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GENERALITATI: Se scriu cu litera mare: Letter A ( ) D E * G + I , L . N / !

0 R S T 1 2 3 4 5 Z

Nume proprii; Nume de tari si localitati; Titluri de carti si filme; Denumiri istorice; Institutii; Zilele saptamanii, lunile anului; Adjecti e care denumesc nationalitatea; !ersoana I sin"ular #$ I%&'
Letter name a bee cee dee e ef gee aitch i jay kay el or ell em en o pee cue ar ess tee u vee double-u ex wy or wye zed !ronunciation ei bi si di i ef di eit ai dei kei el em en u pi kju : es ti ju vi dblju: eks wai zed

6' Su7stanti ul
6'6' *elul su7stanti elor Substantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii:

substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp substantive proprii: England, London, Mr mith, Mary substantive a7stracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy substantive colecti e: crowd, group, team

6'8' Genul Substantive de "enul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin: Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog

Substantivele de "enul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin: Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe Substantive de "enul neutru sunt lucrurile plantele animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut !pronume: it"t#e$%: Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby Exceptii: tarile navele n majoritatea cazurilor si autove#iculele sau alte ve#icule sunt de genul feminin. Substantivele de "enul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra n aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe: Ex.: child !copil copila% cook !bucatar bucatareasa% teacher !profesor profesoara%. &nele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin: Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, dog - bitch, bull - cow, king - !ueen 6'9' Numarul 'umarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte.

Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife, world, storm (luralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular: Ex.: cat"s#cats, day"s#days, world"s#worlds (luralul substantivelor teminate n c:, o, s:, s, ; se formeaza adaug)nd es la singular. Ex.: church"es#churches, bush"es#bushes, class"es#classes, potato"es#potatoes, bush"es#bushes, box"es#boxes

6'9'6' !luralul nere"ulat Substantive terminate n consoana<= fac pluralul n ies: Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies &nele substantive terminate n o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s. Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos &nele substantive terminate n f sau fe vor suferi la plural sc#imbarea n es. Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves, wolf - wolves Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf - wharfs$ wharves *)teva substantive formeaza pluralul prin sc#imbarea unei vocale interne Ex.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth (luralul substantivului child este children. &nele substantive ram)n identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series, sheep, species, fish 6'9'8 !luralul su7stanti elor compuse +n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuv)nt va trece la plural. Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente. Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants +n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv , prepozitie " adverb , substantiv substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului. Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up -brevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s Ex.: M%s &Members of %arliament', ()%s &very important persons'

6'>' Su7stanti ele unice #uncounta7le nouns& Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara !uncountable% deoarece reprezinta fie unicate obiecte puternic individualizate notiuni abstracte.

Nume de su7stante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone, wood A7stractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help, information, news, beauty, experience, horror, knowledge, friendship, theory, literature Alte su7stanti e: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage, parking, weather

Substantivele unice sunt ntotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular: Ex.: *his coffee is cold+ *he weather was dreadful+ 'u sunt precedate de a$an. pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some, any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc. Ex.: ) do not want any help+ ) need some information+ *his slice of bread is hard+ *he piece of advice you gave me helped+ 'ota: /ulte dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara astfel devenind substantive comune si comport)ndu-se ca atare !primes a"an la singular pot avea plural%. Sens 1nic ? Sens )omun ,er hair is black. !(arul ei este negru.% he found a hair in the milk. !- gasit un fir de par n lapte.% *heir house was made of wood. !*asa lor este din lemn.% -e picnicked in the woods. !-m mers la picnic n padure.% 6'@' *orma posesi a Se adauga As la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina n s: Ex.: a child.s voice, the people.s choice, a horse.s mouth, women.s clothes 0om folosi doar apostroful !A% cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina n s. Ex.: a boys. school, the /ohnsons. residence 'umele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof !A% fie As Ex.: Mr /ones.s $ Mr /ones. car, 0eats.s $ 0eats. poems +n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuv)nt va primi As Ex.: My father-in-law.s guitar, ,enry the Eighth.s wives As se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri. Ex.: *he 1E2.s assistant, the %M.s speech 1orma posesiva se foloseste n general c)nd vorbim de oameni animale tari. Se foloseste de asemenea n urmatoarele cazuri: o +n expresii temporale Ex.: yesterday.s newspaper, in five years. time, ten minutes. break o +n expresii construite dupa modelul 7ani < Bort: Ex.: ten dollars. worth of bananas, a shilling.s worth of stamps o +n alte expresii uzuale: Ex.: for heaven.s sake, a winter.s day, the water.s edge, the plane.s wings, the train.s departure +n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci c)nd sensul comunicarii este clar !magazine birouri oficii casa locuinta%. Ex.: 2ou can buy this at the baker.s &shop'+ Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent.s &office'+ *he kids went to 3obby.s &house'+

3deea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of<su7stanti . -ceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata. Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house ) took the advice of the girl ) met on the bus and went to buy the book+

8' Articolul
(entru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr-o propozitie oarecare acesta trebuie sa fie nsotit de un determinant substantival. *el mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. -rticolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:

-rticolul #otar)t - the -rticolul ne#otar)t - a / an -rticolul zero !forma implicita sau neexprimata%

-rticolele sunt forme invariabile adica nu se sc#imba n functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat. 8'6' Articolul :otarCt #the& se foloseste: +naintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat n contextul respectiv Ex.: 4n elephant and a mouse fell in love+ *he mouse loved the elephant.s long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse.s tiny nose+

-tunci c)nd at)t vorbitorul c)t si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de substantiv desi nu a mai fost mentionat n context. Ex.: - -here.s the bathroom5 - )t.s on the first floor+ +n propozitii sau fraze n care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte: Ex.: *he man we met yesterday at the bus station+ *he girl in red is her neighbor+ 4eferitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice: Ex.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars 4nn is in the garden &the garden of this house'+ +naintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first, second, thirds etc si only: Ex.: the best day, the first week, the last chapter, the only way +naintea unor adjective pentru a te referi n general la un grup de oameni care au n comun o anumita nsusire !sunt frumosi tineri batr)ni japonezi etc%: Ex.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the /apanese, the 3ritish 'ume de locuri geografice oceane r)uri mari deserturi munti regiuni: Ex.: the 1aribbean, the ahara, the 4tlantic Se foloseste naintea unor nume proprii !muzee institutii celebre #oteluri ziare orc#estre grupuri muzicale vapoare nume de famili la plural etc%: Ex.: the 6ational 7allery, the 8oyal hakespeare, the avoy, the 3eatles, the pice 7irls, the 7uardian, the *elegraph, the 9aily, the *itanic, the *ower of London, the ,ouse of %arliament, the miths 5ecade secole grupe de ani: Ex.: My parents went to :niversity in the seventies+

8'8' Articolul ne:otarCt #a / an& Se foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si an naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o vocala !a, e, i, o, u% Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an opera Exceptii: An nainte de un # mut - an hour, an honor. A nainte de u sau eu atunci c)nd se pronunta ca you: a European, a university, a unit -rticolul ne#otar)t se foloseste:

(entru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data: Ex.: -ould you like a drink5 ).ve finally got a good job+ (entru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase.

Exemple: cu nume de profesii: /ohn is an engineer+ Mary is training to be a nurse+ cu nationalitati si religii: /ohn is an Englishman+ ;ate is a 1atholic+ cu instrumente muzicale: herlock ,olmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived+ cu numele zilelor: ) was born on a *hursday+ pentru a desemna un fel de sau un exemplu de: *he mouse had a tiny nose+ )t was a very strange car cu substantice la singular dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: -hat a bluff< ,e is such a prodigious young man+ atunci c)nd te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana ec#ivaleaza cu one: ).d like an orange and two lemons please+ *he burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting+ 4etineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.

8'9' a / an si one

-tunci c)nd numeri sau masori timpul distanta greutatea etc. se poate folosi fie a?an fie one pentru singular: Ex.: a $ one pound, a $ one million pounds 0ou can take an$ one hour for lunch+ 5ar a$an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru: Ex.: 4 box is no good+ &-e need a crate not a box'+ 2ne box is no good, we need two boxes+

8'>' Articolul Dero 'u se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri: *u nume de tari !la singular% Ex.: 7ermany is an important economic power+ ,e.s just returned from 4rgentina+ !+nsa: ).m visiting the :nited tates next week+%

*u numele limbilor: Ex.: =rench is spoken in *ahiti+ English uses many words of Latin origin+ *u numele meselor: Ex.: Lunch is at midday+ 9inner is in the evening+ 3reakfast is the first meal of the day+ *u numele persoanelor !la singular%: Ex.: /ohn.s coming to the party+ 7eorge ;ing is my uncle+ !+nsa: -e.re having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow+% *u titluri si nume: Ex.: %rince 1harles is >ueen Elizabeth.s son+ %resident ;ennedy was assassinated in 9allas+ 9r+ -atson was herlock ,olmes. friend+ !+nsa: the >ueen of England, the %ope+% 5upa cazul posesiv format cu As: Ex.: ,is sister.s car+ Laura.s basket+ *u numele profesiilor: Ex+? Engineering is a useful career+ ,e.ll probably go into medicine+ *u nume de magazine: Ex.: ).ll get the card at mith.s+ 1an you go to 3oots for me5 *u ani: Ex.: @ABC was a wonderful year+ 9o you remember @AAD5 *u substantive unice !uncountable nouns%: Ex.: Milk is often added to tea in England+ -ar is destructive+ *u numele unor munti lacuri si insule: Ex.: Mount Mc;inley is the highest mountain in 4laska+ he lives near Lake -indermere+ ,ave you visited Long )sland5

*u majoritatea numelor de strazi orase statii pentru mijloacele de transport si aeroporturi: Ex.: (ictoria tation is in the centre of London+ 1an you direct me to 3ond treet5 he lives in =lorence+ *hey.re flying from ,eathrow+ +n unele expresii invariabile: Ex.: by car, at school, at work, at :niversity, in church, in prison, in bed, by train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air &in broadcasting'

9' Adjecti ul
9'6' *orma adjecti ului -djectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si sc#imba forma n functie de gen sau numar. Ex.: - #ot potato some #ot potatoes. (entru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi ver$ reall$: Ex.: - ver$ #ot potato some reall$ #ot potatoes. 9'8' !oDitia adjecti ului

5e obicei adjectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: - good movie. 5upa verbe auxiliare ca to be to become to seem to look to taste to appear to feel to keep to make to smell to sound to turn etc: Ex.: 6#e movie is good.

2ou seem upset. 6#is c#eese tastes different. 5upa substantiv n expresii fixe: Ex.: t#e (rincess 4o$al t#e (resident elect t#e court martial *)teva adjective ca de exemplu c#ief main poor !7unfortunate% stau numai n fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: 6#is is t#e main purpose of t#e meeting. 6#at poor woman was living in a garage. -ltele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep upset awake afraid alike alive alone anno$ed ill well sorr$ Ex.: 8e9s asleep. 39m alone. &nele adjective si sc#imba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. -djectivele involved present concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate n fata substantivului sau dupa acesta. Ex.: 6#ese are t#e people involved " concerned. !t#e people w#o #ave somet#ing to do wit# t#e matter% 6#e$ #ad an involved discussion on t#e matter. !detailed complex% 3 am a concerned mot#er. !worried anxious% 6#e list of t#e students present is outside on t#e door. !students w#o were t#ere% 6#e present status of t#e matter re:uires urgent attention. !current%

9'9' *unctiile adjecti ului -djectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. -djectivele pot exprima:

Sentimente sau calitati: Ex.: 6#e$ make an original couple. S#e is a single mot#er. 'ationalitatea sau originea: Ex.: 4icardo is Spanis#. 8is mot#er is -rgentinean and #is fat#er is *anadian. 3 boug#t #im a Swiss watc# for *#ristmas. 5iferite caracteristici ale unui obiect: Ex.: 6#e table is long. 6#e steel tra$ was a gift. 0)rsta: Ex.: /$ #at is too old. 3 will bu$ anot#er one. 8e is still ver$ $oung almost a bo$. 5imensiuni marime si masuri: Ex.: ;<one wit# t#e =ind; is a ver$ long film. 6#at bo$ is too tall. *uloarea: Ex.: 3 #ave a red jacket to go wit# m$ new w#ite skirt. /aterie " material: Ex.: 8e wore a cotton s#irt. 3t was a silver tra$ not a steel tra$. 1orma: Ex.: - rectangular envelope. - round table. >udecati pareri sau opinii: Ex.: <rammar is fascinating. 6#e s#ow was entertaining.

9'>' /rdinea adjecti elor

-tunci c)nd se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: 0alue"opinion Size -ge"6emperature S#ape *olour ?rigin /aterial 0alue"opinion Size delicious, lovely, charming small, huge, tiny

-ge"6emperature old, hot, young, little S#ape *olour ?rigin /aterial round, s!uare, rectangular red, blonde, black wedish, (ictorian, 1hinese plastic, wooden, silver

Exemple: a green round plastic bucket an elegant little 1renc# clock a small round wooden table 9'@' Gradele de comparatie ale adjecti elor 9'@'6' *ormarea comparati ului si superlati ului Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv !nalt% comparativ !mai nalt% superlativ !cel mai nalt%. +n limba engleza comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel: Numar de sila7e #!oDiti & o sila7a tall -djectivele formate dintr-o silaba @consoana , o vocala , consoanaA vor dubla consoana finala: fat big sad doua sila7e , -djectivele terminate n: -y, -ly, -ow fatter bigger sadder fattest biggest saddest )omparati < -er taller Superlati < -est tallest

< -er SA1 more < -est SA1 < adj most < adj

, -djectivele terminate n: -le, -er sau -ure , &rmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, !uiet happy yellow simple tender 5aca nu esti sigur foloseste more , adj S-& most , adj. 'ota: -djectivele terminate n -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor nlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa: busy trei sau mai multe sila7e important expensive busier more < adj busiest most < adj happier$ more happy yellower$ more yellow simpler$ more simple tenderer$ more tender happiest$ most happy yellowest$ most yellow simplest$ most simple tenderest$ most tender

more important most important more expensive most expensive

Exemple: a. - cat is fast a tiger is faster but a c#eeta# is t#e fastest. b. - car is #eav$ a truck is #eavier but a train is t#e #eaviest. c. - park benc# is comfortable a restaurant c#air is more comfortable but a sofa is t#e most comfortable. 9'@'8' *orme nere"ulate &rmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate: !oDiti good bad little old )omparati better worse less older $ elder Superlati best worst least oldest $ eldest most

much / many more

far

further $ farther furthest $ farthest

9'@'9' )omparatia adjecti elor


t#e , superlative Ex.: 6#is is t#e oldest t#eater in Bondon. comparative , t#an - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte evenimente sau fiinte: Ex.: 8e makes fewer mistakes t#an $ou do. 6#ailand is sunnier t#an 'orwa$. -lbert is more intelligent t#an -rt#ur. as , adjective , as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni locuri fiinte evenimete sau obiecte ntre care nu exista diferente: Ex.: (eter is CD $ears old. >o#n is CD $ears old. (eter is as old as >o#n. 4amona is as #app$ as 4ap#ael. - tiger is as dangerous as a lion. not as , adjective , as - putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so"as ...as: Ex.: /ont Elanc is not as #ig# as /ount Everest. 'orwa$ is not as sunn$ as 6#ailand

>' Ad er7ul
-dverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum unde c)nd c)t de frecvent sau n ce masura are loc o actiune. >'6' *unctia ad er7elor -stfel adverbele determina n general verbe: Ex.: 6#e bus moved slowl$. !cumF% 3 am going #ome tomorrow. !c)ndF% -dverbele pot determina si adjective: 2ou look absolutel$ fabulousG Sau alte adverbe: S#e pla$ed t#e violin extremel$ well. 2ou9re speaking too :uietl$. Sau c#iar propozitii intregi: (er#aps we9ll see $ou again next $ear. >'8' *orma ad er7elor >'8'6' Ad er7ele se formeaDa de cele mai multe ori prin adau"area unui El= la forma de sin"ular a adjecti ului: Ad er7 E;emple !-djectiv , l$% carefully !uickly slowly ,e carefully picked up a tie+ *ime goes !uickly+ ,e walked slowly to the door+

Adjecti careful !uick slow

/odificari ortografice:

5aca adjectivul se termina in -$ acesta se va inlocui cu -i , -l$. Ex.: eas$ - easil$ angr$ - angril$ luck$ - luckil$ *)nd avem un -le terminal !-able -ible -le% dispare -e si este inlocuit cu -$. Ex.: probable - probabl$ terrible - terribl$ gentle - gentl$ -djectivele terminate in -ic adauga -all$. Ex.: basic - basicall$ economic - economicall$ tragic - tragicall$ Exceptie: public - publicl$ 1orme neregulate Ex.: true - trul$ due - dul$ w#ole - w#oll$

>'8'8' 1nele ad er7e au aceeasi forma ca si adjecti ele: E;': earl=, fast, :ard, :i":, late, near, strai":t, Bron" *ompara: 6#is is a #ard exercise. !adjectiv% 8e works #ard. !adverb% =e saw man$ #ig# buildings. !adjectiv% 6#e bird flew #ig# in t#e sk$. !adverb%

>'8'9' 1nor adjecti e le corespund doua forme ad er7iale, care au sensuri diferite: Adjecti *orme ad er7iale E;emple deep direct first @+ deep E+ deeply @+ direct E+ directly @+ first E+ firstly ,e looked deep into her eyes+ !adanc% he is deeply in love+ !profund p)na peste cap% 0ou can dial 6ew 0ork direct+ !n mod direct% ,e went there directly+ !direct fara nt)rziere% My mother came in first, then my brothers and sisters+ !nt)i% Firstly, ) would like to welcome you here+ !n primul r)nd%

-lte exemple: #ard lig#t just last late most near prett rig#t round s#ort wrong. 3ell ? Good -ell este adverbul care corespunde formei adjectivale good. *hey are good swimmers+ *hey swim well+ he is a good pianist+ he plays the piano well+ >'9' Gradele de comparatie ale ad er7elor -dverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si adjectivele !vezi: H.I. <radele de comparatie ale adjectivelor%:

-dauga -er pentru comparativ si -est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr-o singura silaba: #ard #arder - #ardest -dauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in -l$: seriousl$ - more seriousl$ - most seriousl$ &nele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badl$ - worse - worst little - less - least well - better - best muc# - more - most

5e retinutG &neori most poate avea sensul de ver$: =e were most grateful for $our #elp. 3 am most impressed b$ t#is application. >'>' )lasificarea ad er7elor J. C. H. D. I. -dverbe de mod -dverbe de loc si directie -dverbe de timp durata si frecventa -dverbe de probabilitate -dverbe de grad

>'>'6' Ad er7e de mod -dverbele de mod ne arata cum in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia. Exemple: 8e swims well. !dupa verb% 8e ran... rapidl$ slowl$ :uickl$. S#e spoke... softl$ loudl$ aggressivel$. >ames coug#ed loudl$ to attract #er attention. 8e pla$s t#e flute beautifull$. !dupa complement% 8e ate t#e c#ocolate cake greedil$. 6' -dverbul de mod nu se aseaza ntre verb si complement: 3ncorect: ,e ate greedily the chocolate cake+ *orect: ,e ate the chocolate cake greedily+ 8' (ozitia adverbului n propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci c)nd exista mai multe verbe n propozitie. 5aca adverbul este asezat dupa o propozitie atunci acesta modifica ntregul sens exprimat n propozitie. ?bserva diferentele de sens n functie de locul adverbului n propozitie: ,e quietly asked me to leave the house+ !7 cererea lui a fost facuta n liniste% ,e asked me to leave the house quietly+ !7 plecarea a fost facuta n liniste% >'>'8' Ad er7e de loc si directie 'e arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau. Dupa er7: 3 looked ever$w#ere. >o#n looked ...awa$ up down around... 39m going ...#ome out back... Dupa complement: 6#e$ built a #ouse nearb$. S#e took t#e c#ild outside. -. 8ere " t#ere. *u verbe de miscare #ere exprima ideea de nspre" cu " mpreuna cu vorbitorul iar t#ere contrariul departe fara participarea vorbitorului: Ex.: *ome #ere !7 spre mine% 3t9s in #ere !7 vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi% (ut it t#ere !7 departe de mine% 3t9s in t#ere !7 du-te singur sa vezi%
Expresii cu #ere" t#ere: down #ere down t#ere over #ere over t#ere under #ere under t#ere up #ere up t#ere.

E. -dverbele de loc terminate n -wards - exprima ideea de miscare ntr-o anumita directie: Ex.: backwards forwards downwards upwards inwards outwards nort#wards sout#wards eastwards westwards #omewards onwards. *ats don9t usuall$ walk backwards. 6#e s#ip sailed westwards. 5e retinutG 6owards este prepozitie nu adverb astfel nc)t va fi ntotdeauna urmat de un substantiv sau pronume: Ex.: 8e walked towards t#e car. S#e ran towards me. *. -dverbe care exprima at)t locul c)t si directia: a#ead abroad overseas up#ill down#ill sidewa$s indoors outdoors. >'>'9' Ad er7e de timp, durata si frec enta -rata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii. Ex.: *)nd: toda$ $esterda$ later now last $ear 5urata pentru c)t timp: all da$ not long for a w#ile since last $ear *)t de frecvent: sometimes fre:uentl$ never often $earl$ 5e obicei adverbele de timp se aseaza la sf)rsitul propozitiei sau emfatic la nceputul ei: Ex.: ?ne of m$ c#ildren wrote to me $esterda$. Bater t#e bo$ understood t#e stor$. -dverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei: Ex.: S#e sta$ed in t#e #ouse all da$. /$ mot#er lived in 1rance for a $ear. 5e retinutG 1or este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for t#ree da$s for a week for several $ears for two centuries. Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual n timp: since /onda$ since JKKL since t#e last war. -dverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal dar dupa verbele auxiliare !cum ar fi be #ave ma$ must%: 3 often eat vegetarian food. !in fata verbului principal% 2ou must alwa$s fasten $our seat belt. !dupa verbul auxiliar must% 3 #ave never forgotten m$ first kiss. !dupa verbul auxiliar #ave si in fata verbului principal forgotten% &nele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei: 6#is magazine is publis#ed mont#l$. 8e visits #is mot#er once a week. -dverbe de fecventa: fre:uentl$ generall$ normall$ occasionall$ often regularl$ sometimes usuall$. 5e retinutG 2et se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative: 8ave $ou finis#ed $our work $etF 'o not $et. 6#e$ #aven9t met #im $et. Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative. 3 am still #ungr$. 5o $ou still work for t#e EE*F

?rdinea adverbelor de timp 5aca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie ordinea lor va fi: /rdinea J: adverbe de durata C: adverbe de frecventa H: adverbe de timp E;emple 1 + 2 ? ) work &@' for five hours &E' every day+ 2 + 3 ? *he magazine was published &E' weekly &F' last year+ 1 + 3 ? ) was abroad &@' for two months &F' last year+ 1 + 2 + 3 ? he worked in a hospital &@' for two days &E' every week &F' last year+

>'>'>' Ad er7e de si"uranta si pro7a7ilitate -cestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainl$ definitel$ probabl$ undoubtedl$ surel$ ma$be obviousl$ per#aps possibl$ reall$. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal. Ex.: 8e #as certainl$ forgotten t#e meeting. (entru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor se aseaza n debutul frazei: Ex.: &ndoubtedl$ =inston *#urc#ill was a great politician. 5e retinutG Surel$ asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul unei afirmatii dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surel$ $ou9ve got a bic$cleF >'>'@' Ad er7e de "rad -ceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb adjectiv sau adverb: almost nearl$ :uite just too enoug# #ardl$ scarcel$ completel$ ver$ extremel$. Bocul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina fie in fata verbului principal: Ex.: 6#e water was extremel$ cold. 8e was just leaving. S#e #as almost finis#ed. Enoug# ver$ too Enoug# inseamna ;pana la punctul necesar pentru a...; si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb: 3s $our coffee #ot enoug#F !adjectiv% 8e didn9t work #ard enoug#. !adverb% 6oo 7 ;mai mult decat este necesar pentru...; si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului: 6#is coffee is too #ot. !adjective% 8e works too #ard. !adverb% 0er$ intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora: 6#e girl was ver$ beautiful. !adjectiv% 8e worked ver$ :uickl$. !adverb% 5e retinutG Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si ver$: 0er$ exprima un fapt: 8e speaks ver$ :uickl$. 6oo sugereaza existenta unei probleme: 8e speaks too :uickl$ !for me to understand%. -lte adverbe asemanatoare lui ver$: extremel$ especiall$ particularl$ prett$ rat#er :uite fairl$ rat#er not especiall$ not particularl$.

@' !ronumele
@'6' *unctia pronumelui (ronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu caracterizeaza nimic functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv facand astfel referire la o idee obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor. Ex.: /ohn did all the work+ He did all the work+ Who did all the work5 @'8' *orma pronumelui (ronumele au forme specifice in functie de: Numar: singular - this. plural - these )aD: 'ominativ - she. <enitiv - hers. 5ativ - to her. -cuzativ - her Gen: masculin - he. 1eminin - she. neutru - it (ronumele pot fi simple !you, which, many% sau compuse !everybody, whatever, no one%. @'9' )lasificarea pronumelor 5upa continut si functie pronumele pot fi: J. C. H. D. I. M. L. N. (ersonale 4eflexive 'e#otarate 5emonstrative 4elative 5e ntarire 3nterogative 4eciproce

@'9'6' !ronumele personale

Nominati Geniti Sin"ular 3 $ou #e s#e it !lural $ou t#e$ $ours #is #ers its we $ours t#eirs mine

Dati

AcuDati

!to% me me

!to% $ou $ou !to% #im #im !to% #er #er !to% it ours it !to% us us

!to% $ou $ou !to% t#em t#em

3 se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula. )ts !pronume% nu are apostrof. )t.s vine de la it is sau it has *orme ar:aice si poetice: pers. 33 sg. - thou, thine, &to' thee

gave him the book+ He ran the London Marathon+ t.s a pleasure to him+ only played against her once+ *hese books are ours+ )s this pen yours or mine5 !ou / "hey impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general. Ex.: !ou have to drive on the other side of the road in 7reat 3ritain+ "hey say she.s very clever+ t - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta: t impersonal !in expresii impersonale temporale exprimand starea vremii distante sau in contructii pasive% Ex.: )t.s G o.clock+ )t was spring+ )s it Monday5 ,ow hot it is< ,ow far is it to the station5 t demostrati# Ex.: -ho is it5 )t.s the postman+ )t.s the children+

@'9'8' !ronumele refle;i e -cestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana. 1orme: Sin"ular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself !lural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Ex.: ) wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me+ he fell off the ladder and injured herself+ 0ou can do these tasks by yourself or with a partner+ 4fter five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down+ Let.s buy ourselves a chair for the garden+ *hey built the house themselves+ @'9'9' !ronumele ne:otarate ome, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele ne#otarate: anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything. 6o poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one.

-tat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana pronumele ne#otarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular. Alte pronume ne:otarate: enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some. 5e retinutG 5aca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume ci determinanti substantivali. Ex.: =ew will be chosenH fewer will finish+ Little is expected+ @'9'>' !ronumele demonstrati (ronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume cat si ca determinanti substantivali. Ex.: *hat is incredible< !referring to somet#ing $ou just saw% ) will never forget this+ !referring to a recent experience% uch is my belief+ !referring to an explanation just made% *his si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare. Ex.: *hese &pancakes sitting here now on my plate' are delicious+ *hose &pancakes that ) had yesterday morning' were even better+ *his &book in my hand' is well writtenH that &book that ).m pointing to, over there, on the table' is trash+

-ceasta idee de departare se poate transforma c#iar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva: Ex.: 4re you going to wear these5 &*hey are awful+ ) do not like them at all+' 1an you belive ) would have bought that5 @'9'@' !ronumele relati e (ronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior !antecedent% si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat. (ronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that. Ex.: *he student who studies hardest usually does the best+ -legerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba engleza. 3n general which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a sc#imba intelesul frazei. 5in acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. 5in contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule. -ho si formele sale se refera la persoane which se refera la lucruri iar that poate face referire la ambele. Ex.: *he man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to 1uba+ *he couple who live next door have the radio on all night+ *he team that won the championship received a great reception+ *his is the program which won the prize+ -e.ll plant new trees to replace those which fell+

@'9'F' !ronumele de intarire 3nsoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. *a forma sunt identice cu pronumele reflexive: Sin"ular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself !lural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Ex.: ) myself don.t know the answer+ Mary did all this herself+ Mary herself did all this+ E;presii: by myself 7 singur de unul singur Ex.: ) worked by myself+ Little /ane read the story by herself+ @'9'G' !ronumele intero"ati (ronumele interogative introduc intrebari propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte. *orme: who5 what5 which5 whose5 &to' whom5 Ex.: Who said that5 Whose are those books5 ) do not remember to whom ) gave my sweater+

What happened5 What.s the weather like5 @'9'H' !ronumele reciproce *orme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte idei lucruri. Ex.: )f 3ob gave 4licia a book for 1hristmas and 4licia gave 3ob a book for 1hristmas, we can say that they gave each other books+ My mother and ) give each other a hard time+ *hey borrowed each other.s ideas+ De retinutI $ach other se refera la doua o7iecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua o7iecte sau fiinte' E;': "he scientists in this lab often use one another%s equipment& Hoc'ey players hit one another quite frequently&

F' 2er7ul
0erbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr-o propozitie. Ex.: ) am a student+ *he students passed all their courses+ F'6' )ele > forme er7ale 6erminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista D forme verbale de baza. Bimba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu ajutorul er7elor au;iliare spre deosebire de limba romana unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu ajutorul desinentelor. 5e remarcat ca in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor. *ele D forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza: Numele *orma er7ului de 7aDa *orma !articipiul de trecut preDent !articipiul trecut

to wor' 3 can BorJ. 3 BorJed. 3 am BorJin". 3 #ave BorJed.

3 BorJ. to write 3 can Brite. 3 Broted. 3 am Britin". 3 #ave Britten. 3 Brite. )ele mai frec ent folosite er7e nere"ulate &rmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme verbale reprezentative:

1orma de baza adica infinitivul: to fly (ersoana 333 singular a timpului prezent: he flies (ersoana 333 singular a trecutului: he flew (articipiul trecut: he has flown

0erbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr-o propozitie. Ex.: ) am a student+ *he students passed all their courses+ F'6' )ele > forme er7ale 6erminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista D forme verbale de baza. Bimba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu ajutorul er7elor au;iliare spre deosebire de limba romana unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu ajutorul desinentelor. 5e remarcat ca in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor. *ele D forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza: Numele *orma er7ului de 7aDa to wor' to write *orma !articipiul de trecut preDent !articipiul trecut

3 can BorJ. 3 BorJed. 3 am BorJin". 3 #ave BorJed. 3 BorJ.

3 can Brite. 3 Broted. 3 am Britin". 3 #ave Britten. 3 Brite. )ele mai frec ent folosite er7e nere"ulate &rmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme verbale reprezentative:

1orma de baza adica infinitivul: to fly (ersoana 333 singular a timpului prezent: he flies (ersoana 333 singular a trecutului: he flew (articipiul trecut: he has flown !resent T:ird !erson !ast T:ird !erson arises is bears arose was"were bore !ast !articiple arisen been borne

(ase *orm arise be bear

begin bite blow break bring bu$ catc# c#oose come creep dive do drag draw dream drink drive drown eat fall fig#t fl$ forget forgive freeze get give go grow #ang #ide know la$ lead lie lig#t lose prove ride ring rise run see seek set s#ake sing sink sit speak spring steal

begins bites blows breaks brings bu$s catc#es c#ooses comes creeps dives does drags draws dreams drinks drives drowns eats falls fig#ts flies forgets forgives freezes gets gives goes grows #angs #ides knows la$s leads lies lig#ts loses proves rides rings rises runs sees seeks sets s#akes sings sinks sits speaks springs steals

began bit blew broke broug#t boug#t caug#t c#ose came crept dived"dove did dragged drew dreamed"dreamt drank drove drowned ate fell foug#t flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew #ung #id knew laid led la$ lit lost proved rode rang rose ran saw soug#t set s#ook sang sank sat spoke sprang stole

begun bitten"bit blown broken broug#t boug#t caug#t c#osen come crept dived done dragged drawn dreamt drunk driven drowned eaten fallen foug#t flown forgotten forgiven frozen got"gotten given gone grown #ung #idden known laid led lain lit lost proved"proven ridden rung risen run seen soug#t set s#aken sung sunk sat spoken sprung stolen

sting strike swear swim swing take tear t#row uses wake wear write

stings strikes swears swims swings takes tears t#rows used wakes wears writes

stung struck swore swam swung took tore t#rew used woke"waked wore wrote

stung struck sworn swum swung taken torn t#rown used woken"waked"woke worn written

F'8' 2er7ele au;iliare E be( ha#e( do 0erbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale a formelor negative si interogative. Ex.: ,e is planning to get married soon+ ) haven.t seen %eter since last night+ )e ca auxiliar este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu in combinatie cu participiul prezent. Ex.: ,e is living in 7ermany+ )e mpreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva Ex.: *hese cars are made in /apan+ Ha#e in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte. Ex.: ) have changed my mind+ ) wish you had met 7uy+ (rezentul perfect continuu trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele auxiliare be si ha#e: Ex.: ,e has been working very hard recently+ he did not know how long she had been lying there+ )e si ha#e se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii negative si interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte. Ex.: ,e isn.t going+ ,asn.t she seen it yet5 -uxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului sau trecutului simplu. Ex.: ,e doesn.t think he can come to the party+ 9o you like her new haircut5 -uxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have. Ex.: ,e didn.t do his homework+ ,e doesn.t have any money+ 3n propozitii afirmative do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau contrast. Ex.: 3 do feel sorr$ for 4oger. 'u se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be.

Singura exceptie este imperativul: 9on.t be stupid< 9o be a god boy and sit still< F'9' .odul .odul er7al se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un vorbitor fata de continutul mesajului exprimat. .odul indicati prezent in majoritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina se foloseste pentru a face o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare. .odul imperati se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni ordine directive sugestii cu caracter pronuntat. Ex.: 7et your homework done before you watch television tonight+ %lease include cash payment with your order form+ 7et out of town< Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. (ronumele you !singular sau plural% este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative. /ajoritatea propozitiilor imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana 33. Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la persoana 3 Ex.: Let.s &or Let us' work on these things together+ .odul su7joncti se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele scopuri: J. C. H. D. expresia unei dorinte. fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii ireale fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri sugestii solicitari.

Ex.: he wishes her boyfriend were here+ )f /uan were more aggressive, he.d be a better hockey player+ -e would have passed if we had studied harder+ ,e acted as if he were guilty+ ) re!uested that he b Subjonctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte limbi de exemplu in franceza sau spaniola. 3n multe situatii care in alte limbi cer subjonctivul in limba engleza sunt folosite formele numeroaselor verbe auxiliarele.

F'>' 2er7ele fraDale ? alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. 0erbele frazale sunt formate dintr-un verb si un alt cuvant de obicei o prepozitie. Ele au luat nastere in vorbirea de zi cu zi. 0erbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de g#icit la prima vedere si pot avea mai multe astfel de intelesuri de multe ori diferite. 6e exemplu to come out are JN intelesuri diferiteG 0erbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi entitati. Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand pat, stand down, stand against, stand for.

/ai mult verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul respectiv Ex.: =ill this out< =ill out this form+ !a completa un formular% *hree masked gunmen held up the ecurity 3ank this afternoon+ !a jefui% 0ou left out the part about the police chase down 4sylum 4venue+ !a omite% *he lawyers looked over the papers carefully before !uestioning the witness+ !a examina%e present at the hearing+

G' Timpurile er7ale: preDentul simplu si continuu


Este foarte important sa intelegem utilizarea si sensul timpurilor in limba engleza. /ulte dintre aceste forme verbale nu au corespondent in limba romana. /ai mult sensul exprimat de formele verbale in limba engleza nu corespunde intotdeauna cu cel utilizat in limba romana. G'6' )lasificarea timpurilor er7ale G'6'6' in functie de timp: !reDentul: J. (rezentul simplu C. (rezentul continuu H. (rezent perfect D. (rezent perfect continuu Trecutul: I. 6recut simplu M. 6recut continuu L. 6recut perfect N. 6recut perfect continuu 2iitorul: K. 0iitorul simplu JO. 0iitorul continuu JJ. 0iitorul perfect JC. 0iitorul perfect continuu 6' !REZENT1L SI.!L1 6'6' *orma (rezentul simplu are forma de baza a verbului !write, work%. Ba persoana a 333-a sg. forma de baza + -s !he writes, she works%. Ex.: ) play, you play, we play, they play ,e plays, she plays, it plays 1orma negativa se formeaza cu auxiliarul do: Ex.: ) do not drink tea+ he$he does not play football+ 1orma interogativa: Ex.: 9o you work here5 *oes she$he sing beautifully5 ?bs. 1orma prezentului simplu pentru you persoana a 33-a singular si plural este identica. (ersoana a 333-a singular a prezentului simplu adauga -s la sfarsitG 6'8' *unctii: -ctiuni obisnuite care se intampla in prezent sau in mod regulat dar nu neaparat in momentul exact al vorbirii:

Ex.: Mina plays tennis every weekend+ *he %ost office opens at A?BD+ -devaruri sau realitati general acceptate: Ex.: ome vegetarians eat fish but they do not eat meat+ -inds carry weather balloons around the earth at the height of EB kilometers+ Expresia opiniilor: Ex.: ) think pain is beautiful+ *hey believe everything they read+ Expresie a preferintelor: Ex.: Lisette likes cats and dogs, but she prefers cats+ /im prefers maths to languages+ Se foloseste pentru a exprima asa numitul prezent istoric facand astfel referire la actiuni care s-au intamplat de fapt in trecut. Ex.: -e were watching the back door when, all of a sudden, in walks 9ierdre+ 9ierdre tells me that she took her brother to the dentist+ (rezentul simplu poate avea valenta de viitor mai ales cu verbe ca: arrive, come, leave care sugereaza evenimente planuite sau programate: Ex.: *he train from 3oston arrives this afternoon at two o.clock+ ,igh tide is at F?@D p+m+ *he uper 3owl starts at I?@D p+m+ Expresii care semnaleaza frecvent actiunile obisnuite exprimate prin prezentul simplu: all the time, always, every classe, every day, every holiday, every hour, every month, every semester, every week, every year, most of the time, never, often, rarely, sometimes, usually 6'9' )onju"are sin"ular 3 walk plural $ou walk #e"s#e"it walks t#e$ walk #e"s#e"it sleeps

we walk $ou walk

sin"ular 3 sleep $ou sleep plural

we sleep $ou sleep t#e$ sleep $ou are $ou are #e"s#e"it is t#e$ are

sin"ular 3 am plural we are

Exemple: ) wal' to work every day+ *he 1hicago 3ulls sometimes practice in this gymnasium+ 9r+ Espinoza operates according to her own schedule+ 1oach 1alhoun recruits from countries outside the :+ +4+ 8' !REZENT1L )/NTIN11

8'6' *orma -cest timp se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be la prezent , forma de baza a verbului , -ing !participiu prezent%. Ex.: ) am buying all my family.s 1hristmas gifts early this year+ he is wor'ing through the holiday break+ 1orma negativa - se adauga not dupa forma de prezent simplu a auxiliarului to be. Ex.: )t is not raining+ 1orma interogativa se obtine prin inversiunea auxiliarului to be cu subiectul: Ex.: -re t#e$ pla$ingF 3s #e eatingF 8'8' *unctii (rezentul continuu indica: o actiune care se afla in plina desfasurare in momentul vorbirii. Ex.: *he phone is ringing+ ) can.t answer it+ ).m washing my hair+ )t.s raining so they have to stop the game+ ? actiune care se afla in desfasurare in perioada prezenta dar care poate nu se intampla concomitent cu momentul vorbirii. Ex.: *hey are writing a new book+ he.s studying English at the Language 1enter+ 5escrie o tendinta sau actiune care a debutat recent: Ex.: More and more people are starting to play golf in Malaysia+ (entru a desemna o actiune care este planificata pentru viitor: Ex.: *o meet the demand for English language courses, they are planning to expand+ Mohan is leaving for London next week+ 8'9' 2er7ele dinamice si statice 3n general numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc verbe dinamice. -spectul continuu al unui verb arata ca o actiune este era sau va fi in desfasurare. 1ormele verbale progresive !aspectul continuu% se folosesc numai in cazul verbelor dinamice de miscare care exprima calitati capabile de sc#imbare. 'u se spune ;,e is being tall; sau ;,e is resembling his mother; sau ;) am wanting spaghetti for dinner; ci vom spune: ;,e is tall; ;,e resembles his mother; ;) want spaghetti;. 6abelul urmator descrie in detaliu diferentele dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice:

+$,)$ * -./ 0$ 2er7e care e;prima o acti itate: abandon, ask, beg, call, drink, eat, help, learn, listen, look at, play, rain, read, say, slice, throw, whisper, work, write Ex.: ) am begging you+ ) was learning =rench+ *hey will be playing upstairs+ Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple: Ex.: ) beg you+ ) learned =rench+ *hey will play upstairs+

2er7e care e;prima procese: change, deteriorate, growmature, slow down, widen Ex.: *he corn is growing rapidly+ *raffic is slowing down+ Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple: Ex.: *he corn grows rapidly+ *raffic slows down+ 2er7e de perceptii senDoriale: ache, feel, hurt, itch Ex.: ;) feel bad; si ;) am feeling bad; au acelasi sens in acest caz. 2er7e care e;prima actiuni tranDiti e: arrive, die, fall, land, leave, lose 1ormele continue indica inceputul actiunii pe cand formele temporale simple din contra. Ex.: he was falling out of bed &when ) caught her'+ he falls out of bed every night+ 2er7e e;primand actiuni momentane: hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap 1ormele continue indica durata scurta si sugereaza repetitia. Ex.: he is hitting her brother+ ,e is jumping around the house+ +$,)$ 1"." 0$ +erbe de perceptie( sen2atie( acti#itate mentala3 abhor, adore, astonish, believe, desire, detest, dislike, doubt, feel, forgive, guess, hate, hear, imagine, impress, intend, know, like, love, mean, mind, perceive, please, prefer, presuppose, realize, recall, recognize, regard, remember, satisfy, see, smell, suppose, taste, think, understand, want, wish Ex.: ) detest rudabaga si nu ) am detesting rudabaga. ) prefer cinnamon toast si nu ) am preferring cinnamon toast. 2er7e de relatie si posesie: be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, e!ual, fit, have, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, re!uire, resemble, seem, sound

E;': am sic', si nu am being sic'& own ten acres of land, si nu am owning ten acres' /y brother owes me ten dollars si nu /y brother is owing me ten dollars'
3maginati-va diferenta de inteles dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice prin prisma intentiei cele statice exprimand calitati neintentionate pe cand cele dinamice calitati intentionate: *wo plus two equals four+ /ane is lea#ing for 3ucharest+ E!uals este un verb static si nu poate lua o forma continua. nu exista optiune sau intentie in acest caz. 5oi plus doi a fost si va fi intotdeauna egal cu patru.

s lea#ing e;prima optiunea si intentia su7iectului de a efectua actiunea respecti a'

0erbul to #ave nu se foloseste niciodata in aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de ;a suferi de;: ) ha#e flu+ ,e has a fever+ Se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are intelesul de ;a angaja pe cineva pentru o actiune;: )%m ha#ing my hair done on -ednesday+ *hey%re ha#ing the house painted+ 8ave se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de ;experienta;: )%m ha#ing a lot of problems with this task+ *hey%re ha#ing trouble selling their house+ 8'>' )onju"are sin"ular 3 am walking plural $ou are walking #e"s#e"it is walking

we are walking $ou are walking t#e$ are walking $ou are sleeping #e"s#e"it is sleeping

sin"ular 3 am sleeping plural

we are sleeping $ou are sleeping t#e$ are sleeping $ou are being $ou are being #e"s#e"it is being t#e$ are being

sin"ular 3 am being plural we are being

Exemple: *he summer is passing too !uickly+ 8aoul is acting like his father+ ome football players are not being good role models for youngsters+ )s he being good to you5

H' Timpurile trecutului si iitorului


9' Trecutul simplu 9'6' *orma 0erbele regulate formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea la forma de baza a verbului +-ed. Ex.: scream J screamed, work J worked 0erbele neregulate au forme proprii de trecut. Ex.: sleep J slept, drink J drank 1orma negativa se compune cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do conjugat la trecut !did% + not in fata verbului principal. 9id " not se folosesc des in forma contrasa didn.t. Ex.: ) did not jump over+ he didn%t finish the work+ 1orma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul did si subiect: Ex.: *id you want it5 *id it rain there5

9'8' *unctii 6recutul simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima fapte si realitati din trecut: Ex.: )n the past people believed that the earth was flat+ 5escrie un eveniment sau actiune inc#eiata petrecuta in trecut: Ex.: /ohn Loud invented the ballpoint pen in @CCC+ (entru a descrie starea conditia sau obiceiuri din trecut: Ex.: ) went to school by bus when ) was a child+ 9'9' )onju"are sin"ular 3 walked plural $ou walked #e"s#e"it walked

we walked $ou walked t#e$ walked $ou slept $ou slept $ou were $ou were #e"s#e"it slept t#e$ slept #e"s#e"it was t#e$ were

sin"ular 3 slept plural we slept

sin"ular 3 was plural we were

Exemple: -hen ) was a girl, ) wal'ed five miles to school every day+ 1armelita slept through the entire class+ -e wor'ed really hard to make this a success, but then 1huck ruined it with his carelessness+ Every time ) finished a sandcastle, the waves came in and washed it away+ *arzan do#e into the swamp and swam toward the alligator+ >' Trecutul continuu >'6' *orma 6recutul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul formei de trecut simplu a auxiliarului to be was/were , forma participiului prezent !-ing% a verbului principal. Ex.: ) was singing+ 0ou were talking+ 'egativul: Ex.: 0ou were not / weren%t singing+ he was not / wasn%t reading+ 3nterogativul: Ex.: Was ) speaking clearly5 Were they playing the flute5 >'8' *unctii 6recutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale apartinand registrului oral limbii vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar folosite in registrul scris.

6recutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. 5eoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii este foarte folosit pentru a indica actiuni care au avut loc !trecut simplu% in timp ce o alta actiune era in desfasurare sau pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare care este intrerupta de o alta. Ex.: 1arlos lost his watch while he was running+ ) was watching 2prah when /ohn came in screaming+ Exprima activitati din trecut: Ex.: 2nce ) was driving through ;enya with a friend+ (entru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. 6recutul continuu este insotit in acest caz de always. Ex.: 7race was always handing in late papers+ My father was always lecturing my brother+ 3n general numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc verbe dinamice. !vezi: C.H. 0erbe dinamice si verbe statice.% >'9' )onju"are sin"ular 3 was walking plural $ou were walking #e"s#e"it was walking

we were walking $ou were walking t#e$ were walking $ou were sleeping #e"s#e"it was sleeping

sin"ular 3 was sleeping plural

we were sleeping $ou were sleeping t#e$ were sleeping $ou were being $ou were being #e"s#e"it was being t#e$ were being

sin"ular 3 was being plural we were being

Exemple: 9ad was wor'ing in his garden all morning+ 9uring the mid-DKs, real estate speculators were buying all the swampland in 1entral =lorida, and innocent people were in#esting all their money in bogus development projects+ Was he being good to you5 @' 2iitorul 3n mod paradoxal limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului dar idee de viitor se poate exprima in nenumarate moduri.

3ill? s:all < infiniti : ,e will be here at D o.clock+ (e "oin" to < infiniti : he.s going to buy a new computer+ !reDentul continuu : *he 3ritish 1ouncil is moving to a new building next year+ !reDentul simplu : *he train leaves at G?@D+

@'6' *orma *ea mai frecvent folosita modalitate de a exprima o actiune viitoare este cu ajutorul lui will/ shall sau a formei contractate a acestora %ll. Ex.: he will lea#e soon+ -e shall o#ercome+

3n engleza moderna forma shall este foarte putin utilizata. *ea mai des folosita in Engleza vorbita si scrisa in registrul informal este forma .ll. 'egativul: Ex.: ) will not $ won.t finish+ 3nterogativul: Ex.: -ill you catch the ball5 @'8' *unctii 0iitorul exprima preziceri ale actiunilo viitoare sau interogatii despre viitor. Ex.: 1omputer technology will influence our future+ 5ecizii care tocmai s-au luat si care nu au fost planuite. Ex.: ).ll finish this report tomorrow+ 1ace promisiuni Ex.: ).ll phone you tomorrow+ 3nvita pe cineva la un eveniment actiune Ex.: -ill you come to my house on unday5 E;presii: *o be about to 7 a fi pe punctul sa Ex.: ,e is about to die+ *o be " infinitiv 7 exprima ideea unor planuri pentru viitor ordine sau conditii. Ex.: *here is to be an investigation into the mayor.s business affairs+ 0ou are to be back on the base by midnight+ @'9' )onju"are Sin"ular 3 will walk !lural $ou will walk #e"s#e"it will walk

we will walk $ou will walk t#e$ will walk $ou will sleep #e"s#e"it will sleep

Sin"ular 3 will sleep !lural

we will sleep $ou will sleep t#e$ will sleep $ou will be $ou will be #e"s#e"it will be t#e$ will be

Sin"ular 3 will be !lural we will be

Exemple: -e will be victorious< -e shall overcome+ -e are going to win this race+ *he bus arrives at three this afternoon+ *he boss is announcing his retirement at today.s meeting+ F' 2iitorul continuu

3ill < 7e < participiul preDent #Ein"& al er7ului 0iitorul continuu indica o actiune continua care va avea loc si se va desfasura la un moment dat din viitor. Ex.: ) will be running in next year.s 3oston Marathon+ 2ur campaign plans suggest that the %resident will be winning the southern vote by 6ovember+ 3y this time tomorrow night, will be sleeping in my own bed+ 6ext fall, we will be en4oying all the vegetables we planted last spring+ Will we be spending too much money if we buy that big-screen *(5

K' Timpurile cu aspect perfect


G' !reDentul perfect G'6' *orma (rezentul auxiliarului ha#e !have$ has% , participiul trecut al verbului !regulat sau neregulat%. Ex.: 0ou have worked hard+ he has taken her medicine+ 'egativul: Ex.: ) haven.t been to pain+ ).ve &have' not seen this movie+ 3nterogativul: Ex.: ,ave ) met you before5 ,ave they built the house5 G'8' *unctii (rezentul perfect este una dintre particularitatile limbii engleze acest timp neavand corespondent in limba romana.

(rezentul perfect este un timp apartinand prezentului. - fost asemanat cu un pod care face legatura dintre trecut si prezent. 5ar accentul se pune pe momentul vorbirii pe acum. (rezentul perfect exprima o actiune inc#eiata sau ;perfectata; in trecut si care se extinde pana in momentul prezent: Ex.: ) have walked two miles already !dar continui sa merg%. ) have run the 3oston Marathon !dar acest lucru s-a intamplat demult%. *he critics have praised the film aving %rivate 8yan since it came out !si continua sa il laude%. -ctiuni sau evenimente din trecut care conduc pana in momentul prezent. 3n acest caz folosirea timpului prezent perfect arata ca rezultatul evenimetului sau actiunii care apartine momentului prezent este cel care conteaza si nu momentul in care a avut loc actiunea. Ex.: ,e has bought a new car !si acum au o masina noua%. *hey have been to Mexico but they have not been to outh 4frica !in consecinta au cunostinte despre /exic dar nu stiu prea multe despre -frica de Sud%. ?biceiuri sau evenimente si actiuni frecvente in decursul unei perioade de timp care conduc la momentul prezentului. Ex.: he has studied English for four years !si inca mai studiaza engleza.% 3razil has won the -orld 1up four times.

G'9' Ad er7e -legerea intre prezentul perfect si trecutul simplu este de multe ori influentata si de adverbele care insotesc verbul. 5aca adverbele respective se refera la o perioada trecuta vom folosi trecutul simplu. Ex.: ) studied all night$yesterday$on -ednesday+ *u adverbe care marc#eaza un inceput in trecut si conduct pana la momentul prezentului vom folosi prezentul perfect. Ex.: ) have studied up to now$lately$already+ Expresii adverbiale cum ar fi: today, this month, for an hour se pot folosi atat cu prezentul perfect cat si cu trecutul simplu. Ex.: ) worked$have worked hard today+ Exista tendinta de a folosi prezentul perfect pentru a anunta un eveniment din trecutul recent. Ex.: *he company.s current 1E2 has lied repeatedly to her employees+ 5ar vom folosi trecutul simplu pentru a relata sau anunta evenimente care au luat sfarsit si apartin trecutului indepartat. Ex.: -ashington encouraged his troops+ G'>' )onju"are sin"ular 3 #ave walked plural $ou #ave walked #e"s#e"it #as walked

we #ave walked $ou #ave walked t#e$ #ave walked $ou #ave slept $ou #ave slept $ou #ave been $ou #ave been #e"s#e"it #ave slept t#e$ #ave slept #e"s#e"it #as been t#e$ #ave been

sin"ular 3 #ave slept plural we #ave slept

sin"ular 3 #ave been plural we #ave been

Exemple: =or five generations, members of my family have been doctors+ (aughan has batted clean-up since he came to the 8edsox+ he has swum the English 1hannel every summer+ ,ow long has it been since the last time we met5 H' !reDent perfect continuu H'6' *orma Ha#e/has + been < participiul preDent #-ing& Ex.: ) have been waiting for an hour+ 'egativul: Ex.: 0ou haven.t been talking too much+ 3nterogativul: Ex.: ,ave they been feeling unwell5

H'8' *unctii Si aceasta forma verbala apartine timpului prezent si se raporteaza la momentul prezent. Se foloseste pentru a descrie stari sau sentimente care au debutat in trecut si au continuat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente pana in momentul vorbirii. Ex.: )t has been raining for two days &and it.s still raining'.

5iferenta dintre forma prezentului perfect si cea a prezentului perfect continuu este ca forma continua accentueaza durata actiunii sau a starii.

H'9' )onju"are sin"ular 3 #ave been walking plural we #ave been walking $ou #ave #e"s#e"it #as been walking been walking $ou #ave t#e$ #ave been been walking walking $ou #ave #e"s#e"it #as been sleeping been sleeping $ou #ave t#e$ #ave been been sleeping sleeping

sin"ular 3 #ave been sleeping plural we #ave been sleeping

6#ere is no present perfect progressive for t#e ;to be; verb. sin"ular ;,ave been being; is expressed simpl$ as ;ha#e been;: ;-e have been being successful in the past+; plural Exemple: Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last six yearsL, but she finished yesterdayM+ *he 8edsox have been losing games since the 4ll- tar break Land they continue to do soM+ ,ave we been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco5 ,aven.t we been lying to teenagers about smoking5 H'>' *olosirea ad er7elor cu preDentul perfect Exista cateva expresii adverbiale care se folosesc in mod frecvent cu formele prezentului perfect. -ceastea sunt: since, so far, ever, never, for, since etc. Ex.: *here have been AE accidents since the beginning of the year+ ,ave you ever been to 8omania5 ) have never seen a purple cow+ /ohn has been working on his thesis for two years+ *hey haven.t seen him since @ACA+ For

- poate fi folosit atat cu trecutul simplu cat si cu formele perfecte !prezent trecut viitor perfect%. - are sensul de: in timpul pe durata pentru o perioada de timp. 1ince - se foloseste doar cu formele perfecte. - are sensul de incepand de la un moment dat. K' Trecutul perfect K'6' *orma Had < participiu trecut al er7ului 6recutul perfect indica faptul ca o actiune s-a inc#eiat ;perfectat; la un moment din trecut inainte ca un alt eveniment sa se produca. Ex.: ) had walked two miles by lunchtime+ ) had run three other marathons before entering the 3oston Marathon+

K'8' )onju"are sin"ular 3 #ad walked plural $ou #ad walked #e"s#e"it #ad walked

we #ad walked $ou #ad walked t#e$ #ad walked $ou #ad slept $ou #ad slept $ou #ad been $ou #ad been #e"s#e"it #ad slept t#e$ #ad slept #e"s#e"it #ad been t#e$ #ad been

sin"ular 3 #ad slept plural we #ad slept

sin"ular 3 #ad been plural we #ad been

Exemple: %rior to the 8evolutionary -ar, -ashington had been a surveyor and land speculator+ 4unt 7lad had invested heavily in the air-conditioning industry before the 7reat 1rash of @ACC+ he had swum the English 1hannel every summer until @AAG+ ,ow long had it been since you saw each other5 6L' Trecutul perfect continuu 1orma: Had < been < participiu preDent #-ing& -cest timp indica o actiune continua care s-a inc#eiat la un moment dat din trecut. Exemple: ,emingway had been losing his self-confidence for years before the publication of 2ld Man and the ea+ ,ad they been cheating on the exams before the school put monitors in the classroom5 66' 2iitorul perfect

1orma: Will < ha#e < participiul trecut al er7ului 0iitorul perfect indica o actiune care va fi fost inc#eiata la un moment dat din viitor. Ex.: ) will have spent all my money by this time next year+ ) will have run successfully in three marathons if ) can finish this one+ 3y this time next week, ) will have worked on this project for twenty days+ 3efore he sees his publisher, 1harles will have finished four chapters in his new novel+ 4 9emocratic president will have been in the -hite ,ouse for nearly half of the twentieth century+ ,ow long will it have been since we were together5 68' 2iitorul perfect continuu 1orma: Will < ha#e < been < participiul preDent #-ing& al er7ului -cest timp indica a actiune continua care va fi inc#eiata la un moment dat din viitor. Ex.: 3y the time he finishes this semester, 7esualdo will have been studying nothing but parasites for four years+ -ill they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get there5

6L' !repoDitia
6L'6' Introducere (repozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. (repozitiile nu au un inteles de sine statator ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte. Sa observam catedra profesorului si multitudinea de prepozitii pe care le putem folosi pentru a o descrie: 0ou can sit before the desk &or in front of the desk'+ *he professor can sit on the desk &when he.s being informal' or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk+ ,e can stand beside the desk &meaning ne5t to the desk', before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk &if he.s really strange'+ )f he.s clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk &and stuff would fall off the desk'+ %assing his hands o#er the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else li'e the desk+ 3ecause he thinks of nothing e5cept the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what.s in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk+ 0ou can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk+ *uvintele evidentiate sunt toate prepozitii.

3n limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie. 6L'8' !repoDitii de timp: at( on( in

.t se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta Ex.: *he train is due at @E?@D p+m+ 6n indica zilele si datele calendaristice Ex.: My brother is coming on Monday+ -e.re having a party on the =ourth of /uly+ n se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei cat si luna anotimpul anul. Ex.: he likes to jog in the morning+ )t.s too cold in winter to run outside+ ,e started the job in @AG@+ ,e.s going to !uit in 4ugust+ 6L'8' !repoDitii de loc: at( on( in .t se foloseste cu adrese exacte. Ex.: 7rammar English lives at DD 3oretz 8oad in 9urham+ 6n desemneaza numele de strazi sosele bulevarde alei etc. Ex.: ,er house is on 3oretz 8oad+ n se foloseste cu numele regiunilor !orase judete tari state continente%. Ex.: he lives in 9urham+ 9urham is in -indham 1ounty+ -indham 1ounty is in 1onnecticut+ !repoDitii de loc: in( at( on si lipsa prepoDitiei !t#e% bedP t#e bed room t#e car !t#e% classP t#e librar$P sc#oolP P 3n diverse circumstante se pot folosi prepozitii diferite pentru aceste locuri. 6L'9' !repoDitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepoDitiei "o se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea miscarea catre un loc. Ex.: *hey were driving to work together+ he.s going to the dentist.s office this morning+ "oward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea. -cestea doua sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi indiferent. Ex.: -e.re moving toward the light+ *his is a big step towards the project.s completion+ ." classP #ome t#e librar$P t#e office sc#oolP work 6t#e bedP t#e ceiling t#e floor t#e #orse t#e plane t#e train lipsa prepozitiei downstairs downtown inside outside upstairs uptown

*u urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs nu se folosesc prepoDitii. Ex.: 7randma went upstairs 7randpa went home+ *hey both went outside+ 6L'>' !repoDitii de timp: for si since For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul !secunde minute ore zile luni ani%. Ex.: ,e held his breath for seven minutes+ he.s lived there for seven years+ *he 3ritish and )rish have been !uarreling for seven centuries+ 1ince se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta. Ex.: ,e.s worked here since @AGK+ he.s been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty+ 6L'@' !repoDitii cu su7stanti e, adjecti e si er7e 'umeroase substantive adjective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul.

S1(STANTI2ELE si !RE!/ZITIILE approval of awareness of belief in concern for confusion about desire for AD,E)TI2ELE si !RE!/ZITIILE afraid of angr$ at aware of capable of careless about familiar wit# 2ER(ELE si !RE!/ZITIILE apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out give up grow up look for look forward to look up make up pa$ for prepare for stud$ for talk about t#ink about trust in work for worr$ about fond of #app$ about interested in jealous of made of married to proud of similar to sorr$ for sure of tired of worried about fondness for need for grasp of participation in #atred of reason for #ope for respect for interest in success in love of understanding of

*ombinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal !vezi M.D.0erbe frazale%. 6L'F' E;presii idiomatice cu prepoDitii agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences &sometimes similarities' correspond to a thing, with a person differ from an unlike thing, with a person live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people 6L'G' !repoDitii inutile 3n vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. ?bserva urmatoarele exemple: Ex.: he met up with the new coach in the hallway+ *he book fell off of the desk+ ,e threw the book out of the window+ he wouldn.t let the cat inside of the house+ &sau folositi NinN' -here did they go to5 %ut the lamp in back of the couch+ &se va folosi NbehindN' -here is your college at5