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Ranga Catalina, Romana-Engleza, An II, ID

Solve the exercises below:


Translate into English using modal verbs or modal substitutes. Specify between
brackets the meaning of the modal you choose (ability/dynamic, epistemic,

1. M tem c nu neleg prea mult din ce spune; ori nu sunt n stare s urmresc nimic
pentru c sunt obosit, ori vorbitorul nu i-a structurat prea bine discursul.
Im affraid I dont understand too much of what he is saying. I cant watch anything
either because Im tired or because the speaker didnt structure very well his speech.
2. Sunt nou n ora. Credei c m-ai putea ajuta s gsesc sediul Institutului de cercetri?
Im new in town. Do you think you can help me to find the headquarters of the Research
Institute? (deontic)
3. Sugerm s ne oprim deocamdat, dar am putea continua mine la aceeai or. Credei c
vom putea termina suficient de repede pentru a trimite la timp documentele? We suggest
to stop for now but we can continue tomorrow at the same time. Do you think we can
finish fast enough to send the documents on time ? (epistemic)
4. mi amintesc c era o vreme cnd puteam petrece zile ntregi fr s obosim. S fie oare
vrsta? Nu se poate!
I remember there was a time when we could spend entire days without getting tired.
(ability) Could it be the age ? It cant be ! (epistemic)
5. Am s fiu n stare s-l bat la table cnd voi avea mai mult experien.
I will be able to beat him at backgammon when I will have more experience. (ability)
6. Putem s gzduim urmtoarea conferin la Galai, vara viitoare. Am putea s trimitem
invitaiile chiar sptmna viitoare
We can host the next conference at galatz, next summer.(ability) We can even send the
invitations next week. (epistemic)
7. Din fericire, mi-am fcut muli prieteni de cnd m-am mutat n acest ora. tii ct de greu
poate fi la nceput.
Fortunatelly, I ve made many friends since I moved in this town. You know how hard it
can be at the begining. (ability/dynamic)

8. Dac te concediaz, poi oricnd s vii la firma noastr. tiu ct de ncredere poi fi i
chiar a dori s ni te poi altura.
If they fire you, you can always come to our company (epistemic). I know how reliable
you can be and Id really like if you could join us. (ability)
9. n ce privete medicamentul acesta, se tie c poate fi foarte folositor n tratamentul
pneumoniei; nu se poate s fi refuzat administrarea lui.
in terms of this medicine, it is known that it can be very useful in the treatment of
pneumonia. He couldnt have refused its administration ! (epistemic )
10. Iari vorbete la telefon! Cu cine o mai fi vorbind i de data asta? A putea s pariez c e
vreuna din prietenele ei cu care poate vorbi ore ntregi fr s se plictiseasc.
Shes talking again on the phone. I wonder who is she talking again this time ? I could bet
that its one of her friends with whom she can talk for hours without being bored.
11. Nu se poate s fi venit la ntrunire; a fi observat-o i sigur m-a fi dus s vorbesc cu ea.
tiu ct de jignit se poate simi cnd nu este bgat n seam.
She couldnt have come to the meeting ! I would have noticed her and I would have went
to talk to her. I know how offended she can feel when she is not connected in. (epistemic
12. Spune c ar putea termina lucrarea de ndat ce intr n posesia tuturor articolelor de
specialitate care s-au publicat n ultimii doi ani.
He says that he can finish the paper as soon as he comes into possesion of all the articles
that have been published over the past two years. (ability/dynamic)
13. A spus c ar putea termina lucrarea de ndat ce intr n posesia tuturor articolelor de
specialitate care s-au publicat n ultimii doi ani.
He said that he could finish the paper as soon as he came into possesion of all the articles
that have been published over the past two years. (ability/dynamic)
14. Nu-mi dau seama ce urmrete; s-ar putea s intenioneze s nfiineze o societate de
I cant realize what he is up to (ability) ; he might intend to set up an insurance company.
15. Dei poate fi nesuferit uneori, i-a cerut scuze c n-a putut ajunge la timp din cauza unui
blocaj n traffic.
Although he can be obnoxious sometimes, he apologized because he couldnt arrive on
time due to a traffic jam. (ability)
16. Ai fi putut s-mi spui i mie despre brourile pe care le-ai luat de la agenia de voiaj; mia fi fcut o idee mai clar despre condiiile pe care le ofer.

You could have told me about the brochures that you have got from the travel agency. I
would have made a clearer idea about the conditions that they offer. (epistemic)
17. Vezi silueta acea care se apropie? Dac reueti s recunoti persoana, poi s-mi spui i
mie cine este, pentru c nu vd nimic cu ochelarii tia noi; a fi putut la fel de bine s m
lipsesc de ei.
Do you see that silhouette approaching ? If you recognize the person, you can tell me
who it is, because I dont see anything with these new glasses. I could have just as well
miss it. (ability/dynamic)
18. Poi s crezi c parlamentul ar fi putut vota o asemenea lege care s afecteze interesele
Can you believe that the Parliament could vote on such a law thats affecting the patients
interests? (epistemic)
19. Dac au reuit s-i conving s intre n proiect, este pentru c ei chiar sunt n stare s-l
duc la bun sfrit.
If they could convince them to join in the project, its because they really are able to carry
it out. (ability)
20. Cercettorii din domeniu s-au strduit s obin un nou medicament care s fie ct mai
eficient, astfel nct bolnavii s poat spera ntr-o nsntoire rapid.
The Researchers have struggled to get a new drug as efficient as possible so that patiens
could could hope for a quick recovery. (ability/dynamic)

II. Translate into English using modal verbs or modal substitutes. Specify between brackets
the meaning of the modal you choose (ability/dynamic, epistemic, deontic):
1. Ma intreb daca isi da seama de consecinte; s-ar putea sa fie constient de responsabilitatea
pe care si-a asumat-o, desi, sincer sa fiu, nu pare.
I wonder if he is aware of the consequences; he might be conscious of the responsibility
he assumed, although, honestly, he does not appear. (epistemic)
2. Poti sa-ti iei adio de la vacanta pe care ti-am promis-o, atat timp cat nu te-ai achitat de
partea ta de intelegere.
You can get your farewell from the vacation which I promised you, as long as you have
not paid your share of the understanding. (epistemic)
3. Copiii sub saisprezece ani nu pot participa la curse de masini atat de periculoase.
Children under sixteen years cant participate in such dangerous racing . (deontic)
4. Ai fi putut sa-i anunti ca plecati ca sa nu faca tot drumul acela numai ca sa gaseasca usa

You could have announced them that you were leaving so that they wouldnt have come
all that way just to find the door locked. (deontic)
5. Sa traiesti fericit o mie de ani si sa ai parte de bucurii si sa stii sa-ti sarbatoresti
May you live happily a thousand years and be joyfull and know how to celebrate the
failures ! (epistemic)
6. Pot sa plec acum, sefu? Da, cred ca poti. Sa punem punct aici, dar maine s-ar putea sa
am nevoie de tine dimineata, desi nu cred ca delegatia pe care o asteptam va veni atat de
Can I go now, boss? Yes, I think you can. Lets end for now, but tomorrow I might need
you in morning, although I do not think that the delegation we are expecting would come
so early. (deontic+epistemic)
7. Am fi putut sa ne hotaram asupra variantei celeilalte, dar atunci s-ar fi complicat lucrurile
si e posibil sa nu mai fi fost in stare sa terminam la timp.
We could decide on the other version, but then things would have complicated and we
might not have been able to finish on time. (epistemic)
8. Multumesc ca nu mi-ai spus ca nu mergi la petrecere; pot, la fel de bine sa ma duc
singura ca si cum n-as avea partener.
Thank you for not telling me that you dont go to the party ; I might as well go alone as if
I hadnt got a partner. (epistemic)
9. Dupa cate vad s-ar putea sa amanam iesirea la iarba verde; cerul e acoperit de nori si s-ar
putea sa inceapa ploaia in orice moment.
As far as Ican see, we might postpoe the barbecue ; Its cloudy and it might start to rain at
any time. (epistemic)
10. Imprumutul acesta se poate obtine daca ai garantii serioase.
This loan can be obtained if you have serious guarantees. (deontic)
11. Jocul se poate juca doar daca ii cunosti regulile si le respecti; altfel, s-ar putea sa nu-ti
gasesti nici un partener dispus sa-l joace cu tine.
The game can be played only if you know the rules and accept them; otherwise, you
might not find a partner willing to play it with you. (deontic)
12. Daca ti-ai lua diploma anul acesta, ai putea sa-ti gasesti un loc de munca care sa-ti
satisfaca asteptarile.
If you would get your diploma this year, you could find yourself a job that satisfies your
expectations. (ability/dynamic)

13. Toata lumea ocolea subiectul de teama sa nu-i trezeasca amintiri dureroase; ar fi putut sa
se inchida din nou in sine, asa cum se mai intamplase, si nimic si nimeni n-ar mai fi
deschis-o spre comunicarea cu ceilalti.
Everybody avoided the subject because of fear of awakening her painful memories; she
could isolate again, as it happened before, and nothing and no one would have been able
to make her communicate with others. (epistemic)
14. Dupa cat il cunosc, s-ar putea sa mai studieze inca, inchis in birou, dosarele acelea care iau dat atata bataie de cap.
As far as I know, he might still be studying locked in the Office, the files that gave him so
much hassle. (epistemic)
15. Desi nu era foarte entuziasmat de idee, tatal sau il trimisese in Italia sa studieze pictura
Although he was not very enthusiastic about the idea, his father had sent him in Italy to
study Renaissance painting.
16. Oricat ar costa si oricate argumente mi-ar aduce el, insist sa ne petrecem vacanta in
strainatate pentru ca, asa cum s-ar putea sa stii deja, serviciile oferite sunt mult mai bune
si preturile mai rezonabile.
No matter how much it costs or how many arguments he would bring me, I insist to
spend the holiday abroad because, as you might already know, the services are much
better and the prices are more reasonable. (epistemic)
17. Ii puteai simti din tonul vocii ingrijorarea cu privire la soarta proiectului cu care se
inscrisese pentru obtinerea unei burse; fie ce-o fi, el incercase si nimeni nu-i putea
reprosa lipsa de interes.
You could feel in his voice the concern abou the fate of the projected which applyed for
getting a scholarship ; whatever it would be, he tryed and nobody could reproach him the
lack of interest. (ability+epistemic)
18. Dupa atatia ani petrecuti pe mare, inca auzea zgomotul inconfundabil al valurilor, oricat
de preocupat de altceva ar fi fost.
After so many years spent at sea, he could still hear the unmistakable noise of the waves,
no matter how preoccupied he would hve been with something else. (ability/dynamic)
19. E posibil ca prietenii mei sa aiba dreptate de data asta, dar eu tot cred ca e bine sa stam de
vorba cu el.
It might be possible that my friends be right on this one, but I still think it's better to talk
with him. (epistemic)

20. As putea sa intrerup ce pare sa fie o discutie fara sfarsit si sa va dau un sfat ?
Can I interrupt what it appears to be an endless discussion and give you some advice?
III. Translate into English using modal verbs or modal substitutes. Specify between
brackets the meaning of the modal you choose (ability/dynamic, epistemic, deontic):
1. Anul acesta am ore dimineata; in fiecare zi trebuie sa fiu la facultate la ora 11:30.
This year I have morning classes; every day I have to be at College at 11:30. (deontic)
2. Trebuie sa semnam actele maine dimineata si, apoi, sa participam la conferinta de presa.
We must sign the papers tomorrow morning and then to participate in the press
conference. (deontic)
3. Trebuie ca a fost foarte suparat de faptul ca nu ai fost suficient de rezonabil in luarea
deciziei. (epistemic)
He might have been very upset by the fact that you werent reasonable enough in making

the decision.
Trebuie sa plec imediat daca vreau sa ii ajung din urma.
I must leave immediately if I want to reach them. (deontic)
Va trebui sa-l determin sa isi ia pastilele la timp daca vrea sa se faca bine.
I need to make hm take the pills on time if he wants to get well. (deontic)
Crezi ca va trebui sa merg si eu cu tine?
Do you think I must go with you ? (epistemic)
Trebuie sa-ti marturisesc ca nu-mi face nici o placere.
I must confess that I dont find no pleasure in this. (ability/dynamic)
Mai este nevoie sa-ti spun ca nu ai voie sa pleci daca nu iti reinnoiesti pasaportul?
Do I need to tell you that you are not allowed to leave if you do not renew your Passport?

9. Ar trebui sa-ti vezi de treburile tale daca nu vrei sa fii ocolit de toata lumea. (deontic)
You should mind your own business if you do not want to be avoided by everyone.
10. Nu era nevoie sa cheltuiesti atat de mult pe haine; ai un dulap plin. (deontic)
You neednt have spend that much on clothes; you have a full closet .
11. N-a fost nevoie sa ii traduc ce se vorbeste; spre surprinderea mea, vorbea romana foarte
I neednt have translated what was spoken ; to my surprise, she spoke Romanian very
well. (ability/dynamic)
12. Mark poate sa vina in orice moment; ar fi trebuit sa fie acasa deja.
Mark can come at any time; he should be home already. (epistemic)
13. Copiii sub saisprezece ani nu pot participa la aceste curse de masini.
Children under sixteen years can not participate in these races. (deontic)
14. Pasagerii zborului 203 se vor prezenta la punctul de control imediat dupa aterizare.

Passengers of 203 flight will be present at the checkpoint immediately after landing.
15. Probabil ca se simte bine cu vechii ei prieteni daca nu simte nevoia sa-si faca altii noi.
She is probably feeling good with her old friends,since she does not feel the need to make
new ones. (epistemic)
16. Nu se poate sa se intoarca azi daca s-a oprit in Sibiu.
He cant be back today if he stopped in Sibiu. (epistemic)
17. De ce a trebuit sa va duceti acolo? Stiati ca nu era nevoie ba, mai mult, nu aveati voie s-o
Why did you go there? You know that you neednt and,moreover, you werent allowed to
do that. (deontic)
18. A spus ca a facut ce trebuia sa faca.
He said that he did what he had to do. (deontic)
19. Va trebui sa astepti aici pana se intoarce secretara; cineva trebuie sa raspunda la telefon.
You will have to wait here till the secretary gets back ; someone has to answer the phone.
20. Nu e nevoie sa faci asta in fiecare zi; o data la doua zile este suficient.
You neednt do this every day ; once every two days is enough. (deontic)