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## Prof.univ.dr. Alexandru Ioan MITREA

Asist.univ.dr. Liana TIMBOŞ

PRIMITIVE
Definiţia 1. Fie g : I → R, I-interval. Funcţia g admite primitive pe I dacă există
G : I → R cu proprietăţile:

1. G este derivabilă pe I;

2. G0 (x) = g(x), ∀x ∈ I.

## Metoda de integrare prin părţi

Z Z
0
f (x) · g (x)dx = f (x) · g(x) − f 0 (x) · g(x)dx,

unde f, g ∈ C1 (I).

1
2

R √
Problema 1. (i) Să se calculeze ln(x + x2 + 1)dx, x ∈ R. (Simulare 2009)
R1 √
(ii) Să se calculeze I = −1
ln(x + x2 + 1)dx. (Simulare 2018, Problema 749/Ed.
2019)

Rezolvare. x2 + 1) şi g 0 (x) = 1. Atunci
(i) Se consideră f (x) = ln(x +

0 1 x 1 x2 + 1 + x
f (x) = √ (1 + √ )= √ √
x + x2 + 1 x2 + 1 x + x2 + 1 x2 + 1
1
=√ ,
x2 + 1
g(x) = x.

## Se aplică formula de integrare prin părţi şi avem

Z √ √ Z
1
ln(x + x + 1)dx = x ln(x + x + 1) − x · √
2 2 dx
2
x +1
√ √
= x ln(x + x2 + 1) − x2 + 1 + C.

√ √
(ii) Fie F (x) = x ln(x + x2 + 1) −
x2 + 1.
√ √ √ √
Atunci, I = F (1) − F (−1) = ln(1 + 2) − ln( 2 − 1) = ln( 2 + 1)( 2 − 1) =
ln 1 = 0.

## Observaţie. 1. Funcţia f este impară, ı̂ntr-adevăr,

√ √
√ ( x 2 + 1 − x)( x2 + 1 + x)
f (−x) = ln(−x + x2 + 1) = ln √
x2 + 1 + x
1
= ln √ = −f (x).
x + x2 + 1

Deci, I = 0.
Ra √
2. Similar, −a
ln(xn + x2n + 1)dx = 0, ∀n ∈ N impar, ∀a > 0.
3

R
Problema 2. Să se calculeze x ln(1 − x)dx, x ∈ (−∞, 1).

## Rezolvare. Calculăm o primitivă a funcţiei f (x) = x ln(1 − x) folosind formula de

integrare prin părţi. Alegem f (x) = ln(1 − x) şi g 0 (x) = x. Calculăm f 0 (x) = − 1−x
1

2
şi g(x) = xdx = x2 . Atunci, folosind formula de integrare prin părţi avem că:
R

x2 x2
Z Z
1
x ln(1 − x)dx = ln |1 − x| + dx
2 2 1−x
x2
Z 2
1 x −1+1
= ln |1 − x| − dx
2 2 x−1
x2
Z
1 1
= ln |1 − x| − x+1+ dx
2 2 x−1
x2 x2 x 1
= ln |1 − x| − − − ln |x − 1| + C
2 4 2 2
x2 1 x2 x
= ln |1 − x|( − ) − − + C.
2 2 4 2

Ra
Observaţie. Problema aceasta apare ı̂n culegere ca lima→1 0
x ln(1 − x)dx, a ∈
(0, 1). Pentru a rezolva această integrală vom considera o primitivă F a funcţiei f ,
Ra
şi anume pentru C = 0. Vom avea că 0 x ln(1 − x)dx = F (a) − F (0) = ln(1 −
2 a2
a)( a2 − 12 ) − 4
− a2 . Vom calcula şi limita cerută, adică:
a
ln(1 − a) a2 a
Z
lim x ln(1 − x)dx = lim (a − 1)(a + 1) − −
a→1 0 a→1 2 4 2
1 1 ln(1 − a)
= − − + lim 1
4 2 a→1 a−1
1
3 − 1−a
= − + lim 1
4 a%1 − (a−1)2

3
= − + lim −(a − 1)
4 a%1
3
=− .
4
4

Schimbare de variabilă
x
Rp
Problema 3. (i) Să se calculeze 1+x3
dx, x ∈ (0, +∞).
R1p x
(ii) Să se calculeze 0 1+x3
dx. (Simulare 2018; problema 751/Ed. 2019)

x
∈ R∗+ .
p
Rezolvare. (i) Fie F o primitivă pentru f , f (x) = 1+x3
,x
3 1
Vom face substituţia x 2 = t. Prin diferenţiere obţinem 32 x 2 dx = dt. Înlocuind,
se obţine:
Z
2 dt
F (t) =
3 1 + t2
2 √
= ln(t + 1 + t2 ) + C.
3
√ √
Revenind la integrala iniţială, avem că F (x) = 23 ln(x x + 1 + x3 ) + C.

(ii) I = F (1) − F (0) = 32 ln(1 + 2).

√ 1
R
Problema 4. Să se calculeze dx, x ∈ (0, 1).
x(1−x)

## Rezolvare. Fie F o primitivă a funcţiei f , f (x) = √ 1

, x ∈ (0, 1).
x(1−x)
Propunem spre rezolvare două variante.

I. Facem schimbarea de variabilă x = t, şi prin diferenţiere obţinem că 2√1 x dx =

dt. Atunci F (t) = √2dt = 2 arcsin t + C, deci F (x) = 2 arcsin x + C.
R
1−t2

x− 12
√ 1 √ 1
+ C1 =
R R
II. Rescriem integrala astfel: −x2 +x
dx = dx = arcsin 1
−(x− 12 )2 + 14 2

arcsin(2x − 1) + C1 .
5

Observaţie. 1. Din I şi II rezultă că funcţiile g(x) = 2 arcsin x şi h(x) =
arcsin(2x − 1), x ∈ [0, 1], au aceeaşi derivată pe (0, 1), anume f (x) = √ 1
.
x(1−x)
Aşadar, există k ∈ R astfel ı̂ncât f (x) − g(x) = k, ∀x ∈ [0, 1]. Pentru x = 0

rezultă k = g(0) − h(0) = π2 , deci 2 arcsin x = π2 + arcsin(2x − 1), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.
R 12
2. Să calculăm integrala I = 1 √ 1
dx, dată la Admiterea din anul 2014.
4 x(1−x)
Avem:
√ 12 π π π
I = 2 arcsin x| 1 = 2( − ) =
4 4 6 6
sau,
1 1 π
I = arcsin(2x − 1)| 21 = 0 − arcsin(− ) = .
4 2 6

Integrale raţionale
x+1
R
Problema 5. Să se calculeze 2x2 −2x+1
dx, x ∈ R.

Rezolvare. Rescriem integrala astfel (ideea este să ne construim derivata numitorului
R 0 (x)
la numărător pentru a putea aplica formula ff (x) dx = ln |f (x)| + C):
4x + 4 − 2 + 2
Z Z
x+1 1
2
dx = dx
2x − 2x + 1 4 2x2 − 2x + 1
4x − 2
Z Z
1 1 6
= 2
dx + 2
dx
4 2x − 2x + 1 4 2x − 2x + 1
Z
1 2 3 1
= ln |2x − 2x + 1| + dx
4 4 x − x + 21
2
Z
1 2 3 1
= ln |2x − 2x + 1| + dx
4 4 (x − 2 ) + 14
1 2

1 3 1 x− 1
= ln |2x2 − 2x + 1| + · 1 arctg 1 2 + C
4 4 2 2
1 3
= ln |2x2 − 2x + 1| + arctg (2x − 1) + C.
4 2
6

1+x2
R
Problema 6. Să se calculeze 1+x2 +x4
dx, x ∈ [0, +∞).

1+x2
Rezolvare. Considerăm F , o primitivă a funcţiei f : [0, +∞) → R, f (x) = 1+x2 +x4
.

1 + x2 x2 ( x12 + 1)
Z Z
F (x) = dx = dx.
1 + x2 + x4 x2 ( x12 + 1 + x2 )

## Vom face substituţia t = x − x1 , x > 0. Prin diferenţiere avem dt = (1 + 1

x2
)dx, iar
dacă ridicăm la pătrat obţinem t2 = x2 − 2 + x12 , deci putem considera
Z
dt 1 t
F (t) = 2
dt = √ arctg √ ,
t +3 3 3
1
1 x−
F (x) = √ arctg √ x , x ∈ (0, +∞).
3 3

C

,x = 0
F (x) = .
 √1 arctg x2√
−1
,x > 0

3 x 3

## Deoarece F este continuă pe [0, +∞] rezultă că

1 x2 − 1 1 1 π π
C = lim √ arctg √ = √ arctg (−∞) = √ · (− ) = − √ .
x&0 3 3x 3 3 2 2 3

Deci, 
− π
√ ,x = 0

2 3
F (x) = .
 √1 arctg x2√
−1
,x > 0

3 x 3

## Observaţie. 1. O primitivă a funcţiei f (x) se poate calcula utilizı̂nd metoda

7

standard astfel:

x2 + 1 x2 + 1
=
x4 + x2 + 1 (x2 + 1)2 − x2
x2 + 1
= 2
(x − x + 1)(x2 + x + 1)
1 (x2 − x + 1) + (x2 + x + 1)
= ·
2 (x2 − x + 1)(x2 + x + 1)
1 1 1
= ( 2 + 2 )
2 x −x+1 x +x+1
1 1 1
= [ √ + √ ],
2 (x − 1 )2 + ( 3 )2 (x + 1 )2 + ( 3 )2
2 2 2 2

deci

x2 + 1 2x − 1
Z
1 2x + 1
G(x) = 4 2
dx = √ (arctan √ + arctan √ ); x ∈ R.
x +x +1 3 3 3
R1 1+x2
2. Să se calculeze I = 0 1+x2 +x4
dx; problema a fost dată la Simularea din anul
2017 (Problema 717/Ed. 2019).

Rezolvare. Avem:
R 1 1+x2 π π
I = 0 1+x 2 +x4 dx = F (1) − F (0) = 0 − (− )= ,
√ √
2 3 2 3

sau,

I = G(1) − G(0) = √1 (arctan √1 + arctan 3 + arctan √13 − arctan √13 ) = π
√ .
3 3 2 3

## Problema 7. Fie fn : R∗+ → R, fn (x) = 1

R
x(xn +1)
şi In = fn (x)dx.

(i) Calculaţi I1 ;

(ii) Calculaţi I2 ;

## (iii) Calculaţi I3 (Problema 438/Ed. 2019);

R2
(iv) Calculaţi limn→∞ n 1
fn (x)dx.
8

Rezolvare. (i)
x+1−x
Z Z Z
1 x+1 x
I1 = dx = dx = ( − )dx
x(x + 1) x(x + 1) x(x + 1) x(x + 1)
Z
1 1 x
= ( − )dx = ln x − ln(x + 1) + C = ln + C.
x x+1 x+1

(ii) Z Z
1 x
I2 = 2
dx = dx.
x(x + 1) x2 (x2 + 1)
1
Fie F2 o primitivă pentru f2 (x) = x(x2 +1)
. Facem substituţia x2 = t. Prin
diferenţiere avem că 2xdx = dt, prin urmare,
Z
1 1 1 t
F2 (t) = dt = ln ,
2 t(t + 1) 2 t+1
1 x2
F2 (x) = ln 2 ,
2 x +1
1 x2
I2 = ln 2 + C.
2 x +1

(iii)
x2
Z Z
1
I3 = 3
dx = dx.
x(x + 1) x3 (x3 + 1)
1
Fie F3 o primitivă pentru f3 (x) = x(x3 +1)
. Facem substituţia x3 = t. Prin
diferenţiere avem că 3x2 dx = dt, deci,
Z
1 1 1 t
F3 (t) = dt = ln ,
3 t(t + 1) 3 t+1
1 x3
F3 (x) = ln 3 ,
3 x +1
1 x3
I3 = ln 3 + C.
3 x +1

## (iv) Fie Fn (x) o primitivă pentru fn (x). Atunci,

xn−1
Z Z
1
Fn (x) = dx = dx
x(xn + 1) xn (xn + 1)
9

## Facem substituţia xn = t şi prin diferenţiere rezultă nxn−1 dx = dt. Atunci,

t+1−t
Z Z
1 1 1 1 t
Fn (t) = dt = dx = ln , prin urmare,
n t(t + 1) n t(t + 1) n t+1
1 xn
Fn (x) = ln n .
n x +1
1
(O altă metodă este să facem substituţia x
= t.)

Calculăm
2
xn 2
Z
1
lim n fn (x)dx = lim n ln n |
n→∞ 1 n→∞ n x +1 1
2n 1
= lim [ln n − ln ]
n→∞ 2 +1 2
= ln 1 + ln 2 = ln 2.

x−x2
R
Problema 8. (i) Să se calculeze (x2 +1)(x3 +1)
dx, x ∈ [0, +∞].
Rn x−x2
(ii) Să se calculeze L = limn→∞ 0 (x2 +1)(x3 +1)

## Rezolvare. (i) Avem

x − x2 (x + x4 ) − (x4 + x2 )
=
(x2 + 1)(x3 + 1) (x2 + 1)(x3 + 1)
x(1 + x3 ) − x2 (x2 + 1)
=
(x2 + 1)(x3 + 1)
x x2
= 2 − 3
x +1 x +1
deci,
x2
Z Z
x
F (x) = dx − dx
x2 + 1 x3 + 1
(x2 + 1)0 (x3 + 1)0
Z Z
1 1
= dx − dx
2 x2 + 1 3 x3 + 1
1 1
= ln(x2 + 1) − ln(x3 + 1) + C
2 3
1
= ln(x2 + 1)3 (x3 + 1)−2 + C.
6
10

(ii)
1 (n2 + 1)3
L = lim F (n) − F (0) = lim ln 3
n→∞ n→∞ 6 (n + 1)2
1 n6 + 3n4 + 3n2 + 1
= ln lim
6 n→∞ n6 + 2n3 + 1
1
= ln 1 = 0.
6

## Observaţie. O generalizare a integralei de la (i) este următoarea:

Fie a, b ≥ 1 şi x ∈ [0, +∞]; avem
xb−1 − xa−1 (xb−1 + xa+b−1 ) − (xa+b−1 + xa−1 )
Z Z
dx = dx
(xa + 1)(xb + 1) (xa + 1)(xb + 1)
xb−1 xa−1
Z Z
= dx − dx
xb + 1 xa + 1
1 1
= ln(xb + 1) − ln(xa + 1) + C
b a
b a
1 (x + 1)
= ln a + C.
ab (x + 1)b

Integrale trigonometrice
R 4π dx
Problema 9. Să se calculeze 0 5+4 cos x
.

Rezolvare.
Z 4π Z 2π Z π Z π
dx dx dx dx
I= =2 =2 =4
0 5 + 4 cos x 0 5 + 4 cos x −π 5 + 4 cos x 0 5 + 4 cos x
Pentru aceste egalităţi am aplicat periodicitatea funcţiei cos, proprietatea
Z x+T Z T
f (x)dx = f (x)dx,
x 0

## unde f este o funcţie periodică de perioadă T , şi de asemenea proprietatea funcţiilor

pare pe un interval [−a, a].
11

1 dx
R
Fie F (x) o primitivă a funcţiei f (x) = 5+4 cos x
, deci F (x) = 5+4 cos x
.
Facem substituţia t = tan x2 =⇒ x = 2 arctan t. Prin diferenţiere obţinem că
2 1−t2
dx = 1+t2
dt. Ştim din formule trigonometrice că cos x = 1+t2
.

Z
1 2 2 2 t
F (t) = 2 · 2
= 2+9
dt = arctan ⇒
5 + 4 1−t
1+t2
1 + t t 3 3
2 tg x
F (x) = arctan 2 , pentru x ∈ [0, π).
3 3

C

,x = π
F (x) = x
.
 2 arctan tg 2

, x ∈ [0, π)
3 3

## Deoarece F este continuă pe [0, π] rezultă că

2 tan x2 2π π
C = lim arctg = = ,
x&π 3 3 32 3
deci, 
π

,x = π
3
F (x) = x
.
 2 arctan tg 2

, x ∈ [0, π)
3 3

3
.

## Problema 10. Să se calculeze (tann+2 x + tann x)dx, x ∈ [0, π2 ).

R

Rezolvare.
Z Z
n+2 n
I= (tan x + tan x)dx = tann x(tan2 x + 1)dx
tann+1 x
Z
= tann x(tan x)0 dx = + C.
n+1
Am folosit că tan2 x + 1 = 1
cos2 x
= (tan x)0 .
12

## Problema 11. Să se calculeze ( cos14 x − 1

x ∈ [0, π2 ).
R
cos2 x
)dx,

Rezolvare.

cos2 x
Z Z
1 1 1 1
I= ( 4 − )dx = ( − )dx
cos x cos2 x cos2 x cos2 x cos2 x
tan3 x
Z
= (tan x)0 tan2 xdx = + C.
3

## Alte tipuri de integrale

R0
Problema 12. Să se calculeze −2
√ x
dx.
ex +(x+2)2

Rezolvare.
Z 0 Z 0
x x
I= p dx = q
x
dx
−2 ex + (x + 2)2 −2 e 21 + ( x+2
x )
2
2 e
Z 0
xp
= x 1 + (x + 2)2 e−x dx.
−2 e2
x x
Facem substituţia (x + 2)e− 2 = t. Diferenţiem relaţia şi obţinem − x2 e− 2 dx =
x
dt =⇒ xe− 2 = −2dt. Schimbăm şi capetele şi dacă x = 1 =⇒ t = 2, iar pentru
x = −2 =⇒ t = 0.

Z 2
−2 p √
I= √ dx = −2 ln(t + (1 + t2 ))|20 = −2 ln(2 + 5).
0 1 + t2

R ex (x2 −2x+1)
Problema 13. Să se calculeze (x2 +1)2
dx, x ∈ R. (Problema 439/ Ed. 2019)
13

Rezolvare. Avem:
Z x 2 Z x 2
e (x − 2x + 1) e (x + 1) − 2xex
dx = dx
(x2 + 1)2 (x2 + 1)2
ex
Z Z
2x
= 2
dx − ex 2 dx
x +1 (x + 1)2
ex
Z Z
1
= 2
dx + ex · ( 2 )0 dx
x +1 x +1
ex ex
Z Z
x 1
= dx + e − dx
x2 + 1 x2 + 1 x2 + 1
= ex (x2 + 1)−1 + C.

R1 x
Problema 14. Să se calculeze −1 ex +x+1
752/Ed. 2019)

## Rezolvare. Fie f (x) = ex + x + 1 ⇒ f 0 (x) = ex + 1, deci f (x) − f 0 (x) = x. Astfel,

Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 0
f (x) − f 0 (x) f (x)
I= dx = dx − dx
−1 f (x) −1 −1 f (x)
1
= 2 − ln f (x)|1−1 = 2 − [ln(e + 2) − ln ] = 2 − ln(e + 2) − 1
e
= 1 − ln(e + 2) = ln 2 − ln(e + 2)
e
= ln .
e+2

ex +cos x
R
Observaţie. Similar se calculează integrala ex +cos x+sin x
dx, x ∈ [0, +∞) (Prob-
lema 441/Ed. 2019): f (x) = ex + cos x + sin x; ex + cos x = 21 (f (x) + f 0 (x)).

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