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1. Determinarea raportului atomic.

Exemplu:H
2
SO
4
raport atomic: H : S : O : = 2:1:4 (la 2 atom H corespund, 1 atom S i
4 atomi O).
2. Determinarea masei moleculare. olul.
Exemplu:

H2SO4
= 2!
H
" !
S
" 4!
O
= 2#1 " $2 " 4#1% = &' uam.
1 mol H
2
SO
4
= &'(
1mol su)st. ***************** (
n moli su)st.****************m (
n =
M
m

* masa molar+ , masa unui mol -n


(rame
Exemplu: ./0i moli se (+sesc -n 4&( acid sul1uric 2
m
H2SO4
= 4&
n = 2 n =
M
m
=
&'
4&
= 3,4 moli H
2
SO
4


H2SO4
= &' uam
$. Determinarea raportului de mas+.
Exemplu:
H2SO4
= &' uam raport de mas+: H : S : O = 2 : $2 : %4 = 1 : 1% : $2
4. Determinarea compo5i0iei procentuale
a) procente de mas+
* din masa molecular+:
H2SO4
= &' uam
&'( H
2
SO
4
********2( H ***********$2( S **************%4( O
133 ( H
2
SO
4
*******x ( H ***********6 ( S **************5 ( O
x = 2,34 ( H
6 = $2,%4 ( S
5 = %$,$3 ( O 7 : 2,34 8 H9 $2,%4 8 S9 %$,$3 8 O.
* din raport de mas+
H : S : O = 1: 1% : $2
4& ( H
2
SO
4
*********1 ( H ********** 1% ( S ***********$2 ( O
133 ( H
2
SO
4
********x ( H *********** 6 ( S ************ 5 ( O
x = 2,34 ( H
6 = $2,%4 ( S
5 = %$,$3 ( O 7 : 2,34 8 H9 $2,%4 8 S9 %$,$3 8 O.
)) procente de :olum
;n amestec (a5os con0ine 2 l H
2
i $ l <
2
. S+ se determine compo5i0ia -n procente
de :olum.
4 l amestec **********2 l H
2
**************** $ l <
2
133 l amestec ******** x l H
2
**************** 6 l <
2
x = 43 l H
2
6 = %3 l <
2
7: 43 8 H
2
9 %3 8 <
2
c) procente molare
=ntr*un amestec (a5os se (+sesc 1 mol .l
2
i $ moli H
2
. S+ se determine
compo5i0ia -n procente molare.
4 moli amestec ************* 1 mol .l
2
************$ moli H
2
133 moli amestec *************x moli .l
2
***********6 moli H
2
x = 24 moli .l
2
6 = >4 moli H
2
7: 24 8 .l
2
9 >4 8 H
2

?? @rocentele de :olum = procente molare.

4. Determinarea cantit+0ii dintr*un element, con0inut+ -ntr*o anumit+ cantitate de
su)stan0+.
Exemplu: .e cantitate de sul1 se (+sete -n 1&% ( acid sul1uric 2
m
H2SO4
= 1&%( &' ( H
2
SO
4
***************$2 ( S
m
S
=2 1&% ( H2SO4 ************* x ( S

H2SO4
= &' uam x = %4 ( S
7: %4 ( S
%. Determinarea cantit+0ii dintr*o su)stan0+ ce con0ine o anumit+ cantitate dintr*un
element.
Exemplu: .e cantitate de acid sul1uric con0ine $2 ( oxi(en 2
mO = $2 ( &' ( H
2
SO
4
***************** %4 ( O
mH
2
SO
4
= 2 x ( H
2
SO
4
****************** $2 ( O
H
2
SO
4
= &' uam x = 4& ( H
2
SO
4
7: 4& ( H
2
SO
4