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info 1




Ia Engleza Cu Tine
BONUS - Gramatica si Reguli











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CUPRINS

I. Morfologia
1. Articolul ............3
2. Substantivul ........7
3. Adjectivul ..........13
4. Pronumele ........17
5. Numeralul .........21
6. Verbul .............24
Timp present ...30
Timp trecut ...34
Timp viitor .......48
7. Adverbul ...........49
Clasificare ......49
Locul adverbelor in propozitie .....55
8. Prepozitia ..........57
9. Conjunctia ........61

II. Sintaxa
1. Subiectul ...........65
2. Predicatul ..........65
3. Atributul ............67
4. Complementul ........67
5. Sintaxa frazei ........69
6. Concordanta timpurilor ..77
Lista verbelor neregulate ..78

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I. MORFOLOGIA

1. ARTICOLUL - The article
Articolul este un instrument grammatical care individualizeaza sau determina un
substantiv. Prezenta lui dovedeste ca substantivul pe care il insoteste este deja cunoscut
de interlocutor.

Articolul hotarat :

Este THE si este pus inaintea cuvintelor care incept cu o consoana sau semi-
consoana. (EX : the ball, the picture).
- se pronunta {di} inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala. (EX: the eye,
the apple).
- Articolul hotarat apare intr-un numar mare de expresii:
on the one site pe de o parte
at the same time- in acelasi timp
Articolul hotarat plasat in fata unor adjective da acestora sensul unos substantive la
numarul plural :
- adj rich bogat, bogati
- the rich cei bogati
- adj poor sarac
- the poor cei saraci
Articolul hotarat apare la gradul superlative relative al adjectivelor :
- the best cel mai bun
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- the least cel mai putin
- the biggest cel mai mare
- the most interesting cel mai interesant
Articolul hotarat se intercaleaza de regula intre un substantiv precedat de o prepozitie si
prepozitia respectiva.
- a house in the forest o casa in padure
- a boat on the lake o barca pe lac
- across the road peste drum
- at the end la sfarsit
- at the door la usa
- in the end in final
- in the morning dimineata
- in the shade in umbra
Articolul hotarat poate fi intalnit si in denumirile geografice : The Black Sea, The Danube,
The Alps, The Sahara Desert, etc.

Articolul nehotarat : The indefinite article

Acesta este :
a inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu consoana sau semiconsoana
EX : a dog, a wall, a flower, a year.
an inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala
EX : an apple, an eye, an ear, an idea.
Articolul nehotarat introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi intalnit in :
- in fata substantivelor insotite\precedate de un adjectiv:
- A good teacher un professor bun
-A big house- o casa mare
-A house on fire o casa in flacari
-A little tea putin ceai
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- in unele structuri:
-A bakers o brutarie
-A blue-eyed girl o fata cu ochi albastri
-A jewellers un magazin de bijuterii
-Once upon a time a fost odata
-Two at a time cate doi odata
Articolul nehotarat are in unele cazuri functie numerica :
- a hundred- o suta
- a thousand- o mie

Articolul zero : The zero article

Articolul zero apare :
- In nume de continente, tari, persoane, zilele saptamanii, etc.
EX: Africa, Asia, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania, Sunday, Alice, Peter, Friday,
etc.

- In fata substantivelor folosite in sens general :
EX: Children like sweets copiilor le plac dulciurile
Knowledge is power stiinta inseamna putere
Oil is lighter than water uleiul este mai usor ca apa

- In fata substantivelor nenumarabile :
EX : Gold is yellow aurul este galben
This house is made of wood aceasta casa este facuta din lemn.

- Inaintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie:
EX : care, death, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water, etc.

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- Nume de culori, sporturi si jocuri sportive, limbi, mese :
EX : culori white, black, blue, yellow
Sporturi football, basketball, volleyball
Limbi English, Romanian, german, French.
Mese breakfast, lunch, dinner

- In unele structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greselilor:
EX: After dark dupa lasarea intunericului
After three oclock dupa ora trei
After dinner dupa cina
Day by day zi dupa zi
Drop by drop picatura dupa picatura
From first to last - de la primul pana la ultimul
Goods on sale bunuri de vanzare
To learn by heart a inavata pe de rost
To leave for school a pleca la scoala
To keep in mind - a tine minte
To be on duty a fi de serviciu
To go on foot a merge pe jos
To put in order a pune in ordine
From morning to night de dimineata pana seara
On certain conditions cu anumite conditii.







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2. SUBSTANTIVUL The noun

Substantivul este partea de vorbire care denumeste finite, obiecte, stari, notiuni,
insusiri, etc.
Clasificare :
- Comune (common nouns): dog, cat, bird, house, apple, boy, girl, water.
- Proprii (proper nouns) : John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe,July,
Sunday, Great Britain.
- Abstracte (abstract nouns) : friendship, joy, wisdom, safety, theory
- Individuale (individual nouns) : man, house, stone, tree
- Colective (collective nouns) : team, army, family, crowd, group
- Nume de materie (name of matter) : water, air, fire, beer, milk, steel,
silver, gold, snow, wine, tea.
Genul substantivelor:

Masculine Feminine Neuter Common
HE EL SHE EA IT EL\EA HE\SHE EL\EA
Actor - actor Actress - actrita Air - aer Artist
Bachelor - celibatar Spinster - celibatara Ball - minge Beginner
Barman barman Barmaid- barmanita Box - cutie Child
Bridegroom - mire Bride - mireasa Bus - autobuz Client
Husband - sot Wife - sotie Error - eroare Cook
Brother - frate Sister - sora Fish - peste Cousin
Father tata Mother - mama Fork - furculita Customer
Grandfather - bunic Grandmother-bunia Impression-impresie Dancer
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Hero - erou Heroine - eroina Kangaroo - cangur Doctor
King - rege Queen - regina Land - pamant Driver
Man - barbat Woman - femeie Legend - legenda Fighter
Master - stapan Mistress - stapana Monkey- maimuta Guest
Monk - calugar Nun - calugarita Mouse - soricel Journalist
Sir - domn Madam - doamna Mushroom - ciuperc Parent
Son - fiu Daughter - fiica Pig - porc Prisoner
Uncle - unchi Aunt - matusa Shark - rechin Rival
Lion - leu Lioness - leoaica Sun - soare Writer
Horse - cal Mare - iapa Tea - ceai Worker

Pluralul substantivelor:

Pluralul regulat : se formeaza prin adaugarea literei S EX: book books
- Literea S semn al pluralului se citeste :
- S cand e precedata de consoane surde (book - books)
- Z cand e precedata de o consoana sonora (chair- chairs)
- IZ cand e precedata de s, sz, ch sau sh sau consoane suieratoare (bench
benches, bus buses, fox foxes)

- Unele substantive terminate in Y precedat de consoana primesc S la plural , dar pe Y il
transforma in YE ( baby babies, city - cities)

- Substantivele terminate in Y formeaza pluralul prin simpla adaugare la sfarsitul lor a
literei S daca in fata lui Y se afla o vocala (boy boys, day - days)

- Substantivele care se termina in F sau FF formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea lui S (chief
chiefs, half- halfes, knife knives)

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- Substantivele terminate in O formeaza pluralul astfel :
- unele adauga terminatia ES : hero heroes, potato- potatoes,
- altele adauga doar litera S : casino casinos, piano pianos.

Pluralul neregulat :
Businessman businessmen = om\oameni de afaceri
Child children = copil, copii
Die dice = zar, zaruri
Fireman firemen = pompier, pompieri
Tooth teeth = dinte, dinti
Woman- women = femeie, femei

Pluralul substantivelor compuse :
Blackboard blackboards = tabla, table
Mother in law mothers in law = soacra, soacre

Substantive numai cu forma de plural:
Glasses ochelari
Trousers pantaloni
Clothes haine
Scissors foarfeci

Cazurile substantivelor :
Nominativ the nominative case (who - cine? What - ce?)
The boy is playing in the garden. Who is playing in the garden ?

Vocativ the vocative case
Este cazul adresarii sau al chemarii:
- george will you help me ?
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- come here, my boy !

Genitiv the genitive case
Este cazul atributului si raspunde la intrebarile : Whose ale cui ?, which care? Which
of care dintre?, what ce, care ?

Cazul genitive este de patru feluri :
a. saxon \ sintetic se formeaza la singular cu apostrof plus litera S si se
intrebuinteaza cu substantive masculine si feminine.
EX : the boys friend, the childrens ball, the suns heat, at shakespears.

b. prepositional analytic se formeaza cu prepozitia OF si se foloseste cu
substantive de toate genurile.
EX: the smell of the flower, the friend of the boy, some books of my friend.

c. Genitivul dublu
EX: my friends birthday the birthday of my friend
Her sister, alices blue eyes
That boys friends book

d. implicit \ anglutinant
EX: The United Nations Organisation
Student Organisation
A heat disease

Dativul the dative case
Este cazul complementului indirect si raspunde la intrebarile : to whom cui ?, for
whom pentru cine? , to what la ce ?
EX: I give Alice two books.- I give two books to Alice. To whom I give two books ?
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Everybody is working for him. For whom is everybody working ?

Acuzativ the accusative case
Este cazul complementului direct si raspunde la intrebarile : whom cine?, what ce ?
EX: I see the boy everyday. Whom do I see everyday ?
You see the book on the table. What do you see on the table?
My sister is looking for a book. What is my sister looking for ?

Declinarea substantivelor : the declension of the nouns
Trecerea unui substantive sau pronume prin toate cazurile la numarul singular si plural
poarta numele de declinare.
Declinarea cu articol nehotarat a unui substantiv masculin si a unui substantiv
feminin.
SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative A boy- un baiat Boys baieti
A girl o fata Girls fete
Genitive Of a boy, a boys- a, al, ai,
ale unui baiat
Of boys - a, al, ai, ale unor
baieti
Of a girl , a girls - a, al, ai,
ale unei fete
Of girls - a, al, ai, ale onor
fete, de fete
Dative To a boy = unui baiat To boys unor baieti
To a girl unei fete To girls unor fete
Accusative A boy un baiat Boys baieti
A girl o fata Girls fete
Vocative Boy ! baiete !
Girl ! fata!
Boys ! baieti !
Girls! fete !



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Declinarea substantivelor cu articol hotarat :
SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative The boy The boys
The girl The girls
Genitive Of the boy Of the boys
Of the girl Of the girls
Dative To the boy To the boys
To the girl To the girls
Accusative The boy The boys
The girl The girls
Vocative - -

Declinarea substantivelor neutre :
SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative A table o masa Tables - mese
The table- masa The tables mesele
Genitive Of a table Of tables de mese
Of the table Of the tables
Dative To a table To tables
To the table To the tables
Accusative A table Tables
The table The tables
Vocative - -



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3. ADJECTIVUL the adjective
Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care califica\determina un substantiv sau echivalentul
unui substantiv.
In limba engleza adjectivele stau inaintea substantivelor sau dupa verbul TO BE sin u se
acorda in gen, numar si caz cu substantivele pe care le determina.
EX : The interesting book is on the table. (cartea interesanta este pe masa.)

Calsificarea adjectivelor :
a. calitative (descriptive) clever, interesting
b. posesive my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their.
c. Interogativ relative wich care? Pe care ?, wich of - care dintre ?, what ce?
Care ?, what kind\sort of ce fel de ?, whose al, a, ale, ai cui ? who care?, to
whom caruia ?.
d. Demonstrative this, these, that, those, the one, the former, the latter, the first,
the last, the other, another, such, the same, one and the same, the very.
e. Cantitative some, any, few, little, much, many, plenty, a lot of, each, every,
several, enough, certain.

Comparatia adjectivelor si adverbelor :
Comparatia adjectivelor se realizeaza la urmatoarele grade :
-pozitiv cand insusirea unui obiect nu se raporteaza la nici un alt termen.
-comparativ prin care se exprima superioritatea, egalitatea sau inferioritatea unui
obiect fata de altul.
-superlativ prin care se arata ca insusirea obiectului se afla fie in cea mai mare masura
fie in foarte mare masura. Adjectivele monosilabice dubleaza consoana finala cand
aceasta este precedata de vocala scurta.
Comparatia adjectivelor si a adverbelor este :
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a. regulata \ sintetica (cele scurte)

Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut
Big Bigger The biggest Very big
Dry Drier The driest Very dry
Great Greater The greatest Very great
Happy Happier The happiest Very happy
Hot Hotter The hottest Very hot
Long Longer The longest Very long
Small Smaller The smallest Very small
Tall Taller The tallest Very tall
Strong Stronger The strongest Very strong

b. analitica

Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut
Active More active The most active Very active
Curious More curious The most curious Very curious
Foolish More foolish The most foolish Very foolish
Huge More huge The most huge Very huge
Severe More severe The most severe Very severe
Sincere More sincere The most sincere Very sincere
Sociable More sociable The most sociable Very sociable
Unjust More unjust The most unjast Very unjust
Untidy More untidy The most untidy Very untidy


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Din analiza exemplelor de mai sus rezulta ca la gradul comparativ de superioritate
adjectivele de comparative analitica se ajuta de adverbul more, la superlativul relativ
de adverbul most iar la superlativul absolut de adverbele very, extremely, quite,
etc.

c. mixta (sintetica si analitica)

Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut
Able More able
Abler
The most able
The ablest
Very able
Ample More ample
Ampler
The most ample
The amplest
Very ample
Empty More empty
Emptier
The most empty
The emptier
Very empty
Strange More strange
Stranger
The most strange
The strangest
Very strange
Stupid More stupid
Stupider
The most stupid
The stupidest
Very stupid










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d. neregulata

Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut
Good Better The best Very good
Bad Worse The worst Very bad
Little Less The least Very little
Much More The most Very much
Old Older \ elder The oldest Very old
Near Nearer The nearest Very near
Late Later The latest Very late
In Inner The inmost -
Out Outer The outmost -













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4. PRONUMELE the pronoun

Pronumele este partea de vorbire care inlocuieste un substantiv (o fiinta, un obiect,etc)
Clasificare :
a. pronume personale the personal pronouns
I - eu
You - tu
He - el
She - ea
It el, ea
We - noi
You voi, dumneavoastra
They ei,ele, dansii, dumnealor

b. pronumele interrogative the interrogative pronouns
Nominativ : who ? (who knows him ?)
Genitiv : whose ? (whose is this little girl ?)
Dativ : to whom ? who ? (to whom are you referring ?, who are you referring to?)
Acuzativ : whom ? (this is the boy whom I saw)

c. pronumele relative - the relative pronoun
who ? cine ?
EX: He doesnt know who must come to see us.
I know the bpy who can play tennis well

d. pronumele posesive - the possessive pronouns
Mine al meu, a mea EX: Johns friend is in London and mine is in Berlin.
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Yours al tau, a ta EX: my car is blue and yours is red.
His - al lui EX : Our daughter is a student and his is a school girl.
Hers a ei. EX : My friend works at a farm but hers doesnt.
Ours al nostrum. EX : Your boys play tennis but ours doesnt.
Yours al vostru. EX : My friends live here, yours doesnt.
Theirs al lor. EX : our son is here but their doesnt.

e. pronumele demonstrative the demonstrative pronoun
This that book is yours and this one is mine.
That this book is yours and that one is mine.
These these books are mine and those one are yours.
Those these players are very good but those one arent.

f. pronumele impersonale the impersonal pronouns
one, you one could work there. You should always behave decently.

g. pronumele reflexive the reflexive pronouns
myself - ma
yourself - te
himself - se
herself - se
itself se Cu ajutorul lor se formeaza diatezareflexiva a verbelor.
ourselves - ne
yourselves - va
themselves - se
oneself - se
To enjoy oneself a se distra
I enjoy myself eu ma distrez
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De retinut ca verbelor reflexive din limba romana nu le corespund intotdeauna verbe
reflexive in limba engleza.

h. pronumele emfatice the emphatic pronouns
myself - eu insumi, personal
yourself tu insuti
himself el insusi
herself ea insasi
itself el insusi, ea insasi
ourselves noi insine, insene,
yourselves voi insiva
themselves ei insisi

i. pronumele nehotarate - the indefinite pronouns
another alt , alta (one man says yes, another says no)
each fiecare (we received three books each)
the other celalalt (john likes this book but I like the other)
others altii (others know better than you)
one unul, una (you dont have any games but I have one)
all tot (he must tell you all or nothing)
either oricare din doi (you may buy either)
neither nici unul din doi (one can see neither)
both ambii (you may read either of them both are interesting)
several mai multi (you can see many books here but several are mine)
few putin (I only found few)
little putin (I have done little for them)
much mult (I have got much tea)
many multi (Ive got many books)
some niste (some are good but some are bad)
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any orice (he doesnt like any)
somebody cineva (I can see somebody at the gate)
anybody A. oricine I can ask anybody
I. cineva do you see anybody?
N. nimeni I cannot ask anybody.
nobody nimeni (I see nobody)
something ceva (I see something)
anything orice (I buy anything)
nothing nimic (I bought nothing)
someone cineva (you must ask someone)

j. pronumele reciproce reciprocal pronoun
each other unul pe celalalt doua persoane(two neighbours are helping each other)
one another unul pe celalalt minim trei personae (the three brothers help one
another)

Declinarea pronumelui personal :
In schema care urmeaza este inclus si cazul genitiv desi pronumele personal in cazu
genitiv este pronume posesiv , nu personal.
Singular :
N. I eu You tu He- el She - ea It el\ea
G. My, mine meu\
al meu
Your, yours-
tau \ al tau
His, his
lui\al lui
Her, hers
ei\al ei
Its, its al lui\ei
D. To me - mie To you - tie To him -
lui
To her - ei To it lui\ei
A. Me-pe mine You-pe tine Him- pe el Her pe ea It- pe ea\el
Plural :
N. We- noi You - voi They - ei
G. Our - nostru Your - vostru Their - lor
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Ours al nostru Yours al vostru Theirs al lor
D. To us - noua To you - voua To them - lor
A. Us -pe noi You pe voi Them pe ei\ele

5. NUMERALUL the numeral

Numeralul este partea de vorbire prin care se exprima un numar de obiecte sau ordinea
acestora.
Clasificare :
a. numerale cardinale cardinal numerals
Exprima un numar exact de obiecte sau fiinte incepand de la zero catre plus sau minus
infinit. La telefon cifra zero se citeste O, in stiinte se foloseste cuvantul zero.
Cand ne referim la ani exprimam : 1907 nineteen oh seven
Exprimarea temperaturii se realizeaza astfel : -10 grade = ten degrees below zero
Cand se exprima scorul la jocurile de fotbal , 0 se pronunta NIL sau NOTHING. La tennis
Nastase leads by two sets to tennis.(2-0)
Numerele de telefon se scriu cu spatii intre grupele de cifre 0763 324 850
Numerele se rostes separate iar cifrele duble se rostesc folosindu-se cuvantul DOUBLE :
01 223 456 = oh one two three four five six
Cifre triple 7 555 = seven five double five

b. numeralul ordinal the ordinal numeral
1
st
/ the first primul, prima
2
nd
/ te second al doilea
3
rd
/the third al treilea
4
th
/the fourth al patrulea
5
th
/the fifth al cincilea
10
th
/the tenth al zecelea
11
th
/ the eleventh al unsprezecelea
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21
st
/ the twenty first al 21 lea
100
th
/ the one hundredth al 100lea
101
st
/ the one hundred an first

c. numeralul colectiv the collective numeral
contine o multime exprimata printr-un singular.
EX: couple cuplu, team echipa, pair pereche, dozen duzina,

d. numeralul multiplicativ the multiplicative numeral
EX: double twofold = dublu, indoit
Triple threefold = triplu
Fourfold = impatrit
Tenfold = inzecit
A hundredfold = insutit
A thousandfold = inmiit
Once = o data
Twice = de doua ori
Thrice = de trei ori
Four times= de patru ori
Fity times= de 50 de ori
A hundred times = de o suta de ori
He has a suitcase with a double botton = El are o valiza cu fund dublu.

e. numeralul distributiv the distributive numeral
EX: one at a time cate unulo data
Two at a time cate doi odata
Three at a time cate trei odata
One by one unul cate unul
Two by two doi cate doi
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Every other minute din doua in doua minute
Every other hour hourly la fiecare doua ore

f. numeralul adverbial the adverbial numeral
EX: once o data
Twice de doua ori
Secondly in al doilea rand
Firstly in primul rand
Thirdly in al treilea rand

g. numeralul nehotarat the indefinite numeral
EX: a number of un numar de
A lot of - o multime de
Lots of- multi
Ten of zeci de
Hundreds of sute de
Thousands of mii de











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6. VERBUL the verb

Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima o actiune, o activitate sau un proces si are
urmatoarele actegorii gramaticale : timp, aspect, numar, persoana, diateza si mod.
Timpul verbului este categoria gramaticala prin care se precizeaza momentul
desfasurarii actiunii. Exista trei timpuri de baza : trecut, present si viitor.
Aspectul reprezinta gradul de indeplinire a actiunii. In limba engleza exista doua aspecte
:
a. aspect comun prin care se exprima o actiune generala, terminate sau de scurta
durata.
b. Aspect continuu care prezinta o actiune in desfasurare, deci o actiune
neterminata.
Diateza realizeaza realatia dintre subiect si complementul direct. Exista trei diateze:
a. diateza activa actiunea subiectului se indreapta asupra complementului direct
b. diateza pasiva actiunea savarsita de complementul de agent se rasfrange
asupra subiectului grammatical.
c. Diateza reflexiva actiunea se rasfrange asupra autorului ei, adica asupra
subiectului.
Modul este categoria gramaticala a verbului prin care se precizeaza felul actiunii si
anume daca actiunea este reala, sigura, ireala, probabila, posibila, imposibila. In limba
engleza exista patru moduri personale si trei moduri nepersonale.






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Personale Indicative are toate timpurile
Subjunctive present, past si past perfect
Conditional present si perfect
MODURI Imperative present
Nepersonale Infinitive present si perfect
Participle present, past si perfect
Gerund present si perfect



a. Clasificarea verbelor :

Infinitive
present
Trecut
simplu
Participiu
trecut

1. Auxiliare To be Was, were Been = a fi
To have Had Had = a avea
To do Did Done = a face
Shall Should - = trebuie sa
Will Would - = a vrea
To let Let Let = a lasa
2. Modale Can Could - = a putea
May Might - =a avea voie
Must Must - = trebuie
Shall Should - =trebuie sa
Will Would - = a dori
Ought to Ought to - = ar tb sa
Dare - - = a indrazni
Need Need - = obisnuia
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To be to Was, were
to
Been to = a urma sa
- Used to - =obisnuia sa
3. Principal Regulate To ask Asked Asked = a intreba
To like Liked Liked = a placea
To answer Answered Answered = a raspunde
To use Used Used a
intrebuinta
Neregulate To go Went Gone = a merge
To see Saw Seen =a vedea
4. Auxiliar-
modal
Shall
Will
Can
Should
Whould
Could
-
-
-
=a trebui
= a vrea
= a putea

Verbele auxiliare ajuta celelalte verbe sa-si formeze aspectul continuu, diateza pasiva,
timpurile compuse, unele moduri. Ele devin instrumente gramaticale pierzandu-si sensul
lexical.
Verbele modale dau verbelor principale impreuna cu care se folosesc nuante lexicale
speciale. Verbele modale se mai numesc defective caci nu au forme proprii fie pentru
infinitive present, fie pentru trecut, fie pentru participiuyl trecut situatie in care se
inlocuiesc cu sinonimele lor. Ele nu au particula infinitiva TO si nu folosesc aceasta
particula dupa ele.







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b. Modurile personale ale verbelor
1. Modul indicativ


Este modul actiunilor reale si cuprinde toate timpurile.
Timpul present simplu the present tense :
Este forma I de baza a verbelor. Exprima actiuni generale, stari, un obicei present. Se
foloseste si in propozitii conditionale de tip I. normal timpul present coincide cu timpul
vorbirii.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Short Form
I walk I do not walk I dont walk Do I walk ?
You walk You do not walk You dont walt Do you walk ?
He walks He does not walk He doesnt walk Does he walk ?
She walks She does not walk She doesnt walk Does she walk?
It walks It does not walk It doesnt walk Does it walk ?
We walk We do not walk We dont walk Do we walk ?
You walk You do not walk You dont walk Do you walk ?
They walk They do not walk They dont walk Do they walk ?
Negative Interogative
Dont you walk ?
Doesnt he walk ? etc

Expresii folosite cu prezentul simplu :
- every day\week\month\year
- usually
- often
- always
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- rarely
- never
- sometimes
- in the morning\evening\afternoon
- at night
- ar Mondays
Folosim acest timp pentru situatii permanente, actiuni repetate, legi ale naturii,
programe, comentarii sportive.
EX : They own a beautifull car.
I usually get up at 6 oclock.
Water freezes at 0 C degrees.
The film finishes at 9 pm.
Tom cruise acts very well in this movie.

Timpul present continuu present contiunuous
Cand verbele se termina intr-o vocala intre doua consoane , dublam consoana finala.
EX : swim - swimming
Sit - sitting
Cand infinitivul se termina intr-un E , stergem E-ul
EX: write writing
Dive diving
Folosim prezentul continuu pentru situatii temporare, pentru actiuni care se intampla in
momentul in care vorbim, actiuni repetate cu expresia ALWAYS , cu aranjamente fixate
in viitorul apropiat, sau pentru situatii in derulare sau in schimbare.
EX : They are living with Ann at present.
She is looking for a better job.
You are always interrupting me.
The baby is always crying at night.

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Affirmative Negative Interogative
Long form Short Form Long form Short Form
I am talking Im talking I am not talking I m not talking Am I talking ?
You are talking Youre talking You are not talking You arent talking Are you talking ?
He is talking Hes talking He is not talking He isnt talking Is he talking ?
She is talking Shes talking She is not talking She isnt talking Is she talking?
It is talking Its talking It is not talking It isnt talking Is it talking?
We are talking Were talking We are not talking We arent talking Are we talking ?
You are talking Youre talking You are not talking You arent talking Are you talking ?
They are talking Theyre talking They are not talking They arent talking Are they talking?
Negative interrogative
Arent you talking ?
Isnt he talking ? etc

Expresii folosite cu prezentul continuu :
- now
- at this moment
- at present
- nowadays
- today
- tonight
- always
- still






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Timpul present perfect- have\has + past participle (the 3
rd
form of the verb)
Exprima o actiune trecuta terminata sau se poate termina in present.

EX : verbul regulat talk talked - talked

Affirmative Negative Interogative
Long form Short Form Long form Short Form
I have talked Ive talked I have not talked I havent talked Have I talked?
You have talked Youve talked You have not talked You havent talked Have you talked ?
He has talked Hes talked He has not talked He hasnt talked Has he talked ?
She has talked Shes talked She has not talked She hasnt talked Has she talked?
It has talked Its talked It has not talked It hasnt talked Has it talked?
We have talked Weve talked We have not talked We havent talked Have we talked ?
You have talked Youve talked You have not talked You havent talked Have you talked ?
They have talked Theyve talked They have not talked They havent talked Have they talked?
Negative interrogative
Havent you eaten?
Hasnt he eaten ? etc










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Verbe neregulate : eat ate - eaten

Affirmative Negative Interogative
Long form Short Form Long form Short Form
I have eaten Ive eaten I have not eaten I havent eaten Have I eaten?
You have eaten Youve eaten You have not eaten You havent eaten Have you eaten ?
He has eaten Hes eaten He has not eaten He hasnt eaten Has he eaten ?
She has eaten Shes eaten She has not eaten She hasnt eaten Has she eaten?
It has eaten Its eaten It has not eaten It hasnt eaten Has it eaten?
We have eaten Weve eaten We have not eaten We havent eaten Have we eaten ?
You have eaten Youve eaten You have not eaten You havent eaten Have you eaten ?
They have eaten Theyve eaten They have not eaten They havent eaten Have they eaten?
Negative interrogative
Havent you eaten?
Hasnt he eaten ? etc

Expresii folosite cu prezentul perfect :
- just
- ever
- never
- already
- yet
- always
- how long
- so far
- recently
- since
- today
- this week\month
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Folosim prezentul perfect pentru actiuni recent terminate, actiuni care s-au intamplat in
trecut si au conexiune cu prezentul, experiente personale.
EX: She has washed her blouse.
He has lost his keys.
Ive lost 10 kilos.
Hes written three stories this month.

Timpul present perfect continuu present perfect continuous (have\has been+ verb +
ing)
Folosim acest timp pentru actiuni care au inceput in trecut dar inca continua in present,
actiuni in derulate in trecut dar care inca mai au consecinte in present, actiuni care
exprima furie, iritare, explicatii sau critici.
EX : Shes been listening to music for three hours.
Theyve been playing football.
Who has been using my toothbrush ?
Shes been packing since this morning.
Expresii folosite cu prezentul perfect continuu :
- how long
- for
- since









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Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Long form
I have been working I have not been working Have I been working ?
You have been working You have not been working Have you been working ?
He has been working He has not been working Has he been working ?
She has been working She has not been working Has she been working ?
It has been working It has not been working Has it been working ?
We have been working We have not been working Have we been working ?
You have been working You have not been working Have you been working ?
They have been working They have not been working Have they been working ?
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Short form Short form
Ive been working I havent been working Havent you been working?

Verbele statice :
Sunt verbe care descriu o stare permanenta si care nu au , in general, forme continue.
Acestea sunt :
- verbe de simturi : see, hear, speak, smell, taste.
- Verbe de opinie : agree, believe, consider
- Verbe de emotie : feel, forgive, hate, like, love,
- Alte verbe: appear, seem, be, belong, fit, have, know, look, need,
prefer, require, want, wish, etc.






www.limba-engleza.info 34

Unele verbe statice au si forme continue dar cu alt inteles.
State Action
I think shes rich. Im thinking about your plan.
The milk tastes awful. Hes tasting the souce.
He has a pet dog. Hes having dinner now.
The clothes feel like velvet Shes feeling her way through the dark.
I love holidays. Im loving this holiday.



2. Timpul trecut

Trecut simplu - past simple
Past simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei ED la verbele regulate.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Short form
I walked I did not walk I didnt walk Did I walk ?
You walked You did not walk You didnt walk Did you walk ?
He walked He did not walk He didnt walk Did he walk?
She walked She did not walk She didnt walk Did she walk?
It walked It did not walk It didnt walk Did it walk?
We walked We did not walk We didnt walk Did we walk ?
You walked You did not walk You didnt walk Did you walk?
They walked They did not walk They didnt walk Did they walk?
Negative interrogative
Didnt you walk?
Didnt he walk ? etc
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Verbele neregulate au o forma speciala de trecut :
Present I go I drink I am
Past I went I drank I was

Expresii folosite cu timpul past simple :
- yesterday
- last week
- how long ago
- then
- two days ago
- in 2008, etc
Folosim past simple pentru situatiile actiunile din trecut care se deruleaza una dupa alta,
obiceiuri din trecut, actiuni sau evenimente complete care s-au intamplat in trecut.
EX : She got up, washed and had breakfast.
He used to go \ went to school.
They phoned three days ago.
Shakespeare wrote a lot of good plays.

Trecutul continuu past continuous was\were + verb + ing

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Short form
I was walking I was not walking I wasnt walking Was I walking?
You were walking You were not walking You werent walking Were you walking ?
He was walking He was not walking He wasnt walking Was he walking ?
She was walking She was not walking Se wasnt walking Was she walking?
It was walking It was not walking It wasnt walking Was it walking ?
We were walking Were were not walking We werent walking Were we walking?
You were walking You were not walking You werent walking Were you walking ?
www.limba-engleza.info 36
They were walking They were not walking They werent walking Were they walking?
Negative interrogative
Weren t you walking?
Wasnt he walking ? etc

Expresii folosite cu timpul past continuous :
- while
- when
- as
Folosim acest timp pentru o actiune care se deruleaza in trecut , pentru o actiune
inceputa in trecut dar intrerupta de alta actiune inceouta in trecut, doua sau mai multe
actiuni derulate simultan in trecut, o descriere a unor evenimente intr-o poveste.
EX : She was eating at 8 AM yesterday.
While I was watching TV my mom came home.
The dog was barking.

Mai mult ca perfectul past perfect : had + past participle (=the 3
rd
form of the verb)

Affirmative Negative Interogative
Long form Short Form Long form Short Form
I had walked Id walked I had not walked I hadnt walked Had I walked ?
You had walked Youd walked You had not walked You hadnt walked Had he walked ?
He had walked Hed walked He had not walked He hadnt walked Had he walked ?
She had walked Shed walked She had not walked She hadnt walked Had she walked?
It had walked Itd walked It had not walked It hadnt walked Had he walked ?
We had walked Wed walked We had not walked We hadnt walked Had we walked ?
You had walked Youd walked You had not walked You hadnt walked Had you walked ?
They had walked Theyd walked They had not walked They hadnt walked Had they walked?
Negative interrogative
www.limba-engleza.info 37
Hadnt you walked ?
Hadnt he walked ? etc

Expresii folosite cu timpul past perfect :
- for
- since
- already
- after
- just
- yet
- before
- never
- by
- by the time, etc
Folosim past perfect pentru o actiune trecuta care s-a intamplat inaintea altei actiuni
trecute, pentru o actiune care a avut rezultate vizibile in trecut.
EX : She had finished the exercises by the time her mom came home.
He was in the hospital beacouse he had had an accident.

Trecut perfect continuu past perfect continuous: had been + verb + ing


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Long form
I had been working I had not been working Had I been working ?
You had been working You had not been working Had you been working ?
He had been working He had not been working Had he been working ?
She had been working She had not been working Had she been working ?
It had been working It had not been working Had it been working ?
www.limba-engleza.info 38
We had been working We had not been working Hadwe been working ?
You had been working You had not been working Had you been working ?
They had been working They had not been working Had they been working ?
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Short form Short form
Id been working I hadnt been working Hadnt you been working?

Expresii folosite cu past perfect continuous :
- for
- since
Folosim acest timp pentru actiunile derulate de-alungul timpului pana la un moment dat
in trecut, pentru actiuni din trecut care au o anumita durata si rezultate vizibile in trecut.
EX: She had been working as a nurse for 10 years before resigned.
He was tired because he had been playing football.


3. Timpul viitor

Viitor simplu future simple : will + verb
Exprima o actiune posterioara timpului present (adica momentului vorbirii).

Affirmative Negative Interogative
Long form Short Form Long form Short Form
I will walk Ill walk I will not walk I wont walk Will I walk ?
You will walk You ll walk You will not walk You wont walk Will he walk ?
He will walk He ll walk He will not walk He wont walk Will he walk ?
She will walk She ll walk She will not walk She wont walk Will she walk?
It will walk It ll walk It will not walk It wont walk Will he walk ?
We will walk We ll walk We will not walk We wont walk Will we walk ?
www.limba-engleza.info 39
You will walk You ll walk You will not walk You wont walk Will you walk ?
They will walk They ll walk They will not walk They wont walk Will they walk?
Negative interrogative
Wont you walk ?
Wont he walk ? etc

Expresii folosite cu future simple :
- tomorrow
- tonight
- soon
- next week\month
- in a week, etc
Folosim future simple pentru deciziie luate pe loc, deciziile luate in timp ce vorbim,
pentru sperante, frica, amenintari, oferte, promisiuni, atentionari, predictii, comentarii.
EX: Ill take the blue jacket.
Will you help me ?
You will soon be rich.
Shall I do the washing- up ?

Viitorul continuu : will be + verb + ing

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Long form
I will be working I will not be working Will I be working ?
You will be working You will not be working Will you be working ?
He Will be working He Will not be working Will he be working ?
She Will be working She Will not be working Will she be working ?
It Will be working It Will not be working Will it be working ?
We Will be working We Will not be working Will we be working ?
www.limba-engleza.info 40
You Will be working You Will not be working Will you be working ?
They Will be working They Will not be working Will they be working ?
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Short form Short form
Ill be working I wontt be working Wontt you be working?

Expresii folosite cu future continuous :
- tomorrow
- tonight
- soon
- next week
- in a week
Folosim viitorul simplu pentru actiuni care merg intr-un anumit punct in viitor, actiuni
care sunt rezultatul unei rutine, cand intrebam politicos despre oameni care au
aranjamente si daca ne pot ajuta cu ceva.
EX : Ill be walking on the beach this time tomorrow.
Ill be seeing Tom tomorrow.

Viitor perfect - Future perfect (the 3
rd
form of the verb)
Exprima o actiune viitoare care se petrece inaintea altei actiuni viitoare. Se formeaza cu
auxiliarele SHALL\WILL plus infinitivul scurt perfect al verbului de conjugat.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Long form
I will have walked I will not have walked Will I have walked ?
You will have walked You will not have walked Will you have walked?
He will have walked He Will not have walked Will he have walked?
She will have walked She Will not have walked Will she have walked?
It will have walked It Will not have walked Will it have walked?
www.limba-engleza.info 41
We will have walked We Will not have walked Will we have walked?
You will have walked You Will not have walked Will you have walked?
They will have walked They Will not have walked Will they have walked?
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Short form Short form
Ill have walked I wontt have walked Wontt you have walked?

Expresii folosite cu acest timp :
- before
- by
- by then
- by the time
- until
Folosim future perfect pentru actiuni care se vor termina pana la o data stabilita in
viitor.
EX : He will have visited Jamaica by the end of the year.
She wont have finished her homework until 9 oclock.

Viitor perfect continuu future perfect continuous : will have been + verb - ing

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Long form
I will have been walking I will not have been walking Will I have been walking ?
You will have been
walking
You will not have been
walking
Will you have been
walking?
He will have been walking He Will not have been
walking
Will he have been walking?
She will have been
walking
She Will not have been
walking
Will she have been
walking?
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It will have been walking It Will not have been walking Will it have been walking?
We will have been walking We Will not have been
walking
Will we have been walking?
You will have been
walking
You Will not have been
walking
Will you have been
walking?
They will have been
walking
They Will not have been
walking
Will they have been
walking?
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Short form Short form
Ill have been walking I wontt have been walking Wontt you have been
walking?
Expresii folosite cu acest timp :
- by
- for
Folosim future perfect continuous pentru durata unei actiuni inintr-o perioada din viitor.
EX: By the end of this yeas she will have been working here for two years.

Be going to + verb


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long form Long form
I am going to eat I am not going to eat Am I am going to eat ?
You are going to eat You are not going to eat Are You are going to eat?
He is going to eat He is not going to eat Is He is going to eat?
She is going to eat She is not going to eat Is She is going to eat?
It is going to eat It is not going to eat Is It is going to eat ?
We are going to eat We are not going to eat Are We are going to eat?
You are going to eat You are not going to eat Are You are going to eat?
www.limba-engleza.info 43
They are going to eat They are not going to eat Are They are going to eat?
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Short form Short form
Im going to eat Im not going to eat Arent you going to eat?

Expresii folosite cu BE going to :
- tomorrow
- tonight
- next week \ month \ year
- in two days
- the day after tomorrow
- soon
- in a week
Folosim acest verb pentru actiuni pe care le vom performa in viitorul apropiat, actiuni
planificate sau intentii, lucruri de care suntem siguri sau pe care ne-am decis sa le facem
in viitorul apropiat.
EX: Im going to meet her tomorrow.
They are going to have a party on their birthday.
She is going to have a baby.
Its going to rain.
He is going to be promoted.








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4 . infinitivul ING form past participles

Timpuri ale infinitivului tenses of the infinitive
Active voice Passive voice
Present To offer To be offered
Present continuous To be offering -
Perfect To have offered To have been offered
Perfect continuous To have been offering -

Timpuri ale formei ING tenses of the ing form
Active voice Passive voice
Present Offering Being offered
Present continuous - -
Perfect Having offered Having been offered
Perfect continuous - -

Infinitivul present se refera la present sau viitor
EX : Id like to sleep for a while.
- The Present continuous infinitive se foloseste cu appear, claim, seem, pretend, must,
cant, happen, should,would pentru a descrie o actiune care se deruleaza in momentul
vorbirii.
EX : She must be rehearsing by now.
- The perfect infinitive se foloseste cu appear, happen, pretend, seem, pentru a arata
ca actiunea la infinitive s-a intamplat inaintea actiunii verbului.
EX : They claim to have passed the exam.
- The perfect continuous infinitive se foloseste cu appear, seem, pretend pentru a
evidentia durata actiunii la infinitive care s-a intamplat inaintea actiunii verbului.
EX : He seems to have been playing football all morning.
www.limba-engleza.info 45
- The present gerund forma ing se refera la present sau viitor
EX: I enjoy listening to music.
- The perfect gerund forma ing arata ca actiunea gerundului s-a intamplat inaintea
actiunii verbului. Putem folosi the prezent gerund in locul perfectului gerund fara a face
vreo diferenta in sens.
EX: He denied having stolen the money.
He denied stealing the money.

Subiectul infinitivului \ forma ing
Forma ing se omite cand e aceeasi cu subiectul verbului.
EX : They want to go to the circus.
I left without taking my glasses.
Cand subiectul infinitivului este diferit de subiectul verbului , atunci pronumele sau
substantivul este plasat inaintea formei ing.
Subiectul gerundului poate fi de asemenea un adjectiv posesiv sau un substantive.
EX : I want her to clean the table. (she should clean the table)
I want to clean the table. (I should clean the table)
I remember him\his\ toms \ tom complaining about the difficulty of the task.
The to infinitive is used :
- to express purpose :
ex. He came here to meet us.
- After nouns
Ex: its a pleasure to talk to you.
- after certain verbs (advise, agree, appear,
decide, expect, hope,promise, refuse):
ex : She advised me to wait.
- After too\enough constructions
Ex : It is too good to be true.
She is rich enough to give money.
-After certain adjectives
(angry,happy,glad)
Ex : He was happy to come.
- With it + be + adjective(+of+object)
ex : it is nice of you to lend me your bike.
- After question words (where, how, what,
who, wich, but not after why)
- With onlyto express unsatisfactory
result
www.limba-engleza.info 46
ex : Did he tell you where to go ? Ex : She call me only to tell me she was
going to be married.
-After would like ,would love,would prefer
Ex : Id like to meet her again.



The infinite without to is used
- After modal verbs
Ex : You must come back.
- But : in the passive form: be made \ be
heard \ be seen + to infinitive.
Ex : He was made to apologise.
- After had better\would rather
Ex : Id rather stayed in last night.
Note : Help is followedby a to infinitive
or an infinitive without TO.
Ex : He helped me (to) carry the bag.
- After make \let\see\hear\feel + object
Ex : He let her go on a trip.


Verbs taking to infinitive or ing form without a change in meaning
- beggin, start, continue + to infinitive or ing form. However we never have two ing
forms together.
Ex : She began dancing
But: its beginning to get cold.
Not: Its beginning getting cold.
- Advise, allow, permit, recommend, encourage when followed by an object or in a
passive form take a to infinitive. They take the ing formwhen not followed by an
object.
Ex : He doesnt allow us to smoke here.
They arent allowed to smoke here.
They dont allow smoking here.
www.limba-engleza.info 47
It needs \ it requires \ it wants + - ing form. It needs can also be followed by a passive
infinitive:
Ex : The house needs \ reuires \ wants painting.
The car needs repairing \ to be repaired.

Verbs taking to infinitive or ing form with a change in meaning
a. forget + to infinitive = not remember
ex : Isorry, I forget to come earlier.
forget + - ing form = forget a past event
ex : Ill never forget visiting Spain.
b. remember + to infinitive = remember to do something
ex : Remember to switch off the lights before leaving.
remember + - ng form = recall a past event
ex : He doesnt remember leaving the keys at home.
c. go on + to infinitive = finish doing something and start doing something else;
then:
ex : After finishing cooking she went on to wash the dishes.
go on + -ing form = continue
ex: they went on walking for hours.
d. mean + to infinitive = intend to
ex : He means to find a job abroad.
mean + -ing form
ex : Finding a job means attending many interviews.
e. regret + to infinitive = be sorry to :
ex: I regret to tell you tere is no money left in your account.
regret + -ing form
ex : I regret buying that dress.
f. try + to infinitive =do one;s best, attempt
ex : The policemen are trying to catch the thief.
www.limba-engleza.info 48
try + -ing form = do something as an experiment
ex : Why dont you try sleeping in the afternoon.
g. want + to infinitive = wish
ex : I want to come with you.
want + -ing form = need something done
ex : This wall needs painting.
h. stop + to infinitive = pause temporarly
ex : She stoped to finish her lunch.
stop + -ing form = finish, end
ex : She stoped playing the piano.
i. be sorry + to infinitive = regret
ex : Im sorry to see you sad.
be sorry + - ing form = appologise
ex: Im sorry for telling you that lie.
j. be afraid + to infinitive (the subject is too frightened to do something):
ex : The cat is afraid to climb the latter.
be afraid of + ing form
ex: She wont climb that three, she is afraid of falling.











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7. ADVERBUL the adverb

Adverbul determina un verb , un alt adverb sau un adjectiv.
Clasificare :
b. Adverbe de mod adverbs of manner
Adverbele de mod raspund la intrebarea how ? (cum).
Exemple de adverbe de mod :
- upside down
- somehow
- willingly
- fluently
- by chance
- accidentally
- beautifully
- deliberately
- completely
- extremely
- little
- much
- very
- badly
- slowly
- rather
- quicly
- fast
- aloud


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c. adverbe de timp adverbs of time
Adverbele de timp raspund la intrebarea when? (cand)
Exemple de adverbe de timp :
- afterwards
- daily
- early
- formerly
- immediately
- never
- now
- presently
- meanwhile
- yearly
- recently
- often
- late
- then
- always
- last month
- before
- after
- just
- at present
- today
- at last
- by now
- already
- still
- once
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- when
- just now
- so far
- sooner or later

d. Adverbe de loc adverbs of place
Adverbele de loc raspund la intrebarea where ? (unde?)
Exemple de adverbe de loc :
- behind
- far
- here
- near
- there
- inside
- upstairs
- along
- up and down
- here and there
- abroad
- under
- somewhere
- nowhere
- anywhere
- everywhere
- southwards
- homeward
- where


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e. Adverbe de cauza adverbs of cause
Adverbele de cauza raspund la intrebarea why? (de ce ?)
Exemple de adverbe de cauza:
- that is why
- why
- therefore
- for the reason that

f. Adverbe de scop adverbs of porpose
Adverbele de scop raspund la intrebarea for what purpose ? (cu ce scop)
Exemple de adverbe de scop:
- for this purpose
- for the mere purpose of

g. Adverbe de cantitate adverbs of quantity
Adverbele de cantitate raspund la intrebarea how much?, how little?
Exemple de adverbe de cantitate:
- almost
- entirely
- little
- musch
- quite
- really
- sufficiently
- enough
- too
- very


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h. Alte adverbe
- especially
- exactly
- even
- only
- surely
- precisely
- at most
- at latest
- at ealiest
- however
- of course
- consequently
- also
- at least
- at any rate
- at worst

Comparatia adverbelor
Comparatia neregulata a adverbelor

Pozitiv Comparativ de
superioritate
Superlativ relative
Well Better The best
Badly Worse The worst
Far Farther The farthest
Much More The most
Near Nearer The nearest
Little Less Thea least
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Late Later The latest
Up Upper upmost

Comparatia analitica a adverbelor
Pozitiv Comparativ de
superioritate
Superlativ relative
Attractively More attractively The most attractively
Beautyfull More beautifull The most
Bestially More Bestially The most Bestially
Carefully More Carefully The most Carefully
Fortunately More fortunately The most fortunately
Quickly More quickly The most quickly
Charmingly More charmingly The most charmingly
Fluently More fluently The most fluently
Gratefully More gratefully The most gratefully
Willinigly More willinigly The most willinigly

Comparatia sintetica a adverbelor
Pozitiv Comparativ de
superioritate
Superlativ relative
Cleanly Cleanlier The cleanliest
Early Earlier The earliest
Hard Harder The hardest
Low Lower The lowest

Multe adverbe se folosesc dupa verbul TO BE si dupa verbele modale, fiind nume
predicative. Se stie ca verbul TO BE poate fi predicat in propozitie doar cand este urmat
de un adverb de loc :
Ex : - to be black
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- to be bloody
- to be carefull
- to be cold
- to be concise
- to be hard
Locul adverbelor
Adverbele cu ajutorul carora se formeaza gradul superlative absolute stau totdeauna
inaintea adjectivelor sau adverbelor.
Ex : very well, uite right
Adverbul enough este singurul adverb care sta dupa adjective si verbe.
Ex : She sings beautifully enough.

a. Locul adverbelor de timp
Afterwards I saw them afterward
Again I saw him again
Always I am always at home on Mondays
Before I had read the book before
Ever- Do you ever go to see them ?
Never I have never tried
Often I often go to see them
Rarely I rarely agree with them.
Sometimes Sometimes she makes good decisions.

b. Locul adverbelor de mod
He has walking fast, not slowly.
He spoke about it briefly.
The letter must be written very carefully.
You must learn to speak English fluently.
I love this country very musch/
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This lesson can be easily learned.
He almost always makes mistakes.
It is almost time we started to play tennis.
Almost no one can believe such a thing.
They were fully satisfied.
Our trip look fully satisfied.
Quite- It is quite so.
Really I want to tell you what I really think about it.
Din exemplele de mai sus se vede ca adverbele de mod fully, hardly, nearly, quite,etc isi
au locul in general inaintea cuvantului pe care il determina.

c. Locul adverbelor de loc
Well be waiting inside, not outside.
I found the book where I have put it.
I saw john in the park.
They walked past my car.
He was left well behind.
We shall find the book somewhere.
The book may be anywhere.
We may walk everywhere.

d. Propozitii cu mai multe adverbe
I must give this book to your friend today at six oclock.
It will be written by john later this week, perhaps on Saturday afternoon.
They are requested to be quiet between twelve and five oclock every day.
My friends are living in the country somewhere near Sibiu.
It will be hard for her to live on her small pension from now on.
We all are to meet them at the station tomorrow at a quarter past twelve.

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8. PREPOZITIA the preposition

Prepozitia este partea de vorbire care uneste diferite unitati sintactice in cadrul unei
propozitii , realizand relatii de timp, loc, etc.
Ex : The book is on the table.
Prepozitiile sunt :
- simple : about, on, under, etc
- compuse : into, within, without, etc
- complexe : beacouse of, instead of, etc
- locutiuni prepozitionale : by means of, in the middle of, etc.
Prepozitia OF este cea cu care se formeaza genitivul prepositional \ analytic, iar
prepozitia TO este aceea a dativului prepositional.
In limba engleza prepozitia sta fie inaintea substantivului sau a altui cuvant cu care este
in relatie , fie la sfarsitul unei propozitii.
Ex : What is he talking about ?
Whom is the talking to ? about whom is he talking ?
Whom friend are you talking about ? About whose friend are you talking ?
What are you looking at ? At what are you looking?
Prepozitiile in limba engleza pot aparea in post pozitie in :
- intrebari care incep cu who, what, which
- in subordonatele attributive
- in unele exclamatii What trouble theyve got intro!
- in unele constructii passive He is looked for by us.
- in propozitii infinitivaleThey are impossible to talk to.
- in fraze affirmative care incep cu who, what, which


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Cele mai importante prepozitii in limba engleza sunt:
- about =despre
- above = deasupra
- across = de-a curmezisul
- along = de-a lungul
- alongside = alaturi
- among = intre
- around = imprejur
- at = la
- before = inainte
- below = dedesubt
- beneath = sub, mai jos de
- besides = in afara de
- beyond = dincolo de
- by = de, prin
- for = pentru
- in = in
- inside = inauntru
- into = in
- near = langa
- of = de
- on = pe
- opposite = peste drum de
- over = peste
- past = e langa
- round = iin jurul
- since = de, de la
- throughout = prin
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- under = sub, peste, dupa
- up = in susul
- within = inlauntrul, in
- without = fara

Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii, adverbe sau cu adjective
About the town = prin oras
A journey around the world = o calatorie prin lume
It is about two oclock = este in jurul orei doua
To have money about one self = a avea bani asupra sa
A plane above the clouds = un avion deasupra norilor
Above my head = deasupra capului meu
A bridge across the Danube = un pod peste dunare
To sail across the ocean = a naviga peste ocean
To walk across the street = a traversa strada
After breakfast = dupamicul dejun
Day after day = zi dupa zi
They came two days after = ei au venit la doua zile dupa aceea
Soon after = in curand dupa aceea
Against the enemy = impotriva inamicului
Against the laws = impotriva legilor
A race against time = o cursa impotriva timpului
To walk along the road a merge pe drum
Among his friends = intre prietenii lui
A trip around the country = a calatorie in jurul tarii
Put a coat around the baby = pune o haina pe copil
Is an island a land with water all around = este insula un uscat inconjurat de ape
At noon = la pranz
At the time = la vremea aceea
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At random = la inramplare
To be at school = a fi la scoala
Since before the war = inca dinaintea razboiului
Before long = curand
To hide behind a tree = a te ascunde in spatele unui copac

Verbe cu prepozitii obligatorii:
To accuse = a acuza
To agree on = a fi de accord cu
To approve = a aproba
To ask = a intreba
To be angry with = a fi nervos pe
To be concerned with = a fi preocupat de
To be crazy about = a fi nebun dupa
To be dependent on = a fi dependent de
To agree with = a fi de accord cu cineva
To apologize for = a cere iertare pentru
To arrive at = a ajunge la
To be afraid of = a se teme de
To be aware of = a fi constient de
To be close to = a fi aproape de
To be confident of = a fi increzator in
To be cruel to = a fi crud cu
To be deprived of = a fi deposedat de
To be different from = a fi diferit de
To be good at = a fi bun la
To be grateful to = a fi recunoscator fata de
To be of opinion that = a fi de opinie ca
To be on the move = a fi in miscare
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To be intend to = a fi absorbit de
To be jealos of = a fi gelos pe
To be polite to = a fi politicos cu
To be proud of = a fi mandru de
To be sorry for = a-I parea rau pentru
To be seized with = a fi prins de
To be surprised at = a fi surprins de
To beg for = a implora
To boast of= a se lauda
To begin with = a incepe cu
To call at a place = a trece printr=un loc



9. CONJUNCTIA the conjunction
Partea de vorbire care leaga in propozitii cuvinte cu aceeasi functie sintactica , sau
propozitii in fraza se numeste conjunctie.
Conjunctiile sunt :
- simple and, after, but
- compuse however, unless
- correlative eitheror, neithernor, bothand, as if, in order to

a. Conjunctii coordonatoare coordonating conjunctions
Leaga parti de propozitie cu aceeasi valoare sintactica sau propozitii de acelasi fel.

b. Conjunctii copulative copulative conjunctions
And I see a boy and a girl.
As well as He speaks English as well as german.
Both .. and I like both English and german.
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Not only but also I like not only English but also german.

c. Conjunctii disjunctive disjunctive conjunctions
Either or He can speak either English or german.
Neither nor I see neither him nor her.
Otherwise The book is expensive otherwise it is very useful.
Else Hurry up or else you will loose the train.

d. Conjunctii adversative adversative conjunctions
Aceste conjunctii exprima contrastul.
But We want to buy a house but we dont have the money.
However I didnt want to do it, however I did it.
Nevertheless Math is difficult nevertheless I like it.
Still It is expensive still I will buy it.
While Your motorcar is old while mine is new.
Yet These goods are expensive, yet people buy them.

e. Conjunctii conclusive illative conjunctions
Exprima o concluzie.
Accordingly I found the book I needed and accordingly I bought it.
Consequently I found the book interesting , consequently I bought it.
So I considered the book interesting so I bought it.
Therefore I didnt find them in the park , therefore I came home.

f. Conjunctii cauzale causal conjunction
For it is very hot for it is august.
Sunt rare cazurile cand se intalnesc in limba engleza astfel de exemple cu FOR causal.


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g. Conjunctii de loc conjunctions of place
Where You must come here where I live.
Wherever well live wherever it is possible.
As far as I shall go as far as I need.
Whence I am going there whence you are coming.

h. Conjunctii de timp conjunctions of time
After I came after you had left.
Before I must note you number before I forget it.
The first time I saw he was a serious man the first time I saw him.
All the time we are laughing all the time we were watching he play.
As long as a man must learn as long as he lives.
As soon as I must find out the truth as soon as I arrive.
Since I havent seen him since he was a student.
Ever since I realized he was a good man ever since I met him.
Till, until you must wait till they come.
When I shall tell you everything when they come.
While while there is a life there is hope.
The moment I recognized him the moment I saw him.
The very moment I understood the real state of things the moment I entered their
house.

i. Conjunctii de mod conjunctions of manner
Introduc subordonatele modale.
As he talks as he thinks
As if he open his mouth as if to say something.
Not so as your house is not so big as I thought.
Asas she sang the song as beautyully as she could.
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So much as I do not like tennis so much as he does.
So far as you will buy the house so far as you can afford it.

j. Conjunctii de cauza conjunctions of cause
Introduc subordonatele cauzale.
Because I bought the ball because it was cheap.
Seeing that seeing that it was raining I entered the house.
Since since it is raining I must take my umbrella.
Now that now that I have come I shall drink a cup of coffee.

k. Conjunctii de scop conjunctions of purpose
Introduc subordonatele finale.
In order to we have come to school in order to learn.
Lest turn on the lights lest you will knock your head against smth.
So that turn on the light so that I can see better.














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II. SINTAXA














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1. SUBIECTUL
Subiectul este partea propozitiei care poate fi uneori autorul actiunii alteori obiect al
actiunii savarsite de altcineva.
Subiectul poate fi cineva\ceva despre care se comunica ceva in propozitie.
Raspunde la intrebarile WHO ? si What ? (cine, ce)
Ex : The boy learns cuvantul THE BOY este subiect iar cuvantul learns este predicat.

2. PREDICATUL
Este partea de propozitie prin care se comunica ceva despre subiect sau ce anume face
subiectul. Subiectul si predicatul sunt parti principale ale unei propozitii. Se poate vorbi
uneori despre propozitii cu mai multe subiecte sau subiect multiplu.

In momentul in care intr-o comunicare apare predicat multiplu , comunicarea respectiva
nu mai este propozitie ci fraza.

Predicatul unei propozitii este reprezentat printr-un verb la unul din cele patru moduri
personale ale verbului : indicative, conditional, subjunctiv si imperativ.

Predicatele sunt :
- Verbale reprezentate printr-un verb principal.
Ex : He studies chemistry.
They will come back by coach.
He had seen the monastery.

- Nominale consta dintr-un verb copulativ si un nume predicativ
Iata cateva verbe copulative : to be, to become, to continue, to get, to grow, to seem.
Ex : everybody grows old.
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I must go to church.
He is clever.
Roses smell great.


3. ATRIBUTUL the attribute
Atributul determina un substantiv si isi are locul inaintea lui.
Sh is singing a beautyfull song.
He is my friend.
John is my best friend.
They were the last to come.
You can ask the man in the street.
The book read by me is interesting.


4. COMPLEMENTUL the object

a. Complementul direct the direct object
Este partea de propozitie asupra careia se orienteaza actiunea subiectului. Se exprima
prin substantive \ pronume in cazul acuzativ.
Ex : I am reading a book.
What am I reading ?
Who is raeding a book ?
Locul complementului direct in propozitie este dupa verbul sau. Exista si un complement
intern care sta intre verbul tranzitiv si complementul direct propriu zis.

b. Complementul indirect the indirect object
Este cel asupra caruia actiunea subiectului se rasfrange indirect si este exprimat prin
substantive sau pronume in cazul dativ.
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Ex : I shall buy a book for you.
He bought the boy a book.
Complementul indirect raspunde la intrebari ca : to whom ? for whom ? about whom ?
with whom ? without whom ?

c. Complementul circumstantial de loc
Se exprima printr-un adverb de loc.
Ex : We are at home.
English is spoken all over the world.
Raspunde la intrebarile where ? (unde), from where ?, how far ?

d. Complementul circumstantial de timp
Se exprima printr-un adverb de timp.
Raspunde la intrebarea : when ? (cand)
Ex : I was at home yesterday.
I have never seen him there.
We have lived in Sibiu for 35 years.

e. Complementul circumstantial de mod
Se exprima prin adverbe de mod.
Raspunde la intrebarile : how ?, how much ?, in what way ? , how many times ?
Ex : The children were playing happily.
Alice sings beautifully.

f. Complementul circumstantial de cauza
Exprima cauza actiunii savarsite de subiect si exprimata prin predicat.
Raspunde la intrebarile : why?, for what reason ?, on what account ? , on whose account
?
Ex : I couldnt come because of the rain.
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We arrived late on my account.

g. Complementul circumstantial de scop / final
Reprezinta materializarea scopului subiectului propozitiei in care se afla.
Raspunde la intrebarile : for what purpose ? , for what ? , what for ?
Ex : He only works for money.
This device is used for various purposes.

h. Complementul circumstantial concesiv
Raspunde la intrebarile : in spite of whom / what ?
Ex : They have come in spite of the bad wather.
They have played tennis in spite of my refusal not to play.

i. Complementul de agent
Complementul de agent sau subiectul logic este folosit numai la diateza pasiva.
Raspunde la intrebarile : by whom ?, whom by ?, by what ?
Ex : the book was ready by the student.
Se vede clar ca autorul actiunii este studentul. Cartea este subiectul grammatical.


5. Sintaxa frazei
Fraza este o comunicare alcatuita din mai multe propozitii aflate intre ele fie in raporturi
de coordonare fie de subordonare.
In cazul coordonarii , partile de propozitie in propozitie si propozitiile in fraza sunt
independente una de alta. Se pot lega intre ele prin conjunctii coordonatoare sau
juxtapunere.
Subordonare inseamna raport syntactic de dependenta a unei parti de propozitie sau de
alta parte de propozitie sau a unei propozitii de alta propozitie.
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Elemental subordonat depinde de termenul sau regent iar propozitia subordonata
depinde de regenta sa. Elemental subordonat este deci termenul dependent iar cel
regent este cel este cel care guverneaza in cadrul relatiei respective.
Propozitia regenta este aceea care depinde semantic o alta propozitie in cadrul aceleiasi
fraze.
Propozitia subordonata se poate adresa unui singur cuvant din regenta sa iar acest
cuvant , care se numeste termen regent , determina felul subordonatei respective.

a. Propozitia subiectiva the subject clause
Functioneaza ca subiect al predicatului din regenta si intregeste intelesul regentei.
Se intalneste dupa expresii ca :
- it is advisable that
- it is better that
- it is certain that
- it is desirable that
- it is meet and proper that
- it is inevitabl that
- it is necesay that I came
- it is important that

Ex: Why they didnt come is still a secret.
How to write a book is not known by anybody.

b. Propozitia predicativa the predicative / complement clause
Implineste functia de nume predicative al verbului din regenta sa si se introduce in
maniera in care se introduce si subiectivele.
Ex : Why he has come is the question.
Why he has come subiectiva
Is the question preducativa.
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c. Propozitia atributiva the attributive clause
Este un atribut al unui substantiv din regenta sa.
Ex : Every man , who knows him, appreciates him verry much.
Every man appreciates him verry much. regenta
who knows him atributiva.
Termenul regent al atributivei de mai sus este substantivul man.

d. Propozitia completiva directa the object clause
Este complemetul direct al verbului tranzitiv din regenta.
Ex : I did not ask him wheter he has thirsty.
I told you whom he gave the books.
He said that he could come later on.

e. Propozitia subordonata temporala the adverbial clause of time
Este in fraza complementul circumstantial de timp pe langa un verb sau adverb din
regenta sa.
Ex : I shall read this book when I have time.
Termenul regent este vebul read.
I shall read this book before you come home.
I shall give you the money as soon as I meet you.
She is happy when she is with her family.
You may stay until your cousin arrives.

f. Propozitia circumstantiala de loc the adverbial clause of place
Este complementul circumstantial de loc al unui verb sau adverb din regenta sa de care
se leaga prin adverbe relative ca : where, wherever.
Ex : You cannot live where they live.
We may spend our holydays wherever we want.
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g. Subordonata de proportie
Este o varianta a subordonatei de mod.
Ex : the more we are the better it is.
As time went on, so she began to type more quiqly.
The harder you work, the more money you make.

h. Subordonata preferentiala the clause of preference.
Se traduce prin subordonata opozitionala.
Ex : Rather then play football Id prefer to swim.
Rather then play football you had better learn.
I would play football rather then learn.

i. Propozitia circumstantiala de mod si comparative the adverbial clause of manner
and comparison.
Joaca rolul de complement circumstantial de mod pe langa un verb sau un adverb din
regenta sa.
Ex : Mary sings as beautifully as her sister does.
My friend is older than you friend.
Tomorrow we shall work more than we worked yesterday.

j. Propozitia subordonata cauzala the adverbial clause of reason
Este in fraza respective un complement circumstantial de cauza pe langa termenul sau
regent care este un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa.
Ex : I didnt meet them there because I was late.
Se leaga de regenta sa prin conjunctii sau adverbe relative ca : because, for the reason
that, seeing that, on the ground that, owing to the fact that, since, on account that.
Raspunde la intrebari ca : why? , on what account ? , for what reason ? ,
Ex : Seeing that they did not come I went home.
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I did not come owing to the fact that it was too late.

k. Propozitia subordonata finala the adverbial clause of purpose
Corespunde in fraza respective unui complement circumstantial de cauza pe langa un
verb sau adverb din regenta sa , respectiv pe langa termenul sau regent.
Subordonata finala se leaga de regenta sa prin conjunctiile si adverbele relative : in
order that, so that, that, lest, for fear that, on porpose to.
Ex : You must get up earlier so that you can meet him at the station.
He must turn on the light lest he should knock himself against something in the
darkness.
I shall go to England so that I can learn English well.
We go to church to pray.

l. Subordonata concesiva the adverbial clause of concession
Se introduce prin conjunctiile : though, although, however, whoever, in spite of, no
matter who, no matter by whom, no matter why, no matter when.
Ex : Though it is late we shall sit and watch he football match.
We shall watch the football match altought it is late.
Late as it is we shall watch the football match.
You should have been waiting for him even if it were late.
I buy it however expensive it is.

m. Propozitia consecutiva the adverbial clause of result
Exprima rezultatul / urmarea / consecinta actiunii din propozitia regenta.
Ex : Alice was so beautiful that everybody was admiring her.
His explanation was so clear that each of us understood it.
He never go to the seaside but spend a lot of money.


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n. Propozitia subordonata conditionala the adverbial clause of condition
Reprezinta conditia infaptuirii actiunii din regenta sa. Se leaga de regenta sa cu ajutorul
conjunctiilor conditionale: if, on condition that, providing/ provided that, suppose/
supposing that, unless, whether or not, as soon as, as long as, in case.
Exista trei tipuri de conditionale , clasificare facuta in raport cu posibilitatea realizarii /
indeplinirii actiunii din regenta respectiva.

1. subordonata conditionala de tip I conditie reala si posibilia , iar verbul din regenta sa
este la viitor. Locul lor in fraza se poate schimba.
Ex : If I have time I shall read this book.
I shall read this book if I have time.
I shall not read this book unless I have time.
I shall read this book on the condition that I have time.

2. subordonata conditionala tip II conditie ireala si improbabila darn u imposibila.
Ex : I should read this book if I have time.
Se observa ca verbul este la modul conditional timpul present iar in regenta verbul este
modul subjonctiv timpul present. In aceasta siuatie conditia devine probabila. In acest
caz, actiunea din regenta pare sa fie in contradictie cu realitatea ori faptele ascunse.
Ex : He would buy this palace if he had money.
If he were to go on a journey round the world he would be very happy.
He would be very happy if he were to go on a journey round the world.

3. subordonata conditionala de tip III conditie imposibila
In aceasta situatie verbul din regenta este la modul conditional perfect iar cel din
regenta este la modul subjonctiv perfect. Conditiile sutn trecute, sunt deci imposibil de
indeplinit.
Ex : If I had had time I should have read the book.
I should have read the book if I had had time.
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o. Subordonata conditional concesiva the alternative conditional concessive clause
ex : He will pay for everything , wheter he likes it or not.
Wherever you live, you have to work hard.
Wherever you lived, youd have to work hard.
























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6. Concordanta timpurilor the sequence of tenses

Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonata cu timpul verbului din
regenta sa. In limba engleza timpul verbului din subordonata trebuie sa se subordoneze
timpului verbului din regenta. Cu alte cuvinte, timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaza
folosirea anumitor timpuri in subordonatele lor.

Exista in acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut si de aplicat :
Regula I daca in regenta verbul este la present tense sau present perfect tense in
subordonata se poate folosi orice timp.
Regula II daca in regenta verbul este la trecut in subordonata el trebuie sa fie la unul
din cele trei timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze : the past perfect, the past tense, the
future in the past.
Regula III daca verbul din regenta este la viitor in subordonatele conditionale si
temporale el trebuie sa fie la present tense sau present perfect tense, iar daca
subordonata este completive directa verbul va fi la viitor.
REGENTA SUBORDONATA
I. Verbul este la present Verbul poate fi la orice timp
We all know that He had come
He came
He will come
He would come
He would have come
II. Verbul este la trecut Verbul trebuie sa fie la trecut
He did not know that She had come
She came
She would come
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III. Verbul este la viitor A. verbul sa fie la present sau present
perfect in subordonatele conditionale sau
temporale.
I shall tell you the truth if/when You give / have given me the book
B. Verbul va fi la orice timp in subordonata
completive directa.
I shall see what I shall do.






















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Lista verbelor neregulate

Present infinitive Past tense Past participle Present
participle
To arise arose Arisen Arising
To awake Awoke Awaked Awaking
To be Was/were Been Being
To beat Beat Beaten Beating
To become Became Become Becoming
To begin Began Begun Beginning
To bite Bit Bit/ bitten Biting
To bless Blessed Blessed Blessing
To blow To blew Blown Blowing
To break Broke Broken Breaking
To bring Brought Brought Bringing
To broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Broadcasting
To build Built Built Building
To burn Burned Burnt Burning
To burst Burst Burst Bursting
To buy Bought Bought Buying
To cast Cast Cast Casting
To catch Caught Caught Catching
To choose Chose Chosen Choosing
To cling Clung Clung Clinging
To come Came Come Coming
To cost Cost Cost Costing
To crow Crew Crowed Crowing
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To cut Cut Cut Cutting
To do Did Done Doing
To draw Drew Drawn Drawing
To dream Dreamt Dreamed Dreaming
To drink Drank Drunk Drinking
To drive Drove Driven Driving
To eat Ate Eaten Eating
To fall Fell Fallen Falling
To feed Fed Fed Feeding
To feel Felt Felt Feeling
To fight Fought Fought Fighting
To find Found Found Finding
To fly Flew Flown Flying
To forget `forgot Forgotten Forgetting
To forgive Forgave Forgiven Forgiving
To get Got Gotton Getting
To give Gave Given Giving
To go Went Gone Going
To grow Grew Grown Growing
To hang Hung Hanged Hanging
To have Had Had Having
To hear Heard Heard Hearing
To hide Hid Hidden Hiding
To hit Hit Hit Hitting
To hold Held Held Holding
To hurt Hurt Hurt Hurting
To keep Kept Kept Keeping
To know Knew Known Knowing
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To lay Laid Laid Laying
To lead Led Led Leading
To learn Learned Learned Learning
To leave Left Left Leaving
To let Let Let Letting
To lie Lay Lain Laying
To lose Lost Lost Losing
To make Made Made Making
To mean Meant Meant Meaning
To meet Met Met Meeting
To melt Melted Molten Melting
To pay Paid Paid Paying
To put Put Put Putting
To read Read Read Reading
To ride Rode Ridden Riding
To ring Rang Rung Ringing
To rise Rose Risen Rising
To run Ran Run Running
To say Said Said Saying
To see Saw Seen Seeing
To sell Sold Sold Selling
To send Sent Sent Sending
To set Set Set Setting
To show Showed Shown Showing
To shut Shut Shut Shutting
To sing Sang Sung Singing
So sit Sat Sat Sitting
To speak Spoke Spoken Speaking
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To spread Spread Spread Spreading
To steal; Stole Stolen Stealing
To swim Swam Swum Swimming
To take Took Taken Taking
To teach Taught Taught Teaching
To tell Told Told Telling
To think Thought Thought Thinking
To understand Understood Understood Understanding
To upset Upset Upset Upsetting
To wake Woke Woken Waking
To win Won Won Winning
To write Wrote Written Writing

















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