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UNIVERSITATEA BABE-BOLYAI CLUJ-NAPOCA FACULTATEA DE LITERE DEPARTAMENTUL DE LIMBI STRINE SPECIALIZATE Asist. univ. drd.

CAMELIA-DANIELA TEGLA

English Study Pack for Students in Psychology and Education Sciences 2013 201313-2014
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Informaii generale
Date de contact ale titularului de curs: Nume: Asit. drd. Camelia-Daniela Tegla Birou: Cab.10, Departamentul LSS, Horea nr.7 Telefon: 0264/530724 E-mail: cameliateglas@gmail.com Date de identificare curs: Numele cursului Limba englez - curs practic limbaj specializat Codul cursului LLU0011, LLU0012 Anul, Semestrul anul 1, semestrele 1,2 Tipul cursului - obligatoriu

Condiionri i cunotine prerechizite Cursul este conditionat de deinerea de cunotine de limba englez care situeaza studentul la nivel B1, conform grilei de autoevaluare a Cadrului comun european de referinta a limbilor: Competente nelegereascultare nelegerecitire Vorbireconversaie Vorbireexprimare Scriere A1 A2 B1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 B2 C1 C2 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6

Trebuie avut n vedere faptul c nscrierea la examenul de licena la finalul ciclului bachelor este conditionat de susinerea i promovarea unui test de competena lingvistic ntr-o limba de circulaie internaional la finele semestrului al doilea. Descrierea cursului Este un curs cu obiective specifice care vizeaz achiziia de cunotine i dezvoltarea deprinderilor de limb strin ca instrument de formare i informare academic i profesional. Tipologia programului de nvare are n vedere crearea unui profil de utilizator cu competene axate pe studiul limbajelor de specialitate. n acest sens, studenii i vor dezvolta capacitatea de contientizare a strii actuale a cunotinelor i deprinderilor, se vor deprinde s-i fixeze obiective reale i realiste, s-i selecteze n mod autonom materialele i s se autoevalueze. Obiectivele disciplinei: Studenii vor putea utiliza competent limba englez, cel puin la nivelul B2, n activitatea lor academic i n viitoarea activitate profesional: 1. Cunoaterea i nelegerea aprofundat a contextelor i rolurilor, precum i a conceptelor, metodelor i a discursului/limbajului specific diverselor situaii de comunicare profesional n mediul academic de limba englez, cu accent pe situaia retoric, formele de comunicare scris i oral, etapele procesului de scriere i produsele scrisului academic, precum i pe deontologia profesional. 2

2. Utilizarea cunotinelor aprofundate pentru explicarea i interpretarea diverselor modaliti de comunicare scris (genuri de texte tiinifice) i oral (comunicri tiinifice) i a conveniilor ce guverneaz redactarea textelor tiinifice n limba englez n contextul studiilor de licenta i al comunitii profesionale extinse (naionale i internaionale). 3. Transferul conceptelor/principiilor/metodelor nvate n activiti de receptare a textului scris i de producere viznd etapele procesului de scriere, organizarea i dezvoltarea ideilor, structura textului i strategiile de comunicare verbal oral i scris la standarde specifice limbii engleze specializate pentru discursul tiinific. 4. Utilizarea grilelor de criterii standard ale comunitii academice/profesionale pentru evaluarea calitii produselor comunicrii academice scrise i orale n limba englez. 5. Elaborarea unor lucrri scrise i prezentri orale originale care s utilizeze principiile i tehnicile de redactare consacrate n mediul academic, cu accent pe genurile predilecte din psihologie i tiinele educaiei. 6. Realizarea sarcinilor de lucru individuale n contexte de autonomie/independen. 7. Participarea la realizarea de proiecte de lucru n perechi i n echip, cu accent pe asumarea de roluri n cadrul echipei de lucru n mediul academic. 8. Managementul propriei nvri, diagnoza nevoilor de formare, monitorizarea i reflecia asupra utilizrii eficiente a instrumentelor de munc intelectual i a resurselor/tehnicilor/strategiilor de nvare traditionale si TIC. Coninut: SEMESTRUL 1 Saptamana 1 Placement Test Saptamana 2 Introduction. The Skill and Practice of Reading; Listening Strategies Saptamana 3 Psychology in a Nutshell Saptamana 4 Psychology in a Nutshell Reporting structures; Tenses used in reports; Saptamana 5 Education Saptamana 6 Saptamana 7 Saptamana 8 Saptamana 9 Saptamana 10 Saptamana 11 Saptamana 12 Saptamana 13 Saptamana 14 Education Reported Speech; Autism and Communication Autism and Communication Reported Speech; Psychology of Advertising Psychology of Advertising Academic Definitions; Relative Clauses Psychology of Advertising Emphasis; Rephrasing; Quoting Secret Lives Secret Lives Cohesion; Paraphrasing Revision

Bibliografie obligatorie: 1.Side, Richard Wellman, Guy: Grammar & Vocabulary For Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency, Longman, 2001 3

2. Prodromou, L., Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate, Longman, 2001 3. Tegla, Camelia (coord.), Felea, Cristina, Mezei, Vlad English B2 C1, Social Sciences and Sport, Seria Autodidact (coord. Liana Pop), Cluj, Ed. Echinox, 2009 4. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 2003 5. http://granturi.ubbcluj.ro/autodidact 6. psychologyabout.com 7. http://esl.about.com/c/ec/1.htm 8. owl.english.purdue.edu/ 9. www.psychologytoday.com Evaluare: Criterii de evaluare: prezena i participarea activ la cursul practice; ndeplinirea corect si la timp a sarcinilor de lucru; nsuirea vocabularului de specialitate; corectitudinea, fluena i adecvarea la cerin a limbii engleze (oral i scris); capacitatea de a utiliza eficient limba englez n contexte academice i profesionale specifice Metode de evaluare: examen scris la sfritul semestrului Materiale i instrumente necesare pentru curs: Derularea activitilor prevzute necesit accesul studenilor la urmtoarele resurse: - calculator conectat la internet (pentru a putea accesa bazele de date si resursele electronice suplimentare dar i pentru a putea participa la secvenele de formare interactiv on line) - imprimant (pentru tiprirea materialelor suport, a temelor redactate, a studiilor de caz) - acces la resursele bibliografice (ex: abonament la Biblioteca British Council) - acces la echipamente de fotocopiere Elemente de deontologie academic n caz de fraud sau plagiat, vezi poziia UBB. Studeni cu dizabiliti: Titularul cursului i exprima disponibilitatea, n limita constrngerilor tehnice si de timp, de a adapta coninutul i metodelor de transmitere a informaiilor precum i modalitile de evaluare (examen oral, examen on line etc) n funcie de tipul dizabilitii cursantului. Altfel spus, avem n vedere, ca o prioritate, facilitarea accesului egal al tuturor cursanilor la activitile didactice si de evaluare.

Unit1: Introduction
The Reading Process
Though reading is often considered a passive skill, research in the field of psycholinguistics has demonstrated that it is actually a highly complex process of interaction between the reader and text.

For example, it has been shown that the reader does not decode the text in his first language in an orderly, linear fashion, word after word, but rather his eyes move rapidly over the page, going forward and backward as he perceives meaningful groups of words and relates these to the non-verbal information at his disposal (that is, to his knowledge of the world and topic of the written text), thereby deriving meaning from the text.

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Reading thus can be seen as the processing of information. The reader brings to the text his own store of information deriving from his native culture, education, personal experience, and, normally some specific knowledge of the written text. At the same time, the reader possesses a linguistic competence, including knowledge of words, of how these words are deployed according to the linguistic system in order to form sentences, and the rhetorical pattern and linguistic conventions which characterize different types of text.

Furthermore, in an ideal situation, the reader approaches a text with a genuine motivation to read and a reading purpose. Whatever the text, he will also have some expectations or predictions regarding its content and how the text is likely to be organized depending on its genre. As he reads, these predictions are confirmed or not confirmed by the text. Depending of his reason for reading, he will use one or more specific strategies.

Reading strategies
When we read in our own language we use often unconsciously a variety of reading strategies and techniques depending on the text and our reason for reading. There are four principal styles of reading: Skimming involves moving your eyes rapidly over the page or pages in order to get a general idea of what the text is about, focusing on certain key words or phrases. Scanning, instead, is a strategy we use when we seek specific pieces of information in a text, such as names, dates, statistics, or whether a particular topic is treated. Here our expectations are heightened by our awareness of certain lexical fields or other textural features which are likely to signal the presence of the information we are looking for. Intensive reading is the style we use when we wish to have a very clear and complete understanding of the written text. This implies a careful de-codification of the writers discourse, usually with the aim of comprehending not only the literal meaning of the text, but also the writers deeper purpose, his position or other eventual text subtleties. Extensive reading is the term we use to describe the strategies called into play when we read longer texts either for pleasure or for information, and may involve all the strategies previously mentioned, which the reader applies according to the individual text and his interest in its various parts. Thus, the reading style we apply to any given text should be a function of the type and content of the text on the one hand, and our reading purpose on the other. It is important to use these strategies appropriately and flexibly: obviously not all texts need to be read intensively, though language learners often apply only this strategy to texts in foreign languages. In reading English for academic purposes, for example, it will often suffice to have a general idea of whether certain information is contained in an article and, if so, where, so that it might be consulted at a later date. On the other hand, information which is of interest may be located quickly and selected passages focused upon for the purpose of extracting and annotating specific information.
(Source: Adapted from Jordan, R.R, Academic Writing Course, Collins, London 1993)

The word cloud below contains the keywords of the text. Use them to write down the main ideas.

The Listening Process


Language learning depends on listening. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication.

With the help of language instructors, students learn how they can adjust their listening behaviour to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes, develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation. Listening Strategies Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input. Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next.

Top-down strategies include: listening for the main idea predicting drawing inferences summarizing Bottom-up strategies are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning.

Bottom-up strategies include: listening for specific details recognizing cognates recognizing word-order patterns Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening. They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation. They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies. They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.nclrc.org/)

Unit 2: Psychology in a Nutshell


While the subject of psychology in todays modern world does reflect the disciplines rich and colourful history, its origins however differ quite considerably from the contemporary notions of the field. In order to fully understand what psychology is all about, it is important to first go back into its history and explore its origins. How did this discipline originate? When did it originate? Contemporary psychology deals with a vast range of topics, while at the same time looks into human behavioural patterns and mental processes from the cultural level to the neural level. Psychologists study all matters pertaining to human mental issues that begin right from birth and continue up until the death of the person. So, by gaining full understanding of the history of psychology, you will be able to better understand how the individual topics are studied and what has been learnt so far. Questions put forward during the Formation of Psychology Right from the very beginning, the study of psychology has been faced with a number of difficult questions. The first question of how is psychology defined established it as a separate science, separate from philosophy and physiology. Other additional questions that psychologists were also faced with throughout the history of the subject were: What issues and topics should the subject of psychology deal with? What methods of research should be used when studying psychology? Should research be used in order to influence education, public policy and other aspects of human behaviour? Is psychology a science? Should psychology focus on internal mental processes or on observable behaviours? The Emergence of Psychology: Physiology and Philosophy While psychology did not really emerge as a separate science until the latter half of the 19th century, its initial history can be traced right back to the ancient Greeks. During the 1600s, the famous French philosopher, Rene Descartes, introduced the concept of dualism, which stressed on the fact the body and the mind were basically two separate entities that interacted together to form the normal human experience. Many of the other issues that are still debated by psychologists today, like relative contributions of nature vs. nurture, are deep rooted in these early philosophical concepts. So why is psychology different from philosophy? While many of the early philosophers relied heavily on methods like logic and observation, the psychologists of today tend to use methods to study and come to conclusions about the human behaviour and thought. Physiology also made large contributions towards the eventual emergence of psychology as a science. Early physiology research on behaviour and brain had a very dramatic impact on psychology as it is today, ultimately leading to the application of many scientific methodologies that study the human behaviour and thought. Psychology as a Separate Scientific Discipline During the mid 19th century, Wilhelm Wundt, a German physiologist started using scientific research methods to look into reaction times. His works outlined many of the most important connections between physiology and psychology. So what were Wundts views on psychology? He looked upon the subject as a study of the human consciousness and even sought to apply certain experimental methods in order to study the internal mental processes. While this process today is known as introspection and is considered to be highly unscientific and unreliable, in those days it helped set the stage for all the future experimental methods. And although his influence began to dwindle in the years to come, this impact on the subject is definitely 8

unquestionable. The First School of Thought One of Wundts most famous students, Edward B Titchener, went on to become one of the founders of psychologys very first school of thought. According to structuralism, the human consciousness can be broken down into small parts. Using introspection, trained students attempted to break down reactions and responses to the most basic of all perceptions and sensations. Though structuralism is notable because of its emphasis on scientific research methods, it is considered to be unreliable, subjective and limiting today. When Titchener died, the concept of structuralism also dies with him. Functionalism Psychology really flourished in America in the 19th century. William James came out on top as the leading American psychologist during this period and his principles of psychology made him the Father of American Psychology. His ideas and concepts served as the foundation for a new school of thought, which was known as functionalism. Functionalism focused on how the human behaviour works towards helping people comfortably in their respective environments. Functionalists use methods like direct observation. The functionalists however stressed on the fact that consciousness is an ever changing and more continuous process. Although functionalism is no longer considered to be a school of thought, it however did go on to influence the next generation of psychologists. Sigmund Freud Up until this point, psychology tended to stress more on the conscious human experience. However, Sigmund Freud, the famous Austrian physician changed the whole face of psychology in such a dramatic way by putting forward a theory of personality that stressed on the importance of the unconscious mind. His work with patients suffering from mental ailments like hysteria led him to believe that our early childhood experiences as well as our unconscious impulses contribute greatly towards the development of our adult behaviours and personalities. According to him, psychological disorders are basically the result of unconscious conflicts that take place within us, and that become unbalanced or extreme. His theory had a huge impact on the 20th century psychology, influencing the mental well being as well as in many other fields like literature, art and popular culture. Although many of his concepts are looked upon with scepticism today, his influence on modern psychology cannot be questioned. The Emergence of Behaviourism Psychology evolved dramatically during the 20th century and another school of thought known as behaviourism became dominant. Behaviourism was a very big change from all of the previous theoretical perspectives, and rejected emphasis on the conscious as well as the unconscious mind. Instead it strove to make the discipline a more scientific one by stressing on observable behaviour. Behaviour stresses on the fact, that the subject matter of psychology is basically the behaviour of a human being. The impact of this school of thought was enormous and it dominated the scene for almost 50 years. Even though it eventually lost its importance, the basic principles of behaviourism are still used today. Therapeutic methods like token economies and behavioural modification are often used to help kids overcome maladaptive behaviours and to learn new skills. Conditioning is used in most situations ranging from education to parenting. The Third Force or Humanistic Psychology Although behaviourism and psychoanalysis dominated the first half of the 20th century, a new school of thought, known to us as humanistic psychology emerged during the latter half of the 20th century. Referred to most as the Third Force in psychology, this theoretical concept lays 9

emphasis on conscious experiences. Psychology as it is Today As you may have already noticed the discipline of psychology has seen enormous change and growth since its early beginnings with Wundt. The story certainly does not end right here. Psychology has since continued to change and evolve and new perspectives and ideas have been introduced. Recent psychological research focuses on many aspects of the human behaviour and experience, right from impact of cultural and social factors to biological influences on human behaviour. Today, most of the psychologists dont identify themselves with a single school of thought. Instead, they prefer focusing on certain specialty perspectives or areas, often drawing conclusions from a wide range of theoretical backgrounds. This contemporary approach has contributed new theories and ideas that still continue to shape the future of psychology.
(Source: Adapted from : Natasha Bantwal, Published: 1/27/2008, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/brief-history-of-psychology.html)

Language Focus: Read the fragment above and try to identify the tenses used in the text. Write down two or three verbs for each identified tense.

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VERB FORMATION The following chart shows the positive, negative and interrogative (question) forms of all the principle tenses in English with a brief description of the principle usage.
TENSE Simple Present POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION USE

They don't I play tennis Does she know (do not) work Habitual activities - States on Mondays. him? in New York. She went to Paris last week. I'll (will) meet you at the airport tomorrow. He's (is) working at the moment. They didn't Where did she (did not) drive get that hat? to work. He will not (wont) be able to come. They aren't (are not) coming this evening. Will they visit us soon? Actions happening at a defined moment in the past. Decisions made at the moment about the future, future predictions, future promises Actions happening at the present moment. Near future intention and scheduling.

Simple Past

Simple Future

Present Continuous

What are you doing?

Past Continuous

I was He wasn't What were you Interrupted past action, action watching TV (was not) doing when I happening at a specific moment in when you working when called? time in the past.

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called. I'll (will) be cooking Future Continuous dinner when you arrive. He's (is) Future with Going going to fly to to Boston next week. I've (have) seen Mick three times this week.

she arrived. They will not (won't) be living in Paris this time next year. They're (are) not going to invite the Browns. What will you be doing next week at this time?

Future action at a specific moment in the future.

Where are you going to stay?

Future intent or planned action

Present Perfect

1) To express an action that was begun in the past and continues She hasn't How long have into the present. (has not) been you worked at 2) To express an action that happened in the Unspecified past. to New York. Smith's? 3) To express a recent action that has a present effect. Had you ever seen such a crazy lady before that? How long will you have lived in France by the end of next year? How long have you been working on that problem? How long had you been playing tennis when she arrived? How long will you have been driving by 6 o'clock? To express an action that happens before another action in the past.

Past Perfect

She hadn't I'd (had) (had not) been already eaten to Rome before they before that came. trip. We'll (will) have lived here for twenty years by 2005. She's (has) been waiting for over three hours. She'd (had) been waiting for three hours when he finally arrived. He'll (will) have been sleeping for a few hours by the time we arrive. She will not (wont) have finished her homework by the time we arrive. They haven't (have not) been studying for long. I hadn't (had not) been sleeping for long when I heard the doorbell ring. She will not (wont) have been working for long by 5 o'clock.

Future Perfect

To express what will have happened or how long something will have happened up to a certain point in the future. To express the duration of a continuous activity begun in the past and continuing into the present. To express the duration of a continuous activity begun before another activity in the past.

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous

To express the duration of an activity up to a point of time in the future.

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(Source: Adapted from: http://esl.about.com/library/grammar )

If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn't. Emerson M. Pugh

Psychology is, as we know, a very young science. In some


ways, it has only been around since the late 1800's, when people like Wilhelm Wundt, William James, and Sigmund Freud separated it from its various mother disciplines such as biology, philosophy, and medicine. But in other ways, it has been around as long as human beings have been discussing human beings. I suspect that cavemen and cavewomen probably sat around the fire talking about the same things we do: How come their kids are weird, why can't men and women get along better, what's with those folks from the next valley, how come old Zook hasn't been the same since that rock hit him, and what do dreams really mean. Today, psychology tries to be a science. Science is the effort to study a subject with an explicit promise to think as logically and stick to the empirical facts as tightly as is humanly possible. Other sciences -chemistry, physics, biology, and so on -- have had great success this way. Our cave-person ancestors would be astounded at our understanding of the world around us! But the subject matter of psychology (and the other human sciences) is harder to pin down. We human beings are not as cooperative as some green goo in a test tube! It is a nearly impossible situation: To study the very thing that studies, to research the researcher, to psychoanalyse the psychoanalyst. So, as you will see, we still have a long way to go in psychology. We have a large collection of theories about this part of being human or that part; we have a lot of experiments and other studies about one particular detail of life or another; we have many therapeutic techniques that sometimes work, and sometimes don't. But there is a steady progress that is easy to see for those of us with, say, a half century of life behind us. We are a bit like medicine in that regard: Don't forget that it wasn't really that long ago when we didn't have vaccines for simple childhood diseases, or anaesthesia for operations; heart attacks and cancer were things people simply died of, as opposed to things that many people survive; and mental patients were people we just locked away or lobotomized! Some day -- sooner rather than later, I think -- we will have the same kinds of understanding of the human mind as we are quickly developing of the human body. The nice thing is you and I can participate in this process!
(Source: Adapted from: General Psychology by Dr. C. George Boeree Shippensburg University http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/genpsy.html)

Specialist Vocabulary behaviour cognition discipline emotion empirical experiment lobotomize

mind perception psychology research science theory therapeutic techniques Phrases


to be astounded at to die of to lock away to pin down to stick to

Unusual words
Zook goo

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SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


Word charts, like the oval diagram below, help students condense and organize data about multiple traits, facts or attributes associated to a single topic. A. These definitions, as they appear in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, fit the words in the chart below. Match them with the words by writing the corresponding letter next to them, according to the model.

Model:

EMOTION = J. a strong human feeling such as love, hate or anger

A. the process of knowing, understanding, and learning something

B. an area of knowledge or teaching that is studied at a university


C. the thing that a person or an animal does D. based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas E. a scientific test done to find out how something reacts under certain conditions, or to find out if a particular idea is true; a process in which you test a new idea or method to see if it is useful or effective F. serious study of a subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas G. knowledge about the world, especially based on examining, testing, and proving facts H. an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something about life or the world, especially an idea that has not yet been proven to be true I. to remove surgically part of someones brain in order to treat their mental problems J. a strong human feeling such as love, hate or anger

B. Use your dictionary to translate the following phrases:


to be astounded at = to die of = to lock away = to pin down =

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to stick to =

SECTION II: Language Focus


Academic textual functions, such as reporting, are signalled by characteristic language uses of tense and aspect. When reporting findings or significant aspects of peoples work, we use The Present Simple. The Past Simple is used when referring to the procedures used in individual studies. A. Read the following excerpts from two research reports and fill in with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets, according to the academic textual functions used in each of them: 1. Mood disorders (to affect _1) around forty four million Americans each year. The two most common mental disorders (to be _2) depression and bipolar disease. There are several factors which researchers (to believe_3) contribute to mental disorders. Some researchers (to think _4) that the most severe mood disorders (to be caused_5) by imbalances in the brains chemical activity. Researchers also (to assume _6) the environment can play a part in mood disorders and it may run in families. Some mood disorders (to prove _7) to be easier to diagnose due to the symptoms that the patient (to display _8), while others may be a little more difficult and (to require_9) more testing due to the mood disorder going unrecognized. The good news (to be_10) that with the proper medication and psychotherapy a person afflicted with a mood disorder can go on and live a productive life.
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/diagnosing-mental-disorders)

2. The most famous experiment Milgram (to conduct _1) was also his most controversial. The issue (to deal _2) with the people's right to know on what he/she is being studied. On the surface, the experiment (to look _3) legit and totally scientific. Two people (to be brought _4) in at a time and each would draw from a hat. One would be the teacher, one the learner. After going over exactly how the shock treatment (to work _5), the teacher (to go _6) to his control panel and the learner (to be hooked up _7) to electrodes. The teacher would first read lists of paired words then (to ask _8) the learner to pair up the now separated words. For each wrong answer the learner (to give _9), an increasing dose of electricity (to be given _10).
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.free-researchpapers.com/dbs/b11/smu317.shtml)

B. Identify the tenses of the verbs underlined in the following fragment and match them to the uses suggested in the table below: The research of consciousness, or states of awareness, has provided numerous interesting and influential studies. Sleep, dreams, and hypnosis are states of awareness that have intrigued psychologists because they relate to the quality of psychological interaction with the environment. States of awareness change constantly, which produces changes in behaviour. Studies in this area have made great contributions to the understanding of psychology. Researchers pursuing answers about states of awareness discovered Rapid Eye Movement sleep and how it relates to dreaming. Rosalind Cartwright, a leading researcher in this area, takes the study of consciousness to another level by suggesting that people may be able to control what they dream about. Many psychologists have theorized about why people dream. Sigmund Freud believed that dreams were windows to your unconscious; that your greatest unfulfilled wishes and fears would be expressed symbolically in your dreams. Freud's view has been highly influential, and psychotherapists still use dream interpretation during therapy.
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.free-researchpapers.com/dbs/b6/pnl224.shtml)

VERBS

TENSE

USE An action that was begun in the past and continues into the present/ An action that happened in the unspecified past/ A recent action that has a present effect. Actions that happened at a defined moment in the past. Habitual activities - States

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Unit 3: Education

Born in Zurich, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746 - 1827) took up Rousseau's ideas and explored how they might be developed and implemented. His early experiments in education ran into difficulties but he persisted and what became known as the 'Pestalozzi Method' came to fruition in his school at Yverdon. Instead of dealing with words, he argued, children should learn through activity and through things. They should be free to pursue their own interests and draw their own conclusions. I wish to wrest education from the outworn order of doddering old teaching hacks as well as from the newfangled order of cheap, artificial teaching tricks, and entrust it to the eternal powers of nature herself, to the light which God has kindled and kept alive in the hearts of fathers and mothers, to the interests of parents who desire their children grow up in favour with God and with men. (Pestalozzi quoted in Silber 1965: 134) Pestalozzi goes beyond Rousseau in that he sets out some concrete ways forward - based on research. He tried to reconcile the tension, recognized by Rousseau, between the education of the individual (for freedom) and that of the citizen (for responsibility and use). His initial influence on the development of thinking about pedagogy owes much to a book he published in 1801: How Gertrude Teaches Her Children. He wanted to establish a 'psychological method of instruction' that was in line with the 'laws of human nature. As a result he placed a special emphasis on spontaneity and self-activity. Children should not be given ready-made answers but should arrive at answers themselves. To do this their own powers of seeing, judging and reasoning should be cultivated, their self-activity encouraged (Silber 1965: 140). The aim is to educate the whole child - intellectual education is only part of a wider plan. He looked to balance, or keep in equilibrium, three elements - hands, heart and head. William H. Kilpatrick in his introduction to Heinrich Pestalozzi (1951) The Education of Man - Aphorism has summarized six principles that run through Pestalozzi's efforts around schooling. Personality is sacred. This constitutes the inner dignity of each individual. As 'a little seed... contains the design of the tree', so in each child is the promise of his potentiality. 'The educator only takes care that no untoward influence shall disturb nature's march of developments'. Love of those we would educate is 'the sole and everlasting foundation' in which to work. 'Without love, neither the physical nor the intellectual powers will develop naturally'. So kindness ruled in Pestalozzi's schools: he abolished flogging - much to the amazement of outsiders. To get rid of the 'verbosity' of meaningless words Pestalozzi developed his doctrine of Anschauung - direct concrete observation, often inadequately called 'sense perception' or 'object lessons'. No word was to be used for any purpose until adequate Anschauung had preceded. The thing or distinction must be felt or observed in the concrete. Pestalozzi's followers developed various sayings from this: from the known to the unknown, from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract. To perfect the perception got by the Anschauung the thing that must be named, an appropriate action must follow. 'A man learns by action'. Out of this demand for action came an emphasis on repetition - not blind repetition, but repetition of action following the Anschauung.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.pestalozziworld.com/pestalozzi/pestalozzi2.html )

New Vocabulary doddering flogging everlasting hacks to kindle outworn to pursue sole untoward verbosity to wrest

Phrasal verbs to set out to run into to run through to take up Phrases to come to fruition to draw conclusions to get rid of smth. to grow up in favour with Compound words
new-fangled ready-made

self-activity Prefixes reconcile implement inadequately entrust outsiders Suffixes


education responsibility achievement

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SECTION I: VOCABULARY ACTIVITIES


A. Use your dictionary to look up the underlined word or phrase in each of the following sentences. Find the definition that best fits the context and write it next to each sentence. Model: His early experiments in education ran into difficulties. to run into = to start to experience a difficult situation 1. The 'Pestalozzi Method' came to fruition in his school at Yverdon. to come to fruition = 2. They should be free to pursue their own interests and draw their own conclusions. to pursue = 3. The educator only takes care that no untoward influence shall disturb nature's march of developments. untoward = 4. To get rid of the 'verbosity' of meaningless words Pestalozzi developed his doctrine of Anschauung. verbosity = 5. Love of those we would educate is 'the sole and everlasting foundation' in which to work. sole = B. Adding a suffix to a noun, verb or an adjective we can obtain new nouns or adjectives. In the table below there are several adjectives and nouns which were obtained like this. Mention the word formation process, according to the model: Original Word develop Category VERB Suffix -ment New Word development education fruition responsibility achievement psychological spontaneity kindness meaningless intellectual activity Category NOUN

C. There are three forms of compound words: the closed form (headquarters), the hyphenated form (sit-in) and the open form (post office). Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a new word. A. B. eye distance middle throw heart president estate class stopping back full single real half life freeze check dry time child else fore

elect minded shadow learning moon sister

like in where catching

Model: eye + catching = eye-catching

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SECTION II: Language Focus


Reported Speech When we report statements that were made in the past we change the tense of the original (direct) speech. When we report things that are timeless, such as scientific theories, we can keep the verb in the Present Simple. There are some verbs which introduce the Reported Speech: said, told, affirmed, admit, allege, etc.

A. Reformulate these sentences. Use the reporting verbs given and make all the necessary changes.

Model: Pestalozzis early experiments ran into difficulties. It is said that Pestalozzis early experiments had run into difficulties. 1. A man learns by action. Pestalozzi affirmed 2. He tried to reconcile the tension between the education of the individual and that of the citizen. It is asserted ... 3. Kilpatrick has summarised six principles of Pestalozzis theory of education. The author stated 4. Without love, neither the physical nor the intellectual powers will develop naturally. Pestalozzi alleged ... 5. The educator must encourage childrens self-activities. He argued ... When reporting, we may also use clauses: a that clause reporting a statement, a wh clause reporting a wh question or exclamation, a clause with if or whether reporting a polar question, or an infinitive clause reporting a directive.

B. Read the text below and insert the word which best fits each space. Choose from the list below:
report education assigned attend choice standards range conducted satisfaction private

Parents of children who _____(1) private schools are more satisfied with their schools than parents of children in public _____(2) settings, according to a new report from the National Center for Education Statistics, while parents whose children attend the public school of their _____(3) are more satisfied than those whose children attend an _____(4) public school. Released in August, the _____(5) is based on telephone interviews with parents _____(6) in the first half of 2007 on a wide _____(7) of topics: school satisfaction, parental involvement in schools, schoolparent communication, _____(8) with teachers, discipline and homework levels. While the specific numbers varied, more _____(9) school parents than public school parents were very satisfied with teachers, academic _____(10), discipline, and school/parent interaction.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.educationreport.org, Parent satisfaction higher in private schools, September 16, 2008)

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Unit 4: Autism and Communication


Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout a person's lifetime. It is part of a group of disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Today, 1 in 150 individuals are diagnosed with autism, making it more common than paediatric cancer, diabetes, and AIDS combined. It occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls. Autism was first identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner of Johns Hopkins Hospital. At the same time, a German scientist, Dr. Hans Asperger, described a milder form of the disorder that is now known as Asperger Syndrome. These two disorders are listed in the DSM IV as two of the five developmental disorders that fall under the autism spectrum disorders. The others are Rett Syndrome, PDD-NOS, and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. All of these disorders are associated with rigid routines and repetitive behaviours, such as obsessively arranging objects or following very specific routines, but the most important characteristic is that they impair a person's ability to communicate and relate to others. The capacity to acquire and use language is a key aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms. Language acquisition starts in infancy and it is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. A child's acquisition of language can be broken down into different segments: phonology, which is a person's use of speech sounds; syntax - the rules of grammar; semantics, which refers to a person's ability to understand and create the meaning of language; pragmatics - the ability to use language for the purpose of communication. Breaking down language into these different segments allows professionals to clarify to what extent and which aspects of the language and communication of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is impaired. Children with an ASD often fail to communicate using speech or any other type of language, for example eye-contact, hand gestures, body language. If a child does not wish to communicate intentionally, they will not explore their ability to vocalise, learn new sounds or listen to the language spoken around them. This will ultimately result in a delay in their language acquisition. Without this means of communication, a child will find it difficult to express themselves. A child with an ASD may not see any reason to communicate with other people and, consequently, without a reason there is no point in communicating or no need to communicate. Children with an ASD may also remove themselves from situations that require communication, limiting their opportunities to communicate. Without opportunities there cannot be a development in communication.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.autismspeaks.org/, http://www.nas.org.uk The National Autistic Society Speech and Language Therapy)

Specialist Vocabulary

acquire communication impair occur phonology pragmatics repetitive behaviour relate rigid routines semantics spectrum strike syntax vocalise Acronyms AIDS ASD DSM PDD-NOS Antonyms pair impair integrate disintegrate order disorder Compounds
eye-contact lifetime neurobiological

Phrases to break down into to fall under Word family


integrate integral integration integrative disintegrate disintegration disintegrative

19

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. dis- shows an apposite or negative and, in verbs, it shows the stopping or removing of a condition. A. Add the prefix dis- to the following words. Use a dictionary to find their meaning. Model: appear disappear to become impossible to see any longer

ability approval associate believe compose graceful integrate junction order pleased qualify regard reputable satisfaction trust

............................................... B. Match the following words with the most suitable definition. Model: 0. explore = K 0. explore = K 1. capacity A. to damage something or make it not as good as it should be B. someones ability to do something C. to happen or exist in a particular place or situation 2. vocalize D. the process by which you gain knowledge or learn a skill E. when something does not happen or start when it should do F. to break up, or make something break up, into very 5. spectrum small pieces G. to make a sound or sounds with your voice H. to damage or harm someone or something I. the usual order in which you do things, or the things you regularly do 9. impair J. a complete range of opinions, people, situations, etc. going from one extreme to its opposite K. to discuss or think about something carefully

3. delay 4. strike 6. occur 7. disintegrate 8. routine

10. acquisition

C. Follow the link http://www.all-acronyms.com/ to find what these acronyms stand for. Choose the ones that are the most suitable to the text above. Model: ASD = autism spectrum disorders AIDS = CDD = DSM = PDD-NOS =

20

SECTION II: Language Focus


Reported Speech Other ways of reporting include using nouns such as: argument, assertion, comment, denial, explanation, observation, remark, statement, etc. A. The words in the following sentences have been jumbled. Rearrange them within the first and last words given, in order to make coherent sentences. All the sentences contain reporting nouns. Charles Aussilloux, Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Montpellier, and his team studied the patterns of autism in the population of Languedoc, France. Below, there are reported some of the results of his research. Model: was a to clearer of provide argument study major the picture The major argument of the study was to provide a clearer picture of autism. 1. first his of that observations the was evolutions autistic of were persons One . different. 2. about remark the autistic possibility of to autonomously was people live His .. encouraging. 3. was great of comment the importance on the environmental influence Of . factors. 4. autism related the was important similarities statement to Aspergers and between Another .. Syndrome. 5. of the emphasized major autistic role normal assertion the in contact development of human Aussillouxs .. children.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s21141.htm)

When reporting emotions or impressions we may use certain adjectives. C. Match the adjectives (A-F) with the faces (1-6) Model: 6 F. Write five sentences of your own

using some of the adjectives below:

A. concerned; worried; alarmed; afraid; uneasy B. angry; infuriated; outraged; annoyed; irritated C. bored; uninterested; fed up; jaded 3 4 D. content; blissful; cheerful; joyful; delighted E. depressed; miserable; unhappy; disheartened F. surprised; astonished; amazed; taken aback 5 6

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Unit 5: Psychology of Advertising


Advertising has been a form of glorifying or gaining publicity for goods and merchandise since very early times. In fact, advertising has been around as an informal concept since the beginning of civilizations and former methods were oral advertising or claiming the benefits of products verbally when merchants sold goods to people directly on the streets. However with the advent of paper and writing, advertising took a more formal shape. Egyptians and Ancient Greeks used the papyrus for advertising and rock painting was also used. Advertising in English in magazines as we know today dates back to the end of the 17th century and newspaper advertising in America began during the first part of the 18th century with advertisements for estates. With the growth of mass media and different forms and avenues of communication like radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, and of course the internet in the 20th century, advertising started becoming an important aspect for commercialization of products. People started understanding the potential of advertisements and it became a business with the establishment of advertising agencies with the first advertising agency in US opened in 1841. With advertising becoming a business in itself, the methods of using advertisements became even more formalized, controlled and systematic and the advertisements for products started appearing as newspaper ads, on billboards, hoardings, as handbills, leaflets, on magazines, newspapers, on TV and radio as commercials and more recently on the internet. Web advertising is now a very powerful means to take the message across to the customers. However to actually appeal to customers, advertising will have to work in accordance with the principles of psychology and sociology. Thus an advertiser or an advertising professional will also have to be a sociologist and a psychologist to really have an impact on the minds of consumers. The principles of advertising are largely based on cognitive psychology and the psychological processes of attention, perception, association and memory to bring out the complete impact or uses of a product or 'brand'. Any advertisement will have to first focus on the attention that it is able to capture of the consumers. Strong messages, strong visuals and glaring colours are sometimes used on hoardings and billboards. For commercials, attention catching clothes and attractive models are sometimes used. Once the attention is drawn with the colours and the sounds or words, the focus is on retaining consumer interests by using 'association'. Themes or products which a particular segment of customers could associate with are used. Thus for baby food, mothers and babies are featured so association would have more to do with relevance or context of the advertisement. Certain colours also have associative value and certain brands and companies use a specific colour to promote their products. The company logo or symbol is also a part of developing a brand and helps in giving identity to a brand and has a strong associative value. The association should be such that it not only serves the purpose of quick understanding and perception of the consumers but is also retained in their memory for a long time. Thus memory or retention is an important aspect of the psychology of advertising as only an advertisement that consumers can easily remember for a long time for its novelty or use of words, colours and figures will be the most effective.
(Source: Adapted from http://ezinearticles.com/The-Psychology-of-Advertising)

New Vocabulary advent appeal billboard commercial estate handbill hoarding glaring leaflet merchandise novelty

Synonyms memory = retention Word families


ad advertisement advertiser advertising

Phrases to bring out to draw attention to give identity to serve a purpose to take the message across to work in accordance with

22

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


Synonyms are different words with identical or very similar meaning. They can be any part of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech. E.g. car and automobile; sick and ill A. Read the article again and match the following words with their synonyms. Model: 1. to appeal = to attract to claim; novelty; hoarding; advent; glaring; to attract; beginning; innovation; to declare; poster; to appeal brilliant B. Use your dictionary to translate the following phrases:

to bring out; to draw attention;

to give identity; to serve a purpose;

to take the message across

When we describe things we sometimes need to define them as well, especially in academic writing, so that is perfectly clear what we mean. We may also need to give examples of what we define, and to classify. Simple Definitions If we look in a dictionary for the word hospital we may find: hospital a large building where sick or injured people receive medical treatment. More formally in writing we would put: A hospital is a large building where sick or injured people receive medical treatment. Study these other examples. A psychiatrist is a doctor who is trained in the treatment of mental illness. Steel is a strong metal which can be shaped easily. Who is used for persons, which is used for inanimate objects and animals, where is used for places. Complete the following sentences in the same way as the examples above. a. A college ________________ students receive higher or professional education. b. A dentist _________________ treats peoples teeth. c. Steel _____________________ is produced from iron and carbon. 2. Join pairs of sentences by using relative clauses. e.g. Bronze is an alloy. It is produced from copper and tin. Bronze is an alloy which is produced from copper and tin. The sentences below have been mixed up. Join the 8 sentences on the left with the correct ones from the 10 on the right. Use the appropriate relative pronoun. 1. An engineer is a person a. It produces electricity 2. A microscope is an instrument b. He studies the way in which industry and trade produce and use wealth. 3. A generator is a machine c. He treats the diseases of animals. 4. A botanist is a person d. It makes distant objects appear nearer and larger. 5. A square is a geometric figure e. He designs machines, buildings or public works. 6. A cucumber is a vegetable f. It gives information on subjects in alphabetical order 7. An economist is a person g. He studies plants 8. An encyclopedia is a book h. It makes very small near objects appear larger i. It is long and round with a dark green skin and light green watery flesh j. It has four equal sides and four right angles

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Academic Definitions Look at the following definition: Plastics are compounds made with long chains of carbon atoms. In full the definition would be Plastics are compounds which are made with long chains of carbon atoms. Often subjects, particularly academic subjects, omit the wh- word in the following way: Criminology is the study of crime (or illegal acts). Psychiatry is the study and treatment of mental illness. Politics is the science of government. Botany is the science of the structure of plants. Write out definitions of the subjects given below. Use the notes given next to each subject; write in the same style as above. 1. Demography study population growth and its structure. 2. Zoology science structure, forms and distribution of animals. 3. Biology science physical life of animals and plants Academic subjects may be more cautiously defined, thus: Geography may be defined as the science of the earths surface. Linguistics may be defined as the science of language. Write out definitions of the following subjects in the same way as above. 1. Sociology science nature and growth of society and social behavior. 2. Theology study religious beliefs and theories 3. Astronomy science sun, moon, stars and planets Extended Definitions It is possible for academic subjects to be defined more specifically. Normally, this can only be done if more information is given. Look at the following example (branch has the meaning of division). Psychology may be defined as the branch of biological science which studies the phenomena of conscious life and behavior. (old definition) Write out definitions of the following subjects in the same way as above. 1. Criminal psychology psychology investigates the psychology of crime and the criminal. 2. Chemistry science deals with the composition and behavior of substances. 3. Social economics economics is concerned with the measurement, causes and consequences of social problems. A definition may be extended in order to be more precise and/or to give more information about the subject. Look carefully at the following examples. Sociology may be defined as the branch of science which studies the development and principles of social organization. It is concerned with group behavior as distinct from the behavior of individuals in the group. Econometrics may be defined as the branch of economics which applies mathematical and statistical techniques to economic problems. It is concerned with testing the validity of economic theories and providing means of making quantitative predictions. Write a definition of your subject in a similar way to the above.

......................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................

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C. Memory and retention are synonyms, but there are also other words that have a similar meaning. If you follow the link http://thesaurus.reference.com/ and search for the word memory, you will obtain the following information: Main Entry: memory Part of Speech: noun Definition: ability to hold in the mind Synonyms: anamnesis, awareness, camera-eye, cognizance, consciousness, dead-eye, flashback, memorization, mind, mind's eye, mindfulness, recall, recapture, recognition, recollection, reflection, remembrance, reminiscence, retention, retentiveness, retrospection, subconsciousness, thought
(Source: Adapted from http://thesaurus.reference.com/)

Choose ten of the synonyms and make sentences of your own.

.. .

D. Study the following extended definition of memory and notice the words marked in the text. Memory, the ability to retain information or to recover information about previous experiences, is a function of the brain. When we remember something, a process takes place in which our brains recover and reconstruct information about things we've done or learned. There are two types of memory: short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Short term is memory of recent knowledge and happenings, while long-term memory helps us recall events and knowledge from our pasts.
Source Adapted from

http://www.aarp.org/health/brain/works/what_is_memory.html

Below is a list of words that collocate with memory. Form new words (some precede and others follow memory) and look them up in the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology by Arthur S. Reber afterimage; associative; autobiographical; biological; colour; declarative; drum; echoic; episodic; explicit; fact; false; flashbulb; genetic; holographic; iconic; immediate; implicit; inaccessible; lexical; long-term; operating characteristics;

memory

procedural; racial; reconstructive; recovered; reproductive; semantic; source; span; trace; unconscious; working

25

SECTION II: Language Focus


We may emphasise in English in several ways, such as using passives, inversion, fronting or cleft sentences. Fronting and Inversion are used to give emphasis or to be rhetorical in more formal situations, in political speeches, on the news, and also in literature. Some native speakers may also use them occasionally in day-to-day conversation. At no time At no time did I say I would accept late homework. Hardly........when This is used to refer to an event that quickly follows another. It is usually used with the past perfect. Hardly had I got into bed, when there was a knock at the door. Less used is Hardly....before. Hardly had I left before the trouble started. Little Little did I know that he was a compulsive liar. Little does she know what surprises we have in store for her. No sooner.....than This is used to refer to an event that quickly follows another. It is usually used with the past perfect, but sometimes with the simple past. No sooner had I reached the door than I realised it was locked. No sooner did I reach the door than I realised it was locked. Not + object Not a single word did she say. Not only.....but also " Not only has McDonalds, which employs over 1 million people worldwide, played a huge role in pioneering low standards now equated with the word "McJobs", but it has also decided to restrict our ability to have a public discussion about the impact of the McJobs phenomenon", Naomi Klein, "No Logo: Taking Aim at Brand Bullies" (Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2000) Not until Not until January will I have a holiday. Nowhere Nowhere had Susan seen a more beautifully decorated room. Only after This is usually used with the simple past. Only after the film started did I realize that I'd seen it before. On no account/ Under no circumstances On no account should you be absent from your seminars. Only then/if/when/later This is usually used with the simple past. Only then did I know what I had got myself into. Rarely/Seldom/Never These are most commonly used with the present perfect or past perfect and with modals such as can and could. The present simple can also be used. Seldom have I seen him looking so miserable. "Rarely does a movie make you feel so warm and so uneasy at the same time." - Review of `Hearts in Atlantis` in the Canadian Province, 28/09/01 Never in her life had she experienced this exhilarating emotion.

26

Scarcely/Barely....when This is used to refer to an event that quickly follows another. It is usually used with the past perfect. Scarcely had I arrived home when there was a knock on the door. So......that This is a common inversion, usually used with an adjective & the verb `be`. So exciting was the soap opera that I forgot to do my English homework. It can also be used with much. So much did she adore John that she would not give him up. Such....that Used with the verb `be` and a noun, it means so much or so great. A. Rephrase the following sentences, beginning with the words given. Model: I had never seen so many people queuing at the door of the supermarket. Never had I seen so many people queuing at the door of the supermarket. 1. You must never associate this colour with our product again. On no account .. 2. They did not realise much about the impact of their billboard. Little .. 3. You will not find a better advertising manager in the whole country. Nowhere .... 4. She used strong visuals and messages in the advertisement. Strong .... 5. People started calling soon after they had posted the advertisement. Hardly ..when ... 6. I did not say you can use my name on the hoarding. At no time ..... 7. The merchant did not say anything about the sales action. Not . 8. I understood the associative value of this colour only at the end of the presentation. Only then .. 9. Egyptians used the papyrus and rock painting for advertising. Papyrus.. 10. Advertisement for baby food feature mothers and babies. Mothers and babies . B. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences using the words given. They are all examples of emphasis. Model: this it does an make like ad you products the buy Rarely does an ad like this make you buy the products it presents. 1. eyes was impressive the with brought the to my babies tears commercial it So .. that..eyes. 2. ad these quality have visuals the improved the of sent they also powerful a have Not only..but ... message. 3. advertisement I most their the new was the and music liked about What ..colours. 4. who Annie leaflets came up was the with idea of brilliant the spreading at It...entrance. 5. was the new social psychologist who wrote this powerful logo for our It .. brand.

27

SECTION III: Text Structure


Quoting A quotation is the repetition of one expression as part of another one and it is generally punctuated by quotation marks. A.You will read an excerpt from an article. Five sentences have been removed from this

text. Choose from sentences A-E the one which fits each gap. All contain examples of quoting. GALE AND THE NEW SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY These rapid changes in advertising were noticed by Harlow Gale, who was uniquely qualified to recognize and study the effects of these newly emerging attention structures in the mass media. In 1883, while a sophomore at Yale, a chance reading of a copy of the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research called Gale's attention to empirical studies of mental life and reasoning (Gale 1900). _____ (1) Gale credits Professor Wilhelm Wundt for providing him with three and a half years of "inestimable profit" working in the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig (Gale 1900). Letters in the archival files reveal that Gale and the progressive journalist Lincoln Steffens became friends in German, studied together taking courses from Wundt, and enjoyed a lifelong correspondence. _____ (2) Steffens reported, "[T]he laboratory where we sought the facts and measured them by machinery was a graveyard where the old idealism walked as a dreadful ghost" (1931, p. 149). In 1894, prepared as an experimental psychologist, a 32-year-old Harlow Gale returned to his boyhood home in Minneapolis. At that time there were no psychology departments in American universities. _____ (3) He was hired as an instructor of "physiological psychology" and given responsibility for the university's laboratory for experimental psychology. ____ (4) It was there, until 1903, that Gale taught a series of courses in psychology, including a seminar that involved students in conducting studies on "the psychology of advertising" (Gale 1904). _____ (5) Up until that time, the subject of human attention had received scant experimental attention in the laboratories of the new psychologists (Scripture 1895, p. 94). A. The laboratory consisted of "a few pieces of psychological apparatus" gathered by the university's previous instructor in experimental psychology. B. Steffens quoted Professor Wundt as saying, "We want facts, nothing but facts," and that theories were only aids to experimentation, which was the test of theory. C. In 1895, in the midst of the increasing visibility of consumer advertising, Harlow Gale became interested in "people's commercial actions as influenced by street car and magazine advertising" as an application of his training in the emerging field of experimental psychology (Gale 1900). D. After completing his B.A. in 1885, he undertook postgraduate studies in economics at the University of Minnesota, philosophy at Yale and Cambridge, and experimental psychology at Leipzig (Kuna 1976a). E. In the spring of 1895, Gale joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota as a member of the Philosophy Department (Gale 1904, p. 9).
(Source: Adapted from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-172907089/harlow-gale-and-origins.html)

28

Unit 6: Secret Lives


One mislaid credit card bill or a single dangling e-mail message on the home computer would have ended everything: the marriage, the big-time career, the reputation for decency he had built over a lifetime. So for more than 10 years, he ruthlessly kept his two identities apart: one lived in a Westchester hamlet and worked in a New York office, and the other operated mainly in clubs, airport bars and brothels. One warmly greeted clients and waved to neighbours, sometimes only hours after the other had stumbled back from a "work" meeting with prostitutes or cocaine dealers. In the end, it was a harmless computer pop-up advertisement for security software, claiming that his online life was being "continually monitored," that sent this New York real estate developer into a panic and to a therapist. The man's double life is an extreme example of how mental anguish can cleave an identity into pieces, said his psychologist, Dr. Jay S. Kwawer, director of clinical education at the William Alanson White Institute in New York, who discussed the case at a recent conference. But psychologists say that most normal adults are well equipped to start a secret life, if not to sustain it. The ability to hold a secret is fundamental to healthy social development, they say, and the desire to sample other identities (to reinvent oneself, to pretend) can last well into adulthood. And in recent years researchers have found that some of the same psychological skills that help many people avoid mental distress can also put them at heightened risk for prolonging covert activities. "In a very deep sense, you don't have a self unless you have a secret, and we all have moments throughout our lives when we feel we're losing ourselves in our social group, or work or marriage, and it feels good to grab for a secret, or some subterfuge, to reassert our identity as somebody apart," said Dr. Daniel M. Wegner, a professor of psychology at Harvard. He added, "And we are now learning that some people are better at doing this than others." Although the best-known covert lives are the most spectacular - the architect Louis Kahn had three lives; Charles Lindbergh reportedly had two - these are exaggerated examples of a far more common and various behaviour, psychologists say. Some people gamble on the sly, or sample drugs. Others try music lessons. Still others join a religious group. And there are thousands of people - gay men and women who stay in heterosexual marriages, for example - whose shame over or denial of their elemental needs has set them up for secretive excursions into other worlds. Whether a secret life is ultimately destructive, experts find, depends both on the nature of the secret and on the psychological makeup of the individual. Psychologists have long considered the ability to keep secrets as central to healthy development. Children as young as 6 or 7 learn to stay quiet about their mother's birthday present. In adolescence and adulthood, fluency with small social lies is associated with good mental health. And researchers have confirmed that secrecy can enhance attraction, or as Oscar Wilde put it, "The commonest thing is delightful if only one hides it." The urge to act out an entirely different persona is widely shared across cultures as well, social scientists say, and may be motivated by curiosity, mischief or earnest soulsearching. Certainly, it is a familiar tug in the breast of almost anyone who has stepped out of his or her daily life for a time, whether for vacation, for business or to live in another country.
Source: Adapted from The Secret Lives of Just About Everybody by Benedict Carey, http:/www.nytimes.com

New Vocabulary anguish brothel to cleave covert distress earnest to enhance to gamble hamlet mischief persona ruthlessly tug Compounds best-known big-time pop-up soul-searching Prefixes distress heterosexual mislaid reassert Suffixes adolescence adulthood delightful elemental reportedly reputation spectacular Word family secret secretive secrecy Phrases to act out to grab for a secret on the sly to sample drugs

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SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A. The following words belong to the new vocabulary. Match the words with the most suitable definition. Model: 0. earnest = K
0. earnest = K 1. anguish 2. to cleave 3. covert 4. distress 5. to tug 6. hamlet 7. persona 8. to gamble 9. mischief 10. to enhance A. a feeling of extreme unhappiness B. to risk money or possessions on the result of something such as a card game or a race, when you do not know for certain what the result will be C. to divide something into two completely separate parts D. a very small village E. to improve something F. the way you behave when you are with other people or in a particular situation, which gives people a particular idea about your character G. bad behaviour, especially by children, that causes trouble or damage, but no serious harm H. to pull with one or more short, quick pulls I. mental or physical suffering caused by extreme pain or worry J. secret or hidden K. very serious and sincere

B. Listen to Pet Shop Boys song on http://www.last.fm/music/ and fill in the blanks with the missing information:
Chorus I sometimes think that I'm too many people Too many people, too many people I sometimes think that I'm too many people Too many people, too many people at once The husband or the ................ The ......... or the communist The artist or the showbiz ............................ The lover or the ................................................. geek The question of identity is one that's always .............. me .................... I decide to be depends on who is with me Chorus The ............................... twit putting his foot in it Or the sensitive soul who's a ................................. The urban .............................. - never at home Or the country recluse - just leave me alone Extrovert or ..................................................... Love is kind, and love hurts Rebellion or ....................................................... What is my identity? Chorus The intellectual and .................................... Or the naive.............................., so immature A .................................... son and family man Or the wicked uncle who doesn't .............. How often these have tempted me The question of ..... depends on what I'm meant to be Chorus

C. Match the words in column A with the correct definition in column B. All the concepts below are related to identity and behaviour.
A 1. role model 2. jet setter 3. creep 4. identity 5. haunted 6. introvert 7. hedonist 8. simpleton 9.conformity 10.bon-viveur B a. troubled, disturbed b. someone who enjoys good food and wine c. rich people who travel to a lot of different parts of the world and have exciting lives d. a person who is not very intelligent and can be tricked easily e. behaviour that is acceptable because it is similar to the behaviour of everyone else f. someone whose behaviour is considered to be a good example for other people to copy g. someone who believes that pleasure is very important and who tries to spend all their time doing things that they enjoy h. an unpleasant person, especially someone who tries to please or impress people in authority i. the qualities that make someone what they are and different from other people j. someone who tends to concentrate on their thoughts and feelings rather than communicating with other people

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SECTION II: Language Focus


Cohesion refers to the grammatical and lexical means by which written sentences are joined together to make texts. A. The order of the following sentences has been changed. Read them carefully paying attention to the grammatical means of cohesion and establish the correct order so that you obtain a coherent paragraph. Write the correct number (1-10) next to each sentence. A.Each evening on his commute home, John sees a beautiful woman, staring with a lost expression through the window of a dance studio. B. John Clark is a man with a wonderful job, a charming wife and a loving family, who nevertheless feels that something is missing as he makes his way every day through the city. C. But, as his lessons continue, John falls in love with dancing. D. Haunted by her gaze, John impulsively jumps off the train one night, and signs up for dance lessons, hoping to meet her. E. Even worse, when he does meet Paulina, she icily tells John she hopes he has come to the studio to seriously study dance and not to look for a date. F. His friendship with Paulina blossoms, as his enthusiasm rekindles her lost passion for dance. G. At first, it seems like a mistake: his teacher turns out to be not Paulina, but the older Miss Mitzi, and John proves just as clumsy as his equally clueless classmates on the dance-floor. H. With his secret about to be revealed, John will have to do some fancy footwork to keep his dream going and realize what it is he really yearns for. I. But the more time John spends away from home, the more his wife becomes suspicious. J. Keeping his new obsession from his family and co-workers, John feverishly trains for Chicago's biggest dance competition.

SECTION III: Text Structure


A paraphrase is: your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. Original passage Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. Paraphrase In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/

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