monkey – maimu
51
bench - banc eagle - vultur
alley - alee fox – vulpe
path - potec pea-cock - p un
bridge - pod snake - arpe
lake - lac elephant - elefant
boat - barc swan - leb d
playground - teren de joac bear - urs
statue – statue deer – c prioar
castle – castel lion - leu
playing ground - teren de sport tiger - tigru
season – anotimp leaves - frunze

Exercises

/. Role Play
1. Ask information about the park.
2. Ask information about the zoo.

//. Answer the following questions:


1. What season is it? 2. What is the weather like? 3. Have
Tom, Bill and Jane enough time to visit the park? 4. What is
the park like? Can you describe it? 5. What can children do
in the park? 6. What can people do in the park? 7. Whom
can Tom and bill see on the bench? 8. Why should they see
the old castle and the bridge? 9. What can people see at the
zoo? 10. Could you describe your favourite place?

52
///. Decide if the following statements are true or false:
1. In autumn the weather isn't fine.
2. Tom, Bill and Jane have no spare time.
3. They can visit the central park.
4. They cannot see children in the park.
5. Jane is afraid of water.
6. Tom and Bill want to go boating.
7. There are swans on the lake.
8. Their colleague from another town is in a boat.
9. Bill and Tom want to take some photos.
10. Jane must go to the old castle.

IV. Match the following parts of sentences:


1. People who love animals a) because it is very old.
2. This statue is very beautiful b) because he cannot
swim.
3. We have to park the car c) with other children on
the playground.
4. Children can play d) is a colleague from
another town.
5. Jane can look at the swans e) we should take a
photo in front of it.
6. Tom is afraid of water f) time in the morning.
7. We have no spare g) can see them at the
zoo.
8. There are a lot of people h) walking along the
alleys of the park.

53
9. Let's visit this castle i) that are on the lake.
10. The woman on the bench j) in the car park.

Grammar

PRONUMELE RELATIVE (THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS)

A. Persoane
a) N: who A man must read a book. He is my friend.
The man who must read a book is my
friend. The man who is my friend must
read a book.
G: whose That woman is a doctor. Her house is
big.
The woman whose house is big is a
doctor.
D: (to) whom I can show his painting to Mary. She
is my friend.
The girl to whom I can show this
painting is my friend. The girl I can
show this painting to is my friend.
Ac: whom She can see Tom through the
window.
He is a good accountant.
Tom (whom) she can see through the
window is a good accountant.
b) that: The young man that is sitting is Mike.

54
B. Lucruri i animale
N: that; which There is a dog in this yard. It is very
bad.
The dog that/which is in this yard is
very bad.
G: whose; This car is mine. Its colour is white.
of which The car whose colour is white is mine.
The car the colour of which is white
is mine.
Ac: that /which You can read the poem. The poem
is on page 6.
The poem (that) you can read is on
page 6.
What (ceea ce): What you want to do is very
difficult.
What he must tell us is very
important.
Pronumele relativ în cazul dativ i acuzativ poate fi omis:
The boy (whom) you can see now is my brother.
The cakes (that) I ate there were delicious.
Dac pronumele relativ este precedat de o prepozi ie,
pronumele relativ este omis, iar prepozi ia se a eaz la
sfâr itul propozi iei:
The novel about which they must talk is modern.
The novel they must talk about is modern.

55
Exercises

/. Combine the following sentences by means of relative


pronouns:
1. She can help her colleague. He has to prepare a
presentation.
2. I must wait for Tom. He is always late.
3. The desk has no computer on it. I have to work at this desk.
4. Tom and Jane are colleagues. Their parents are
neighbours.
5. There isn't any directory in the telephone box. I must
phone from this box.
6. This is Mr. Johnson. His brother is the marketing director.
7. There is a man sitting on a bench. She has to speak with
that man.
8. John and Bill want to wait for their boss. He may not turn up.
9. I have to travel on the next train. This is a slow train.
10. The alleys in the park are crowded with children. Many of
them have pets.
11. I should see several houses. Two of them are quite
beautiful.
12. They want to introduce Bill to their friends. They are very
interested in computers.
13. Tom cannot drive any longer. He is very tired.
14. Jane cannot give him the addresses. She is in a
conference.
15. We can admire these animals. They are in cages.

56
//. Fill in the gaps with the necessary relative pronouns:
1. The man ... can draw this report is not in town.
2. The woman ... you can see speaking is the new office-
assistant.
3. The institution about... we should discuss with them is a
good one.
4. The person to ... presentation they have to listen is the
marketing director's assistant.
5. The room ... windows are open is our office.
6. The man ... we must meet today is very smart.
7. ... she must read for tomorrow is very interesting.
8. The young woman ... has to type this project is his
secretary.
9. The lady ... name is Eileen is an accountant.
10. He has some articles ... he must read by tomorrow.

///. Re-write the following sentences without the relative


pronouns and make the necessary changes:
1. This is the desk on which you can put your files.
2. The man about whom we should speak during the meting
may be our new colleague.
3. The woman to whom they must listen has a long and
boring presentation.
4. This is the park in which you can see many animals.
5. We want some chairs on which we can sit.
6. The project in which he is interested is on my desk.
7. The man for whom you must wait at the station is a partner.

57
8. The pictures at which they should look are part of this
project.
9. The marketing director to whom you must give this report
is a very difficult person.
10. The person to whom we have to present this analysis
may be our partner.

IV. Translate into English:


1. Doamna pe care o v d stând pe banca în parc ar trebui
s fie la conferin .
2. B rbatul care trebuie s prezinte acest referat nu este în
oras.
3. Biroul a c rui u a este deschis este al meu.
4. Doamna al c rei birou este lâng fereastr este prietena
mea.
5. Cartea pe care trebuie s o cite ti este pe birou.
6. Sunt o mul ime de animale frumoase la zoo pe care ar
trebui s le vezi.
7. Persoana c reia trebuie s -i ar t acest raport nu mai este
aici.
8. Îl putem a tepta în parc, ceea ce este foarte placut.
9. Ceea ce vor ei s -mi spun nu este nou pentru mine.
10. ÎI poti intreba pe domnul pe care trebuie s -l asculte
colegii t i.

58
LESSON 8

AT THE MARKET

Whenever Betty and Tom want to go to the market they


must make a long list with everything they need. When they
want to buy vegetables the greengrocer must choose and
weigh them. They are very fond of fruit, too, especially
apricots, peaches and strawberries. When they are at the
baker's they can buy bread and apple-pie which they like
very much. They must go to the grocer to buy flour, sugar
and noodles. When they need meat, they must go to the
butcher's where they can buy any kind of meat: beef, mutton,
pork, chicken.

Betty: Good morning.


Shop assistant: Good morning, madam. What can I do for you?
Betty: I would like to buy some vegetables and fruit.
Shop assistant: We have tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes,
lettuce and cucumbers.
What would you like to buy?
Betty: Some tomatoes, let's say 2 kilos and cucumbers.
Some of them are small and I need big and ripe ones.
Shop assistant: You can choose what you need.
Betty: I would like a kilo of peaches and one of strawberries.
Shop assistant: Yes, of course. Anything else?
Betty: No, thank you. That's all.

59
Vocabulary

market - pia cherry - cire e


counter - tejghea apricot - caise
to weigh - a cânt ri peache - piersici
to choose - a alege grape - struguri
to put - a pune nuts - nuci
to receive - a primi quince - gutui
consignment - transport strawberries - c p uni
vegetables - legume melon - pepene
fruit - fructe baker's - brut rie
carrot - morcovi grocer's - b c nie
cabbage - varz greengrocer's - aprozar
tomato - ro ii confectioner's - cofet rie
potatoes - cartofi butcher's - m celarie
pepper - ardei bread - pâine
cucumber - castrave i pie - pl cint
beans - fasole flour - f in
peas - maz re sugar - zah r
onion - ceap spices - condimente
garlic - usturoi candies - bomboane
spinach - spanac cake - pr jitur
lettuce - salat verde juice - suc
apple - mere noodles - t ie ei
pears – pere macaroni - macaroane

60
Exercises:

/. Role Play:
1. at the baker's
2. at the grocer's
3. at the confectioner’s
4. at the butcher’s

II. Answer the following questions:


1. What must Betty and Tom make when they want to go to
the market? 2. What must the greengrocer do? 3. What are
they fond of? 4. What can you buy at the baker's? 5. What
can you buy at the grocer's? 6. What can you buy at the
greengrocer's? 7. What can you buy at the confectioner's?
8. What can you buy at the butcher's? 9. What are your
favourite vegetables?

///. Decide if the following statements are true or false:


1. Betty shouldn't make a list for the market.
2. The greengrocer must weigh the vegetables.
3. People can buy fruit at the grocer's.
4. Betty is very fond of peaches and quinces.
5. Tom is very fond of strawberries and apricots.
6. They can buy only bread at the baker's.
7. They can buy sugar and flour at the grocer's
8. They cannot buy noodles at the greengrocer's.
9. At the butcher's they can buy chicken and mutton.

61
10. Betty and Tom want to buy potatoes, cabbage and grapes.

IV. Fill in the gaps with the missing word:

beef, ripe, grocer's, at, of, would, pay, to, cucumbers,


anything, list, can

1. When people are ... the market they want... buy


vegetables.
2. Some people need a ... when they want to go shopping.
3. We are very fond ... fruit.
4. I can buy noodles at the ....
5. He ... like to buy some potatoes and ....
6. People want to buy big and ... fruit.
7. What... I do for you?
8. Would you like ... else?
9. She must buy some ... at the butcher's.
10. They have to ... for what they want to buy.

62
Grammar

PRONUMELE I ADJECTIVELE NEHOT RÂTE


(THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES)

Propozi ii afirmative Propozijii interogative Propozitii negative (-)


(+) (?)
some — ceva, ni te, any — ceva , ni te, no —nici un, nici o,
câ iva, câteva, unii, câ iva, câteva, unii, nici un fel de, deloc i
unele i compu ii s i unele i compu ii s i compu ii s i

any — orice, oricare some — ceva, ni te, any — nici un, nici o,
i compu ii s i câtiva, câteva i nici un fel de i
compu ii s i compu ii s i

Compu ii lui "some", "any", "no" i "every"

body one thing where

some somebody someone something somewhere

cineva (+,?) cineva (+,?) ceva (+,?) undeva (+,?)


any anybody anyone anything anywhere

cineva (?) cineva(?) ceva (?), undeva (?)


nimeni (--) nimeni (--) nimic (-), nic ieri (-)
oricine (+) oricine (+) orice (+) oriunde (+)
no nobody no one nothing nowhere

nimeni (-) nimeni (-) nimic (-) nic ieri (-)


every everybody everyone everything everywhere

fiecare, to i, fiecare, to i, totul pretutindeni


toat lumea toat lumea

63
Reguli Exemple
(1) Some i compu ii s i
se folosesc : There is some coffee in the
a) în propozi ii cup (adj. Nehot.) – Este niste
afirmative ; cafea in ceasca
There are some dictionaries on
the table(adj.nehot.) – Se afl
ni te dic ionare pe mas
Some of those students are
our friends(pron.nehot.) – Unii
dintre studen ii aceia sunt
prietenii no tri.
Ask somebody about it
(pron.nehot.) – Întreab pe
cineva despre aceasta.
b) în propozi ii Can you lend me some
interogative când se books?(adj.nehot.) – Po i s -mi
a teapt un r spuns împrumi i ni te c r i?
afirmativ(când May I help you to some
cerem sau oferim coffee?(adj.nehot.) – Pot s v
ceva i dorim ca servesc cu ni te cafea?
r spunsul s fie Can you tell me something
afirmativ) about it?(pron.nehot.) – Îmi
pute i spune ceva în leg tur
cu aceasta?

2) Any i compu ii s i se Is there any coffee in the


folosesc : cup?(adj.nehot.) – Este ceva
a) în propozi ii cafea în cea c ?
interogative în locul Are there any dictionaires on
lui some the table?(adj.nehot.) – Se afl
ni te dic ionare pe mas ?
Are any of those students your
fiends?
(pron.nehot.) – Sunt vreunii
dintre studen ii aceia prietenii
vo tri ?
Is anybody at
home?(pron.nehot.) – Este
cineva acas ?

64
b) în propozi ii negative There isn’t any coffee in the
când verbul este la cup. (adj.nehot.) – Nu este
forma negativ deloc cafea în cea c .
There aren’t any dictionaries
on the table(adj.nehot.) – Nu
se afl nici un fel de dic ionar
pe mas .
There isn’t anybody in the
room.(pron.nehot.) – Nu se
afl nimeni în camer .
There isn’t anything on the
table(pron.nehot.) – Nu se afl
nimic pe mas .
c) în propozi ii Any student can answer this
afirmative(cu sensul question(adj.nehot.) – Oricare
de oricine, oricare, student poate raspunde la
orice, oriunde) aceast întrebare.
Any of these dictionaries is
good for you(pron.nehot.) –
Oricare dintre aceste
dic ionare este bun pentru tine.
You may have anything on the
table(pron.nehot.) – Po i lua
orice de pe mas .

3) No i compu ii s i se There are no dictionaries on


folosesc: the table (adj.nehot.) – Nu se
în propozi ii negative afl nici un fel de dic ionare pe
când verbul este la mas .
forma afirmativ Nobody can answer your
question.(pron.nehot.) –
Nimeni nu- i poate r spunde la
întrebare.

65
Exercises

I. Answer the following questions according to the model:

a) Is anybody in the office? Yes, somebody is.


No, nobody is.

1. Is anybody in the conference hall? 2. Is anybody at home?


3. Is anybody in the park? 4. Is anybody at the market?
5. Is anybody in front of the institution? 6. Is anybody in the
street?

b) Is there any coffee in the cup?


Yes, there is some. No, there isn't any.

1. Is there any lettuce at the greengrocer's? 2. Is there any


meat at the butcher's? 3. Are there any tomatoes at this
counter? 4. Is there any file on this desk? 5. Is there any
light in this room? 6. Is there any man in this office ? 7. Is
there any chair here? 8. Is there any bread at the baker’s?

II. Fill in the gaps with the necessary indefinite pronouns and
adjectives:

I. I can see the file .... 2. Is there ... book in this office?
3. ... must be present. 4. ... should leave. 5. We have
meetings ... Monday. 6.1 can tell you ... about it. 7. He may

66
leave ... time. 8. The report must be ... here. 9. There are ...
words he cannot understand. 10. Is ... in the conference hall?
11. You may go ... you want to. 12. Unhappily ... can tell me
the truth. 13. It is sad but he can do ... about it. 14. My pen
must be ... here. 15. Is there ... coffee in this shop? No, there
isn't ... . 16. ... has to take part in this meeting. 17. You
should give me ... details. 18. Would you like ... fruit?
No, thank you. I have got... at home.

III. Translate into English:


1. Ave i vreun prieten aici? 2. Nu l sa i pe nimeni în untru!
3. Toat lumea spune altceva 4. Sunt ceva scrisori pentru
mine? 5. V d c nu ai timp. 6. Nu-mi g sesc cartea nic ieri.
7. A vrea ni te c p uni s fac gem. 8. Ea ar vrea s
cumpere ni te conopid dar nu are nici un ban. 9. Oricine îti
poate spune ce sa faci. 10. Nu este carne la macelarie.
11. Este cineva aici care vorbeste engleza. 12. Poti merge
pretudindeni cu acest card. 13. Fiecare zi i i poate aduce
ceva nou. 14. M tem c nu a mai r mas cafea. 15. Ei
trebuie s locuiasc undeva într-un hotel.

67
LESSON 9

A) AT THE RESTAURANT

Betty has breakfast at 7:30 in the morning before leaving


home. She generally has eggs and ham, corn flakes with
milk and a coffee. During the workdays she must go to a
restaurant or a cafe near the office to have lunch. For lunch
she has some meat and a mixed salad. When she is not
very tired she has dinner, which is the main meal of the day,
with her friends at a restaurant. For the first course they
generally have noodle soup. For the main course they may
have fish, poultry or meat with chips and vegetables. They
are very fond of ice cream and they always want to drink fruit
juice. Sometimes Betty has supper in the evening: fish or
cold veal with vegetables and mixed salad.

Waiter: Good afternoon. This is our menu.


Betty: Thank you.
Waiter: Would you like to order now?
Betty: Yes. For the first course I would like dumpling soup.
For the main course: poultry with peas and a fruit salad for
dessert.
Waiter: Anything else? Would you like something to drink?
Betty: A glass of orange juice, please. And, please, don't
forget to bring the bill
when you come because I'm in a hurry.

68
Waiter: Yes, madam.
Waiter: Here is your order and the bill.
Betty: 30 lei. You may keep the change. Thank you.
Waiter: Thank you.

Vocabulary

breakfast - mic dejun poultry - came de pas re


omelet – omlet fish - pe te
supper-supeu salad - salat
soup – sup ham – unc
vegetables – legume dessert - desert
bread and butter - pâine cu unt egg – ou
corn flakes – cereale jam – gem
fruit salad – salat de fructe wine – vin
dinner - cina (masa principal
a zilei)

Exercises:

I. Answer the questions:

1. When can you have dinner? 2. What can you have for
supper? 3. What is your favourite meal? 3. What is your
favourite food?

69
II. Fill in the gaps:

order, fruit, chips, main, during, at, in, dumpling, main,


mixed, at, with, first, for

1. People have breakfast... the morning.


2. ... breakfast they have eggs and ham, bread and butter...
jam.
3. ... the workdays she has lunch ... a cafe.
4. For lunch she has meat and a ... salad.
5. Dinner is the … meal of the day.
6. For the ... course we may have a soup.
7. People have meat with ... for the ... course.
8. Betty and her friends want to drink ... juice.
9. The waiter must take the…...
10. She is fond of... soup.
11. Sometimes people are ... a hurry.
12. Betty has supper... home.

***
B) THE TIME

There are one thousand years in a millennium, one hundred


years in a century, ten years in a decade and 365 or 366
days in a year.
A year has 12 months or 52 weeks. The names of the
months of the year are of Latin origin: January, February,

70
March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October,
November and December. A month has 30 or 31 days.
February has 28 days in a ordinary year and 29 days in a
leap year.
There are four weeks in a month, fourteen days and nights
in a fortnight and seven days in a week: six week (working)
days and a holiday. The names of the days of the week are
of English (Saxon) origin: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday.
The day before today is yesterday and the day before
yesterday is called the day before yesterday; the day after
today is tomorrow and the day after tomorrow is called the
day after tomorrow.
A day has 24 hours. The moments of the day are: morning,
noon (midday), afternoon, evening, midnight and night.
There are two twelve hour periods in a day. They are: a.m.
(Latin ante meridiem, or in the morning), and p.m. (Latin post
meridiem, or in the afternoon). We can tell the time by a
clock or a watch.
An hour has 60 minutes and a minute has 60 seconds.
There are 30 minutes in half an hour and 15 minutes in a
quarter of an hour.

71
Dialogue

Ann: Have you got a watch?


Bob: Yes, I have.
Ann: What time is it by your watch?
Bob : By my watch it is twenty - five to two, but my watch is
wrong.
Ann: Is your watch fast or slow?
Bob: My watch is five minutes fast.
Ann: So, the right time is half past one. What day is it today?
(What's the date today) ?
Bob: Today it is15th of November, 19 .... It's November the
15th ,19....
Ann : When is your birthday?
Bob: It's on the 26th of May.
Ann: What's today? (What day is it ?)
Bob: It's Friday. Today is Friday
Ann: When have you got your English classes?
Bob: We've got our English classes on Monday, Wednesday
and Friday at 8 o'clock in the morning.
(F.Turcu, V. N st sescu, Engleza de afaceri, Bucuresti,
Uranus, 1996)

***
Vocabulary
noon - amiaz date - dat
midday – miezul zilei quarters – sfert

72
midnight - miezul nop ii half - jum tate
year - an millennium - mileniu
century - secol month - lun
week - s pt mân night - noapte
holiday - s rb toare yesterday - ieri
tomorrow - mâine
time - timp
clock - ceas (de perete, de mas )
hour - or
past - trecut de (temporal)
to - pân (la) (temporal)
so - a adar, prin urmare
birthday – dat de na tere
is called - este numit, se nume te
from ... till... - de la ... pân la (temporal)
to tell the time - a spune cât este ceasul
fortnight - o perioad de dou s pt mâni
weekday / working day – zi lucr toare
before - înainte de, dinaintea (temporal)
after - dup , în urma (temporal)
It is ten o'clock sharp - este ora zece fix
what time is it by your watch? – cât este ora dup ceasul t u?
my watch is wrong (is not correct) - ceasul meu nu merge
bine
is your watch fast? - ceasul t u merge înainte?
is your watch slow? - ceasul t u ramâne în urm ?
the right time - ora exact

73
Grammar

NUMERALUL (THE NUMERAL)

Numerale Cardinale Numerale Ordinale


1 one the first
2 two the second
3 three the third
4 four the fourth
5 five the fifth
6 six the sixth
7 seven the seventh
8 eight the eighth
9 nine the ninth
10 ten the tenth
11 eleven the eleventh
12 twelve the twelfth
13 thirteen the thirteenth
14 fourteen the fourteenth
15 fifteen the fifteenth
16 sixteen the sixteenth
17 seventeen the seventeenth
18 eighteen the eighteenth
19 nineteen the nineteenth
20 twenty the twentieth
21 twenty - one the twenty – first
22 twenty - two the twenty - second

74
30 thirty the thirtieth
35 thirty - five the thirty - fifth
40 forty the fortieth
50 fifty the fiftieth
60 sixty the sixtieth
70 seventy the seventieth
80 eighty the eightieth
90 ninety the ninetieth
100 a (one) hundred the hundredth
101a (one) hundred and one the hundred and first
125 a (one) hundred and the hundred and
twenty - five twenty – fifth
200 two hundred the two hundredth
300 three hundred the three hundredth
500 five hundred the five hundredth
733 seven hundred and the seven hundred and
thirty-three thirty – third
1.000 a (one) thousand the thousandth
1.005 a (one) thousand and five the thousand and fifth
3,246 three thousand two the three thousand two
hundred and hundred and
forty –six forty -sixth
10.000 ten thousand the ten thousandth
67,384 sixty - seven thousand the sixty - seven thousand
three hundred and three hundred and
eighty-four eighty - fourth
1,000,000 a (one) million the millionth

75
Reguli Exemple

1. NUMERALE CARDINALE
a. Formare
- numeralele între 13 si 19 se six - sixteen
formeaz cu ajutorul sufixului –teen ; nine - nineteen
- numeralele 20, 30, 40 ... 90 se six - sixty
formeaz cu ajutorul sufixului -ty ; nine - ninety
twenty, thirty, forty
- prezint particularit i ortografice
urm toarele numerale:
- între zeci i unit i se pune liniu ; twenty-one
thirty-five
- între sute i zeci sau între sute i two hundred and
se folose te conjunc ia "and" ; two (202)
three hundred
and one (301)
- numeralele "hundred", "thousand" four thousand five
i "million" nu se folosesc la plural hundred and
dup un numeral cardinal; thirty one (4,531)
- punctul care se folose te în limba 1,323,546
român pentru a separa cifrele este
înlocuit cu virgula.
b. Intrebuin are
- pentru a exprima ora; 3:20 .. It's twenty
(minutes) past three

76
- pentru a exprima anii. 1984.. nineteen hundred
and eighty four sau, in limba
vorbita se prefera forma
nineteen eighty -four

2. NUMERALELE ORDINALE

a. Formare
- se formeaz ad ugând sufixul –th
la numeralul cardinal corespunz tor six – the sixth
(cu excep ia numeralelor 1, 2, 3);

- numeralul ordinal este precedat


de articolul hot rât "the"; the first
- în cazul numeralelor compuse
numai ultima cifr este un numeral 235th – the two
ordinal. hundred and
thirty fifth

b. data se exprima cu ajutorul numeralului ordinal:


Today it is the first of January 1984 - Astazi este 1 ianuarie
1984

EXPRIMAREA OREI
What time is it? - Cat este ceasul?
It's a-quarter past one. - 1:15
It's half past one. -1:30

77
It's a quarter to two. -1:45
It’s two o'clock sharp. - 2:00

EXPRIMAREA DATEI
What's the date today? - Ce dat este ast zi?
It's the fifth of October, 2001.
It's October the 5th, 2001.

Exercises

I. Translate into English:


1. lanuarie are 31 de zile. 2. Sunt 12 luni într-un an.
3. O sapt mân are 7 zile. 4. Sunt 60 de minute într-o or .
5. Sunt 10 ani într-un deceniu i 100 de ani într-un secol.
6. Trebuie s plec de acas la 7:45 diminea a. 7. Suntem în
secolul al XXI-lea. 8. Când este ziua ta de na tere?. 9. La ce
etaj este apartamentul t u? - La etajul 3. 10. Câte persoane
sunt în acest birou? - 4 persoane. 11. Cine este primul din
grupa ta? 12. Avem ore de englez mar i, joi i sâmb t
diminea a de la ora 7 la ora 9. 13. Sunt 7 zile într-o
s pt mân , 4 s pt mâni într-o lun , 12 luni într-un an, 10
ani într-un deceniu, 100 de ani într-un secol i 1000 de ani
într -un mileniu. 14. Suntem în secolul al XX-lea. 15. Ce dat
este ast zi? 16. Pute i s -mi spune i cât este ceasul, v rog?
- Este 4 :20. 17. Ceasul meu r mâne în urm cu zece
minute. 18. Numele zilelor s pt mânii sunt de origine
saxon , iar numele lunilor anului sunt de origine latin .

78
19. Care este a zecea lun a anului, dar a treia? 20. Care
este a aptea zi a s pt mânii, dar a patra? 21. În anii bisec i
februarie are 29 de zile. 22. O or are 60 de minute i un
minut are 60 de secunde. 23. Într-o jum tate de or sunt 30
de minute, iar într-un sfert de or sunt numai 15 minute.

II. Imagine you are a travel agent. Present potential tourists


the official program of a trip (activities, timetable, etc.)

79
LESSON 10

THE SEASONS

Spring is a wonderful season. Everything comes back to life:


the grass in the field, the flowers and the trees. People want
to listen to the song of the birds. The weather gets warmer
and the sun is bright in the blue sky. People love spring
because it is followed by summer - the holiday season. In
summer people want to go to the mountains or to the
seaside. Sometimes the weather is very hot, almost
unbearable. Yet, there are a lot of flowers and fruit. There
are also thunderstorms with hard wind and a cloudy sky.
The weather gets cooler and then colder in autumn when
there are rainy and windy days. The leaves fall from the tree
and people can't hear the birds singing. This is a romantic
season. The fourth season is winter when everything is
white because of the snow. People generally want to go to
the mountains, to ski and skate. It is very cold and it freezes.

Betty: Which is your favourite season?


Tom: I can't say I have a favourite season. They are all
beautiful.
Betty: You're right. Yet, I prefer autumn although it may
seem sad.
Tom: First of all because of its beautiful colours combining
green, reddish and brown. Then it is the richest season.

80
There are a lot of fruit and vegetables and people can
prepare them for winter. And it is neither hot nor cold.
Tom: From this point of view I like spring. It is the merriest
season when everything comes back to life.

Vocabulary

spring – primavar to blow - a sufla


winter - iarn to freeze - a înghe a
summer - var wind - vânt
autumn - toamn to fall - a c dea
cold - frig season - anotimp
warm – cald weather - vreme
hot – fierbinte to combine - a combina
to rain - a ploua reddish – ro cat
to snow - a ninge neither...nor.. - nici... nici..

Exercises:

I. Speak about seasons.

II. Answer:

1.What do people do in winter?. 2. Which is the hottest


season?.3. Which is the richest season?. 4. Why may winter
be a beautiful season?

81
///. Fill in with the suitable word:

snow, wet, starlit, spring, vegetables, snowmen, bear,


coldest, snowballs, singing, frost, foggy, reddish, mountains.

1. The ... season is winter when there is ....


2. People like ...because they can listen to the ... birds.
3. In summer the nights are ... .
4. I can't... the heat in summer.
5. Autumn has ... days.
6. It is not pleasant to get... because of the autumn rain.
7. In winter children want to make ... and play with ....
8. When there is ... we can go to the ...and ski.
9. The leaves are ... in autumn.
10. People can preserve ... for winter time.

Grammar

ADJECTIVUL – GRADELE DE COMPARA IE


(THE ADJECTIVE - DEGREES OF COMPARISON)

Gradul de compara ie Adjective Adjective


al adjectivului monosilabice plurisilabice
Adj adj
Pozitiv
Tom is tall. Tom is intelligent
adj + -er + than more + adj + than
Comparativ
Tom is taller than Tom is more intelligent
de superioritate
his brother. than his brother.

82
as + adj + as as + adj + as
Comparativ
Tom is as tall as Tom is as intelligent as
de egalitate
his brother. his brother.
less + adj + than less + adj + than
Comparativ
Tom is less tall Tom is less intelligent
de inferioritate
than his brother. than his brother.
the + adj + -est the most + adj
Superlativ relativ Tom is the tallest Tom is the most
in the office intelligent in the office

Superlativ absolut Tom is very tall Tom is very intelligent

1. adjectivele monosilabice care se termin în consoan


precedat de o vocal , dubleaz consoana :
big-bigger-the biggest

2. adjectivele monosilabice care se termin în consoan


urmat de –y, schimb pe -y în i i primesc termina iile
-er/-est:
dry - drier - the driest

3. adjectivele monosilabice care se termin în -e pierd


aceast vocal când perimesc termina iile -er / -est :
nice - nicer - the nicest

Not :
Adjectivele bisilabice care se termin în -er, -le, -y, -ow
respect regulile pentru formarea gradelor de compara ie
specifice adjectivelor monosilabice.

83
clever - cleverer - the cleverest
happy - happier - the happiest
simple – simpler - the simplest
narrow - narrower - the narrowest

COMPARA IA NEREGULATA A ADJECTIVELOR


(THE IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES)
Comparativ Superlativ
Adjectivul
de superioritate relativ
good better the best
bad / ill worse the worst
much / many more the most
little less the least
near nearer the nearest;
the next
(urm torul)
old older the oldest;
elder – folosit numai the eldest
atributiv
late Later the latest (cel mai
the latter (cel de-al târziu, cel mai
doilea, ultimul din doi) recent); the last
(ultimul);
far farther the farthest;
further (mai dep rtat, the furthest
suplimentar)

84
Exercises:

I. Put the words in brackets into their correct form:

1.Who is (young) of the two girls? 2. The (late) half of May is


(hot). 3. Her (old) sister has a new job. 4. Whose house is
(far) from the centre of the town. 5. Which is the (rainy)
season of the year? 6. In summer the days are (long) and
the nights are (short) than in winter. 7. This is the (interesting)
presentation. 8. This is the (dry) region in the country. 9. My
report is (good) as yours. 10. We should take (easy) way.
11. Her friend is (old) than I am. 12. She is (pleasant) person
in the department. 13. Today the sky is (cloudy) yesterday.
14. They want to find out (far) details about the job. 15. My
father is (old) my mother. 16. Their office is (bright) ours.
17. The (good) computer is in our department.

II. Translate into English:

Aprilie este cea mai frumoas lun din an. 2. În Romania


iernile sunt mai reci decât în Anglia. 3. Zilele de var sunt
mai fierbin i decât cele de prim var . 4. El ar trebui s vin
mai devreme decât colegii lui. 5. Acest munte nu este la fel
de înalt ca cel lalt. 6. Ultima lucrare a colegului nostru este
extrem de interesant . 7. Mai mul i oameni pot avea mai
multe idei. 8. Am mai pu in timp decât am nevoie. 9. Cel mai

85
lung drum este prin parc. 10. Calea cea mai u oar este sa
nu te implici în proiect,

Speaking

Match a line in A with a line in B:

A B

Hello Jane Sleep well!

How are you? Yes. Can I help you?

See you tomorrow! Good morning!

Good night! Fine, thanks!

Good morning! Not at all. Don't mention it!

Cheers! Thanks!

Excuse me! Thanks! Same to you!

Bless you! That's very kind. Thank you!

Have a good weekend! Bye!

Thank you very much indeed! Hi, Peter!

Make yourself at home. Good health!

86
AGREEING AND DISAGREEING

Agreeing with someone

It is easy to agree with someone, on any level of formality: "I


agree completely with what you said in your lecture" or
"Yeah, that's right, Dave." The only way to get into trouble is
by being insincere and only pretending to agree. A person
who always agrees with someone else and never has an
individual opinion is not respected. This is especially true in
employer-employee relationships. If the employee always
agrees with the boss, the employee is called a "Yes-man." It
is OK to disagree with superiors, as long as it is done in an
acceptable way.

Disagreeing with someone

There are two ways to disagree with someone: directly and


indirectly.

Directly:
Mary: The show finishes at ten o'clock.
Chuck: No, it doesn't. They told me eleven.

When you disagree directly you should be sure of your facts,


because being wrong will require an apology. Notice the
appeal to "higher authority" ("They told me ...").

87
Indirectly:
Mary: The show finishes at ten o'clock.
Chuck: Oh, really? That's strange. They told me it would be
around eleven.

First Chuck expresses surprise ("Oh, really?"), then doubt


("That's strange"), then gives the facts. As long as it is
factual information that is in dispute, either form of
disagreeing is acceptable, although indirect disagreement
often sounds more polite.
If you are questioning someone's opinion or judgment, it is
better to use indirect techniques, such as:

1. turning a statement into a question: "Are you sure ... ?"


2. agreeing with part of the other person's idea: "I agree that
X, but Y ..."
3. using introductory remarks: "I could be wrong, but..."

Look back at the dialogues to find examples of these.

Discussion

How can you express disagreement in your culture? Do you


usually use direct or indirect methods? Do employees in
your country disagree openly with their superiors?

88
Phrases
Complete Agreement

More I agree completely…


formal That's just what I think, of course.
In my opinion, you are correct.
I couldn't agree more.
Less You're right.
formal Sure.

Tentative Agreement

I suppose you're right.


Well, maybe...

Indirect Disagreement

I'm not sure I can agree.


I wonder if there's a mistake.
In my opinion, ….
Are you absolutely sure? That really surprises me.
I may be wrong, but...
But I thought... Really?
Oh, I don't know. Yes, but...

Direct Disagreement (Starred (*) phrases are very strong


and often impolite)

89
More I'm sorry, but I have to disagree.
formal I couldn't agree less.
I couldn't disagree more.
I refuse to believe that ...*
No, that's wrong.*
You're dead wrong.* Nope.*
Less No way! *
formal Uh-uh! *

GREETINGS
Dialogue

Daily greetings
When greeting people, the greeting is often combined with
some form of enquiry about the person or situation.

Language Summary

Greeting Follow-up enquiry Reply


Hello. How are you? Very well, thanks.
Hi. How are you doing?
(Good) morning. How are things? Not too bad.
have things been?
(Good) afternoon. Is everything okay? Fine, thank you.
all right?

The style is neutral.

90
Notes
David Morning Jane.
You're in early………..the holiday? Greets her with

Jane Oh, hello David. Holiday? a specific enquiry

Just look at all this,it'll lake days


to work through. No really. David….
Just what I needed.
David Sounds great.
Jane ………………………………… here? General enquiry
about the office
David …………………… By the way. Replies to this enquiry

There's a……..

Tasks

a) What other phrase could be used to enquire about the


holiday? Make a sentence using How/you/enjoy/ holiday.
b) Jane's reply to the enquiry was very positive. What other
words could she use?
Choose from nice/marvellous/good/fine.

Greeting Specific enquiry Reply

Hello. How was Very good


your ………….

Hi. How was the trip? Very interesting

91
(Good) morning. How did the Very well/fine
meeting? Very much.
How did you enjoy
the film?

The more specific enquiries are appropriate if you know


something specific about the person you are greeting. They
often begin with the question word How, e.g. How was your
holiday?

Practice

What would you say if you were greeting people in the


following situations? Begin each of your specific enquiries
with How.

a) You are meeting a friend at the airport. He's just come


through customs.
b) A friend of yours went to see a film on your
recommendation.
c) A colleague of yours has just got back from an overseas
business trip.
d) The wife of a friend of yours has had to go into hospital -
you know them both very well.
e) You are greeting a friend who has just changed job. You
have not seen him or her since this happened.

92
Practice

Decide on the most appropriate greeting in each of the


situations. Match the greeting form on the right with the
situation on the left.

Situation

GREETING

a) David is meeting a counterpart How was it?


from the Dutch subsidiary at his office –
they have only met once or twice before.
What does David say?

b) A colleague of Jane Davis was How’s it going?


transferred to Greece six months ago.
She is back home for a couple of days.
Jane greets her.

c) A personal friend of David Hamilton has How are you?


been in Mexico on business –
they meet at a party.

d) A trainee is spending six months in How are you


Brussels gaining work experience. enjoying life there?

93
He spent some time, at the beginning
of this period, in David Hamilton's office.
They meet in the corridor.

e) David's secretary meets a good friend How are things?


at a social function.

f) A colleague of Jane Davi s is on a two- How have you


week sales course. She meets him by been getting on?
chance at the end of the first week.

Greeting people you have met Greeting people you have


several times before once before
NEUTRAL NEUTRAL
It's very nice/good to see I'm very pleased to meet
you again. you again.
I'm (very) pleased to see It's (very) nice to meet
you again you again.
INFORMAL INFORMAL
Good/nice to see you. Good to meet you again.
Great to see you. Pleased to meet you again.

94
Practice:

Decide what you would say in the two situations below.


Follow the notes on the left which outline how the
conversation develops. The first part of each dialogue has
been done as an example.

Situation 1

You're meeting someone you know quite well at the airport.


You've just arrived, ten minutes late. The visitor is already
there waiting.
a) Catch the person's attention. Hello it's me.
John, I'm over here!
John. Hi, I've arrived.
b) Greet the person. You haven't Good to see you again.
seen each other for a while. Good to meet you.
It's extremely nice to
meet you again.
c) Add a general enquiry. How's everything?
The tone should be informal. Are you well?
How are you getting on?
d) Apologize for being late. Have you been waiting long?
Unfortunately, my plane
was late.
I'm sorry I've kept you
wailing.

95
e) Offer to help with the luggage. Give me your bag
please.
Let me give yon a
hand with your bags.
I want to help you with
your bags.

Situation 2

While on a trip abroad you meet someone in the hotel. You


were introduced to this person at a conference a few years
ago, and have not met since. You are Philip Brooks.

a) Greet the person. Hello, Mr. Ravelius.


Good morning,
Mr. Ravelius.
Hello, Peter

b) Check to see if the person I'm Mr. Brooks. We


remembers you. Give your name. met at ...I don't know if
you remember me.
I'm Philip Brooks.
We met at...
Do you know me?
Philip Brooks. We met...

96
c) Greet the person. (Remember I'm delighted to see
you've only met this person once you again.
before and then only briefly.) It's nice to meet
you again.
Good to see you
again.

d) Make an enquiry. (Make sure How have you


it is not too informal.) been keeping?
How are things?
How are you?

Practice:

Complete the dialogue below between David Hamilton and a


colleague from Switzerland following the notes on the right.
Some phrases are suggested below. Keep the tone friendly.

Notes
Pierre: Hello, David.
David: Hello, Pierre……. Greet him. You
haven't seen him
for a while.
Add a general
enquiry.

97
Pierre: Okay. We've been Redirect the conversation
extremely busy and it looks back to David.
as if it's going to continue … You have heard he has
been transferred to the
headquarters of his
company.
Ask about the job.

David: Okay, so far. Everything's going very smoothly and


I'm enjoying the challenge.

Use the following phrases in the previous dialogue:

Good to see you again.


How's everything going?
And yourself?
Nice to see you again
How are you enjoying your new job?
How's the new job going?
What about you ... ?
How are you?
It's been a long time.
I haven't seen you since last year.

98
LESSON 11

A) EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES

On weekdays, John wakes up at a quarter to seven. He gets


out of bed, opens the window and does his morning
exercises in front of the open window.
Next, he goes into the bathroom. He brushes his teeth,
shaves himself and has a shower or a bath. He dries himself
on a towel and gets dressed. Then he combs his hair and
goes to the dining - room to have breakfast. After breakfast,
he puts on his overcoat and at half past seven he leaves for
his office. He gets to the office at ten to eight.

99
At half past four, when the progamme is over, he goes
home. After dinner, he has a short rest and then, if
necessary, he goes shopping.
In the evening they watch a film or an interesting programme
on T.V., read something or listen to the music. Sometimes,
especially on Sundays, they have guests or call on their
friends, go for a walk, to the cinema, to the theatre, to a
concert, to a dance or to the restaurant.
Generally, they go to bed at half past eleven.

100
Dialogue

Helen: What is your daughter's daily programme?


George: My daughter, who is a schoolgirl, is back from
school at one o'clock. She has lunch, and after a short rest,
she does her homework for the next day.
Helen: But how does she spend her spare time?
George: She goes cycling, plays tennis, goes to the
swimming pool or plays the piano.
Helen: Your son is a student, isn't he?
George: Yes, he is.
Helen: Is he very busy?
George : No, not very. Generally he has six classes a day.
When he has no classes, he spends an hour or two in the
library, he goes for a walk in the park, plays a game of
chess, football, basketball or goes to the students' club or to
a dance.
(F.Turcu, V. N st sescu, Engleza pentru afaceri, Bucure ti,
Uranus, 1996)

101
Vocabulary

everyday — zilnic, cotidian


to get to — a ajunge la
activity — activitate
programme — program
to wake up — a se trezi
dinner — cin
bathroom — camera de baie
to brush — a peria
to shave oneself — a se rade
dining - room — sufragerie
breakfast — micul dejun
to leave for — a pleca la...
generally - în general
daily — zilnic
lunch — masa de prânz
rest — odihn
next — urm tor
to spend — a petrece
game — joc
chess — ah
to get out of bed — a se da jos din pat
to do one's morning exercises — a face gimnastic de
diminiea
to have a shower — a face du
to have a bath — a face baie

102
to dry oneself on towel — a se terge cu prosopul
to get dressed — a se îmbr ca
to comb one's hair — a se piept na
then — apoi, dup aceea
to watch — a urm ri
sometimes — câteodat
especially — în special
guest — musafir, oaspete
to call on — a trece pe la...
theatre — teatru
to be over — a se termina
to have a rest — a se odihni
if necessary — dac este necesar
to go shopping — a merge dup cump r turi
to go for a walk — a merge la plimbare
to go to bed — a merge la culcare
to be back from school — a se întoarce de la coal
spare time — timp liber
to go cycling — a se plimba cu bicicleta
swimming pool — bazin de înot
to play the piano — a cânta la pian

103
Grammar

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

FORMS

NEGATIVE
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
(+) (-) (?)
(-/?)
I write do not write do l/you write? do I/you not write?
You don't l/you write?
He/ writes does not does he/she/it does he/she/it not
she/ write write? write?
it doesn't he/she/it
write?
We write do not write do we/you/they do we/you/they
You write? not write?
They don't we/you/they
write?

USES

1. Habitual actions:
She smokes.
We usually go to work by bus.
They drink whisky every night.
always, often, usually, frequently, generally, normally, occa-
sionally, ordinarily, regularly, sometimes, from time to time,

104
every day / week / month / year ... , every other day, every
once in a while, once a day / week / month / year, twice a day
/ week / month / year ... . three times a day / week / month /
year .... rarely, seldom; hardly ever, ever, never, as a rule

2. General truths:
The Earth revolves round the Sun.
Elephants don't fly.
Washington lies on the Potomac River.

3. Certain actions happening now:


a) with verbs not normally used in the continuous:
I understand
I know what you mean and I believe you are right.
b) in sports commentaries
c) in stage directions

4. Quoting or reporting:
I've got a letter from Sue.
She says she wants to visit us.
The sign says "No parking."
The Bible warns us not to steal.

5. Instructions:
Take a large baking tin and preheat it in the oven.
Keep this medicine out of the reach of children.
Don't place the unit in direct sunlight.

105
6. Certain past actions:
And then the guy opens the door .and drops dead when he
discovers that the money is gone. (story telling)
Plane crashes at Heathrow. (newspaper headline)

7. Certain future actions:


The exhibition opens on Tuesday next week, (planned events)
We leave at 8 a.m. on Wednesday and arrive in Bangkok at
3 p.m. on
Friday. We spend the night there and leave for Taipei al 7
a.m. the next morning, (itineraries)
If you do that again. I'll tell your mother. (conditional I)
Give me a call as soon as you arrive. (time clauses)
/'// take care of the baby till you get back.
The sooner you start, the sooner you'll he there.

B) WHAT ARE YOU DOING ?


1. It is Monday morning. The classroom that you can see in
picture number 1 is our classroom. We are having our
English dass.The teacher is explaining a new grammar
problem. He is teaching us the Present Tense Continuous
Aspect. He is writing some examples on the blackboard.
What are we doing ? We are looking at the sentences on the
blackboard, listening to the teacher's explanations and
taking notes. What are we going to do next ? Next, we are
going to write down the sentences in our exercise-books and
practise in the language laboratory.
106
2. A fellow - student who is late is opening the door. May I
come in.please ? Of course, you may. What is he going to
do next ? He is going to go to his seat, to sit down, take his
English book and exercise - books out of his portfolio and
put them on his desk. The student whose exercise - books
are open now, is Mr. B.

107
3. Are we sitting or standing ? We are sitting. The young
woman whom you can see standing is Mrs. A. What is she
doing ? She is reading. Is Mrs. A, reading the newspaper?
No, she isn't. Mrs. A. is reading a new text. Next, she is
going to retell it. We are going to talk about the text. The text
about which we are going to talk is very easy. Next, we are
going to write an essay on it.

4. We are having a test in English. We are writing a


dictation. The teacher is dictating the text slowly, sentence
by sentence. Next, we are going to put down the pens and
close our exercise - books. The man to whom we are going
to hand in our exercise - books is our teacher, who is going
to correct our tests.

108
Dialogue

Mary : What is the teacher doing ?


John: He is calling the roll. Nobody is missing. We are all
present. Next, he is going to ask us questions and we are
going to answer them.
Mary : What is the lady on your right doing ?
John : She is opening her exercise - book. Next, she is
going to write down the date.
Mary : What is Mr. Brown doing ?
John : Mr. Brown is going towards the window. He is going
to close the window because it is raining.
Mary : What is the gentleman in front of you doing ?
John : He is translating a text from Romanian into English.
Mary : What is the lady on your left doing ?
John : The lady on my left is describing a picture. -
Mary : And what are your people at home doing ?

109
John : Mother is cooking, father is gardening, my son is
writing his homework, while little daughter, who is only four
is playing with her toys.
(F.Turcu, V. N st sescu, Engleza pentru afaceri, Bucure ti,
Uranus, 1996)

Vocabulary

to do – a face
that meet - care
to explain - a explica
to teach - a preda, a înv a pe cineva, ceva
sentence - propozi ie, fraza
to listen to - a asculta la...
explanation - explica ie
to be going to - a urma s , a inten iona s , a avea de gând s
next - apoi, dup aceea
to practise - a exersa
portfolio - serviet
newspaper -ziar
to retell - a repovesti
to talk - a vorbi, a sta de vorb
about - despre
report - referat
dictation - dictare
to dictate - a dicta
slowly - încet, rar

110
to hand in - a preda, a înmâna
to correct - a corecta
nobody - nimeni
to miss - a lipsi, a absenta
towards - spre, c tre
because - pentru c , fiindc
to rain - a ploua
to describe - a descrie
to cook - a g ti
to garden - a lucra în gr din
homework - tem
while - în timp ce, pe când
to play - a se juca
interesting - interesant
grammar problem - problem de gramatic
to take notes - a lua noti e
language laboratory - laborator audio vizual
to call the roll - a striga catalogul
at home - acas

111
Grammar

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

FORMS
NEGATIVE
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
(+) (-) (?)
(- /?)
I am writing am not am I writing? am I not writing?
writing aren't I writing?
You are writing are not are you writing? are you not
writing writing?
aren't you writing?
He/ is writing is not is he/she/it is he/she/it not
she/ writing writing? writing?
it isn't he/she/it
writing?
We are writing arc not are we/you/they are we/you/they
You writing writing? not writing?
They aren't we/you/ they
writing?

USES

1. Actions happening at the moment of speaking:


What's going on here?
The kids are playing at war.
Be quiet. I'm trying to get some steep.

112
2. Temporary actions extended over a period of time:
"Have a cookie." "No. thank you. I'm slimming.”
We are doing decimal fractions at school now.
They are not using the back door in winter.

3. Definite actions planned for the near future:


I’m flying to Rome on Monday.
What are you doing tonight.

4. Repeated actions which are often annoying or


unreasonable:
He is always phoning when I’m in the bathroom.
I am constantly losing my gloves.

VERBS GENERALLY NOT USED IN THE „ –ING“ FORM

A number of verbs cannot be used in the continuous


aspect. Consequently they are used in the Simple form
corresponding to the sense logically required. They are:
a. verbs of physical perception : see, hear, smell,
notice etc.
I see a car over there.

b. verbs of attitude (feeling, dislikes, etc): love, hate,


like, want, wish, fear, etc.
He loves mathematics.

113
c. cognitive verbs: think, know, understand,
remember etc.
My friend understands French.

d. verbs expressing possession: belong, own,


possess, have.
The Browns own this flat.

e. auxiliary verbs: be, have.


I am not at home now, I’m at the seaside.

Some of these verbs can be used in “-ing” forms, but


in this case they completely change their basic meaning:
see= 1. “meet by appointment” (usually for business),
“interview”
The manager is seeing the applicants this
morning.
2. “visit”
“ Where is your friend?” “ He is seeing
the town”.
3. see about= “make arrangements or
inquiries”
They are seeing about our passports.
4. see to= ‘arrange’,’put right’, ‘deal with’
The electric fitter is here. He is seeing to
the electricity in our new flat.
hear = “listen formally to” evidence, complaints etc.)

114
The court is hearing evidence this
afternoon.
think (about) = a se gândi (la)
He is not attentive. What is he thinking
about?
be as a part of a passive tense:
He is being asked by the teacher.

have in all circumstances in which possession or


obligation are not involved:
We are having our English class now.
She can’t talk to you now. She’s having her
breakfast.
expect – ‘await’
Jane is expecting a baby.

Exercises

I. Put the following into the a). 3rd person singular,


b). negative, c) interrogative:

1. I like classical music very much.


2. They live in small houses.
3. We go to church every Sunday.
4. They always spend their holidays abroad.
5. You wash your hands before breakfast.
6. Good boys kiss their parents good night after prayer.

115
7. My students speak Spanish very well.
8. English people still eat a lot of pudding.
9. Grandmothers really spoil their grandchildren.
10. Geese often hiss at strangers.
11. My children always lose their pocket money.
12. John always carry an umbrella.
13. I shave twice a day.
14. My friends often try to cook their own meals.
15. These artists paint portraits only.
16. We buy and sell second-hand cars.

II. Change into the Present Continuous where possible.


Translate into Romanian.
1. He teaches physics and biology.
2. Do you watch satellite television?
3. They carry heavy bags.
4. The gardener mows the grass.
5. She agrees with you.
6. Do you recognize that man?
7. Do you believe in reincarnation?
8. Why do we always hurry to work?
9. He dances very well.
10.They only shoot rabbits.
11. I hate this fish. It smells.
12. I'm afraid the boy lies.
13. Why do you drive so fast?
14.That music sounds good to me.

116
15. I suppose she wants a new car.
16. We prefer to live in the city.
17. Our granny bakes delicious cookies.
18. We have lunch at one o'clock.
19. The boys are very quiet. I wonder what's wrong.
20. I think they remember you very well.

III. Put the verbs into the correct form (Present Simple or
Present Progressive):
1. The house (look)………………..older in autumn.
2. What you (do) ………………..for a living?
3. I must hurry; everybody (wait)……………….for me.
4. The train (arrive)……………..at the North Station at 6:30.
5. Don’t disturb her; she (write) ………………..an essay.
6. I can’t leave the town; I (see)……………….. the manager
at the beginning of the next week.
7. During the week we generally (get up)……………early.
8. We all (hope)…………………our company will become
famous all over the country.
9. The governor of the National Bank of France
(pay)………………..us a visit this week.
10. You always (argue)………………..with your teachers and
friends. I (not approve)……………….of your behavior.

IV. Write questions to the following statements:


1. Rita is coming to see us on Sunday.
a. When.....? b. Who.....?

117
2. Ralph is bringing some wine and crackers.
a. What.....? b. Who.....?
3. I think the London orchestra is playing Mozart now.
a. What.....? b. Which .... ?
4. I'm meeting my lawyer at 10.30 in the court.
a. Where.....? b. What time.....?
5. The players are moving slowly today because of the heat.
a. Why.....? b. How.....?

V. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present tense Simple or


the Present Tense Continuous:
1. He (phone) the manager now?
2. My parents (live) in this house.
3. Listen! John (play) the piano.
4. She (do) the shopping for her parents every Saturday.
5. He never (use) the computer.
6. They (not use) the computer because it (be) broken.
7. “What you (say)….?
8. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea.
9. “What you (read) when you are on holiday?” I (read)
detective stories but now I (read) a science-fiction book.
10. Children always (look forward) to Christmas.
11. Tell me if the cream (taste) sweet enough.
12. We (spend) this weekend in the mountains. We (go) to
the mountains nearly every week.
13. What you (do)? I (taste) the soup.
14. I always (forget) where my keys are!

118
VI. Choose the right form of the verbs given in brackets:
1. You (understand /are understanding) me well now.
2. They (drink / are drinking) milk in the morning.
3. Jill (drives / is driving) fast now.
4. I always (buy / am buying) fruit.
5. They (listen / are listening) to the news now.
6. She (opens / is opening) the window.
7. My children (speak / are speaking) French at school.
8. I (remember / am remembering) his address.

VII. Translate into English:


1. „ Unde este sora ta?” „Cump r câteva cadouri pentru
copii."
2. „ La ce te gânde ti ?” „M gândesc la examen. E foarte
greu. "
3. Ea pred algebra dar în acest semestru pred geometrie.
4. „Unde pleci duminic ?” „La p rin i. Îi vizitez în fiecare
s pt mân ”.
5. Vecinii no tri se ocup de gr din . Florile sunt minunate.
6. Mereu m sun când încerc s dorm.
7. To i ghizii din aceast agen ie vorbesc mai multe limbi
str ine deoarece aici vin turi ti din multe ri.
8. Sora mea vine s ne vad mâine.
9. E ocupat . Lucreaz la un nou proiect.
10. Î i vinzi ac iunile?
11. Plou des în Fran a?
12. Nu-l deranja! Vorbe te cu directorul de vânz ri.

119
Speaking

THANKING PEOPLE FOR HOSPITALITY

When thanking people for hospitality, it is usual to combine a


phrase of thanks with a positive comment to show your
appreciation.

Phrase of thanks Positive comment

NEUTRAL
Thank you very much. It's been a very pleasant
I really appreciate your hospitality. weekend.
It was very kind of you to invite me. You really have a
lovely house.
Thank you very much for the meal. It's an excellent
restaurant.
Thank you very much for organizing this The meal was
evening. delicious.
Thank you very much for everything. I have enjoyed
myself.

INFORMAL

Thanks for asking me out. It was great fun.


Thanks for the meal. It was very good.
Thanks Tom. I enjoyed that.

120
Practice

Read the six situations below and then choose one of the
phrases on the right to thank your host.

Situation

a) A friend has bought you coffee. Thank you for all


your hospitality.
I really have
appreciated it.

b) You have been taken out to the Thank you for


theatre to see a comedy by the getting me a ticket.
Marketing Director of a company
you do business with.

c) You have just spent two months


in another of your company's Thank you very
subsidiaries. The people there have much for the meal.
been very friendly and invited you
out a lot.

d) While in London some friends of yours It was most


took you to see the Wimbledon final. kind of you
invite me over.

121
e) A potential supplier you have been visiting Thanks,
and took you out for dinner. David.

f) While on a business trip your It was very nice


counterpart invited you to spend of you to invite me.
a day at his home. I really enjoyed
the play.

Practice
Now go back to the previous situations and decide how you
would complete the thanks by adding an appropriate
comment from the list below.

I needed that.
It's been a useful two months.
It was very funny.
Il was a very exciting match.
I’ve enjoyed myself a lot.
It was delicious.

Practice
Decide how to thank your host in the following situation.
A business contact of yours organized a trip to the theatre
for you.
a) Thank your host (you don't know this person very well).
b) Tell him or her you enjoyed the play.
c) Compliment him or her on the choice.

122
Language Summary
Responding to thanks

When a person is being thanked for giving help the following


phrases can be used to respond:

Thanking phrase Response

Thanking people for personal help

Thank you for all your help. That's quite all right.

That's okay.

Thank you very much for finding out


about the theatre.
It was no trouble.

Thanking people for a service

Thanks for the information. You're welcome.

Thank you. Don't mention it.

Thank you very much. That's okay/all right.

123
LESSON 12

MARKS & SPENCER


Britain's favourite store

Pre-reading task

Work in pairs and use dictionaries if necessary.

The following people, places, and things are in the article.


What connection do you think they have with Marks &
Spencer? They appear here in the same order as in the text.
- Princess Diana - Spain
- £10 million - Paris and Newcastle
- a Polish immigrant - jumpers
- shoelaces - chiropodists
Now read the article quickly and discuss the list again.

Marks & Spencer (or M&S) is Britain's favourite store.


Tourists love it too.
It attracts a great variety of customers, from housewives to
millionaires. Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman, and the British
Prime Minister are just a few of its famous customers.
Last year it made a profit of £529 million, which is more than
£ 1 0 million a week.

124
How did it all begin?
It all started 105 years ago when a young Polish immigrant,
Michael Marks had a stall in Leeds market. He didn't have
many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons
and a few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the now famous
notice: Don’t ask how much. It’s a penny.
Ten years later, he met Tom Spencer and together they
started Penny Stalls in many towns in the north of England.
Today there are 564 branches of M&S all over the world - in
America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium and Hungary.
What are the best-sellers?
Surprisingly, tastes in food and clothes are international.
What sells well in Paris sells just as well in Newcastle. Their
best-selling clothes are:
- For women: jumpers, bras and knickers (M&S is famous for
its knickers!).
- For men: shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns and suits.
- For children: underwear and socks.
Best-sellers in food include: fresh chickens, bread,
vegetables and sandwiches. Chicken Kiev is internationally
the most popular convenience food.
Why is M&S so successful?
The store bases its business on three principles: good value,
good quality and good service. Also it changes with the
times - once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it's food,
furniture, and flowers as well. Top fashion designers advise
on styles of clothes.

125
But perhaps the most important key to its success is its
happy, well-trained staff. Conditions of work are excellent.
There are company doctors, dentists, hairdressers and even
chiropodists to look after the staff and all the staff can have
lunch for under 40p!
(John and Liz Soars, Headwa., Pre-intermediate, Oxford,
OUP, 1994)

Comprehension check
Here are some answers. What are the questions?
1
£529 million,
2
105 years ago.
3
Poland.
4
No, he only had a few things.
5
564.
6
Because it gives good value, good quality, and good service.
7
No, it doesn't. It sells food and furniture as well.
8
Less than 40p.

126
Vocabulary work

In the text there are a lot of examples of clothes, food and


professions. List them in the columns below and add three
more examples of your own to each column.

Clothes Food Professions

Now check all the examples in your class. How many


different examples, do you have?

Speaking

Speak about your favourite store

127
Practice

I. Match a Iine in A with a line in B.

The people are in one of the following places.

baker's department store post office


airport railway station supermarket
chemist’s fast food restaurant

Where are they?


A B
1. Can I have a book of stamps, a. Yes, of course It's on the third
please? floor.
2. We'd like two cheeseburgers and b. Do you want first class or
one Big Mac, all with fries, please. second?
3. Could you tell me where the shoe c. I'll check, but I think we only
deportment is, please? have it for dry.
4. Have you got any Sunsilk d. Yes, that's fine. I'll give you a
shampoo for greasy hair? label for it.
5. Excuse me. Can you tell me e. Would you like anything to
where platform six is? drink with that?
6. I'd like a large, brown, sliced loaf, f. Here you are. We don't charge
please. for them.
7. Can I take this bag as hand g. It's over there. Come with me.
luggage? I'll show you.
8. Could I have another plastic h. I'm afraid we only have white
bag? I've got so much to carry. left.

128
Grammar

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

FORMS

NEGATIVE
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
(+) (-) (?)
(-/?)
did not
I wrote
write
You did l/you/he/she/it
He/ did l/you/he/she/it write?
she/ write? didn't l/you/he
It write?
We wrote did not did we/you/they did we/you/they not
You write write? write?
They didn't we/you/they
write?

USES

1. Actions completed at a definite point in the past (when the


time is given);
They arrived yesterday.
We bought this car five years ago.
He left the army in 1945 and settled down in Canada.

129
yesterday; last night / week / month / year; a few hours / minutes /
days / weeks / months/ years ago; two / three / many days /weeks
/ months / years / ago; a long time ago; in 1992; on October 26th,
1984; at the turn of the century; in 58 BC; during the war; once;
once upon a time; the other day

2. Actions completed at a definite point in the past which is


not given but implied or understood as past time:
They met in San Francisco. The plane was two hours late.
Why did you leave so early?

3. Actions which occupied a period of time in the past:


She worked as a secretary from May through October. I
spent my childhood in a little village in the north.
He studied medicine for five years.

4. Habitual past actions:


She always complained about everything.
Tim visited us every Sunday when he lived in this
neighbourhood.
We used to drink a lot of beer in our student days.

(+) (-) (?) (-/?)


Used did not use to used you to? didn't you use
used not to did you use
usedn't to/usen't to usedn't you to?/
usen't you to?

130
Exercises

I. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past:


1. They live next door.
2. She works from 5 p.m. till midnight.
3. He studies social sciences.
4. We never go to school on Saturdays.
5. They only play country music.
6. I feel wonderful.
7. Do they live in London?
8. Who sings that song?
9. He knows I'm a spy.
10. I think she's right.
11. Ralph never wakes up before 8 o'clock.
12. The children keep asking me silly questions.
13. He never drinks in the morning.
14. Jim drives better than I do.
15. Rita always goes shopping on Fridays.
16. I find his objections quite ridiculous.
17. The plane leaves at 10:30.
18. He writes speeches for the president.
19. Grandfather sometimes plays with the children.
20. She understands what you say.

II. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Simple Past:


1. The jacket (cost) $35.
2. I (buy) it yesterday.

131
3. The shop assistant (say) it (be) reduced.
4. I (pay) in cash.
5. She (wrap) it for me and (put) it in a plastic bag.
6. I (pass) several shops on my way home.
7. I (see) the same jackets everywhere .
8. They (be) $25.
9. I (hear) a strange noise last night.
10. I (wake) up and (get) out of bed.
11. I (light) a candle and (walk) downstairs.
12. I (take) a big knife from the kitchen and I (open) the front
door.
13. When I (look) outside I (see) a guy dressed in pyjamas.
14. He (have) a big knife and a candle in his hand.
15. When he (see) me he (start) to scream.
16. They (build) this house 70 years ago.
17. The first owner (die) in 1935
18. She (leave) a large fortune to her grandson.
19. He soon (spend) the money because he (be) a notorious
gambler.
20. He (sell) the house to an irish manufacturer of candles.

III. Put each of the following sentences into the Simple Past
using the adverbials of time given in parentheses:
1. I 've seen this film. (two months ago)
2. He's broken his leg (last summer)
3. She's never ridden a horse, (when she lived in Cambridge)
4. The baby's fallen asleep, (immediately after breakfast)

132
5. They've eaten everything, (last night)
6. I've spoken to your son. (yesterday)
7. I've given him some advice. (when he was here)
8. Jim has just swum ten lengths of the pool. (last week)
9. She has taken some sleeping pills. (last night).

THE PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS


FORMS

NEGATIVE
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
(+) (-) (?)
(-/?)
I
He/ was writing was not was I/he writing? was l/he not writing?
she/ writing wasn't l/he writing?
it
You were writing were not were you writing? were you not
writing writing?
weren't you writing?
We were writing ware not were we/you/they were we/you/they
You writing writing? not writing?
They weren't we/you/
they writing?

133
USES

1. Actions that were in progress at a given moment in the


past:
I was taking a shower when you came in.
At five o'clock we were all having tea in the garden.
They were still fighting when the police arrived.
2. Continuous activities during a definite period in the past:
We were playing bridge from 8 p.m. till midnight.
She was shopping between 3 o'clock and four.
They were quarrelling all last right.

3. Parallel continous actions in the past:


Sue was peeling the potatoes while Andy was cooking the
fish.
She was talking to me end writing something down at the
same time.
He was digging in the garden and singing to himself all day.

4. Definite future arrangements made in the past


They refused your invitation because they were leaving for
Melbourne the next morning.
He put on his best suit as he was meeting the ambassador
at six.
The children cleaned their teeth carefully for they were
seeing their dentist that afternoon.

134
5. Other uses:
/ was wondering if you could help me tonight. (polite form of
addressing people) They were always complaining about
everything. (persistent past activities that were annoying,
etc.)
I was reading about it somewhere recently. (incomplete
actions in the past)
I was talking to your mother the other day. (casual past
actions)

Exercises

/. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Past Simple or the


Past Continuous:

1.The ship (approach) Cape Town when the tornado (begin).


2.The bomb (go) off when the president (give) a speech.
3.He (not hear) the bell because the radio (play).
4. When I (get) home everybody (watch) TV.
5.The plane (catch) fire when it (take) off.
6. Whenever I (come) to see them they always (quarrel).
7.Tim (crash) into a street light because he (drive) too fast.
8.Cindy (lay) the table while the kids (trim) the Christmas
tree.
9. She (make) pastry when the telephone (ring).
10.He (peep) through the keyhole when the door suddenly
(open).

135
11 .Father (shave) and (sing) a silly song at the same time.
12.What you (do) last night between 11 o'clock and midnight?
13.The teacher (write) something on the blackboard while
the children (throw) paper balls at one another.
14.She (break) down when she (hear) the news.
15. I (think) about their proposal all night but I (not make)
any decision.
16. I (see) Lisa Minelli in the theatre last night. She (sit) in
the first row.
17.We (fly) over the desert when the engine (stall).
18.They (work) very hard when the inspector (enter).
19.The tyre (blow) up when she (drive) on a deserted
country road.
20.She (take) a shower when the snake (creep) into the
bathroom.

II. Translate into English:


1. Dormeam când am fost trezit de un zgomot.
2. Traversa strada când a v zut-o în autobuz.
3. Copiii se jucau în gr din în timp ce mama preg tea cina.
4. Negocierile au luat sfâr it ieri când s-a hot rât conti-
nuarea proiectului.
5. Priveam pe fereastr când s-au ciocnit cele dou ma ini.
6. Obi nuiam s merg des la pescuit când eram mai tân r.
7. Când a început cursul?
8. Mereu se plângeau de ceva.

136
9. Ascultam tirile când cineva a sunat la u ; m-am dus s
deschid dar nimeni nu mai era la u .
10. Când era tân r, alerga timp de o jum tate de or în
fiecare diminea .

III. Use the Past Tense Simple or the Past Tense


Continuous of the verbs given in brackets:
1. He (meet) her as he (walk) in the park.
2. What she (wear) when you (see) her?
3. We (talk) about you when you (come).
4. He (not see) me as he (write) a letter when I (come) into
the room.
5. The guest (be) very surprised because nobody (wait) for
him.
6. What you (do) when I (call) you yesterday?
7. She (sell) almost all her mother’s clothes.
8. They (dance) when I (get) home.
9. I (write) my homework) while my brother (read).
10. She always (talk) about fashion.
11. They surely (sleep) at this time yestarday.
12. My friends (arrive) just as the train (leave) the station.

137
LESSON 13

IN A NEW TOWN

Jane will have to take part in a business conference. Jane


has just arrived at the railway station. She gets off the train
on the platform and makes for the information desk. Diana
Williams is not there as she should have been. Under these
circumstances Jane has to manage by herself and get to the
residence of the company in the center of the town.
“ Excuse me this is my first time in Shrewsbury. Can you tell
me the way to the Thomson & Son Co. residence?”
“I'm sorry but I'm a stranger here myself. You'd better ask a
policeman.”
“Thank you.”
“Could you tell me which is the quickest way to Thomson &
Son Co. residence? “
“Yes, of course. It is almost impossible to walk there so you
have to take the bus no 24.”
“Do I have to change the bus?”
“Yes. You have to get off at the fifth stop and take the tram
for two stops or you can walk if you want to admire the most
beautiful side of the town. It takes you about 20 minutes to
walk from the stop to the Thomson & Son Co.”
“Thank you very much.”

138
Speaking

/. Use the following phrases in similar dialogues:


a) to get on
to get off
to change
to take a bus / tram to
miss a bus / tram to
wait for
to stop only at request
to stop at the bus stop

b) How long does it take you to get there by bus / tram /


taxi?
How long does it take you to walk from here to ... ?
Is it much of a walk?
Shall I take this street or that?
Can you tell me the quickest way to ... ?

c) Go ahead!
Go as far as ...
At the first crossroads turn to the left / right. It's just
round the corner.
It's on the right side of the street.

139
Dialogue:

William Hart: Hello! Are you Mr. Jerry Jonson? I'm William
Hart. Welcome to Brasov.
Jerry Jonson: Yes, I'm Jerry Jonson. It's a pleasure to meet
you. May I introduce my colleague Mike Brown, our
marketing manager?
W.H.: Glad to meet you, Mr. Brown. How was your journey?
Mike Brown: It was not too bad. I read two magazines.
W.H.: My car is outside. Can I help you with your luggage?
J.J.: No, thank you. I travel light as usual.
W.H.: Would you like to go to the hotel first?
J.J.: I don't think we have enough time.
M.B.: We'd better have a coffee before we leave for the
conference hall.
W.H.: Yes, of course.

Speaking:

Use the following words and sentences in dialogues. Work in


pairs.
It's a great pleasure to meet you.
I'm glad to meet you.
I've been looking forward to meeting you.
How was your journey?
How was your flight?
It was very tiring / exhausting.

140
It was very nice / not too bad.
We'll take a bus.
We'll take a taxi.
We'll take a tram.
Can I help you with your luggage?
I'll find a truck / porter for your luggage.
Is there anything you'd like to do before we go?

1. You arrive at the airport in time but there is no one waiting


for you. You have to get to the hotel first.
2. You arrive in good time at the railway station but the
person who had to wait for you is not there. You wait for him
/ her and leave together.
3. Your train is half an hour late. Someone is waiting for you
at the railway station. He hasn't come with his car so you
have to take a bus / tram / taxi.
4. You are a non-smoker and the person who waited for you
at the airport smokes very much. You go to the company
residence in his car.

Practice:

/. Put down some advice that you might recommend to


someone who is coming to your country.

II. Match the following parts of sentence to obtain necessary


advice for someone who visits a country

141
1. Photocopy the information page of your passport
2. Avoid unnecessary
3. If you are pushed,
4. Keep valuable documents
5. Keep your passport, tickets
6. Use traveller's cheques,
7. Never agree
8. Keep your hotel key with you
9. Find out which parts of the city
10. Walk confidently,

a) not cash.
b) as if you know exactly where you're going to.
c) to transport anything for a stranger.
d) and other important documents with you.
c) physical contact with strangers.
f) when you leave the hotel if possible.
g) check your belongings immediately.
h) out of sight.
i) are unsafe at night and avoid them.
j) and store it in a safe place in case your passport is lost or
stolen.
(adapted from New International Business English, by Jones
and Alexander, Cambridge, 1996, p.87)

142
III. Imagine that you want to get from A to B on the following
maps:

A - Railway station A - Central Library


B - Concorde Hotel B - University
1. Railway street 1. Chestnut Street
2. Hope Street 2. University Street
3. Oak Street

IV. Fill in the following dialogues:

1. A: Excuse me, is this the way to the hospital?


B: At the second.....................to the right. The hospital is
on the....................of the street.

2. A: Where is the next bus stop?


B. This bus...................................

3. A: I have just.................the tram for the University. What


else could I........................?
B: You can take either.....................or...............................

143
4. A: Do I have to.................... buses to get to the hotel?
B. Yes at the next....................you have
to....................and..................bus no 12.
A: I've been waiting for the tram for ten minutes. How
long does.................the tram to come.
B: It must have.........................something on the road
because trams generally come ..................five minutes.

1. A: I would like to get to the center of the town. Is it much


of a walk?
B: ………………………………………………………………

2. A: Can you tell me the way to the Steel-Ex residence?


B: ………………………………………………………………

3. A: ……………………………………………………………
B: I don't think you should get on this bus. It doesn't go to
the railway station.

4. A: ………………………………………………………………
B: You should take the bus 15.

5. A: ………………………………………………………………
B: Then you have to wait for other ten minutes.

144
Grammar
EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME

TENSE MEANING/ EXAMPLE


CIRCUMSTANCE
Present an official plan or The shareholders’meeting
Simple arrangement according to starts at 8 o’clock tomorrow.
a schedule This agreement will be
in conditional and signed if/when the merged
temporal clauses companies’management
meets.
Present a future event which is I am flying to London in
Continuous planned by the order to attend the matches
speaker/subject (the of the national football team.
decision is all his)
Future a neutral future event; a Next year our company will
Simple prediction about future issue a new series of
shares.
Future an action in progress at a We shall be discussing
Continuous future given time this issue at the 10 o’clock
meeting next Wednesday.
Future a future action completed We shall have taken the
Perfect before a future moment decision by the next week.
Simple (+by/before/until)
(expresses anteriority)
Future a future action in progress It’s Wednesday. Until the
Perfect up to (and including) a lunch time our experts will
Continuous certain future time have been debating on the
next year’s budgeting.
Future in the future of the We were said that the price
the Past subordinate clause whose of food would decrease
main clause contains one sooner than it had been
of the Past Tenses predicted.
BE GOING an intention regarding the The shareholders’ meeting
TO Future future is going to take place next
month.
BE ABOUT in reference to the He is about to be elected
TO immediate/imminent president of the merged
future company.

145
Exercises

I. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple tense:


1. It is very late, I'm afraid I (miss) the train. 2. He (take) a
taxi because he doesn't have time to walk to your place.
3. They know they (wait) for the bus at the bus stop. 4. We
(get off) the bus at the next bus stop. 5. He (buy) two
magazines to read in the train. 6. I know that you (find) a
truck to carry your luggage. 7. We (go) to the hotel by car.
8. The train (arrive) in half an hour. 9. She (meet) her partner at
the airport. 10. They (take) a tram to get to the railway station.

II. Give the negative and interrogative forms of the above


sentences.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the present tense or future
tense:
1. We (go) to the hotel when the meeting (be) over. 2. She
(wait) for the bus if the weather (be) fine. 3. I (take) this
street if it (lead) to the conference hall. 4. He (join) us when
he (arrive). 5. No one (tell) us the news if we (not ask) them.
6. They (ask) me to take part in negotiations when our
partners (arrive). 7. He (sign) the contract if he (agree) with it.
8. You (come) with me when I (leave) for Torino? 9. This bus
(stop) only if you (ask) the driver to stop. 10. I (take) this
street only if the policeman (tell) me that it can take me to
the railway station.

146
IV. Translate into English:
1. Te voi suna când voi ajunge la hotel. 2. Nu voi putea
r spunde la telefon când voi negocia cu viitorii no tri
parteneri. 3. Vom Iua un taxi imediat ce vom coborî din tren.
4. Dac vor semna contractul vom discuta i despre o
posibil fuziune. 5. Înainte de a urca în tren el va cump ra o
revist economic . 6. Secretara mea m va anun a când
sose te reprezentantul furnizorului nostru principal. 7. Îi va
Iua o or s ajung la aeroport dac ia autobuzul. 8. Vei
ajunge mai repede la re edin a companiei dac iei un taxi.
9. Când vor ajunge în Pia a Unirii vor cere oferului s
opreasc . 10. Vom discuta despre aceast schimbare când
partenerii no tri vor prezenta raportul financiar.

V. Insert either Future Simple or Present Simple:


1. Prices (rise) if people (spend) large amounts of money.
2. Don’t worry! As soon as I (find out) anything new, I (call)
you.
3. I (be convinced) inflation (decrease) before the end of the
year.
4. When the manager (tell) he (be) available, don’t believe
him. He (be) always busy and I don’t think this situation ever
(change).
5. We (get out) business unless inflation rate (go down).
6. If the government (not take) immediate decisions, many
foreign investors (lose) interest in Romanian companies.

147
VI. Choose one of the following adverbs and conjunctions
which best suits the context and explain the use of the verb
in the subordinate clause. Note that one of them is to be
used twice.

before, as soon as, if, after, provided, as long as, unless,


when.

1. They will reach a decision……….they have heard your


opinion, too.
2. ……….she is given the price, she can’t calculate the VAT.
3. Please call me……….he gets to the office.
4. ……….the board the directors gather, the agenda will be
discussed.
5. ……….the supply is too high, the prices will consequently
fall.
6. She’ll tell you her income……….you don’t reveal it to
anyone.
7. We’ll buy twenty new PCs ……….the import tax stays the
same.
8. We have to do our best to submit this report to the CEO if
we want our idea to become true……….the deputy director
learns about it.

Writing:
Write a letter to a foreigner trying to convince him to visit
your town.

148
PART TWO

LESSON 14

TYPES OF BUSINESSES

Pre-reading

1. What criteria would you choose in classifying the


businesses?
2. What are the differences between different types of
businesses?
3. How important is the ownership?
4. Is management important or essential?
5. In which class/category would you introduce the following
businesses: "Elvila Impex SRL", "McDonald's Fast-Food
Chain Shops", "Ion iriac Bank", "Faur S.A.", "2nd Chemical"?

Reading

The economy can be divided into two overall sectors:

• goods-producing businesses (manufactunng, agricultue,


construction, mining) and
• service businesses (wholesale and retail trade, finance and
insurance, transportation and utilities, and other services).

149
The goods-producing businesses are businesses that
produce tangible products, while the service businesses are
those that provide intangible products or perform useful
labour on behalf of another person.

But the best way of classifying businesses is according to


the business ownership. The most common forms of
business ownership are:
• sole proprietorship;
• partnership;
• Corporation.

Each form of ownership has a characteristic internal


structure, legal status, size, and field to which it is best
suited. Each has key advantages and disadvantages and
offers the employees a distinctive working environment with
its own risks and rewards.
A sole proprietorship is a business owned and usually
operated by a single individual. It is the easiest form of
business to start with limited funds. As a sole proprietor, you
work for yourself, you are the only one who decides when to
work, how many hours a day, whom to hire, in a word you
are independent. But you also have unlimited liability and
restricted financial resources. A proprietorship has a limited
life. When the proprietor dies, the business often dies, too. A
proprietor who wants to make sure his business will grow

150
and continue without him, generally forms a partnership or
merges with a larger business.
A partnership is an unincorporated business owned and
operated by two or more individuals under a voluntary legal
association. There are general partnerships, in which all
partners are legally equal and are liable for business's debts,
and limited partner ships, in which one or more people act
as general partners, the other partners are passive investors
whose liability is limited to the amount of their capital
contribution.
A partnership has an increased capital and credit sources,
greater profit potential, unlimited life span; but the general
partners have an unlimited liability, they mighthave
management problems, ete. That's why, many professionals
(such as doctors, accountants, lawyers) prefer establishing
corporations to partnerships.
A corporation is a legally chartered enterprise with most of
the legal rights of a person, including the right to conduet a
business, to own and sell property, to borrow money and to
sue or be sued. There are different types of corporations:
public corporations (that is, companies owned by large
numbers of public investors; these investors buy stock on
the open market, thereby providing public corporations with
large amounts of permanent capital; in return, the
shareholders receive the chance to share in the profits if the
corporation succeeds); private corporations (corporations
whose stock is not available to the general public; they

151
withhold their stock from public sale, preferring to finance
any expansion out of their own earnings or to borrow from
some other source); nonproft corporations (are incorporated
institutions whose owners have limited liability and that exist
to provide a social service rather than to make a profit); ete.
(O. Ciuciuc, E. T n sescu, English for business purposes,
Bucure ti, Teora, 1998 )

Vocabulary

wholesale - 1. the sale of goods in large amounts as to


retailers rather than to consumers directly
(opposed to retail);
2. a. by wholesale - in large quantities, as in the
sale of commodities
b. on a large scale without diserimination e.g.
"The big resorts offer recreation by
wholesale"
retail - 1. the sale of goods to ultimate consumers, usually in
small quantities;
2. connected with or engaged in sale at retail; e.g.
"the retail price"
3. to sell at retail - to sell directly at the consumer
utility - utilities - a public service, as a street-car or railroad
line, a telephone or electric light system etc.
liability - money owed; debts or pecuniary obligations
life span - 1. the longest period over which the life of any

152
plant or animal, organism may extent,
according to the available, biological knowledge
concerning it;
2. the longevity of an individual/object/product etc.
shareholder - a holder or owner of shares, especially in a
company or Corporation (According to Webster's
Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the
English Language, new revised edition, 1994)

Grammar

PASSIVE VOICE

"The economy can be divided into two overall sectors"

Active: We can divide the economy into two overall sectors.


Passive: The economy can be divided into two overall
sectors.
The passive is often preferred when it is not important who
or what did the action. In the example above, it is not
important who can divide the economy into sectors.
If the person who performs the action is very important for
the meaning of the sentence, then it is expressed with the
help of an object of agent in the above example: by us. But
since in this example by us is optional, it is not relevant for
the meaning of the sentence.

153
"Who has sent the documents?"

"The documents have been sent by our secretary."


In this case, the object is very important.

ACTIVE VOICE TENSE PASSIVE VOICE


This bank grants Present am / is / are + Verb Past Participle
such loans. Simple Such loans are granted by this bank.

This bank is Present am / is / are + being + Verb Past


granting such Progressive Participle
loans. Such loans are being granted by this
bank.
This bank granted Past Simple was / were + Verb Past Participle
such loans. Such loans were granted by this bank.

This bank was Past was / were + being + Verb Past


granting such Progressive Participle
loans. Such loans were being granted by
this bank.
This bank has Present have / has + been + Verb Past
granted such Perfect Simple Participle
loans. Such loans have been granted by this
bank.
They said that Past Perfect had + been+ Verb Past Participle
bank had granted Simple Such loans had been granted by this
such loans. bank.
This bank will Future Simple will + be + Verb Past Participle
grant such loans. Such loans will be granted by this
bank.
They said that Future in the would+ be + Verb Past Participle
bank would grant Past They said such loans would be
such loans. granted by this
bank.
This bank can MODALS modal + be + Verb Past Participle
grant such loans. Such loans can be granted by this
bank.

154
Exercises

I. Turn the following sentences into Passive Form:

1. The manager will soon forgive him.


2. They analysed the contracts two weeks ago.
3. I must think about a solution.
4. Do you know that the boss is waiting for you?
5. We have received your letter of credit.
6. She won't take a decision until the next meeting.
7. People should send their complaints to the head office.
8. They wil hold next year's shareholders’ meeting in Craiova.
9. The bill includes service.
10. They have changed the agenda of the meeting.
11. Our secretary knew everybody and everything about
everybody's account details.
12. Five years ago our bank couldn't grant such a loan.
13. The International Monetary Fund's representatives have
signed the Stand-by Agreement.

//. Translate into English, using passive constructions:

1. În numeroase ora e ale rii se deschid noi sucursale ale


b ncilor comerciale.
2. Dupa 1990, s-au înfiin at numeroase firme particulare.
3. eful de departament era sup rat ca nu i se aduc
rapoartele la timp.

155
4. Cet enii ar trebui informa i referitor la avantajele noilor
metode de plat .
5. Se emit diverse tipuri de c r i de credit în fiecare an.
6. Ni s-a spus c aceast firm nu acord garan ii.
7. Clien ilor nu li s-au dat explica ii clare referitoare la
completarea formularelor.
8. Acum e rândul meu s fiu interogat.
9. O mare parte din aceast lucrare a fost întocmit de
colegii mei.
10. S-au luat toate m surile necesare pentru introducerea
noii contabilit i
asistate pe calculator.
11. S-au facut analize serioase înainte de a se lua decizia
de acordare a acestui imprumut.
12. La ultima edint de consiliu s-a decis schimbarea
echipei manageriale.

156
LESSON 15

THE BUSINESS PARTNERSHIP

Pre-reading

Part One

1. How would you describe a business partner?


2. Are there any disadvantages of a business partnership?
3. What features should each of the partners have in order
to achieve the objec-tives of the business started together?
4. When can a partnership fail?
5. Do you believe in the economic importance of these types
of businesses for
Romania? Why?

Part Two

Describe an ideal business partner.


The words and phrases in the following info box may help
you.
Work with a colleague.
Time limit: 5 minutes

157
INFO BOX

reliable; skillful; an expert in finance; experienced; intelligent;

very rich person; able to take quick decisions; hard working;


a charitable person; negotiation skills; a middleman; to enjoy
competition; a man who likes secrecy; pacient; customer
oriented type of person; a tough person;

a deceiving and if necessary ready to tell a lie type of person;


able to deal with difficult customers;
to look forward to having challenging situations to cope with;
a person who enjoys having control over the situation all the
time;
listening and considering other people's opinions;
an economic forecaster;
a single/married/divorced person;

capable of selecting and promoting staff;


a very elegant person;
knowledge regarding legislation and accountancy;
a person who enjoys life;
able of interpreting financial information, producing statistics;
open to new ideas;

158
Reading

When a proprietor wants to form a partnership, a business,


one way to do it is to form a partnership, a business formed
for profit by two or more co-owners. The rights and duties of
a partnership are regulated by laws of the state where it is
formed and by a legal agreement entered into by the co-
owners. Usually an agreement specifies the amount of
money each is investing and the duties of each partner
assumes. A partnership agreement also may provide for a
"silent partner" who does not take part in the management,
but who also invests money in the business.
The partnership has the advantage of pooling managerial
talent. One partner may be qualified in production, another in
marketing. In the United States of America, the partnership,
like individual ownership, is exempt from most of the
reporting that the government requires of corporations.
Furthermore, it has a favorable tax position when compared
with the Corporation. Federal taxes are paid by individual
partners on their share of earnings, beyond that the
business is not taxed.
A major disadvantage of the partnership is that each
member is liable for all the debts of the partnership; the act
of any partner is legally binding upon all the others. If one
partner takes a large amount of money from the business
and squanders it, the others must pay the debt. Partnerships
suffer another major disadvantage: decision-making is

159
shared. If partners have serious and constant disagreements,
the business is bound to suffer.
Nonetheless, in America, the partnership remains a vital part
of the overall business economy. The Internal Revenue
Service reported that between 1970 and 1982, there were
approximately half as many business partnerships as
corporations. (O. Ciuciuc, E. T n sescu, English for
business purposes, Bucure ti, Teora, 1998 )

Vocabulary

the rights and duties - drepturile i obliga iile


to be regulated - a fi reglementat
legal agreement - contract de asociere
co-owners - co-proprietari
to pool - a aduna, a totaliza, a ac iona împreun , de comun
acord
to be exempt from - a fi exclus de la
furthermore - un plus, mai mult, pe deasupra
earnings - câ tiguri
beyond - dincolo de; peste
liable - r spunz tor
to bind up (on) - 1. a lega, a pune la un loc
2.a înc tu a
to squander - a irosi, a risipi, a toca, a face praf (bani, avere)
nonetheless - nevertheless - de i, cu toate acestea

160
Reading comprehension

1. What is a partnership formed for?


2. Are the rights and duties of a partnership identical all over
the world?
3. What is a 'silent partner'?
4. Is a partnership in the USA exempt from most of the
reporting that the government requires of corporations?
5. How are Federal taxes paid by individual partners?
6. Is the fact that each partner is liable for all the debts of the
partnership:
• an advantage
• a disadvantage? Why?
7. What did the Internal Revenue Service report?

Grammar

PAST TENSE / PRESENT PERFECT

USE PRESENT PERFECT


USE PAST TENSE WITH
WITH
no time reference When
I have read the book. I read the book when I was
a child.

161
today yesterday
l have drunk two cups of tea / drank one cup of tea
today. yesterday.

this... (morning/year/century) last...


There have been two world wars (morning/year/week/time)
this century. I learned this last year.

lately; so far; recently, etc. ago


I have worked hard lately. I worked here two years ago.

for; since in (year)/on (date)


She has been here for 2 You came here in 1985/on
hours/since l arrived home. the 15-th of July.

Practice

I. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect or the Past


Tense:
1. I (not see) you for ages!Where are you (be)?
2. “You ever (eat) snails?” “No, I never (eat) snails and if I
(be) you, I should not eat them either.”
3. Mike (play) football when he (be) at school.
4. I (not play) football since I (break) my leg.
5. When you (finish) the project?
6. I (not finish) the task yet.
7. Peter (meet) John two minutes ago.

162
8. “I just (hear) that your sister is in France”. “Yes, she
(leave) town at the end of March. I (receive) a letter from her
last Monday.”
9. I (not meet) Mr. Smith lately.
10. Helen (know) George for five years.

163
LESSON 16

PLASTIC MONEY N A CASHLESS SOCIETY

Pre-reading

Answer these questions, trying to see things from a 21-st


century citizen's point of view:

1. Do you think it is dangerous to carry cash on you?


2. What types of plastic money do you know?
3. Do you happen to know what PIN stands for?
4. Can bank accounts be accessed through computers?
5. Who uses plastic money?
6. Are old instruments of payment still going to be used?
Why?

Reading

All bank accounts these days are organised through


computers. Everybody's bank account information right from
your name to the amount of money you have got in your
account is stored in such a way that it can easily be
accessed by computer.
The storage media, as it is called, varies, but mostly it is a
magnetic disk, optical disk or magnetic tape. Any of these

164
can store accounts data of thousands of people constantly
being updated as the millions of card holders all over the
country buy, sell and save.
This electronic banking means that money can be moved
around almost at the speed of light, through telephone wires,
optical fibres, even radio rays and not one penny of cash
physically changes hands. Some people say we are heading
for a cashless society. If we are, the keys to unlock will be
the cards.
There are numerous types of cards. The most commonly
used are debit cards and redit cards.
A debit card is a type of plastic money which allows payment
to be taken directly from your bank account. To pay for the
shopping, the cashier swipes it into an input device, the card
reader, which reads the relevant bank account details from
the card's magnetic side and then uses these as a key to
electronically unlock your bank account and also the right
amount be transferred to the shop bank account.
Confirmation of the sale is output. All the customer has to do
is confirm with the signature which also acts as a security
check. No cash changes hands. Everything is dealt with
automatically. The card is all you need. It is quick, easy and
people don't need to write cheques or carry too much cash.
A credit card cannot only let your credit account cover you
for up to, say, 500 pounds worth of goods, that is your credit
limit. They are a bit different from debit cards though,
because the money you are using is not actually yours. You

165
borrow it from a credit company and pay it back at a later
date.
But because of this there is a great temptation to overspend,
it is really important to make sure you can afford to pay the
credit company back otherwise you can end up in al lsorts of
trouble.
The good thing is, though, that the technology behind these
things doesn’t only make buying easier in this country, it can
also help you anywhere in the world.
Credit cards are plastic cards issued to individuals, not
necessarily customers of a bank, which have on the front,
the person's name, credit card number, date of expiry. On
the reverse of the card is the signature of the holder and the
basic conditions of issue. (O. Ciuciuc, E. T n sescu,
English for business purposes, Bucure ti, Teora, 1998 )

Vocabulary

to withdraw - 1. to take back or draw back; to remove


2. to retract or recall
withdrawal - (here) the removal of money or valuables from
a bank or other place of deposits
interest - the amount paid by a borrower to a lender in
exchange for the use of the lender's money for a
certain period
loan - a business contract in which a borrower agrees to pay
interest for the use of a lender's funds; credit

166
retailer - a distributor that sells goods or services to
customers interest free loan - credit f r
dobând
fee - commission, charge
drawer - the party who instructs the drawee to pay funds to
the payee
drawee - the party on whom a payment is drawn and who is
directed to pay the sum specified
cash dispenser - equipment capable of automatically
dispensing amounts of cash (- automat de
numerar)
magnetic stripe - a stripe of magnetic tape affixed to the
back of bank debit or credit cards,
containing important identifying data such
as an account number and/or other
details regarding transactions or the
holder of the card (- band magnetic )
PIN - Personal Identification Number
available - disponibil
security - (aici) siguran
debt - a sum owed by one person to another
to get into debt - a se îndatora
network - re ea
temptation to overspend - tenta ie de a cheltui prea mult

167
Exercises

/. Give antonyms to the following words: sell, to unlock, a


debit card, to confirm, different, later, easier.

II. Speak about plastic money in Romania and the way in


which you think it will develop in the future. Make use of the
words and expressions suggested below.

account; customer; to withdraw; withdrawal; interest; loan;


retailer; interest free loan; fee; drawer; cash dispenser;
cashier; balance; magnetic stripe; holder; PIN; to rob; to
steal; available; security; to get into debt; administrative
costs; network; to increase; temptation to overspend.

III. It is clear that there are both advantages and


disadvantages of using credit cards. Insert the following
ideas in the appropriate column. Then decide whether the
advantages or the disadvantages prevail, from your point of
view.

• greater security against possible theft


• temptation to overspend
• possible getting into too much debt
• convenient and modern way of doing shopping
• you don't need to carry too much cash any longer
• interest free credit

168
• the prices of goods or services are higher as they
include the credit card company's fee
• not all the shops accept all sorts of credit cards
• your money cannot be used by another person

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

• your money cannot be used by • convenient and modern way of


another person doing shopping

Grammar

Revision

THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD

I. Translate into English the following sets of sentences and


mention the grammar problem involved.
A.

1. Lucrez la aceast firm de patru ani.


2. Înv la aceast facultate cu profil economic de trei ani.
3. Vorbesc engleza de când aveam 10 ani.
4. Lucrez la departamentul de export al acestei companii din
1992, dar n-am auzit niciodat de o asemenea situa ie.
5. Pre urile pe pia a intern au crescut din nou. Vânzarea
m rfurilor se va face foarte greu.

169
B.

1. La creditele pe termen scurt dobânda este mai mic .


2. Care este rata de schimb ast zi?
3. Ce comision percepe i pentru aceast tranzac ie?
4. Banca central îndepline te i funcia de împrumutator de
ultim instan .

C.

1. — A i primit scrisorile?
— Da.
— Când le-a i primit?
— Le-am primit ieri.
2. — Mi-a i transferat suma în dolari?
— Da.
— Când?
— Sapt mâna trecut .

D.

1. — Ai aflat noutatea? Domnul Johnson i-a deschis un nou


cont în valut .
— Serios? Ce valut a depus de data aceasta?
— ti i foarte bine c opera iunile bancare sunt
confiden iale i nu- i pot spune.

170
2. — Fi i amabil , m tu a mea mi-a trimis 200 de dolari
americani. Vre i s verifica i dac mi-au intrat deja în cont?
— Desigur, un moment. M tem c n-au ajuns înc . Când
vi i-a trimis?
— Din câte am înteles, i-a trimis acum trei zile.
— Vom verifica. Reveni i s pt mâna viitoare.
3. — De cât timp este doamna Marshal clienta b ncii
noastre?
— De 15 ani. De ce?
— O consider unul dintre cei mai serio i clien i din câti am
avut de când lucrez eu aici.
4. — Lucrez în banca aceasta de 5 ani, dar nu am întâlnit
niciodata o asemenea situa ie.
— Nu tiu ce sa- i spun. Va trebui s discutam cu
directorul.
5. — Firma „McDonald's" a solicitat un credit de 15 miliarde
de lei.
— A depus cererea i documenta ia necesar ?
— Da, cu excep ia situa iei fluxului de disponibilit i.
— A i analizat celelalte documente pe care le-a depus?
— Nu înc .
— Cum a a? Când s-a depus cererea?
— Acum trei zile.
— V rog s v ocupa i personal de acest lucru i s -mi
raporta i concluziile dvs. cel mai târziu mar i diminea .
— Am în eles.

171
LESSON 17

HOW CORPORATIONS RAISE CAPITAL

Pre-readng

Answer the questions:

1. What is a corporation?
2. What do we understand by stocks, shares and equities?
3. Why do companies need to raise money?
4. What is capitalisation?
5. What is a bond? What about a governmental bond?
6. Can you see any difference between a bond and a
treasury bill?

Reading

The large corporation has grown to its present size in parts


because it has found innovative ways to raise new capital for
further expansion. Five primary methods used by
corporations to raise new capital are:
• Issuing bonds A bond is a written promise to pay a
specific amount of money at a certain date in the future or
periodically over the course of a loan, during which time
interest is paid at a fixed rate on specified dates. Should the

172
holder of the bond wish to get back his money before the
note is due, the bond may be sold to someone else. When
the bond reaches "maturity", the company promises to pay
back the principal at its face value.
Bonds are desirable for the company because the interest
rate is lower than in most other types of borrowing. Also,
interest paid on bonds is a tax deductible business expense
for the corporation. The disadvantage is that interest
payments are ordinarily made on bonds even when no
profîts are earned. For this reason, a smaller corporation can
seldom raise much capital by issuing bonds.
• Sales of common stock Holders of bonds have
lent money to the company, but they have no voice in its
affairs, nor do they share in profîts or losses. Quite the
reverse is true for what are known as ‘equity' investors who
buy common stock. They own shares in the corporation and
have certain legal rights, including, in most cases, the right
to vote for the board of directors who actually manage the
company. But they receive no dividends until interest
payments are made on outstanding bonds.
If a company's financial health is good and its assets
sufficient, it can create capital by voting to issue additional
shares of common stock. For a large company, an
investment banker agrees to guarantee the purchase of a
new stock issue at a set price. If the market refuses to buy
the issue at a minimum price, the banker will take them and

173
absorb the loss. Like printing paper money, issuing too much
stock diminishes the basic value of each share.
• Issuing preferred stock This stock pays a
'preferred' dividend. That is, if profts are limited, the owners
of preferred stock will be paid dividends before those with
common stock. Legally, the owners of this stock stand next
in line to the bondholders in getting paid. A company may
choose to issue new preferred stock when additional capital
is desired.
• Borrowing Companies can also raise short-term
capital - usually working capital to fnance inventories - in a
variety of ways, such as by borrowing from lending
institutions, primarily banks, insurance companies and
savings-and-loan establishments. The borrower must pay
the lender interest on the loan at a rate determined by
competitive market forces. The rate of interest charged by a
lender can be infiuenced by the amount of funds in the
overall money supply available for loans. If money is scarce,
interest rates will tend to rise because those seeking loans
will be competing for funds. If plenty of money is available
for loans, the rates will tend to move downward.
If the corporate borrower finds that it needs to raise
additional money, it can refinance an existing loan. in this
transaction the lender is essentially lending more money to
its debtor. But if interest rates have gone up during the
period since the original loan was secured, borrowers pay a
higher rate in order to hold additional funds. Even if the rate

174
has gone down, the lender benefits by having increased the
size of its original loan at a lower rate of interest.
• Using profits Some corporations pay out most of
their profits in the form of dividends to their stock holders.
Investors buy into these companies because they want a
high income on a regular basis. But some other corporations,
usually called ‘growth companies' prefer to take most of their
profits and reinvest them in research and expansion. People
who own such stocks are content to accept a smaller
dividend or none at all, if by rapid growth the shares
increase in price. These people prefer to run the risk of
obtaining 'capital gain” or rise in value of the stock, rather
than be assured a steady dividend.
The typical Corporation likes to keep a balance among these
methods of raising money for expansion, frequently plowing
back about half of the earnings into the business and paying
out the other half as dividends. Unless some dividends are
paid, investors may lose interest in the company.
(O. Ciuciuc, E. T n sescu, English for business purposes,
Bucure ti, Teora, 1998 )

Vocabulary

bond - obliga iune


due - scadent
maturity - scaden

175
principal - sum propriu-zis , far dobând aferent
(the actual amount of a deposit, loan, or
investment excusive of interest charges)
to pay back - a rambursa
to pay out - a pl ti
face value - valoare nominal
tax deductible - scutit de impozit
expense - cheltuial
to raise capital/money - a mobiliza capital/fonduri
to rise - a cre te, a se m ri, a se dezvolta
equity - capital propriu
additional shares - ac iuni suplimentare
in line - la rând; urm tor
working capital - fond de rulment
scarce - raritate, în cantitate mic
plenty - numeros, mult
secured - asigurat
to run a risk - a- i asuma un risc
to plow - 1. a ara, a br zda
2. a r zbi, a înainta cu greu
to plow back - a utiliza din nou banii în activitate, bani
nedistribui i prin dividende
outstanding - 1. remarcabil
2. nerezolvat; neefectuat; restant; neachitat,
nepl tit

176
Grammar

IF CLAUSES

MAIN CLAUSE IF CLAUSE EXAMPLES

FUTURE TENSE PRESENT TENSE He will buy more


(shall / will + (1st form of the verb) share if the price is
infinitive) good.
PRESENT PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE They would raise
CONDITIONAL (identical form with the PAST money if they issued
(should / would + TENSE of the Indicative Mood, bonds. We should
infinitive) except for the verb to be go public if she were
which is were for all persons) our manager.
(2nd form of the verb)
PAST PAST SUBJUNCTIVE They would have
CONDITIONAL (identical form with the bought new shares if
(should / would + PAST PERFECT of the they had known our
perfect infinitive) Indicative Mood) real financial
(had + 3rd form of the verb) situation.

The same rules apply after:

UNLESS = IF NOT
Example: “I wouldn't have asked you to help me unless you
had been my best friend.”
PROV DED (THAT)
Example: “They would have achieved their project in time
provided you had helped them.”

177
ASSUM NG (THAT)
Example: “Assuming he had told you the truth, would you
have believed him?”

ON CONDITION (THAT)

SUPPOSE

SUPPOSING

Exercises

I. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct form:


1. We (go) for a walk if the weather is fine.
2. He would have learnt the poem if he (have) time.
3. You wouldn’t have been so tired if you (not go) to that
wedding.
4. What wil happen if she (not come)?
5. If my brother had a university degree, he (not work) as a
mechanic now.
6. If he (know) the truth, he would not sign the contract.
7. The man would have died if you (not arrive) in time.
8. Mary will pass the exam if she (work) hard.
9. If Tom (be) attentive, he wouldn’t have made that mistake.
10. If I (be) you, I would sell my house.

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II. Translate into English:

1. Ar fi venit cu noi la petrecere dac ar fi avut mai mult timp


2. Supa va avea gust mai bun, dac vei ad uga pu ina sare.
3. Sunt sigur c ar în elege dac i-ai explica.
4. Crezi c î i va fi recunosc tor dac îl vei ajuta?
5. Dac a fi în locult t u, nu mi-a schimba serviciul.
6. Dac a fi tiut adev rul, m-a fi comportat altfel.
7. Chiar dac i-ar da bani, n-ar face asta.
8. Dac ar fi muncit mai mult, ar fi terminat lucrarea.
9. Îi voi spune despre edin dac il v d.
10. Dac te gr beai, prindeai trenul.

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LESSON 18

APPLYING FOR A JOB

CURRICULUM VITAE AND LETTER WRITING PRACTICE

Practice

Imagine the job you would like most. Think of your personal
data, education, skills experience and interests.
Look at the information given in the box below and at the
model and prepare a curriculum vitae for yourself.

Curriculum vitae

Name and surname:


Age:
Date of birth:
Nationality:
Home Address:
Tel No.:
Business Address:
Tel. No.:
Marital Status and no. of children:
Education (schools/high schools/higher education
institutions attended):
Qualifications (in a chronological order):
Experience (previous jobs and responsibilities):
Interests:

180
On your own

Par work

a. Ask your partner questions about his/her education and


experience.
b. Write down the important answers so that you can
prepare a Curriculum Vitae for him/her.

CURRICULUM VITAE

NAME AND SURNAME: Mihai Ionescu


HOME ADDRESS: 23, M. Eminescu Street, District
3, Bucharest,
PO Box 2-73
Telephone: 6.310.042
PERSONAL DATA
• Date of birth: 12nd of April 1976
• Place of birth: Bucharest
• Marital Status: single

EDUCATION:
Banking College of the RBI - graduated in 1997 - specialised
in banking

TRAINING: • 1995 - 1996, Bucharest, one-week


specialised courses on different banking

181
matters run within the Training Centre of
the Romanian Banking Institute:
- Banking Marketing
- Banking Management
- Capital Markets
• a three-week Fullbright scholarship in
Denver - Colorado on the following topic
“Using T in Accounting issues” (March-April
1996)

PREVIOUS JOBS:
• bank clerk for the Bankcoop (1994-1996)
• computer assisted accountant - for the BRD (1996 -
up to now)

PRESENT POSITION: Head of the Computer Assisted


Accountancy Unit of the IT
Department of Unirea branch of the
Romanian Bank for Development.

I am responsible for the accounting activity of this Unit and I


produce comparative analyses of the accounting information
received from the whole department for the management of
the bank. I coordinate and check the monthly statistcs for
the management of the bank.

182
WHY LOOKING FOR ANOTHER JOB?
Feeling capable of assuming more responsibility in an
emerging market economy, I would like the challenge of
applying new concepts in real life.

OTHER PERSONAL DETAILS:


I am a hard working type of person, I enjoy team work, I
never need an extra day off.

Date: 26th of August 2008


Mihai Ionescu

SPECIMEN LETTER OF APPLICATION

..........................Street
...................................
Tel:..................................
Mrs Jane Mark
Information Engineering Group Ltd.
Lloyds House
22 Lloyd Street
Leeds
M2 5WA

Dear Mrs Mark


I would like to apply for........................................................
............................................................................................

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advertised in........................................................................
As you can see............................................................I have
had ......................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
I enclose........................................................................and
I will be available..................................................................
..............................................I will be free............................
I ...........................................................................................
………………………………………………..………………..

Yours sincerely,
…………………………
(Adapted from O. Ciuciuc, E. T n sescu, English for
business purposes, Bucure ti, Teora, 1998 )

Write the application letter based either on the model of CV


or on your own CV.

184
LESSON 19

SOCIALISING IN BUSINESS

Language Focus
SUBJECT - PREDICATE ORDER IN DIRECT AND
INDIRECT QUESTIONS

I. Indirect questions are frequently used when you are less


certain that you are going to receive a satisfactory response,
or when you wish to be very polite to a superior. Can you
say why?

II. Here are a few phrases introducing indirect questions.


Choose an appropriate phrase from the list to make up an
indirect question for each of the situations below:

a. Excuse me. Could you tell me where


b. Could you please tell us if...?
c. I'd like to know...
d. Could you please make sure…
e. Could/Can you tell me what time ...?
f. I Was Wondering if...

1. Stavros, a Greek student, is just beginning his studies at


the Faculty of International Business and Economic
Relations in Bucharest. He needs to see the Dean of the

185
Faculty, but the Dean is not in his office right now. How does
Stavros ask the secretary for the necessary information?

2. Alan Thompson, head of a Canadian-Romanian Business


School, has been invited to take part in a seminar on "New
opportunities for foreign investors in Romania". The seminar
is taking place in one of the Conference Rooms of the Sofitel
Hotel in Bucharest. Mr. Thompson has just arrived, but he
doesn't know the exact venue. What does he ask the
receptionist?

3. George Dinescu is on a business trip in Prague. Before


his return, he wants to buy some souvenirs for his wife and
children. He hopes to get some help from his Czech partner.
What does he ask him?

4. A group of young Britons have been touring Romania.


Their holiday is coming to an end. They want to fly home on
the 30th of this month. What do they enquire about at the
travel agency?

5. You are calling to speak to the Marketing Manager of the


Parker Pen Company, but she is in a board meeting which
may take rather long. The matter is urgent. You need her to
phone you back immediately the meeting is over. What do
you ask her secretary?

186
6. Andrew Littlejohn, a British furniture importer, wants to
place an order for period furniture with Foresta S.A. Reghin.
He is enquiring about the delivery date.

INVITING
How do you phrase your invitations when you invite a
business associate to go somewhere or do something? Is
there any difference in wording when the invitation is made
on first contact, or when people know each other only
slightly and at a business level? How do you phrase the
invitations you make at a more personal level (when you
know the people quite well)?

PRACTICE
I. Working in groups of four write down as many ways of
making invitations as you can.

……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………

When you finish, compare your list with your colleagues'.


Which is more comprehensive?

II. Working in pairs, decide if the following invitations are


formal, neutral, or informal, and write them under the
appropriate headings below:

187
formal neutral informal

1. "If you haven't any plans this evening perhaps you'd like
me to show you some of the old town. I'm sure you'll love it".
2. "My wife and I would like to invite you for a meal this
week. Are you free?”
3. "If you're free on Friday why not come round for a drink?"
4. "If you're going to be in Milan next week why don't you
call in and see us? We'd be very pleased to see you".
5. "This is Adrian Johnson's secretary. He would like to
invite you to dinner next Friday. Would that be possible for
you?"
6. "Mary, can you come round for lunch on Sunday? We're
having a few friends in”.
7. "We're going to the opera on Saturday and we were
wondering if you'd like to join us”.
8. "Would you like to look round the production department
on Monday morning? I'm sure we could arrange that”.

A. Accepting Invitations
When accepting invitations, it is usual to combine a phrase
of thanks with a phrase expressing acceptance of the
invitation.

188
PRACTICE
I. Look at the invitations below. In pairs, decide if they are
formal, neutral or informal.
a) "The Production Manager would like to invite you to
supper at the country club on Saturday".
b) "Would you like to visit the National Art Gallery?"
c) "How about a drink at the hotel this evening?"
d) "We would like to invite you to make a speech at the
farewell reception on Sunday."
e) "Would you like to join me at the baseball game next
Saturday?"
f) "I'd like to invite you to meet our board of directors at the
head office."
g) "It gives me great pleasure to invite you to our opening
ceremony on the first of next month"

II. Working with your partner, list the phrases you can use to
accept/thank in the table below. Compare lists with another
pair when you finish.

Thanking for an invitation Accepting an invitation


Formal

Neutral

Informal

189
III. Now, still in pairs, practise (a) - (g) above (student A
inviting and student B accepting and thanking). Change
roles from time to time, and invent some additional
invitations.

B. Declining an Invitation

PRACTICE
I. When declining an invitation, whether formal or informal, it
is usual to thank the person for the invitation, then decline
and finally give a reason. Can you think of any phrases used
for thanking, declining and providing a reason that can be
combined when declining an invitation?

Work in groups of four and write down as many of these


phrases as you can. Which group has the most
comprehensive list?

II. Decline the following invitations politely, choosing one of


these reasons:
- You are flying home on Monday night.
- You are meeting your agent.
- You are not feeling well.
- You are busy every evening.
- You have a previous appointment.
a) "Would you like to visit the trade fair next week?"
b) "Would you like to come to the theatre tonight?"

190
c) "We would like to invite you to a reception at the Guildhall
on Tuesday."
d) "Can you join us for a barbecue on Sunday evening?"
e) "I'd like to invite you to meet my associate on Saturday
morning."

Invitations: Roundup

PRACTICE
I. Working in pairs, fill in the missing words in the following
dialogues. Check your solutions with another pair. Do you
think their solution is better than yours? Why I Why not?

1. A: "If you're not doing anything special tonight, I ... …


(two words missing) if you would like to go to a concert."
B: "It's .... .... of you to invite me, but I … … I've already
got something planned."
2. A: "Mike and I are going to a football match on Sunday.
Why don't you … us?"
B: "What a … I don't think I … We've got some friends
coming round."
3. A: "If you've nothing planned for this evening, my
colleagues and I.... .... to invite you for dinner."
B: “Thank you very much. That … … nice."
4. A: "I don't know what you are doing next weekend,
but … … glad to show you round town."
B: “… very much. That … … very nice."

191
5. A: " Would you like .... .... over for a meal next
Friday?"
B: "That's very ... ... you but … I'm busy on Friday."
Note: Contractions count as one word.

II. Role Play


In pairs, make, accept or decline invitations according to the
role cards assigned by your teacher.
5.3 Now working in pairs, invite each other informally to the
cinema I a football match I a concert I for a walk I for a drink
etc. Accept or decline the invitation.

Expressing Thanks
On visits to business associates, you will often be
entertained and you will have to thank people for their
hospitality. It is common practice to combine a phrase of
thanks with a positive comment to show your appreciation.

In groups of four, list as many phrases of thanks and


positive comments as you can. Can they be used in a formal
or an informal context?

192
LESSON 20

MARKET ECONOMY AND CENTRALLY


PLANNED ECONOMY

The box below contains words or phrases that are


associated with market economy and centrally planned
economy.

competition state ownership of main enterprise


private ownership

competitive management of enterprises badly managed


enterprises

bankruptcy of unprofitable companies subsidizing of


unprofitable
organizations

unemployment intolerance of low quality of goods and


services

overstaffing employment of staff according to real


necessities
merging of companies price established by interaction
of supply and demand

193
PRACTICE
Work in pairs. Place the words or phrases under the
appropriate headings in the table below:
market economy centrally planned economy

Now add other characteristics that you can think of.

Vocabulary in Use
Match the words with the definitions given below.
After doing it, check with your partner.
Note that one definition will not match any word.
a. stockbroker
b. delay
c. cancellation
d. sit-in
e. runway

194
f. stranded
g. landing rights
h. employee
i. carrier
j. distrust
k. overstaffed
l. competition
m. pick up

1. a person who is paid to work for an organisation or for


another person
2. a person whose job it is to buy and sell stocks and shares
for people who want to invest money
3. an activity involving two or more companies in which each
of the companies tries to get people to buy its goods in
preference to other companies' goods and services
4. the calling off of something previously arranged
5. doing something later than the agreed time
6. a narrow strip of ground with a hard level surface used by
airplanes when taking off or landing
7. an organisation whose main objective is to offer air
transportation services
8. permission granted to an airline to land at a certain airport
9. form of protest in which a group of people go into a public
place and stay sitting there for a long time
10. a company that has too many personnel is..
11. being left in a place and unable to go away

195
12. a word which, when added to a number, shows that the
figure is approximate
13. to collect and then transport
14. lack of confidence in somebody or something

Grammar

REPORTED SPEECH

Study the examples below and point out the differences


between the actual statement and the reported statement.

"Iberia is the most atrocious, badly managed, expensive


service I've ever come across."
He said Iberia was the most atrocious, badly managed,
expensive service he had ever come across.
He said "I pray for privatization".
He said he prayed for privatization.
"I don't know what Iberia's No.1 priority is these days,"
said a Madrid businessman, "but surely it's not the
customer."
He said he didn't know what Iberia's No.1 priority was
those days, but he was sure it wasn't the customer.
"There are already eight airlines operating between our
country and the United States," said Frederic Martinez.

196
Frederic Martinez stated that there were already eight
airlines operating between his country and the United
States.
"If Pan Am disappears and Delta takes over the frequency
will be the same," said Martinez.
Martinez added that, if Pan Am disappeared and
Delta took over, the frequency would be the same.
(from Prosper with English. English for Business and
Administration, Bucharest, Cavallioti 1996)

Exercise

Now complete the following table work with a partner, then


check with your teacher:

a) Tense of the verb c) Expression of time

direct speech indirect speech direct indirect


speech speech
present tense past tense now then
past tense here
present perfect this (week)
will/can/may/must these (days)
b) Personal pronouns & possessive adj. today
direct speech indirect speech tomorrow
I he/she yesterday
you next week
he/she/it/they last week
we at the
moment
my/our 2 weeks ago

197
Practice
You are going to take part in a business meeting.
To prepare for this, study the table below and match the
things that you do at a meeting (a - k) with ways of saying
those things in English (1 - 16). Add other phases to the list:

a) Phrases for opening the meeting. 1. I think that...

b) Stating objectives of the meeting. 2. Well, ladies and gentlemen. I think


we should start
c) Keeping the meeting moving. 3. The purpose of our meeting today
is...
d) Giving opinions. 4. Shall we start?

e) Taking the floor 5 Perhaps you'd like lo explain to us..

f) Agreeing. 6. I feel we should...

g) Disagreeing 7. Yes. I go along with that.

h) Making suggestions. 8. We are here today to discuss...

i) Asking for clarification. 9 That's out of the question.

j) Threatening. 10 Can I make a point here?

k) Concluding the meeting. 11 I wouldn't say that...


12 I must warn you...
13 That would be all for today.
14 As I see it, ...
15 Can we move forward to the next
item on the agenda?
16 May I make a suggestion?

198
Designing your own ad

I. Class Discussion:
Are there any adverts that you particularly like from
television/ posters/ magazines/cinema/etc? Can you
describe the ads. and say why you like them and why they
are effective?

II. Work in groups. First decide on a simple every-day


product you want to advertise. Think carefully about the
purposes and uses of your product, its price and its special
features. Decide who the targeted customer is. What sort of
image do you want to give your product?
Now think about designing your ad. on a piece of A3 paper.
What is the message you want to convey? Which techniques
are you going to use to convey it? Think carefully about the
images you want to portray. Will you use a visual effect or a
verbal one, or both? Can you think of a strong slogan? How
much information do you want to present and how will you
do it? Is the language you use appropriate to your overall
image and message?
When each group has finished, the ads. can be put on the
wall and you can judge which ad. is the most effective using
the above questions again.

199
Key Terms

slogan
R&D (Research and Development)
launch
consumer hotline
advertising campaign
market research
line extension
lay-out
memorandum (pl. memoranda)
memo (pl. memos)
draw up a contract
syllabus
Human Resources Manager
deal with enquiries
invoice n.
vb.
uphold (the image of a company)
make (marque)
warranty (guarantee)
advertise
advertisement
give it a miss
good value for money
Now add other words and phrases you know related to the
topic of "marketing and advertising a product".

200
LESSON 21

STARTING A BUSINESS

How to Start a Business

1. Have You Got What It Takes to Start a Business?

1.1 Thinking of starting a business? First, take a clear-


headed look at yourself to see if you've got what it takes.
Working in small groups, brainstorm the answers to the
following questions:

• What qualities and skills would you need in a business


venture?
• What strains would you have to withstand?

1.2 When you have reached a consensus, compare your


lists with those of other groups and negotiate until you ALL
agree on 6-7 qualities and skills, and 6-7 strains or
constraints. Write them on the blackboard.

1.3 Read the following Self-Analysis Questionnaire (Parts A


and B), and compare it with your class checklist on the
blackboard. Make changes to the former, only if you think
they are relevant to your situation.

201
Finally, answer the questionnaire individually. Mark v (tick), x
(cross) or ?(don 't know) to give a true picture of your
entrepreneurial strengths and weaknesses.

A self-analysis questionnaire (A and B)


Going into business requires certain personal characteristics.
Therefore, Part A of this questionnaire deals with you, the
individual. These questions require serious thought. Try to
be objective. Remember it is your future that is at stake!

A. Personal Characteristics YES( )/NO(x)/DON'T KNOW(?)

1. Can you lead and motivate people?


2. Do you like to make your own decisions?
3. Do people ask you for help in making decisions?
4. Do you enjoy competition?
5. Do you have willpower and self-discipline?
6. Can you plan ahead?
7. Do you like people?
8. Do you get along well with others?
9. Do you enjoy taking risks?
10.Do you strongly believe that your future
and success depend on you and your abilities?

The next group of questions is vitally important to the success


of your plan. It covers the physical, emotional and financial
strains you will encounter in starting a new business

202
B. Personal Strains YES( )/NO(x)/DON'T KNOW(?)

11. Are you willing to work up to 16 hours a day, six or


seven days a week?
12.Do you have the physical stamina to handle the
workload and schedule?
13. Do you have the emotional strength to withstand
the strain?
14.Are you prepared to temporarily lower your living
standard until your business is firmly established?
15. Is your family prepared to go along with the strains
they, too, must bear?
16. Are you prepared to lose your savings?
(from Prosper with English. English for Business &
Administration, Bucharest, Cavallioti, 1996)

1.4 Drawing Conclusions


Discuss and compare results in groups, then with the entire
class. The more YES-es ticked, the more successful you'll
be in starting your business

2. Build Your Own Business Vocabulary


The results of the self-analysis questionnaire may have
given you confidence in your ability to run a business, so you
decide to read up on the subject. Before you read, make
sure that you understand the relevant vocabulary.

203
2.1 Match the words on the left with their definitions/
synonyms on the right. The first match has been done for
you. Two words have no definitions. Supply them yourselves.

1. business a. a person who works for


an organisation
2. a business b. an inventory of goods
and components
3. employer c. income
4. entrepreneurship d. difference between
current assets and current
liabilities
5. employee e. property and
possessions owned by an
individual or business,
which has a money value
and can be set against
debts etc.
6. pitfalls f. financial obligation; (pi.)
debts for which one is
liable
7. stock g. willingness to assume
the risks of a business
venture h. commercial
activity or occupation
8. turnover h. commercial activity or
occupation

204
9. revenue i. person or company that
pays people to do work
10. fixed assets j. a supply of cash needed
by a business to meet its
regular expenses;
movement of money into
and out of a business
11. working capital k. property owned by a
firm and meant to be used
over a long period of time
12. cash flow l. total value of goods sold
over a certain period
13. asset m. a building which is
used to produce a good or
provide a service
14. cash returns n. one-owner business
15. liability o. a firm
16. premises .
17. sole proprietorship

205
LESSON 22

BANKING AND FINANCE

Banking

1. What do you know about Banking?


Use your background knowledge to answer the following
questions:
a) Can you name any major foreign banks where one could
open an account?
b) How do banks make their money?
c) What recent developments in banking can you name?
d) What sort of services do banks provide?

2. British Banks
2.1 Read the texts below to find out what British banks can
offer:

Text 1
In the United Kingdom the banking sector is made up of a
variety of different institutions which are supervised by the
country's central bank, The Bank of England. This bank
looks after the Government's finance and monetary policy
and acts as banker to other banks.
Banking services for the general public and many
businesses are provided by the Commercial banks (also

206
called Clearing Banks) which have offices or branches
throughout the country. These banks offer a wide range of
banking services.

Text 2
Do you have difficulty organising your finances? The bank is
there to help and advise. Going abroad? The bank can
arrange travellers cheques and foreign currency. Shops and
banks in many European countries now accept your normal
cheques as Eurocheques. When the time comes the bank
can help you with all the big money problems like buying a
house or running a business. Want to buy something special?
Not enough money? You may be able to get a bank loan.
When you open a bank account you must give the names
and addresses of two people to the bank. These people are
asked to write a short letter (called a reference) about your
character. You can open a bank account with as little as £1.
Two people can open an account together. This is called a
joint account. The bank asks for an example of your
signature, called a specimen signature. With a current
account you can pay by cheque or card in restaurants,
shops and petrol stations. No embarrassing shortages of
cash. In a deposit account your money works for you and
earns interest.
(from Prosper with English. English for Business and
Administration, Bucharest, Cavallioti 1996)

207
2.2 Match the following definitions with the words in the box.
There is an extra definition. Some of the words in the box
are contained in the text above.

mortgage bank loan overdraw direct debit

deposit account joint account interest

travellers cheque current account overdraft

1. An agreement that you make with your bank which allows


you to spend more money than you actually have in your
account.
2. A bank account held in the names of two or more people,
often husband and wife.
3. A personal bank account from which you may take out
money at any time using your cheque book or your
computerised card.
4. An account with a bank from which money cannot be
withdrawn by cheque. The interest paid will depend on the
current rate of interest but it will always be higher than that
of a current account.
5. The charge made for borrowing a sum of money.
6. To draw beyond one's credit.
7. An instruction by a customer to a bank to pay a specified
amount of money on a specified date or dates to a specified
payee.

208
8. A form of standing order given to a bank by an account
holder to pay regular amounts from his cheque account to a
third party. (The amount may be varied by the third party.)
9. An interest in property created as a security from a loan or
payment of a debt and terminated on payment of the loan or
debt.
10. A cheque issued by a bank, building society, travel
agency, credit-card company, etc. to travellers to enable
them to obtain cash in a foreign currency when they are
abroad.
11. A sum of money lent by a bank to a customer usually for
a specified time, at a fixed rate of interest.

2.3 In pairs make up a short dialogue asking and giving


information about bank services.

NEGOTIATING

1. What Makes a Good Negotiator ?


Some people know how to win in a discussion. We say they
are good negotiators. What do you think are the qualities of
a good negotiator?

Look at the phrases below and decide which of them tell us


the person is a good negotiator. Work with a partner and
decide which three are the most important to you.

209
1. tries to persuade by giving a lot of different reasons /
arguments:
"Considering the fact that.... I would suggest..."
2. does a lot of summarising and reviewing:
"Coming back to the problem of..."
3. takes a long term view:
"/f we think in five years' time"
4. thinks in terms of the present:
"This will be appropriate for the moment"
5. checks understanding, by paraphrasing what he/she has
heard:
"Correct me if I'm wrong, but did you mean..."
6. sets his/her objectives as single points:
"I still think..."
"As I have said..."
7. is tactful and polite:
"May I respectfully remind you of...?"
8. (outside the negotiation itself) plans his/her objectives in
terms of a range:
"We hope to get 3, but if we get 2.80 it Will be all
right"
9. constantly responds with alternative possibilities:
“What if we..."
10. uses signals of their intentions, such as:
"I'd like to make a proposal"
"Can I make a suggestion?"

210
11. gives a clear indication of his/her feelings about the
issues discussed:
"My immediate feeling is that..."
"I have some doubts about... "

2. Language Focus
The Language of Negotiation

Match the following language functions corresponding to the


different steps of a negotiation with the categories of
phrases (1-9). Check with a partner.
a. Relationship building
b. Agreeing procedure
c. Stating objectives
d. Exchanging information
e. Questioning, checking and clarifying
f. Generating and evaluating options
g. Bidding
h. Bargaining
i. Settling and concluding

1.......................
Can I just ask you a few questions about...?
What do you have in mind?
Could you run through that again?
When you say ... do you mean that ...?
2………………………

211
Our main objective is to ...
We'd also like to discuss...
What we'd like to achieve from this meeting is...
Does that fit in with your plans / objectives?
3………………………..
There seem to be a number of ways we could.../ several
possibilities for ...
Shall we list the options and then discuss them in detail?
Have you considered the idea of...?
How about trying ...?
I'd say that is a fairly unattractive option.
That idea's got a lot of potential.
4…………………………….
Our company was founded in ...
We manufacture/supply...
Our key interest here is... ... is a lower priority.
I'd just like to go over/recap your main points. As I recall, you
said...
5…………………………..
I hope everything is OK with your accommodation
Did you have a good flight?
Did you have any trouble finding us?
I'm really enjoying my stay.
6……………………………..
We would be prepared to ..., if you ...
We might be able to make an exception if you guaranteed
us...

212
If you accept .... we may be able to ...
We're prepared to .... providing ..
7………………………………..
Perhaps I could just summarise our agreements/decisions
so far.
We've agreed to ...
As we agreed, we'll be responsible for...
By our next meeting, we'll have ...
8................................
Can we now agree on the overall procedure?
I think we should establish the overall procedure.
9…………………………..
Our proposal is to ...
As you know we have a reputation…
Therefore, we propose that ...
Maybe a better solution would be to…

3. Cultural Sensitivity in Negotiations


If you learn English for international negotiations, there are a
number of cultural factors that you should think about!
Making a mistake might mean you lose a deal! If you are
sensitive to your negotiation partner's cultural background
you'll be more successful!

Work in groups. Which of the following are Romanians good


at? Justify your point of view.
- Greetings

213
- Listening to others
- Interrupting politely
- Turn-Taking
- Paraphrasing
- Seeing another's point of view
- Keeping silent at appropriate times
- Keeping cool
- Bringing others into the conversation

4. Now read the text “Cross Cultural Factors”. While reading,


make brief notes. Use the notes to write some pieces of
advice for a Romanian representative of a company who is
to meet a delegation from Japan/USA Work in pairs to act
the conversation between adviser and advised.

CROSS CULTURAL FACTORS


by Adrian Pilbeam

People learning to negotiate in English or another foreign


language are by definition, intending to negotiate
internationally and, therefore, across cultures. So any
training that focuses on language and skills must not
overlook the cross-cultural factor.
Relationship building has already been mentioned.
Establishing trust and respect for the other party is an
essential element in business dealings in more collectivist
cultures, and nothing can be more destructive to the

214
formation of a good business relationship than the 'let's get
down to business...! have a plane to catch at 2.30pm'
approach.
Another crucial element to consider is the non-verbal aspect
of communication. Silence is unsettling to British or
Americans because it suggests disagreement or lack of
interest. To the Japanese and many of the Nordic cultures it
is an opportunity to think and reflect. A high level of eye
contact, conversational overlap and touching are all
characteristics of most Latin cultures, and are likely to make
people from most oriental cultures uncomfortable.
There are many other cross-cultural factors to take into
account which affect both behaviour and strategy. These
include some of the cultural dimensions described by the
Dutch sociologist Geert Hofstede, such as differences in
'power distance', the degree to which authority, status and
hierarchy are recognised and accepted by everyone.
Another of Hofstede's dimensions is 'uncertainty avoidance'
the degree to which a culture seeks to avoid anything
unknown, uncertain or ambiguous.
Other cross-cultural frameworks are those described by the
American anthropologist Edward T Hall, particularly his
concept of high and low context, the degree to which a
culture relies on implicit, unspoken or unwritten rules (high
context) rather than explicit, well documented and often
legalistic information (low context) Lawyers tend to form part
of a negotiating team in low context cultures such as the

215
United States, and verbal performance followed by
signatures on contracts are highly prized.
(The Art of Negotiating - language, skills and strategy)

5. Role Play: Negotiating a Bank Loan


Situation: The representatives of a company which is
developing a new product have applied for a substantial
bank loan and are now having a meeting with the bank's
executives in order to negotiate the sum.

There are 4 people at the negotiation table plus an observer.


Negotiate considering the steps involved and the language
used in a negotiation. Take also into account the cultural
factors that could affect it.

216
LESSON 23

MANAGEMENT

Introduction
Can you define a manager's role? Give examples of
managers at various levels. The classic definition of a
manager's role is given by Henri Fayol. Here it is:
"to manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to
command, to co-ordinate and to control."
What managerial skills do you think could be grouped under
the following headings:

HUMAN SKILLS TECHNICAL SKILLS

What is Management?

1. Prioritising Managerial Skills


With your partner, decide on the most important skills for a
manager. Try to prioritise the skills in one category and
explain your decision.
You may need one of the followings ways of expressing
priorities:

It's essential
It's important for a manager to...
It's vital

217
A manager's top priority is ...
a good idea to...
It would be helpful to...
useful to...

Firstly ..., Secondly ..., Thirdly ...


has to...
A manager needs to...
must...

2. What Makes a Good or a Bad Manager?


What adjectives would you use in describing a good or a bad
manager? Write these adjectives as two columns:
A good manager is...
- confident
- supportive
A bad manager is…
- obsessive
- arrogant
Using some of the adjectives above, describe the manager of
an institution you are familiar with. Discuss with your partner.

SWOT Analysis
1. What Is a SWOT Analysis?
In the process of strategic planning, the management of a
company has to follow several stages, one of them being
that of establishing strategies. Before deciding strategies, an

218
analysis is necessary of the present performance, and of the
external factors which might affect the company's future.
Such an analysis is sometimes called SWOT analysis. Do
you know what this acronym means?
Which of the factors involved in this analysis are internal to
the company and which are external? What are the
indicators of a company's strengths and weaknesses?

2. A Romanian SWOT Analysis


Work with three more students and make a SWOT analysis
for a Romanian company you are familiar with. Write it in
tabular form as above. Select a spokesperson for your group,
and then present the analysis to your colleagues.

The major strengths of X company are...

X company is strong in ...

The opportunities of the company might be ...


could be...
It's week/poor areas are ...

The company has the possibility of developing /


increasing / expanding ...

What might threaten the company is...


Staff Recruitment and Appraisal

219
LESSON 24

ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

What Happens in International Trade


The text below gives you the essentials of international trade.
Some of the key terms have been deleted. Read it and try to
decide what the missing words are by choosing from the list
given.

communication trade balance goods


quotas income barriers
debt ratio closed
transportation limits on trade trade surpluses
trade deficits open borrowing
services growth

All countries participate in international trade. That is,


some_____1_____and _____2_____ produced within every
country are sold to economic agents (individuals, firms,
governments) in other countries; these products are known
as exports. Some goods and services consumed within a
country have been purchased from economic agents in other
countries; these goods are known as imports.
Countries differ in how much they participate in international
trade. A measure of this participation is given by
the_____3_____ of exports to GNP (gross national product)

220
or GDP (gross domestic product) multiplied by 100. This
measure is known as the index of openness. In general, this
number will vary between 0 and 100, although values
greater than 100 are possible. A value greater than 100
means that the country's exports are bigger than its overall
level of production. Countries with high values of this index
trade a lot with the rest of the world and are said to be
relatively____4_____ .Countries with low value of this index
are said to be relatively_____5_____, because international
trade is only a small part of their economic activity.
Between 1965 and 1989, most countries became more open.
The average value of the index of openness rose from 23 to
27. As with changes in_____6_____ however, changes in
openness differed considerably across_____7_____groups.
On average, low income economies opened up the least.
The increase in the average level of openness is indicative
of the fact that international trade has become increasingly
more important for the world economy.
What has caused this explosion of world trade? There is no
simple answer to the question. One factor that has certainly
played an important role has been the reduction in
_____8_____ to international trade that has occurred during
this period. Barriers to trade include ____9_____ and
_____10_____ costs, and also government-imposed
_____11_____, including tariffs and _____12_____ on
imports and exports.

221
Countries whose imports exceed exports are said to run
_____13_____. The magnitude of the deficit provides an
approximation of the amount of _____14_____ that a
country has undertaken in order to purchase its imports.
Countries with higher level of exports than imports are said
to run _____15_____. The size of a country's trade surplus
offers a measure of the amount by which that country has
reduced its _____16_____ to foreigners or expanded its
asset holdings. The _____17_____ is one measure of a
country's balance of payments.
(from Prosper with English. English for Business and
Administration, Bucharest, Cavallioti 1996)

Import and Export

How Good Is Your Import and Export Vocabulary?

Practice

Work with a partner. Match the following terms with the


definitions below:
a. GDP (gross domestic product f. autarky
b. GNP (gross national product) g. mercantilism
c. exports h. intra-industry trade
d. imports i. tariff
e. index of openness j. subsidy

222
1. A measure of the importance of international trade to an
economy, calculated as the ratio of exports over total
domestic production
2. Goods sold by economic agents located in one country to
economic agents located in another
3. The simultaneous import and export of similar types of
products by a country
4. A situation where a country does not take part in
international trade
5. The value of new goods and services produced by
domestic factors of production
6. Goods purchased by economic agents located in one
country from economic agents located in another
7. The value of goods and services produced within a
country
8. A government payment to an industry based upon the
amount it engages in international trade
9. A system of government policies and institutions aimed at
increasing exports and decreasing imports
10. A tax imposed by a government either on exports or
imports
(Definitions adapted from Husted and Melvin. International
Economics. 2nd ed.Harper and Collins 1993: 1-23)

223
ROLE CARDS

1. You are the chairperson of the meeting of the


International Air Transport Association.
You will open the meeting and suggest the agenda. The
meeting has been convened to establish a common policy of
fares for passengers. Some companies are in favour of
lower fares while others want to establish a minimum rate
below which no company should charge.
2. You have successfully concluded negotiations with a
foreign business partner.
You have met him several times before and know that he is
an opera goer. You have some tickets for an opera
performance for Friday evening and want to invite him.
3. You are the Managing Director.
You open and close the meeting. Take your turn whenever
necessary. After listening to all members of the Board
decide how much you will allot to each department. But try to
involve the other directors in this decision, so that there is
consensus.
4. You are Adrian Georgescu, Deputy Chief Executive of a
medium-sized engineering company based in Bucharest.
Someone you met at an international conference in Prague
will call you to arrange a meeting in order to see your range
of goods. Use the diary below to find a suitable time.
Wednesday 23: morning: work on drafting strategy report
afternoon: continue work on report

224
Thursday 24: 11 - 11: 30: interview with applicant for
position of Area Sales Manager
afternoon: visit Trade Fair
Friday 25: 8- 10: board meeting
afternoon: celebrate Father's birthday
Saturday 26: morning: leave for Sibiu
lunch with sales representative
5. You are the Personnel Director.
Try to persuade the Board that you should organize at least
two training courses this year for your technicians.
6. You want to speak to Ms Owen.
If she's not in, leave a message for her to call you back.
Your number is 6723485/ext. 305
7. You work as Public Relations Officer of a medium-
sized private building contractors company based in
Bucharest. The company is trying to establish contacts with
some foreign investors who are in Bucharest for a few days.
They have already had a business lunch with the General
Manager of the firm, followed by a long discussion in the
afternoon. You have been asked to take them out for dinner
and take care of their 'after hours' programme. Over dinner,
conduct the conversation so as to make them feel at ease
and to find out about their interests and wishes while they
are in Romania.
8. You're attending a two-week training seminar. You've
just completed the first week and you'd like to relax at the
weekend. There is a golf course nearby, and you have

225
arranged to play. Invite one of the other participants. You've
got to know this person quite well during this week
9. You are the Marketing Director and your job is to
persuade the Board that for your new product, you need to
run an advertising campaign.
10. You are a fruit and vegetables wholesaler. You are
interested in importing fresh oranges and tangerines from
Cyprus. Call their AgroTrade agent in Bucharest to inquire
about the best contact person in Cyprus.
11. You are the president of the company. You wish to
develop a new product and are trying to convince the bank
executives to lend you the necessary money. You may
choose any product you wish - discuss this with the product
manager (student C). Together decide what collateral you
are going to offer - think of various options.
During the meeting, give a brief presentation of your
company (location, business strategy, production range,
turnover, markets, size of work-force, pre-tax profit). Try to
negotiate the terms. Mention the results of your market
research. Take your turn whenever necessary.
12. You are the R&D Director. Your job is to persuade the
Board that new computerised systems are needed in your
department.
13. You are Ms Owen's secretary. Someone will call to talk
to her, but she is seeing a customer at the moment. Take
the caller's name and any message.

226
14. You and C are from a Dutch company willing to
make some investments in Romania. You are the
Company's Sales Manager and have travelled to many
places in the world, either on business or for pleasure. You
are married and have two sons (13 and 16), whom you are
very proud of. Your hobbies are classical music and history,
so you would be happy to go to a concert or opera
performance and learn about Romania's history. Your wife
has accompanied you on this trip. (Student D)
15. You are the Productions Manager. Try to persuade the
Board that you need to update your equipment and to
diversify your product.
16. You are Judy Pencock, British advisor to the Small
Business Agency in Cluj. A Romanian businessman will
call you to arrange a meeting. Negotiate a suitable time.
17. You are the representative of Delta Airlines. Your
company offers flights both on the American home market
and on international routes. As you offer high quality service
you are in favour of maintaining the rates at a reasonably
high level. Your company has impressive financial resources,
so you will not agree with either very high rates or with
dumping practices.
(Adapted from Prosper with English. English for Business
Administration, Bucharest, Cavallioti, 1996)

227
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

Participiu Traducerea
Infinitiv Past Tense Observa ii
trecut infinitivului
arise arose arisen a se ridica
(a)wak (a)woke (a)woken wake e de obicei
e(n) (a)wak(en)ed (a)wak(en)ed a se trezi neregulat: woke,
woken; awaken e
de obicei regulat:
awakened
be was/were been a fi She has borne
bear bore borne a purta three children.
Ea a nascut trei
copii. Dar: He was
born în 1970.
S-a nascut în
1970.
beat beat beaten a bate
becom became become a deveni
e began begun a începe si: bid, bade,
begin bent bent a (se) îndoi bidden
bend bid bid a ruga, a
bid porunci
bind bound bound a lega Unori, participiul
bite bit bitten a mu ca trecut: bit

bleed bled bled a sângera


blow blew blown a sufla,
a bate
break broke broken a (se)
breed bred bred sparge
a cre te,
bring brought brought a educa
build built built a aduce
burn burnt burnt a construi R. burned în
a arde engleza american
burst burst burst
a izbucni,
a n v li,
buy bought bought a cr pa
a cump ra

229
Participiu Traducerea
Infinitiv Past Tense Observa ii
trecut infinitivului

cast cast cast a arunca


catch caught caught a prinde
choose chose chosen a alege
come came come a veni
cost cost cost a costa
creep crept crept a se furi a
cut cut cut a t ia
deal dealt dealt a trata, a se
ocupa de
dig dug dug a s pa
do did done a face
draw drew drawn a trage, a
desena
dream dreamt dreamt a visa R. dreamed — în
special in engleza
american
drink drank drunk a bea drunken — adj.
drive drove driven a mâna, a
ofa
dwell dwelt dwelt a locui R. dwelled (rar) în
engleza american
eat ate eaten a mânca
fall fell fallen a c dea
feed fed fed a hr ni
feel felt felt a (se) sim i
fight fought fought a (se) lupta
find found found a g si
flee fled fled a se refugia
fling flung flung a arunca
fly flew flown a zbura
forbid forbad(e) forbidden a interzice
forget forgot forgotten a uita
forgive forgave forgiven a ierta
freeze froze frozen a înghe a
get got got a primi, a engl. americana:
ob ine get, got, gotten
give gave given a da
go went gone a merge
grind ground ground a m cina
grow grew grown a cre te

230
Participiu Traducerea
Infinitiv Past Tense Observa ii
trecut infinitivului

hang hung hung a atârna R. hanged =


a spânzura
have had had a avea
hear heard heard a auzi
hide hid hidden a (se) ascunde Participiul
trecut i hid
(rar)
hit hit hit a lovi
hold held held a ine
hurt hurt hurt a lovi, a r ni, a
durea
keep kept kept a ine, a p stra
kneel knelt knelt a îngenunchia R. kneeled —
engleza
american
knit knit knit a tricota de obicei R.
knitted
know knew known a sti, a
cunoa te
lay laid laid a pune,a a eza
lead led led a conduce
lean leant leant a se apleca, a R. leaned în
se sprijini special in
engleza
american
leap leapt leapt a s ri R. leaped —
în special în
engleza
american
learn learnt learnt a înv a R. learned
— engl.
americana;
leave left left a pleca, a l sa
lend lent lent a da cu
împrumut
let let let a l sa, a
permite

231
Past Participiu Traducerea
Infinitiv Observa ii
Tense trecut infinitivului

light lit lit a aprinde R. lighted


lie lay lain a z cea, a se afla R. lie, lied =
a min i
lose lost lost a pierde
make made made a face
mean meant meant a însemna
meet met met a (se) întâlni
mow mowed mown, a cosi
mowed
pay paid paid a pl ti
put put put a pune
read read read a citi
rid rid rid a sc pa de, R. ridded
a se descotorosi
ride rode ridden a c l ri
ring rang rung a suna
rise rose risen a r s ri, a se
ridica
run ran run a fugi
saw sawed sawn, sawed a t ia cu
fier str ul
say said said a spune pers. Ill singular
says [sez]
see saw seen a vedea
seek sought sought a c uta
sell sold sold a vinde
send sent sent a trimite
set set set a pune
sew sewed sewn, sewed a coase
shake shook shaken a scutura,
a tremura
shear sheared shorn, a tunde oi
sheared
shed shed shed a varsa (lacrimi, R. shedded = a
sînge) pune în hambar
shine shone shone a str luci i R. shined =
a lustrui (în
special în engleza
american )

232
Past Participiu Traducerea
Infinitiv Observa ii
Tense trecut infinitivului

shoe shod shod a potcovi


shoot shot shot a împu ca
show showed shown a ar ta Uneori
ortografiat shew,
shewed, shewn
shrink shrank, shrunk a se strânge, shrunken — adj.
shrunk a se scoroji
shut shut shut a închide
sing sang sung a cânta
sink sank sunk a (se) sunken — adj.
scufunda
sit sat sat a edea
slay slew slain a ucide
sleep slept slept a dormi
sling slung slung a arunca
slit slit slit a (se) cr pa
smell smelt smelt a mirosi
sow sowed sown, sowed a sem na
speak spoke spoken a vorbi
speed sped sped a gr bi, i R.: speeded
a accelera
spell spelt spelt a ortografia R. spelled —
spend spent spent a cheltui; engleza americana
a petrece
spill spilt spilt a varsa (lapte R. spilled —
etc) engleza americana.
spin spun spun a toarce Past Tense: span
— arhaic
spit spat spat a scuipa
split split split a despica
spoil spoilt spoilt a rasf a R. spoiled —
spread spread spread a (se) intinde engleza american
spring sprang sprung a izvori; a sari
stand stood stood a sta (in
picioare)
steal stole stolen a fura, a se
furi a
stick stuck stuck a lipi

233
Past Participiu Traducerea
Infinitiv Observa ii
Tense trecut infinitivului
sting stung stung a în epa
stink stunk stunk a mirosi urât Uneori Past Tense
stank
strew strewed strewn, a pres ra
strewed
stride strode strode a merge cu Part, trecut
pa i mari stridden — rar
strike struck struck a lovi Participiul trecut
stricken — doar
la pasiv i ca
adjectiv cu sens
metaforic: panic-
stricken ; stricken
by gout

string strung strung a în ira (pe o


a )
strive strove striven a n zui i R. strived
sweat sweat sweat a transpira i R. sweated
swear swore sworn a jura; a înjura
sweep swept swept a m tura
swell swelled swollen, a se umfla a swollen head (He
swelled is ill)
a swelled head (He
is conceited)
swim swam swum a înota
swing swung swung a leg na
take took taken a lua
teach taught taught a înv a (pe
al ii), a preda
tear tore torn a rupe, a sfâ ia

tell told told a spune,


a povesti
think thought thought a (se) gândi
thrive throve thriven a prospera i R.: thrived, în
special în engleza
american
throw threw thrown a arunca
thrust thrust thrust a înfige

234
Participiu Traducerea
Infinitiv Past Tense Observa ii
trecut infinitivului
tread trod trodden a c lca
understand understood understood a în elege
wear wore worn a purta
weave wove woven a ese
wed wed wed a (se) cununa i R. wedded
weep wept wept a plânge
wet wet wet a uda i R. welled
win won won a câ tiga
wind wound wound a r suci
wring wrung wrung a stoarce
write wrote written a scrie

235
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