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Bun venit la cursul de Gramatica Limbii Engleze !

Lecia 1: Substantivul
1.1 Felul substantivelor
Substantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii:
substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp
substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary
substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy
substantive colective: crowd, group, team
1.2. Genul
Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin:
Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog
Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin:
Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe
Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al
caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they:
Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby
Exceptii: tarile, navele, n ma!oritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte
vehicule sunt de genul feminin.
Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze.
Substantivele care intra n aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru
ambele sexe:
Ex.: child (copil, copila, cook (bucatar, bucatareasa, teacher (profesor,
profesoara.
"nele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin:
Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son -
daughter, uncle - aunt, dog - bitch, bull - cow, king - queen
1.3. Numarul
#umarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim
la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte.
Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife,
world, storm
$luralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de
singular:
Ex.: cats!cats, days!days, worlds!worlds
$luralul substantivelor teminate n ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza
adaug%nd es la singular.
Ex.: churches!churches, bushes!bushes, classes!classes,
potatoes!potatoes, bushes!bushes, bo"es!bo"es
1.3.1. Pluralul neregulat
Substantive terminate n consoana+y fac pluralul n ies:
Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies
"nele substantive terminate n o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s.
Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos
"nele substantive terminate n f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea
n ves.
Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves,
wolf - wolves
Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf
- wharfs# wharves
&%teva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale
interne
Ex.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth
$luralul substantivului child este children.
"nele substantive ram%n identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series,
sheep, species, fish
1.3.2 Pluralul substantivelor compuse
'n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuv%nt va trece la
plural.
Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents
Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau
woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive
componente.
Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants
'n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul
substantiv ( prepozitie / adverb ( substantiv, substantivul de baza va
primi semnul pluralului.
Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on,
runners-up
)brevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s
Ex.: M$s %Members of $arliament&, '($s %very important persons&
1.4. ubstantivele unice !uncountable nouns"
Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable deoarece reprezinta
fie unicate, obiecte puternic individualizate, notiuni abstracte.
Nume #e substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil,
stone, wood
$bstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death,
help, information, news, beauty, e"perience, horror, knowledge,
friendship,theory, literature
$lte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage,
parking, weather
Substantivele unice sunt ntotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la
singular:
Ex.: )his coffee is cold* )he weather was dreadful*
#u sunt precedate de a#an* pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste
substantive se foloseste: some, any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc.
Ex.: ( do not want any help* ( need some information* )his slice of bread is
hard* )he piece of advice you gave me helped*
#ota: +ulte dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot
numara, astfel devenind substantive comune si comport%ndu,se ca atare
(primes a/an la singular, pot avea plural.
Sens Unic / Sens Comun
+er hair is black. ($arul ei este negru.
She found a hair in the milk. () gasit un fir de par n lapte.
)heir house was made of wood. (&asa lor este din lemn.
,e picnicked in the woods. ()m mers la picnic n padure.
1.%. Forma posesiva
Se adauga &s la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina
n s:
Ex.: a child-s voice, the people-s choice, a horse-s mouth, women-s
clothes
-om folosi doar apostroful (& cu formele de plural ale substantivelor
care se termina n s.
Ex.: a boys- school, the .ohnsons- residence
#umele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof (&, fie &s
Ex.: Mr .ones-s # Mr .ones- car, /eats-s # /eats- poems
'n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuv%nt va primi &s
Ex.: My father-in-law-s guitar, +enry the Eighth-s wives
&s se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.
Ex.: )he 0E1-s assistant, the $M-s speech
.orma posesiva se foloseste n general c%nd vorbim de oameni,
animale, tari. Se foloseste de asemenea n urmatoarele cazuri:
o 'n expresii temporale
Ex.: yesterday-s newspaper, in five years- time, ten minutes-
break
o 'n expresii construite dupa modelul bani + 'orth
Ex.: ten dollars- worth of bananas, a shilling-s worth of stamps
o 'n alte expresii uzuale:
Ex.: for heaven-s sake, a winter-s day, the water-s edge, the
plane-s wings, the train-s departure
'n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala
omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci c%nd sensul comunicarii este
clar (magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta.
Ex.: /ou can buy this at the baker-s %shop&* Mary bought her tickets at
the travel agent-s %office&* )he kids went to 2obby-s %house&*
0deea de posesie se poate exprima si cu a!utorul constructiei
of+substantiv. )ceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru
lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate
de o propozitie subordonata.
Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the
house
( took the advice of the girl ( met on the bus and went to buy the
book*
1. Scrie femininul urmatoarelor substantive:
actor, driver, elephant, guide, son, bull, nephew, cousin, dog, waiter,
camel, manager, uncle, lion, bachelor %burlac, absolvent&, widower,
assistant, host, snake, player, bridegroom, doctor, teacher.
2. Scrie pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:
knife, baby, child, country, aircraft, foot, key, kilo, woman, leaf, loaf, man,
photo, piano, sheep, shelf, storey %palier, cat&, story, thief, tooth, wife.
3. 1escrie urmatoarele constructii conform modelului:
)he luggage belonging to the travelers - The traveler's luggage
)he room belonging to the child -
)he clothes belonging to the children -
)he car belonging to Mr* Smith -
)he luggage belonging to the '($ -
)he flat belonging to her son-in-law -
)he canteen used by the workers -
Important !
V rog s citii cu atenie Ghidul studentului la adresa:
http3##www*academiaonline*ro#inde"*php#(nfo0entru#4hidul5Studentului,
special conceput pentru a r6spunde tuturor 7ntreb6rilor noilor cursan8i legate
de modul de func8ionare 9i de 7nv68are 7n cadrul :cademiei 1nline*
;iscut6 9i comentea<6 7mpreun6 cu colegii 9i tutorul e"erci8iile fiec6rei lec8ii
9i probleme de gramatic6 7n spa8iul Seminariilor nline* =u uita c6 po8i
accesa doar lec8iile deschise s6pt6m>nal*
Lecia 2: Articolul
$entru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr,o propozitie oarecare, acesta
trebuie sa fie nsotit de un determinant substantival. &el mai des folosit
determinant substantival este articolul. )rticolele se pot clasifica dupa cum
urmeaza:
)rticolul hotar%t , the
)rticolul nehotar%t , a ! an
)rticolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata
)rticolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba n functie de numarul
sau genul substantivului si se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat.
2.1. $rticolul hotar(t !the"
)rticolul hotar%t se foloseste:
'naintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat n contextul
respectiv
Ex.: :n elephant and a mouse fell in love* )he mouse loved the
elephant-s long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse-s tiny nose*
)tunci c%nd at%t vorbitorul c%t si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea
exprimata de substantiv, desi nu a mai fost mentionat n context.
Ex.: - ,here-s the bathroom? - (t-s on the first floor*
'n propozitii sau fraze n care definim sau identificam anumite
persoane sau obiecte:
Ex.: )he man we met yesterday at the bus station* )he girl in red is
her neighbor*
1eferitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice:
Ex.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars
:nn is in the garden %the garden of this house&*
'naintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first, second, thirds,
etc si only:
Ex.: the best day, the first week, the last chapter, the only way
'naintea unor ad!ective pentru a te referi n general la un grup de
oameni care au n comun o anumita nsusire (sunt frumosi, tineri,
batr%ni, !aponezi, etc:
Ex.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the .apanese, the
2ritish
#ume de locuri geografice, oceane, r%uri, mari, deserturi, munti,
regiuni:
Ex.: the 0aribbean, the Sahara, the :tlantic
Se foloseste naintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii celebre,
hoteluri, ziare, orchestre, grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la
plural,etc:
Ex.: the =ational 4allery, the @oyal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the
2eatles, the Spice 4irls, the 4uardian, the )elegraph, the ;aily, the
)itanic, the )ower of London, the +ouse of $arliament, the Smiths
2ecade, secole, grupe de ani:
Ex.: My parents went to Aniversity in the seventies*
2.2. $rticolul nehotar(t !a ! an"
Se foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si an
naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u
Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an opera
Exceptii:
$n nainte de un h mut , an hour, an honor.
$ nainte de u sau eu atunci c%nd se pronunta ca you: a European, a
university, a unit
)rticolul nehotar%t se foloseste:
$entru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:
Ex.: ,ould you like a drink? (-ve finally got a good job*
$entru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:
Exemple:
o cu nume de profesii: .ohn is an engineer* Mary is training to be a
nurse*
o cu nationalitati si religii: .ohn is an Englishman* Bate is a
0atholic*
o cu instrumente muzicale: Sherlock +olmes was playing a violin
when the visitor arrived*
o cu numele zilelor: ( was born on a )hursday*
o pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: )he mouse had
a tiny nose* (t was a very strange car
o cu substantice la singular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such:
,hat a bluffC +e is such a prodigious young man*
o atunci c%nd te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana,
echivaleaza cu one: (-d like an orange and two lemons please*
)he burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting*
1etineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.
2.3. a ! an si one
)tunci c%nd numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se
poate folosi fie a)an fie one pentru singular:
Ex.: a # one pound, a # one million pounds
/ou can take an# one hour for lunch*
2ar a#an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru:
Ex.: : bo" is no good* %,e need a crate not a bo"&*
1ne bo" is no good, we need two bo"es*
2.4. $rticolul *ero
#u se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri:
&u nume de tari (la singular
Ex.: 4ermany is an important economic power*
+e-s just returned from :rgentina*
('nsa: (-m visiting the Anited States ne"t week*
&u numele limbilor:
Ex.: Drench is spoken in )ahiti*
English uses many words of Latin origin*
&u numele meselor:
Ex.: Lunch is at midday*
;inner is in the evening*
2reakfast is the first meal of the day*
&u numele persoanelor (la singular:
Ex.: .ohn-s coming to the party*
4eorge Bing is my uncle*
('nsa: ,e-re having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow*
&u titluri si nume:
Ex.: $rince 0harles is Eueen Eli<abeth-s son*
$resident Bennedy was assassinated in ;allas*
;r* ,atson was Sherlock +olmes- friend*
('nsa: the Eueen of England, the $ope*
2upa cazul posesiv format cu &s:
Ex.: +is sister-s car*
Laura-s basket*
&u numele profesiilor:
E"*3 Engineering is a useful career*
+e-ll probably go into medicine*
&u nume de magazine:
Ex.: (-ll get the card at Smith-s*
0an you go to 2oots for me?
&u ani:
Ex.: FGHI was a wonderful year*
;o you remember FGGJ?
&u substantive unice (uncountable nouns:
Ex.: Milk is often added to tea in England*
,ar is destructive*
&u numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
Ex.: Mount McBinley is the highest mountain in :laska*
She lives near Lake ,indermere*
+ave you visited Long (sland?
&u ma!oritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mi!loacele de
transport si aeroporturi: Ex.:
'ictoria Station is in the centre of London*
0an you direct me to 2ond Street?
She lives in Dlorence*
)hey-re flying from +eathrow*
'n unele expresii invariabile:
Ex.: by car, at school, at work, at Aniversity, in church, in prison, in
bed, by train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air %in broadcasting&
1. &ompleteaza cu a sau an acolo unde este cazul:
2ill is 5555 author* +e writes 555 travel books* +e makes 5555 lot of
money* ,e had 5555 lunch with him yesterday* (t was 5555 e"cellent
lunch* )he meal cost him 5555 hundred and 5555 fifty pounds* ,hat 5555
e"pensive restaurantC +e gave the waiter 5555 twenty pounds* )hat was
5555 good tip*
2. )lege a sau the:
1ne day we set out to climb %K& a#the highest hill in the area* )he campers
in %K& a#the ne"t tent lent us their map* )hey told us to follow one of %K&
a#the routes marked on %K& a#the map* 2ut )om said that he was sure that
there was %K& a#the better way* %K& :#the way that we chose was so steep
that we had to stop for %K& a#the long rest on the way up* 2ut we got to %K&
a#the top in %K& a#the end*
3. &ompleteaza cu the acolo unde este cazul:
,e have 5555 soup for 5555supper* :fter 5555 meal )om and ( play 5555
chess* 2ill prefers 5555 cards* 5555 game he likes best is bridge* +e says
that 5555 chess requires 5555 patience and he is not patient* +e also says
that 5555life is too short to waste in this way*
Lecia 3: Adjectivul
3.1. Forma a#+ectivului
)d!ectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de gen sau
numar.
Ex.: : hot potato, some hot potatoes*
$entru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui ad!ectiv se pot folosi very, really:
Ex.: : very hot potato, some really hot potatoes*
3.2. ,o*itia a#+ectivului
2e obicei ad!ectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: : good movie*
2upa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste,
to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
Ex.: )he movie is good*
/ou seem u"set*
)his cheese tastes di##erent*
2upa substantiv n expresii fixe:
Ex.: the $rincess $o%al, the $resident elect, the court martial
&%teva ad!ective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (3unfortunate stau
numai n fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: )his is the main purpose of the meeting*
)hat "oor woman was living in a garage*
)ltele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake,
afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry
Ex.: +e-s aslee"*
(-m alone*
"nele ad!ective si schimba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o
ocupa. )d!ectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca
sunt plasate n fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.
Ex.: )hese are the people involved ! concerned* %the people who
have something to do with the matter&
)hey had an involved discussion on the matter* %detailed, comple"&
( am a concerned mother* %worried, an"ious&
)he list of the students "resent is outside, on the door* %students
who were there&
)he "resent status of the matter requires urgent attention*
%current&
3.3. Functiile a#+ectivului
)d!ectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat.
)d!ectivele pot exprima:
Sentimente sau calitati:
Ex.: )hey make an original couple*
She is a single mother*
#ationalitatea sau originea:
Ex.: @icardo is S"anish* +is mother is &rgentinean and his father is
'anadian*
( bought him a S(iss watch for 0hristmas*
2iferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
Ex.: )he table is long*
)he steel tray was a gift*
-%rsta:
Ex.: My hat is too old* ( will buy another one*
+e is still very %oung, almost a boy*
2imensiuni, marime si masuri:
Ex.: L4one with the ,indL is a very long film*
)hat boy is too tall*
&uloarea:
Ex.: ( have a red jacket to go with my new (hite skirt*
+aterie / material:
Ex.: +e wore a cotton shirt*
(t was a silver tray, not a steel tray*
.orma:
Ex.: : rectangular envelope*
: round table*
4udecati, pareri sau opinii:
Ex.: 4rammar is #ascinating*
)he show was entertaining*
3.4. -r#inea a#+ectivelor
)tunci c%nd se folosesc doua sau mai multe ad!ective pentru a descrie
acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai
multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: .alue)opinion, i*e,
$ge)/emperature, hape, 0olour, -rigin, 1aterial
-alue/opinion delicious, lovely, charming
Size small, huge, tiny
)ge/5emperature old, hot, young, little
Shape round, square, rectangular
&olour red, blonde, black
6rigin Swedish, 'ictorian, 0hinese
+aterial plastic, wooden, silver
Exemple:
a green round "lastic bucket
an elegant little )rench clock
a small round (ooden table
3.%. Gra#ele #e comparatie ale a#+ectivelor
3.5.1. Formarea comparativului si superlativului
Exista trei grade de comparatie ale ad!ectivelor: po*itiv (nalt,
comparativ (mai nalt, superlativ (cel mai nalt. 'n limba engleza,
comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:
Numar #e silabe !,o*itiv" 0omparativ uperlativ
o silaba + *er + *est
tall taller tallest
)d!ectivele formate dintr,o silaba 7consoana ( o vocala ( consoana8 vor
dubla consoana finala:
fat fatter fattest
big bigger biggest
sad sadder saddest
#oua silabe + *er $2 more + a#+ + *est $2 most
+ a#+
( )d!ectivele terminate n: -y, -ly, -ow
( )d!ectivele terminate n: -le, -er sau -ure
( "rmatoarele ad!ective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet
happy happier# more happy happiest# most
happy
yellow yellower# more yellow yellowest# most
yellow
simple simpler# more simple simplest# most
simple
tender tenderer# more tender tenderest# most
tender
2aca nu esti sigur, foloseste more ( ad! S)" most ( ad!.
#ota: )d!ectivele terminate n -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy,
sunny, lucky etc. vor nlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si
superlativa:
busy busier busiest
trei sau mai multe silabe more + a#+ most + a#+
important more important most important
e"pensive more e"pensive most e"pensive
Exemple:
a. : cat is #ast, a tiger is #aster but a cheetah is the #astest*
b. : car is heav%, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest*
c. : park bench is com#ortable, a restaurant chair is more
com#ortable, but a sofa is the most com#ortable*
3.5.2. Forme neregulate
"rmatoarele ad!ective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:
,o*itiv 0omparativ uperlativ
good better best
bad worse worst
little less least
old older # elder oldest # eldest
much ! man% more most
#ar further # farther furthest # farthest
3.5.3. Comparatia adectivelor
the + superlative
Ex.: )his is the oldest theater in London*
comparative + than , pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua
obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte:
Ex.: +e makes fewer mistakes than you do*
)hailand is sunnier than =orway*
:lbert is more intelligent than :rthur*
as + a#+ective + as , constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni,
locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, ntre care nu exista diferente:
Ex.: $eter is MH years old* .ohn is MH years old* $eter is as old as .ohn*
@amona is as happy as @aphael*
: tiger is as dangerous as a lion*
not as + a#+ective + as , putem arata diferentele dintre doua
substantive folosind contructia not so!as +++as:
Ex.: Mont 2lanc is not as high as Mount Everest*
=orway is not as sunny as )hailand
1. crie comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor a#+ective3 ha""%,
brave, bus%, clever, dr%, bad, #at, man%, beauti#ul, di##icult, e-citing,
#ar, good.
2. 0ompletea*a cu as, the sau than, #upa ca*3
- ,hat about this one?
- (t-s better 5555 the one we saw in +arrods*
- (t-s bigger 5555 the one in our local shop*
- 2ut it-s more e"pensive 5555 the others*
- ;o we want one 5555 big 555 that?
- /es, 5555 bigger, 5555 better* Let-s buy it* (t-s 5555 best we-ve seen so
far*
3. 0ompletea*a spatiile libere cu forma #e comparativ sau superlativ
a a#+ectivelor #in parante*a !a#auga si than acolo un#e este ca*ul"3
)he I o-clock train is much (fast 5555 the N*OP one* 1f course it is
(cro9ded 55555 the N*OP train and the tickets are (expensive 55555* /ou
get (cheap 55555 fares before I o-clock* Still, it-s the (:uic; 55555 way of
getting to 2ath, unless you want to fly, and getting to the airport is much
(difficult 5555 getting to the station*
Lecia 4: Adverbul
)dverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, c>nd,
c>t de frecvent sau 7n ce m6sura are loc o actiune.
4.1. Functia a#verbelor
)stfel, adverbele determina n general verbe:
Ex.: )he bus moved slo(l%* (cum<
( am going home tomorro(. (c%nd<
)dverbele pot determina si ad!ective: /ou look absolutel% fabulousC
Sau alte adverbe: She played the violin e-tremel% well* /ou-re speaking
too quietly*
Sau chiar propozitii intregi: $erhaps we-ll see you again ne"t year*
4.2. Forma a#verbelor
4.2.1. )dverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui *l%
la forma de singular a ad!ectivului:
$#+ectiv $#verb
()d!ectiv ( ly
4xemple
careful carefully +e carefully picked up a tie*
quick quickly )ime goes quickly*
slow slowly +e walked slowly to the door*
+odificari ortografice:
5aca a#+ectivul se termina in *%, acesta se va inlocui cu *i . *l%.
Ex.: easy - easily, angry - angrily, lucky - luckily
0(n# avem un *le terminal !*able, *ible, *le", #ispare *e si este
inlocuit cu *%.
Ex.: probable - probably, terrible - terribly, gentle - gently
$#+ectivele terminate in *ic a#auga *all%.
Ex.: basic - basically, economic - economically, tragic - tragically
Exceptie: public - publicly
Forme neregulate
Ex.: true - truly, due - duly, whole - wholly
4.2.2. "nele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si ad!ectivele:
Ex.: early, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, wrong
&ompara:
)his is a hard e"ercise* (ad!ectiv
+e works hard* (adverb
,e saw many high buildings* (ad!ectiv
)he bird flew high in the sky* (adverb
4.2.3. "nor ad!ective le corespund doua forme adverbiale, care au sensuri
diferite:
$#+ectiv Forme
a#verbiale
4xemple
deep F* deep
M* deeply
+e looked dee" into her eyes*
(adanc
She is dee"l% in love* (profund,
p%na peste cap
direct F* direct
M* directly
/ou can dial =ew /ork direct* (n
mod direct
+e went there directl%* (direct, fara
nt%rziere
first F* first
M* firstly
My mother came in #irst, then my
brothers and sisters* (nt%i
)irstl%, ( would like to welcome you
here* (n primul r%nd
)lte exemple: hard, light, just, last, late, most, near, prett, right, round,
short, wrong.
6ell ) Goo#
,ell este adverbul care corespunde formei ad!ectivale good.
)hey are good swimmers*
)hey swim (ell*
She is a good pianist*
She plays the piano (ell*
4.3. Gra#ele #e comparatie ale a#verbelor
)dverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si ad!ectivele (vezi:
O*J* 4radele de comparatie ale adjectivelor:
)dauga *er pentru comparativ si *est pentru superlativ la adverbele
dintr,o singura silaba: hard - harder - hardest
)dauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la
adverbele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in
-ly: seriously - more seriously - most seriously
"nele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badly -
worse - worst, little - less - least, well - better - best, much - more -
most
2neori most poate avea sensul #e ver%3
,e were most grateful for your help*
( am most impressed by this application*
4.4. 0lasificarea a#verbelor
=. )dverbe de mod
>. )dverbe de loc si directie
?. )dverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
@. )dverbe de probabilitate
A. )dverbe de grad
!.!.1. "dverbe de mod
)dverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza
in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia.
Exemple:
+e swims well* (dupa verb
+e ran*** rapidly, slowly, quickly*
She spoke*** softly, loudly, aggressively*
.ames coughed loudly to attract her attention*
+e plays the flute beautifully* (dupa complement
+e ate the chocolate cake greedily*
1. )dverbul de mod nu se aseaza ntre verb si complement:
0ncorect: +e ate greedil% the chocolate cake*
&orect: +e ate the chocolate cake greedil%*
2. $ozitia adverbului n propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci
c%nd exista mai multe verbe n propozitie. 2aca adverbul este asezat dupa o
propozitie, atunci acesta modifica ntregul sens exprimat n propozitie.
6bserva diferentele de sens n functie de locul adverbului n propozitie:
+e /uietl% asked me to leave the house* (3 cererea lui a fost facuta n
liniste
+e asked me to leave the house /uietl%* (3 plecarea a fost facuta n
liniste
!.!.2. "dverbe de loc si directie
#e arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul
principal sau complementul sau.
Exemple:
2upa verb:
( looked everywhere*
.ohn looked ***away, up, down, around***
(-m going ***home, out, back***
2upa complement:
)hey built a house nearby*
She took the child outside*
$. 0ere ! there. &u verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de nspre/ cu /
mpreuna cu vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea
vorbitorului:
Ex.: 0ome here (3 spre mine
(t-s in here (3 vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi
$ut it there (3 departe de mine
(t-s in there (3 du,te singur sa vezi
Expresii cu here! there: down here, down there, over here, over there,
under here, under there, up here, up there.
7. $#verbele #e loc terminate 8n *(ards , exprima ideea de miscare
ntr,o anumita directie:
Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards,
northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards.
0ats don-t usually walk backwards*
)he ship sailed westwards*
5o9ards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel nc%t va fi ntotdeauna urmat de
un substantiv sau pronume:
Ex.: +e walked towards the car* She ran towards me*
0. $#verbe care exprima at(t locul c(t si #irectia: ahead, abroad,
overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.
!.!.3. "dverbe de timp# durata si $recventa
)rata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.
Ex.:
&%nd: today, yesterday, later, now, last year
2urata, pentru c%t timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
&%t de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly
2e obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sf%rsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la
nceputul ei:
Ex.: 1ne of my children wrote to me yesterday*
Later the boy understood the story*
)dverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:
Ex.: She stayed in the house all day*
My mother lived in Drance for a year
*
)or este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three days, for a
week, for several years, for two centuries.
Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual n timp:
since Monday, since FGGN, since the last war.
)dverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei
in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have,
may, must:
( often eat vegetarian food* (in fata verbului principal
/ou must always fasten your seat belt* (dupa verbul auxiliar must
( have never forgotten my first kiss* (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata
verbului principal forgotten
"nele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si
se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei:
)his maga<ine is published monthly*
+e visits his mother once a week*
)dverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often,
regularly, sometimes, usually.
1et se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative:
+ave you finished your work yet? =o, not yet*
)hey haven-t met him yet*
Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau
interogative.
( am still hungry*
;o you still work for the 220?
-r#inea a#verbelor #e timp
2aca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie
ordinea lor va fi:
-r#inea 4xemple
=: adverbe de durata
>: adverbe de frecventa
?: adverbe de timp
2 . 3 3 ( work %F& for five hours %M& every
day*
3 . 4 3 )he maga<ine was published %M&
weekly %O& last year*
2 . 4 3 ( was abroad %F& for two months
%O& last year*
2 . 3 . 4 3 She worked in a hospital %F&
for two days %M& every week %O& last year*
!.!.!. "dverbe de siguranta si probabilitate
)cestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe
care il relateaza: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely,
maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre
verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.
Ex.: +e has certainl% forgotten the meeting*
$entru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza n
debutul frazei:
Ex.: 5ndoubtedl%, ,inston 0hurchill was a great politician*
Surel% asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins
de adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely
you-ve got a bicycle?
!.!.5. "dverbe de grad
)ceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb,
ad!ectiv sau adverb: almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly,
scarcely, completely, very, e"tremely.
Bocul lor in propozitie este fie in fata ad!ectivului sau adverbului pe care il
determina, fie in fata verbului principal:
Ex.: )he water was e-tremel% cold*
+e was 6ust leaving*
She has almost finished*
Enough, ver%, too
Enough inseamna Cpana la punctul necesar pentru a...C si se plaseaza dupa
ad!ectiv sau adverb:
(s your coffee hot enough? (ad!ectiv
+e didn-t work hard enough* (adverb
)oo 3 Cmai mult decat este necesar pentru...C si se aseaza in fata
ad!ectivului sau adverbului:
)his coffee is too hot* (ad!ective
+e works too hard* (adverb
'ery intareste sensul unui ad!ectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:
)he girl was very beautiful* (ad!ectiv
+e worked very quickly* (adverb
Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very:
Ver% exprima un fapt: +e speaks very quickly*
Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: +e speaks too quickly %for me to
understand&.
)lte adverbe asemanatoare lui ver%: e"tremely, especially, particularly,
pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly.
1. $lege a#+ectivul sau a#verbul #in parante*a pentru a completa
corect fiecare pereche #e propo*itii3
a. (t-s an 555 question* /ou should be able to answer it quite 555* (easy/
easily
b. ( can type a bit but (-m very 555 * (-m afraid ( can only type very 555*
(slo9/ slo9ly
c. Mr @obbins shouted 555 at the children* )he children made Mr @obbins
very 555* (angry/ angrily
#. Mary sang 555 at the concert last night* She sang a 5555 song at the
concert last night* (beautiful/ beautifully
e. ,hat was wrong with 2ill? +e looked very 555 * 2ill shook his head 555*
(sad/ sadly
2. 0ompletea*a urmatoarele propo*itii cu ago, since, sau #or3
a. 0olumbus discovered :merica about si" hundred years 555*
b. 4hana has been an independent country 555 FGJN*
c. @ussia has been a republic 555 over seventy years*
#. 1"ford has been a center of learning 555 more than a thousand years*
e. Most 2ritish universities were founded less than fifty years 555*
3. 0ompletea*a urmatoarele propo*itii cu3 still, %et, alread%, an%
longer, an% more.
a. .ohn doesn-t live in London 555 * +e-s moved to 2ristol*
b. )he children haven-t gone to bed 555 * )hey-re 555 watching television*
c. - (s :nne 555 here? - =o, she has 555 left*
#. 2ecky hasn-t gone to university 555* She-s 5555 at school*
e. +ave you started your new job 555 or are you 555 working in London?
f. )hanks for your help* ( won-t trouble you 555*
%ec&ia 5' Pronumele
%.1. Functia pronumelui
$ronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc
si nu caracterizeaza nimic, functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv,
facand astfel referire la o idee, obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau
cunoscuta de catre interlocutor.
Ex.: .ohn did all the work*
0e did all the work*
7ho did all the work?
%.2. Forma pronumelui
$ronumele au forme specifice in functie de:
Numar: singular , this* plural , these
0a*: #ominativ , she* Denitiv , hers* 2ativ , to her* )cuzativ , her
Gen: masculin , he* .eminin , she* neutru , it
$ronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many sau compuse (everybody,
whatever, no one.
%.3. 0lasificarea pronumelor
2upa continut si functie pronumele pot fi:
=. $ersonale
>. 1eflexive
?. #ehotarate
@. 2emonstrative
A. 1elative
E. 2e ntarire
F. 0nterogative
G. 1eciproce
5.3.1. Pronumele personale
Nominativ Genitiv 5ativ $cu*ativ
ingular
0 mine (to me me
you yours (to you you
he his (to him him
she hers (to her her
it its (to it it
,lural
9e ours (to us us
you yours (to you you
they theirs (to them them

0 se scrie intotdeauna cu ma!uscula.
(ts (pronume nu are apostrof.
(t-s vine de la it is sau it hasH
Forme arhaice si poetice3 pers. 00 sg. , thou, thine, %to& thee
8 gave him the book*
0e ran the London Marathon*
8t-s a pleasure to him*
8 only played against her once*
)hese books are ours*
(s this pen %ours or mine?
1ou ! The% impersonal , putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a
vorbi despre oameni in general.
Ex.: 1ou have to drive on the other side of the road in 4reat 2ritain*
The% say she-s very clever*
8t , poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta:
8t impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea
vremii, distante sau in contructii pasive
Ex.: (t-s N o-clock*
(t was spring*
(s it Monday?
+ow hot it isC
+ow far is it to the station?
8t demostrativ
Ex.: ,ho is it? (t-s the postman*
(t-s the children*
5.3.2. Pronumele re$le(ive
)cestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand
subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.
.orme:
ingular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
,lural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: ( wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me*
She fell off the ladder and injured herself*
/ou can do these tasks by yourself or with a partner*
:fter five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down*
Let-s buy ourselves a chair for the garden*
)hey built the house themselves*
5.3.3. Pronumele ne)otarate
Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine
pronumele nehotarate: anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody,
something, everyone, everybody, everything.
=o poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one.
)tat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele
nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone,
everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la
singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular.
$lte pronume nehotarate3
enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both,
every, each, any, either, neither, none, some.
2e retinutH
2aca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci
determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: Dew will be chosenQ fewer will finish*
Little is e"pected*
5.3.!. Pronumele demonstrativ
$ronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca
pronume, cat si ca determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: )hat is incredibleC (referring to something you !ust sa9
( will never forget this* (referring to a recent experience
Such is my belief* (referring to an explanation !ust made
)his si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand
that si those sugereaza ideea de departare.
Ex.: )hese %pancakes sitting here now on my plate& are delicious*
)hose %pancakes that ( had yesterday morning& were even better*
)his %book in my hand& is well writtenQ that %book that (-m pointing to,
over there, on the table& is trash*
)ceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau
instrainare afectiva:
Ex.: :re you going to wear these? %)hey are awful* ( do not like them at
all*&
0an you belive ( would have bought that?
5.3.5. Pronumele relative
$ronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival
mentionat in contextul aterior (antecedent si leaga propozitia sau grupul de
cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent
de propozitia continand substantivul determinat.
$ronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that.
Ex.: )he student (ho studies hardest usually does the best*
)legerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente
nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba engleza. 0n general, which se foloseste
pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze, explicatii
suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul
frazei. 2in acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre
virgule. 2in contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate
indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule.
,ho si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that
poate face referire la ambele.
Ex.: )he man (ho hijacked the plane wanted to get to 0uba*
)he couple (ho live ne"t door have the radio on all night*
)he team that won the championship received a great reception*
)his is the program (hich won the pri<e*
,e-ll plant new trees to replace those (hich fell*
5.3.*. Pronumele de intarire
0nsoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. &a forma
sunt identice cu pronumele reflexive:
ingular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
,lural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: ( m%sel# don-t know the answer*
Mary did all this hersel#*
Mary hersel# did all this*
4xpresii3 by myself 3 singur, de unul singur
Ex.: ( worked b% m%sel#*
Little .ane read the story b% hersel#*
5.3.+. Pronumele interogativ
$ronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau
indirecte.
Forme: who? what? which? whose? %to& whom?
Ex.: 7ho said that?
7hose are those books?
( do not remember to (hom ( gave my sweater*
7hat happened?
7hat-s the weather like?
5.3.,. Pronumele reciproce
Forme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de
reciprocitate intre fiinte, idei, lucruri.
Ex.: (f 2ob gave :licia a book for 0hristmas and :licia gave 2ob a book for
0hristmas, we can say that they gave each other books*
My mother and ( give each other a hard time*
)hey borrowed each other-s ideas*
2e retinutH Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face
referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte.
Ex.: )he scientists in this lab often use one another-s equipment*
+ockey players hit one another quite frequently*
1. 0ompletea*a pronumele personale care lipsesc3
5he other day 9hen 0 9as shopping a 9oman stopped ImeI and as;ed III
the 9ay to the post office. III gave her directions and III than;ed III
politely, then ran off :uic;ly in the opposite direction. III put my hand in
my poc;et and found that my 9allet 9as missing. III must have ta;en it
9hile III 9ere tal;ing. III shouted and ran after III but III 9as no
good. III had disapeared in the cro9d.
2. 0ompletea*a urmatoarele propo*itii cu pronume3
0 did it III
She gave III to III
Je made the dinner III
5hey bought III in Singapore.
+y pen is blue* III is green. 5his pen is blue so it is III
0 canKt do this. &an III help me<
2onKt give your cats a bath. 5hey 9ash III
Le saved his money so that he could buy ... a bicycle.
III ;no9s some 9ords in English li;e o;ay, hi and bye.
III the students passed the exam.
&an you tell III the time<
0t rained so III 9ent for a 9al;.
3. ,u**le3
5here are some boo;s on a shelf. 5here a three big ones and t9o small
ones. 6ne of the big ones is red. 5here is a small green boo;. 5here are t9o
green ones altogether and t9o blue ones. 6nly one of the small boo;s is
green.
$cum raspun#e la urmatoarele intrebari3
?.=. , Lo9 many boo;s are there altogether<
?.>. , Jhat colour are the big boo;s<
?.?. , Jhat colour are the small ones<
%ec&ia *' -erbul. .otiuni introductive.
-erbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr,o propozitie.
Ex.: ( am a student*
)he students "assed all their courses*
9.1. 0ele 4 forme verbale
5erminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte.
Exista @ forme verbale de baza. Bimba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale
cu a!utorul verbelor auxiliare, spre deosebire de limba romana, unde
timpurile verbale se formeaza cu a!utorul #esinentelor. 2e remarcat ca in
limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor.
&ele @ forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si
cu a!utorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza:
Numele
verbului
Forma #e
ba*a
Forma #e
trecut
,articipiul
pre*ent
,articipiul trecut
to (or9
0 can 'or:.
0 'or:.
0 'or:e#. 0 am 'or:ing. 0 have 'or:e#.
to (rite
0 can 'rite.
0 'rite.
0 'rote. 0 am 'riting. 0 have 'ritten.
Cele mai $recvent $olosite verbe neregulate
"rmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru
forme verbale reprezentative:
.orma de baza, adica infinitivul: to fly
$ersoana 000 singular a timpului prezent: he flies
$ersoana 000 singular a trecutului: he flew
$articipiul trecut: he has flown
7ase Form
,resent /hir#
,erson
,ast ,ast ,articiple
arise
be
bear
begin
bite
blo9
brea;
bring
buy
catch
choose
come
creep
dive
do
drag
dra9
dream
drin;
drive
dro9n
eat
fall
fight
fly
forget
arises
is
bears
begins
bites
blo9s
brea;s
brings
buys
catches
chooses
comes
creeps
dives
does
drags
dra9s
dreams
drin;s
drives
dro9ns
eats
falls
fights
flies
forgets
arose
9as/9ere
bore
began
bit
ble9
bro;e
brought
bought
caught
chose
came
crept
dived/dove
did
dragged
dre9
dreamed/dreamt
dran;
drove
dro9ned
ate
fell
fought
fle9
forgot
arisen
been
borne
begun
bitten/bit
blo9n
bro;en
brought
bought
caught
chosen
come
crept
dived
done
dragged
dra9n
dreamt
drun;
driven
dro9ned
eaten
fallen
fought
flo9n
forgotten
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
gro9
hang
hide
;no9
lay
lead
lie
light
lose
prove
ride
ring
rise
run
see
see;
set
sha;e
sing
sin;
sit
spea;
spring
steal
sting
stri;e
s9ear
s9im
s9ing
ta;e
tear
thro9
uses
9a;e
9ear
9rite
forgives
freezes
gets
gives
goes
gro9s
hangs
hides
;no9s
lays
leads
lies
lights
loses
proves
rides
rings
rises
runs
sees
see;s
sets
sha;es
sings
sin;s
sits
spea;s
springs
steals
stings
stri;es
s9ears
s9ims
s9ings
ta;es
tears
thro9s
used
9a;es
9ears
9rites
forgave
froze
got
gave
9ent
gre9
hung
hid
;ne9
laid
led
lay
lit
lost
proved
rode
rang
rose
ran
sa9
sought
set
shoo;
sang
san;
sat
spo;e
sprang
stole
stung
struc;
s9ore
s9am
s9ung
too;
tore
thre9
used
9o;e/9a;ed
9ore
9rote
forgiven
frozen
got/gotten
given
gone
gro9n
hung
hidden
;no9n
laid
led
lain
lit
lost
proved/proven
ridden
rung
risen
run
seen
sought
set
sha;en
sung
sun;
sat
spo;en
sprung
stolen
stung
struc;
s9orn
s9um
s9ung
ta;en
torn
thro9n
used
9o;en/9a;ed/9o;e
9orn
9ritten
9.2. .erbele auxiliare ; be, have, do
-erbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale, a
formelor negative si interogative.
Ex.: +e is planning to get married soon*
( haven-t seen $eter since last night*
Be, ca auxiliar, este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu, in combinatie
cu participiul prezent.
Ex.: +e is living in 4ermany*
Be, mpreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva
Ex.: )hese cars are made in .apan*
0ave in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte.
Ex.: ( have changed my mind*
( wish you had met 4uy*
$rezentul perfect continuu, trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele
auxiliare be si have:
Ex.: +e has been working very hard recently*
She did not know how long she had been lying there*
Be si have se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii
negative si interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte.
Ex.: +e isn-t going*
+asn-t she seen it yet?
)uxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul
prezentului sau trecutului simplu.
Ex.: +e doesn-t think he can come to the party*
;o you like her new haircut?
)uxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have.
Ex.: +e didn-t do his homework*
+e doesn-t have any money*
0n propozitii afirmative, do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau
contrast.
Ex.: 0 do feel sorry for 1oger.
#u se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be.
Singura exceptie este imperativul:
;on-t be stupidC
;o be a god boy and sit stillC
9.3. 1o#ul
1o#ul verbal se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate
avea un vorbitor fata de continutul mesa!ului exprimat.
1o#ul in#icativ, prezent in ma!oritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina, se
foloseste pentru a face o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare.
1o#ul imperativ se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, directive,
sugestii cu caracter pronuntat.
Ex.: 4et your homework done before you watch television tonight*
$lease include cash payment with your order form* 4et out of townC
Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. $ronumele you
(singular sau plural este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative.
+a!oritatea propozitiilor imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana 00.
Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la persoana 0
Ex.: Let-s %or Let us& work on these things together*
1o#ul sub+onctiv se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele
scopuri:
=. expresia unei dorinte*
>. fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala
?. fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii
ireale
@. fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri, sugestii, solicitari.
Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here*
(f .uan were more aggressive, he-d be a better hockey player*
,e would have passed if we had studied harder*
+e acted as if he were guilty*
( requested that he be present at the hearing*
Sub!onctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte
limbi, de exemplu in franceza sau spaniola. 0n multe situatii care in alte
limbi cer sub!onctivul, in limba engleza sunt folosite formele numeroaselor
verbe auxiliarele.
9.4. .erbele fra*ale
6 alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. -erbele
frazale sunt formate dintr,un verb si un alt cuvant, de obicei o prepozitie.
Ele au luat nastere in vorbirea de zi cu zi.
-erbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere si pot avea mai
multe astfel de intelesuri, de multe ori diferite. 5e exemplu, to come out are
=G intelesuri diferiteH
-erbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi
entitati.
Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand
pat, stand down, stand against, stand for.
+ai mult, verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul
respectiv
Ex.: Dill this outC Dill out this form* (a completa un formular
)hree masked gunmen held up the Security 2ank this afternoon* (a !efui
/ou left out the part about the police chase down :sylum :venue* (a
omite
)he lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the
witness* (a examina
6 lista sumara a celor mai folosite verbe frazale, insotite de o scurta
explicatie si un exemplu, poate fi gasita la:
http://9ebster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrasals.htm.
1. 0ompletea*a cu be sau have la formele verbale potrivite3
Swans 555 large birds - almost H feet tall* )hey 555 log necks* Some swans
555 very tame* )hey often come near people for food* Demales usually
5555 about si" babies which are called cygnets* 0ygnets 555 grey in colour
and 555 very small wings but when they are fully grown they 555 large and
strong wings and 555 white in colour* Swans can live to be HP*
2. 0ompletea*a verbele fra*ale in propo*itiile #e mai +os3
hung up, came to, catch on, eat out, put on, talk over, get by, turned down,
find out, show up
+e tried to 5555 his jacket before his tie was tied*
My family was able to 5555on very little money when ( was young*
)he detective vowed to 5555 who the murderer was before the case went to
trial*
,henever we get tired of cooking, we 555 at our favorite (talian restaurant*
0arlos 5555 on his sister because he was so tired of listening to her whining
on the phone*
)ashonda was astonished that she was 555 for the counselor-s position*
)he committee promised that the celebrity would 555555 at the big event*
,hen he 555, his wallet and bike were nowhere to be found*
$rofessor Darbman promised to 555 the e"am after she returned the
results*
)erri was able to 555 to the most comple" problems in calculus before
anyone else*
%ec&ia +' /impurile verbale' pre0entul simplu si continuu
Este foarte important sa intelegem utilizarea si sensul timpurilor in limba
engleza. +ulte dintre aceste forme verbale nu au corespondent in limba
romana. +ai mult, sensul exprimat de formele verbale in limba engleza nu
corespunde intotdeauna cu cel utilizat in limba romana.
<.1. 0lasificarea timpurilor verbale
+.1.1. in $unctie de timp'
,re*entul3
=. $rezentul simplu
>. $rezentul continuu
?. $rezent perfect
@. $rezent perfect continuu
/recutul3
A. 5recut simplu
E. 5recut continuu
F. 5recut perfect
G. 5recut perfect continuu
.iitorul3
M. -iitorul simplu
=N. -iitorul continuu
==. -iitorul perfect
=>. -iitorul perfect continuu
1. P1232./U% SI4P%U
1.1. Forma
$rezentul simplu are forma de baza a verbului (write, work.
Ba persoana a 000,a sg., forma de baza . *s (he writes, she works.
Ex.: ( play, you play, we play, they play
+e plays, she plays, it plays
.orma negativa se formeaza cu auxiliarul do:
Ex.: ( do not drink tea*
She#he does not play football*
.orma interogativa:
Ex.: ;o you work here?
:oes she#he sing beautifully?

.orma prezentului simplu pentru you, persoana a 00,a singular si
plural, este identica.
$ersoana a 000,a singular a prezentului simplu adauga *s la sfarsitH
1.2. Functii3
)ctiuni obisnuite, care se intampla in prezent sau in mod regulat, dar nu
neaparat in momentul exact al vorbirii:
Ex.: Mina plays tennis every weekend*
)he $ost office opens at G3HJ*
)devaruri sau realitati general acceptate:
Ex.: Some vegetarians eat fish but they do not eat meat*
,inds carry weather balloons around the earth at the height of MH
kilometers*
Expresia opiniilor:
Ex.: ( think Spain is beautiful*
)hey believe everything they read*
Expresie a preferintelor:
Ex.: Lisette likes cats and dogs, but she prefers cats*
.im prefers maths to languages*
Se foloseste pentru a exprima asa numitul prezent istoric, facand astfel
referire la actiuni care s,au intamplat de fapt in trecut.
Ex.: ,e were watching the back door when, all of a sudden, in walks
;ierdre*
;ierdre tells me that she took her brother to the dentist*
$rezentul simplu poate avea valenta de viitor mai ales cu verbe ca: arrive,
come, leave care sugereaza evenimente planuite sau programate:
Ex.: )he train from 2oston arrives this afternoon at two o-clock*
+igh tide is at O3FJ p*m* )he Super 2owl starts at R3FJ p*m*
Expresii care semnaleaza frecvent actiunile obisnuite exprimate prin
prezentul simplu:
Ex.: all the time, always, every classe, every day, every holiday, every
hour, every month, every semester, every week, every year, most of the
time, never, often, rarely, sometimes, usually
1.3. 0on+ugare
singular 0 9al; you 9al; he/she/it 9al;s
plural 9e 9al; you 9al; they 9al;
singular 0 sleep you sleep he/she/it sleeps
plural 9e sleep you sleep they sleep
singular 0 am you are he/she/it is
plural 9e are you are they are
Exemple:
( (al9 to work every day*
)he 0hicago 2ulls sometimes "ractice in this gymnasium*
;r* Espino<a o"erates according to her own schedule*
0oach 0alhoun recruits from countries outside the A*S*:*
2. P1232./U% C5./I.UU
2.1. Forma
)cest timp se formeaza cu a!utorul verbului auxiliar to be la prezent (
forma de baza a verbului ( -ing (participiu prezent.
Ex.: ( am bu%ing all my family-s 0hristmas gifts early this year*
She is (or9ing through the holiday break*
.orma negativa , se adauga not dupa forma de prezent simplu a auxiliarului
to be.
Ex.: (t is not raining*
.orma interogativa se obtine prin inversiunea auxiliarului to be cu subiectul:
Ex.: )re they playing<
0s he eating<
2.2. Functii
$rezentul continuu indica: o actiune care se afla in plina desfasurare in
momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: )he phone is ringing* ( can-t answer it* (-m washing my hair*
(t-s raining so they have to stop the game*
6 actiune care se afla in desfasurare in perioada prezenta, dar care poate nu
se intampla concomitent cu momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: )hey are writing a new book*
She-s studying English at the Language 0enter*
2escrie o tendinta sau actiune care a debutat recent:
Ex.: More and more people are starting to play golf in Malaysia*
$entru a desemna o actiune care este planificata pentru viitor:
Ex.: )o meet the demand for English language courses, they are planning to
e"pand*
Mohan is leaving for London ne"t week*
2.3. .erbele #inamice si statice
0n general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si
acestea se numesc verbe dinamice.
)spectul continuu al unui verb arata ca o actiune este, era sau va fi in
desfasurare. .ormele verbale progresive (aspectul continuu se folosesc
numai in cazul verbelor dinamice, de miscare, care exprima calitati capabile
de schimbare.
#u se spune C+e is being tallC sau C+e is resembling his motherC sau C( am
wanting spaghetti for dinnerC,
ci vom spune: C+e is tallC, C+e resembles his motherC, C( want spaghettiC.
5abelul urmator descrie in detaliu diferentele dintre verbele statice si cele
dinamice:
VE$BE :8;&<8'E
.erbe care exprima o activitate3
abandon, ask, beg, call, drink, eat, help, learn, listen, look at, play, rain,
read, say, slice, throw, whisper, work, write
Ex.: ( am begging you* ( was learning Drench* )hey will be playing upstairs*
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: ( beg you* ( learned Drench* )hey will play upstairs*
.erbe care exprima procese3
change, deteriorate, growmature, slow down, widen
Ex.: )he corn is growing rapidly* )raffic is slowing down*
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: )he corn grows rapidly* )raffic slows down*
.erbe #e perceptii sen*oriale3
ache, feel, hurt, itch
Ex.: C( feel badC si C( am feeling badC au acelasi sens in acest caz.
.erbe care exprima actiuni tran*itive3
arrive, die, fall, land, leave, lose
.ormele continue indica inceputul actiunii pe cand formele temporale simple,
din contra.
Ex.: She was falling out of bed %when ( caught her&*
She falls out of bed every night*
.erbe expriman# actiuni momentane3
hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap
.ormele continue indica durata scurta si sugereaza repetitia.
Ex.: She is hitting her brother*
+e is jumping around the house*
VE$BE ST&T8'E
Verbe de "erce"tie, senzatie, activitate mentala:
abhor, adore, astonish, believe, desire, detest, dislike, doubt, feel, forgive,
guess, hate, hear, imagine, impress, intend, know, like, love, mean, mind,
perceive, please, prefer, presuppose, reali<e, recall, recogni<e, regard,
remember, satisfy, see, smell, suppose, taste, think, understand, want,
wish
Ex.: ( detest rudabaga, si nu ( am detesting rudabaga.
( prefer cinnamon toast, si nu ( am preferring cinnamon toast.
.erbe #e relatie si posesie3
be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, equal,
fit, have, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, require,
resemble, seem, sound
Ex.: ( am sick, si nu ( am being sick*
( own ten acres of land, si nu ( am owning ten acres.
My brother owes me ten dollars si nu My brother is owing me ten dollars.

0maginati,va diferenta de inteles dintre verbele statice si cele
dinamice prin prisma intentiei, cele statice exprimand calitati
neintentionate, pe cand cele dinamice calitati intentionate:
)wo plus two e/uals four*
.ane is leaving for 2ucharest*
Equals este un verb static si nu poate lua o forma continua* nu exista
optiune sau intentie in acest caz. 2oi plus doi a fost si va fi intotdeauna
egal cu patru.
(s leaving exprima optiunea si intentia subiectului de a efectua actiunea
respectiva.

-erbul to have nu se foloseste niciodata in aspectul continuu
atunci cand are sensul de Ca suferi deC:
( have flu* +e has a fever*
Se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are intelesul de
Ca anga!a pe cineva pentru o actiuneC:
('m having my hair done on ,ednesday*
)hey're having the house painted*
Lave se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de
CexperientaC:
('m having a lot of problems with this task*
)hey're having trouble selling their house*
2.4. 0on+ugare
singular 0 am 9al;ing you are 9al;ing he/she/it is 9al;ing
plural 9e are 9al;ing you are 9al;ing they are 9al;ing
singular 0 am sleeping you are sleeping he/she/it is sleeping
plural 9e are sleeping you are sleeping they are sleeping
singular 0 am being you are being he/she/it is being
plural 9e are being you are being they are being
Exemple:
)he summer is passing too quickly*
@aoul is acting like his father*
Some football players are not being good role models for youngsters*
(s he being good to you?
Scrie =N propozitii cu lucruri iti plac si inca zece cu cele care iti
displac.
Exemplu: ( like tea* (n the morning ( prefer coffee*
%ec&ia ,' /impurile trecutului si viitorului
3. /recutul simplu
3.1. Forma
-erbele regulate formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea la forma de baza
a verbului .*ed.
Ex.: scream S screamed, work S worked
-erbele neregulate au forme proprii de trecut.
Ex.: sleep S slept, drink S drank
.orma negativa se compune cu a!utorul auxiliarului to do, con!ugat la trecut
(did . not in fata verbului principal. ;id not se folosesc des in forma
contrasa didn-t.
Ex.: ( did not jump over*
She didn't finish the work*
.orma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul did si
subiect:
Ex.: :id %ou want it?
:id it rain there?
3.2. Functii
5recutul simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima fapte si realitati din trecut:
Ex.: (n the past people believed that the earth was flat*
2escrie un eveniment sau actiune incheiata petrecuta in trecut:
Ex.: .ohn Loud invented the ballpoint pen in FIII*
$entru a descrie starea, conditia sau obiceiuri din trecut:
Ex.: ( went to school by bus when ( was a child*
3.3. Conugare
singular 0 9al;ed you 9al;ed he/she/it 9al;ed
plural 9e 9al;ed you 9al;ed they 9al;ed
singular 0 slept you slept he/she/it slept
plural 9e slept you slept they slept
singular 0 9as you 9ere he/she/it 9as
plural 9e 9ere you 9ere they 9ere
Exemple: ,hen ( was a girl, ( (al9ed five miles to school every day*
0armelita sle"t through the entire class*
,e (or9ed really hard to make this a success, but then 0huck ruined it
with his carelessness*
Every time ( #inished a sandcastle, the waves came in and (ashed it
away*
)ar<an dove into the swamp and s(am toward the alligator*
4. /recutul continuu
!.1. Forma
5recutul continuu se formeaza cu a!utorul formei de trecut simplu a
auxiliarului to be, (as!(ere ( forma participiului prezent (-ing a verbului
principal.
Ex.: ( (as singing*
/ou (ere talking*
#egativul:
Ex.: /ou (ere not ! (eren't singing*
She (as not ! (asn't reading*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: 7as ( speaking clearly?
7ere they playing the flute?
!.2. Functii
5recutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale apartinand
registrului oral, limbii vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar folosite in registrul
scris.
5recutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare intr,un
moment din trecut. 2eoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii este foarte
folosit pentru a indica actiuni care au avut loc (trecut simplu in timp ce o
alta actiune era in desfasurare, sau pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare
care este intrerupta de o alta.
Ex.: 0arlos lost his watch while he was running*
( was watching 1prah when .ohn came in screaming*
Exprima activitati din trecut:
Ex.: 1nce ( was driving through Benya with a friend*
$entru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. 5recutul continuu este insotit in
acest caz de always.
Ex.: 4race was always handing in late papers*
My father was always lecturing my brother*
0n general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si
acestea se numesc verbe dinamice. (ve<i: >.?. -erbe dinamice si verbe
statice.
!.3. Conugare
singular 0 9as 9al;ing you 9ere 9al;ing he/she/it 9as 9al;ing
plural 9e 9ere 9al;ing you 9ere 9al;ing they 9ere 9al;ing
singular 0 9as sleeping you 9ere sleeping he/she/it 9as sleeping
plural 9e 9ere sleeping you 9ere sleeping they 9ere sleeping
singular 0 9as being you 9ere being he/she/it 9as being
plural 9e 9ere being you 9ere being they 9ere being
Exemple: ;ad (as (or9ing in his garden all morning*
;uring the mid-JPs, real estate speculators (ere bu%ing all the
swampland in 0entral Dlorida, and innocent people (ere investing all their
money in bogus development projects*
7as he being good to you?
%. .iitorul
0n mod paradoxal, limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului, dar
idee de viitor se poate exprima in nenumarate moduri.
6ill) shall + infinitiv : +e will be here at J o-clock*
7e going to + infinitiv : She-s going to buy a new computer*
,re*entul continuu : )he 2ritish 0ouncil is moving to a new building
ne"t year*
,re*entul simplu : )he train leaves at N3FJ*
5.1. Forma
&ea mai frecvent folosita modalitate de a exprima o actiune viitoare este cu
a!utorul lui (ill! shall sau a formei contractate a acestora 'll.
Ex.: She (ill leave soon*
,e shall overcome*
0n engleza moderna forma shall este foarte putin utilizata.
&ea mai des folosita in Engleza vorbita si scrisa in registrul informal
este forma -ll.
#egativul:
Ex.: ( will not # won-t finish*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: ,ill you catch the ball?
5.2. Functii
-iitorul exprima preziceri ale actiunilo viitoare sau interogatii despre viitor.
Ex.: 0omputer technology will influence our future*
2ecizii care tocmai s,au luat si care nu au fost planuite.
Ex.: (-ll finish this report tomorrow*
.ace promisiuni
Ex.: (-ll phone you tomorrow*
0nvita pe cineva la un eveniment, actiune
Ex.: ,ill you come to my house on Sunday?
4xpresii3
)o be about to 3 a fi pe punctul sa
Ex.: +e is about to die*
)o be infinitiv 3 exprima ideea unor planuri pentru viitor, ordine sau
conditii.
Ex.: )here is to be an investigation into the mayor-s business affairs*
/ou are to be back on the base by midnight*
5.3. Conugare
singular 0 9ill 9al; you 9ill 9al; he/she/it 9ill 9al;
plural 9e 9ill 9al; you 9ill 9al; they 9ill 9al;
singular 0 9ill sleep you 9ill sleep he/she/it 9ill sleep
plural 9e 9ill sleep you 9ill sleep they 9ill sleep
singular 0 9ill be you 9ill be he/she/it 9ill be
plural 9e 9ill be you 9ill be they 9ill be
Exemple: ,e will be victoriousC
,e shall overcome*
,e are going to win this race*
)he bus arrives at three this afternoon*
)he boss is announcing his retirement at today-s meeting*
9. .iitorul continuu
6ill + be + participiul pre*ent !;ing" al verbului
-iitorul continuu indica o actiune continua, care va avea loc si se va
desfasura la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: ( (ill be running in ne"t year-s 2oston Marathon*
1ur campaign plans suggest that the $resident (ill be (inning the
southern vote by =ovember*
2y this time tomorrow night, 8 (ill be slee"ing in my own bed*
=e"t fall, (e (ill be en6o%ing all the vegetables we planted last spring*
7ill we be s"ending too much money if we buy that big-screen )'?
1. &ompleteaza cu forma corecta de trecut a verbelor din paranteze:
(n FGMG the :merican astronomer Edwin +ubble 55555 %make& a surprising
discovery* +e 55555 %find& that all the gala"ies were moving away from us
and from each other very fast* )his 55555 %mean& that the whole universe
was e"panding like a balloon being blown up* +e 5555555 %demonstrate&
this with a balloon* +e 55555 %paint& spots on the balloon to represent the
gala"ies and then 55555 %blow& it up* )he spots 55555 %grow& farther and
farther apart*
2. &ompleteaza cu forma corecta a verbului din paranteze:
: fourteen-year-old boy 55555 %leave& his home in :frica last month and
5555 %go& to 2ritain* +e 55555 %leave& his family behind* +is mother 55555
%put& him on the plane* ,hen he 55555 %arrive& in London, he 55555 %go&
to a church hall in hackney, north London* :fter ten days he 55555 %find& a
relative and he 55555 %move&* +e 55555 %enter& a school and
555555%start& English lessons*
%ec&ia 6' /impurile cu aspect per$ect
<. ,re*entul perfect
+.1. Forma
$rezentul auxiliarului have (have# has ( participiul trecut al verbului
(regulat sau neregulat.
Ex.: /ou have worked hard*
She has taken her medicine*
#egativul:
Ex.: ( haven-t been to Spain*
(-ve %have& not seen this movie*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: +ave ( met you before?
+ave they built the house?
+.2. Functii
$rezentul perfect este una dintre particularitatile limbii engleze, acest timp
neavand corespondent in limba romana.
$rezentul perfect este un timp apartinand prezentului. ) fost
asemanat cu un pod care face legatura dintre trecut si prezent.
2ar accentul se pune pe momentul vorbirii, pe acum.
$rezentul perfect exprima o actiune incheiata sau CperfectataC in trecut si
care se extinde pana in momentul prezent:
Ex.: ( have walked two miles already (dar continui sa merg.
( have run the 2oston Marathon (dar acest lucru s,a intamplat demult.
)he critics have praised the film Saving $rivate @yan since it came out (si
continua sa il laude.
)ctiuni sau evenimente din trecut care conduc pana in momentul prezent. 0n
acest caz, folosirea timpului prezent perfect arata ca rezultatul evenimetului
sau actiunii care apartine momentului prezent este cel care conteaza si nu
momentul in care a avut loc actiunea.
Ex.: +e has bought a new car (si acum au o masina noua.
)hey have been to Me"ico but they have not been to South :frica (in
consecinta, au cunostinte despre +exic dar nu stiu prea multe despre )frica
de Sud.
6biceiuri sau evenimente si actiuni frecvente in decursul unei perioade de
timp care conduc la momentul prezentului.
Ex.: She has studied English for four years (si inca mai studiaza engleza.
2ra<il has won the ,orld 0up four times.
+.3. "dverbe
)legerea intre prezentul perfect si trecutul simplu este de multe ori
influentata si de adverbele care insotesc verbul. 2aca adverbele respective
se refera la o perioada trecuta, vom folosi trecutul simplu.
Ex.: ( studied all night#yesterday#on ,ednesday*
&u adverbe care marcheaza un inceput in trecut si conduct pana la
momentul prezentului, vom folosi prezentul perfect.
Ex.: ( have studied up to now#lately#already*
Expresii adverbiale cum ar fi: today, this month, for an hour se pot folosi
atat cu prezentul perfect cat si cu trecutul simplu.
Ex.: ( worked#have worked hard today*
Exista tendinta de a folosi prezentul perfect pentru a anunta un eveniment
din trecutul recent.
Ex.: )he company-s current 0E1 has lied repeatedly to her employees*
2ar vom folosi trecutul simplu pentru a relata sau anunta evenimente care
au luat sfarsit si apartin trecutului indepartat.
Ex.: ,ashington encouraged his troops*
+.!. Conugare
singular 0 have 9al;ed you have 9al;ed he/she/it has 9al;ed
plural 9e have 9al;ed you have 9al;ed they have 9al;ed
singular 0 have slept you have slept he/she/it have slept
plural 9e have slept you have slept they have slept
singular 0 have been you have been he/she/it has been
plural 9e have been you have been they have been
Exemple:
Dor five generations, members of my family have been doctors*
'aughan has batted clean-up since he came to the @edso"*
She has swum the English 0hannel every summer*
+ow long has it been since the last time we met?
=. ,re*ent perfect continuu
,.1. Forma
0ave!has . been + participiul pre*ent !*ing"
Ex.: ( have been waiting for an hour*
#egativul:
Ex.: /ou haven-t been talking too much*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: +ave they been feeling unwell?
,.2. Functii
Si aceasta forma verbala apartine timpului prezent si se raporteaza la
momentul prezent.
Se foloseste pentru a descrie stari sau sentimente care au debutat in trecut
si au continuat de,a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente pana
in momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: (t has been raining for two days %and it-s still raining&.
2iferenta dintre forma prezentului perfect si cea a prezentului
perfect continuu este ca forma continua accentueaza durata
actiunii sau a starii.
,.3. Conugare
singular
0 have been 9al;ing you have been
9al;ing
he/she/it has been
9al;ing
plural
9e have been
9al;ing
you have been
9al;ing
they have been
9al;ing
singular
0 have been sleeping you have been
sleeping
he/she/it has been
sleeping
plural
9e have been
sleeping
you have been
sleeping
they have been
sleeping
singular 5here is no present perfect progressive for the Cto beC verb.
C+ave been beingC is expressed simply as Chave beenC: C,e
have been being successful in the past*C
plural
Exemple:
Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last si" yearsT, but she
finished yesterdayU*
)he @edso" have been losing games since the :ll-Star break Tand they
continue to do soU*
+ave we been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco?
+aven-t we been lying to teenagers about smoking?
,.!. Folosirea adverbelor cu pre0entul per$ect
Exista cateva expresii adverbiale care se folosesc in mod frecvent cu formele
prezentului perfect. )ceastea sunt: since, so far, ever, never, for, since, etc.
Ex.: )here have been GM accidents since the beginning of the year*
+ave you ever been to @omania?
( have never seen a purple cow*
.ohn has been working on his thesis for two years*
)hey haven-t seen him since FGIG*
)or
, poate fi folosit atat cu trecutul simplu cat si cu formele perfecte
(prezent, trecut, viitor perfect.
, are sensul de: in timpul, pe durata, pentru o perioada de timp.
Since
, se foloseste doar cu formele perfecte.
, are sensul de incepand de la un moment dat.
>. /recutul perfect
6.1. Forma
0ad + participiu trecut al verbului
5recutul perfect indica faptul ca o actiune s,a incheiat, CperfectatC la un
moment din trecut inainte ca un alt eveniment sa se produca.
Ex.: ( had walked two miles by lunchtime*
( had run three other marathons before entering the 2oston Marathon*
6.2. Conugare
singular 0 had 9al;ed you had 9al;ed he/she/it had 9al;ed
plural 9e had 9al;ed you had 9al;ed they had 9al;ed
singular 0 had slept you had slept he/she/it had slept
plural 9e had slept you had slept they had slept
singular 0 had been you had been he/she/it had been
plural 9e had been you had been they had been
Exemple:
$rior to the @evolutionary ,ar, ,ashington had been a surveyor and land
speculator*
:unt 4lad had invested heavily in the air-conditioning industry before the
4reat 0rash of FGII*
She had swum the English 0hannel every summer until FGGN*
+ow long had it been since you saw each other?
1?. /recutul perfect continuu
.orma: 0ad + been + participiu pre*ent !*ing"
)cest timp indica o actiune continua care s,a incheiat la un moment dat din
trecut.
Exemple:
+emingway had been losing his self-confidence for years before the
publication of 1ld Man and the Sea*
+ad they been cheating on the e"ams before the school put monitors in
the classroom?
11. .iitorul perfect
.orma: 7ill + have + participiul trecut al verbului
-iitorul perfect indica o actiune care va fi fost incheiata la un moment dat
din viitor.
Ex.: ( will have spent all my money by this time ne"t year*
( will have run successfully in three marathons if ( can finish this one*
2y this time ne"t week, ( will have worked on this project for twenty days*
2efore he sees his publisher, 0harles will have finished four chapters in his
new novel*
: ;emocratic president will have been in the ,hite +ouse for nearly half
of the twentieth century*
+ow long will it have been since we were together?
12. .iitorul perfect continuu
.orma: 7ill + have + been + participiul pre*ent !*ing" al verbului
)cest timp indica a actiune continua care va fi incheiata la un moment dat
din viitor.
Ex.: 2y the time he finishes this semester, 4esualdo will have been studying
nothing but parasites for four years*
,ill they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get
there?
;essie sur#aces again
)he =essie-spotting season has started again*
:n :merican team yesterday claimed to have made two sightings of
the Loch =ess monster and got them on video film*
,ildlife photographer Erik 2eckjord, of the =ational 0rypto Voological
Society of the AS, said3 L,e got film of an object FJ to MPft* long and
about MJPft* out from the shore* )he second sighting was two days
later on Saturday at F pm when something stuck out of the water and
went down again,L Mr* 2eckjord said*
)ilm*ma9ers claim ;essie sightings
: team from the Anited States, which has been monitoring the surface
of the Loch =ess with a video camera for the past week, believes it
may have seen the monster on two occasions*
)he first claimed sighting was towards the eastern end of the loch* )he
team says it saw an object obout FJft* to MPft* long crossing the
waves and raising its LheadL out of the water* )he second, from a
point over Arquhart 2ay, much farther along the loch, was of an object
about OPft* long moving about three feet below the surface*
)he team of two, from the =ational 0rypto Voological Society and led
by Erik 2eckjord, a wildlife photographer, has been scanning the
surface from points along the shore with a camera capable of filming
for MHP hours without a break*
)lege unul dintre urmOtoarele trei roluri:
, fotograful Eri; Pec;!ord, care ncearcO sO Qi apere punctul de vedere
invoc%nd dovezile adunate n spri!inul existenRei +onstrului din Boc;
#ess,
, un localnic, sOtul de toatO tevatura pe marginea acestui monstru Qi
care considerO cO discuRia este o pierdere de vreme,
, un ziarist independent, care este deschis ambelor puncte de vedere
Qi le ncura!eazO prin ntrebOri iscoditoare n vederea elaborOrii unui
reporta!.
&onstruieQte individual sau mpreunO cu echipa din care faci parte, o
scurtO argumentaRie de aproximativ =AN de cuvinte pornind de la
persona!ul Qi punctul de vedere ales.5rimite tema obligatorie tutorului
cel mai t%rziu pana la data limita a testOrii online, afiQata n contul
fiecOruia. #u uita sO incluzi n mesa!ul tOu numele Qi prenumele
complet Qi numOrul echipei din care faci parte. &alificativul primit la
tema obligatorie mpreunO cu puncta!ul obRinut la testul online vor
constitui absolvirea cursului de Dramatica limbii engleze.
$ten@ie A
Nu trimite@i ataBamente. E recomandabil sO compuneRi textul
n Jord pentru a,l putea corecta cu a!utorul corectorului
ortografic, dar vO rog sO l copiaRi 8n corpul mesa+ului vostru.
Este obligatorie menRionarea: numelui Bi prenumelui Bi a
numCrului corect al echipei 8n subiectul mesa+ului.
Dn lipsa acestor #ate temele voastre nu pot fi 8nregistrate 8n
cataloage.
+ulta baftOH
%ec&ia 17' Prepo0itia
1?.1. Entro#ucere
$repozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie.
$repozitiile nu au un inteles de sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse
in legatura cu alte cuvinte.
Sa observam catedra profesorului si multitudinea de prepozitii pe care le
putem folosi pentru a o descrie:
/ou can sit be#ore the desk %or in #ront o# the desk&* )he professor can sit
on the desk %when he-s being informal& or behind the desk, and then his
feet are under the desk or beneath the desk* +e can stand beside the
desk %meaning ne-t to the desk&, be#ore the desk, bet(een the desk and
you, or even on the desk %if he-s really strange&* (f he-s clumsy, he can
bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk %and stuff would fall
o## the desk&* $assing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows u"on
the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks o# the desk or
concerning the desk as if there were nothing else li9e the desk* 2ecause
he thinks of nothing e-ce"t the desk, sometimes you wonder about the
desk, what-s in the desk, what he paid #or the desk, and if he could live
(ithout the desk* /ou can walk to(ard the desk, to the desk, around the
desk, b% the desk, and even "ast the desk while he sits at the desk or
leans against the desk*
&uvintele evidentiate sunt toate prepozitii.
0n limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o
prepozitie.
1?.2. ,repo*itii #e timp3 at, on, in
&t se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta
Ex.: )he train is due at FM3FJ p*m*
n indica zilele si datele calendaristice
Ex.: My brother is coming on Monday*
,e-re having a party on the Dourth of .uly*
8n se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna,
anotimpul, anul.
Ex.: She likes to jog in the morning*
(t-s too cold in winter to run outside*
+e started the job in FGNF*
+e-s going to quit in :ugust*
1?.2. ,repo*itii #e loc3 at, on, in
&t se foloseste cu adrese exacte.
Ex.: 4rammar English lives at JJ 2oret< @oad in ;urham*
n desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc.
Ex.: +er house is on 2oret< @oad*
8n se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, !udete, tari, state, continente.
Ex.: She lives in ;urham*
;urham is in ,indham 0ounty*
,indham 0ounty is in 0onnecticut*
,repo*itii #e loc3 in, at, on si lipsa prepo*itiei
8; &T ; lipsa prepozitiei
(the bedS
the bed
room
the car
(the classS
the libraryS
schoolS
classS
home
the libraryS
the office
schoolS
9or;
the bedS
the ceiling
the floor
the horse
the plane
the train
do9nstairs
do9nto9n
inside
outside
upstairs
upto9n
S 0n diverse circumstante se pot folosi prepozitii diferite pentru aceste
locuri.
1?.3. ,repo*itii #e miscare3 to si lipsa prepo*itiei
To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc.
Ex.: )hey were driving to work together*
She-s going to the dentist-s office this morning*
To(ard si to(ards exprima de asemenea miscarea.
)cestea doua sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot
folosi indiferent.
Ex.: ,e-re moving toward the light*
)his is a big step towards the project-s completion*
&u urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside,
downstairs, upstairs, nu se folosesc prepo*itii.
Ex.: 4randma went upstairs 4randpa went home*
)hey both went outside*
1?.4. ,repo*itii #e timp3 for si since
)or se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile,
luni, ani.
Ex.: +e held his breath for seven minutes*
She-s lived there for seven years*
)he 2ritish and (rish have been quarreling for seven centuries*
Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta.
Ex.: +e-s worked here since FGNP*
She-s been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty*
1?.%. ,repo*itii cu substantive, a#+ective si verbe
#umeroase substantive, ad!ective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai
insotite de prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul.
27/$N/E.4F4 si ,G4,-HE/EEF4
approval of
a9areness of
belief in
concern for
confusion about
desire for
fondness for
grasp of
hatred of
hope for
interest in
love of
need for
participation in
reason for
respect for
success in
understanding of
$5I40/E.4F4 si ,G4,-HE/EEF4
afraid of
angry at
a9are of
capable of
careless about
familiar 9ith
fond of
happy about
interested in
!ealous of
made of
married to
proud of
similar to
sorry for
sure of
tired of
9orried about
.4G74F4 si ,G4,-HE/EEF4
apologize for
as; about
as; for
belong to
bring up
care for
find out
give up
gro9 up
loo; for
loo; for9ard to
loo; up
ma;e up
pay for
prepare for
study for
tal; about
thin; about
trust in
9or; for
9orry about
&ombinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal (ve<i E.@.-erbe
frazale.
1?.9. 4xpresii i#iomatice cu prepo*itii
agree to a proposal, (ith a person, on a price, in principle
argue about a matter, (ith a person, #or or against a proposition
compare to to show likenesses, (ith to show differences %sometimes
similarities&
correspond to a thing, (ith a person
differ #rom an unlike thing, (ith a person
live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, (ith other people
1?.<. ,repo*itii inutile
0n vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au
rostul. 6bserva urmatoarele exemple:
Ex.: She met up with the new coach in the hallway*
)he book fell off of the desk*
+e threw the book out of the window*
She wouldn-t let the cat inside of the house* %sau folositi LinL&
,here did they go to?
$ut the lamp in back of the couch* %se va folosi LbehindL&
,here is your college at?
1. &ompleteaza urmatoarele propozitii cu at, in sau on:
)hey live 555 in 0oronation Street 555 number OM*
.ack works 555 1"ford 555 the Aniversity*
(-ve left my briefcase 555 the office* ( think ( left it 555 the chair 555the
corner*
Meet me 555 the bus-stop 555 the end of 2ristol @oad*
)hey live 555 Seal, a small village 555 the road to Dolkestone*
2. &ompleteaza urmatorul text cu prepozitiile care lipsesc:
(t was 555 the evening 5555 Driday MGth March 555 )ribeca, =ew /ork*
$olice patrolman Swaine and assistant patrolman 2radley were driving 555
Ord :venue* Swaine stopped the patrol car, which was new and shinning,
555 an electrical store* +e needed some batteries* +e got 555 and went
555 the storeQ but he left the keys 555 the car because 2radley stayed 555
the car* Swaine looked 555 the street* (t was crowded 555 early evening
shoppers* (t was brightly lit and lively*
3. 5radu pasa!ul de mai sus in limba romana.
E1,-G/$N/ A
0ncepand cu lunea viitoare, timp de > saptamani, ai acces la testarea
online.
Entra la testul online atunci can# stii ca esti bine pregatitA
5estul online are >N de intrebari grila, fiecare intrebare avand @
variante de raspuns din care doar una singura este corecta.
6data accesat testul online, acesta poate fi sustinut o singura data.
$entru rezolvarea lui ai la dispozitie >N de minute din momentul
accesarii/inceperii testului.
0nchiderea ferestrei in care este afisat testul online, fara a salva
raspunsurile, va duce la anularea accesului tau la test si inscrierea
automata a unui puncta! nul.
#u uita sa salvezi rezultatele cand ai terminat testul sau inainte ca
timpul acordat testarii sa expireH
12F/ 2004A
Echipa :cademia1nline*ro
Gramatica limbii engleze
- tema obligatorie -
Draga Ana,
Ai ajuns aproape de finalul cursului de Gramatica limbii engleze La sfarsitul lectiei din
curs ! "impurile cu aspect perfect, gasesti tema obligatorie, care trebuie realizata in
ec#ipa
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
Nessie surfaces again
The Nessie-spotting season has started again.
An American team yesterday claimed to have made two sightings of the Loch Ness
monster and got them on video film.
Wildlife photographer Erik Beckord! of the National "rypto #oological $ociety of the
%$! said& 'We got film of an obect () to *+ft. long and abo,t *)+ft. o,t from the shore.
The second sighting was two days later on $at,rday at ( pm when something st,ck o,t of
the water and went down again!' -r. Beckord said.
Film-makers claim Nessie sightings
A team from the %nited $tates! which has been monitoring the s,rface of the Loch Ness
with a video camera for the past week! believes it may have seen the monster on two
occasions.
The first claimed sighting was towards the eastern end of the loch. The team says it saw
an obect obo,t ()ft. to *+ft. long crossing the waves and raising its 'head' o,t of the
water. The second! from a point over %r.,hart Bay! m,ch farther along the loch! was of
an obect abo,t /+ft. long moving abo,t three feet below the s,rface.
The team of two! from the National "rypto #oological $ociety and led by Erik Beckord!
a wildlife photographer! has been scanning the s,rface from points along the shore with a
camera capable of filming for *0+ ho,rs witho,t a break.
Alege unul dintre urmatoarele trei roluri:
! fotograful %ri& 'ec&jord, care (ncearca sa (si apere punctul de vedere invoc)nd dovezile
adunate (n sprijinul e*istentei +onstrului din Loc& ,ess,
! un localnic, satul de toata tevatura pe marginea acestui monstru si care considera ca
discutia este o pierdere de vreme,
! un ziarist independent, care este desc#is ambelor puncte de vedere si le (ncurajeaza prin
(ntrebari iscoditoare (n vederea elaborarii unui reportaj
-onstruieste individual sau (mpreuna cu ec#ipa din care faci parte, o scurta argumentatie
de apro*imativ 1./ de cuvinte pornind de la personajul si punctul de vedere ales
"rimite tema obligatorie tutorului cel mai t)rziu pana la data limita a testarii online,
afisata (n contul fiecaruia -alificativul primit la tema obligatorie (mpreuna cu punctajul
obtinut la testul online vor constitui absolvirea cursului de Gramatica limbii engleze
+ulta bafta0
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
La cursul de Gramatica limbii engleze, tu faci parte din ec#ipa , formata din:
! -reanga -orina ! email: mar12mimitz131a#oocom
! Ana Simona 4onescu ! email: anomisana31a#oocom
! Georgeta 4van ! email: biallpan3gmailcom
4a legatura prin email cu colegii tai de ec#ipa0
Tema obligatorie completa va fi trimisa de catre un membru al echipei tutorului de
curs - ristina oblis! la adresa cristina"academiaonline#ro# $u uitati sa scrieti
numarul echipei din care faceti parte#
"utorul va evalua munca voastra cu un calificativ ! acelasi pentru toata ec#ipa
-alificativele vor fi trecute de catre tutor sau autorul de curs direct (n catalogul online si
pe diploma pe care o poti solicita la final Alte informatii gasesti in sectiunea
%5AL6A7% a fiecarui curs si in sectiunea 4nfo-entru a sitului 888academiaonlinero
Succes0
Adrian 9irican
director ed,cational ! Academia :nline