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Evaluarea senzoriala (1)

Pentru ca am citit in ultimul timp cateva lucrari din domeniul integrarii senzoriale, postez aici
prima parte a unei evaluari senzoriale a copilului. Atentie, o disfunctie senzoriala se poate
manifesta in feluri total opuse (dupa cum veti vedea mai jos): unii copii sunt defensivi, adica nu
suporta stimulii senzoriali si se apara de ei cum pot, altii sunt exact pe dos, cauta cu disperare
stimuli senzoriali pana cand sistemul lor nervos atinge un prag de confort. Ambele
comportamente sunt deficitare senzorial si exista activitati specifice pentru fiecare, dar asta mai
tarziu...
Deocamdata, iata o lista pentru probleme generale de autoingrijire, privite din perspectiva
fiecarui sistem senzorial (cateva explicatii: sistemul vestibular inregistreaza schimbarile de
pozitie ale corpului in raport cu atractia gravitationala, iar sistemul proprioceptiv se refera la
perceptia
propriului
corp)
AUTOINGRIJIRE
Sistemul
tactil
Accepta
greu
sa
fie
atins
cu
prospopul
pe
corp
sau
pe
fata

Freaca
locul
unde
a
fost
atins

Are
nevoie
de
ritualuri
zilnice
rigide

Nu
ii
place
sa
stropeasca
cu
apa
in
cada

Nu
ii
place
spalatul
pe
dinti
Se plange ca il doare cand foloseste periuta de dinti sau pieptanul

Reactioneaza
agresiv
cand
e
atins

Nu
ii
place
sa
fie
pieptanat
si
nu
suporta
nimic
pe
cap

Nu
suporta
atingerea
scutecului
sau
a
hartiei
igienice
Vrea sa stea tot timpul imbracat sau dimpotriva prefera sa stea dezbracat

Suporta
greu
schimbarile
de
temperatura
Sistemul
proprioceptiv
Scapa mereu din mana obiectele (pasta de dinti, peria de par etc)
Exercita prea multa sau prea putina presiune asupra obiectelor (e.g. apasa prea tare pe tubul cu
pasta de dinti si iese mult mai multa pasta decat are nevoie, sau nu poate sa scoata capacul de la
tub)
Ii place la nebunie sa faca dus, sa se stearga cu un prosop aspru sau sa apese tare cu peria cand
se
piaptana
Nu isi poate schimba pozitia corpului pentru a indeplini anumite activitati (e.g. sa dea capul pe
spate
cand
face
baie
ca
sa
fie
clatit
de
sampon)

Sistemul
vestibular
Refuza schimbari de pozitie ale capului sau ale corpului (e.g. cand se piaptana sau cand isi da
cu
sampon
pe
cap)


Prefera
sa-si
tina
capul
drept

Devine
dezorientat
dupa
ce
isi
schimba
pozitia
capului
Nu are un echilibru bun cand trebuie sa intre sau sa iasa din cad, cand isi spala partea inferioara
a
corpului
Ii e greu sa se aplece peste chiuveta, ii e teama sa stea pe vasul de toaleta- mai ales daca
picioarele
nu
ating
pamantul
Sistemul
vizual
Ii e greu sa caute cu privirea obiectul dorit in mediul inconjurator

Ii
e
greu
sa-si
ghideze
miscarile
cand
foloseste
o
oglinda

E
fascinat
de
baloane
de
sapun,
de
apa
care
picura

Suporta
greu
reflexia
luminii
in
apa
sau
pe
chiuveta
Sistemul
auditiv
E deranjat de zgomote puternice (e.g. cand se trage apa la toaleta, zgomotul apei care curge,
zgomotul
uscatorului
de
par)
Ii plac zgomotele puternice si le repeta de nenumarate ori (e.g trage apa la toaleta)
Murmura o melodie sau canta cu voce tare pentru a acoperi alti stimuli auditivi

Atentia
ii
e
usor
distrasa
de
zgomote
Isi acopera urechile cu mainile pentru a minimaliza sunetele puternice, cu ecou din baie
Toate activitatile de autoingrijire din baie le face in alta camera, pentru ca nu suporta ecoul din
baie
Sitemul
olfactiv/gustativ

Suporta
greu
parfumurile

Accepta
cu
greu
pasta
de
dinti
E innebunit dupa gusturi puternice; mananca pasta de dinti, sapun, sampon

Pare
sa
nu
simta
nici
cele
mai
puternice
mirosuri
Se tine de nas sau se ineaca (ii vine sa vomite) in timpul activitatilor de autoingrijire zilnice
zenobia

IMBRACATUL
Sistemul
tactil
Nu ii plac hainele rigide (e.g. blugi) sau piesele de legatura (e.g. elasticul de la mijloc,
mansetele
etc)
Ii plac/displac foarte mult hainele stranse pe corp/ sa stea dezbracat/ pantofii si sosetele

Nu
ii
place
imbracatul;
se
impotriveste
la
schimbarea
hainelor

Suporta
greu
schimbarile
de
anotimpuri
sau
schimbarile
de
vreme

Are
o
gama
foarte
restransa
de
haine
pe
care
le
accepta

Nu
ii
plac
articolele
de
lenjerie;
de obicei
le
poarta
pe dos

Trage
Trage

de

mereu
Uraste
Vrea
sa
Alege cu greutate hainele;

caciula,
de
haine
sau
le
hainele
aiba
toate
etichetele
imbracatul este adesea o activitate

manusi
freaca
noi
taiate
stresanta

Sistemul
proprioceptiv
Scapa mereu din mana obiectele de imbracaminte (e.g. cureaua, pantalonii cand ii trage in sus);
oboseste
usor
cand
se
imbraca
Are dificultati cand trebuie sa-si pozitioneze corpul corect fata de haine (e.g. piciorul in piciorul
pantalonului)
Probleme cu detaliile imbracatului (e.g. se asigura ca fermoarul e tras pana sus, camasa e
incheiata
la
ultimul
nasture)

Pare
sa
nu
observe
cand
hainele
sunt
rasucite
pe
corp
Sistemul
vestibular
Isi tine cu greu echilibrul in timp ce se imbraca, mai ales cand se apleaca pentru a introduce
picioarele
in
pantaloni
sau
sosete
Se dezorienteaza cand isi misca capul (e.g. ca sa se uite in jos cand isi pune pantofii)
Isi pastreaza cu greu atentia, deoarece nevoia de mentinere a echilibrului ii consuma multa
energie
Tinde sa se grabeasca la imbracat ca sa nu-si piarda echilibrul

Are
nevoie
de
multa
miscare
in
timpul
imbracatului

Oboseste
usor
Sistemul

Ii
e
greu
sa-si

Ii
e
greu
Atentia i e distrasa

Ii
e
greu

Ii
e
greu

Ii
e
greu
sa-si

Isi

vizual
gaseasca
hainele
in
sifonier
sau
in
sertar
sa-si
potriveasca
sosetele
si
pantofi
de hainele cu modele; poate prefera culori uni
sa
gaseasca
nasturii
sau
fermoarul
sa
potriveasca
nasturele
in
gaura
foloseasca
vederea
pentru
a-si
ghida
miscarile
mentine
greu
echilibrul

Sistemul

Suporta
greu
hainele
care
fac
zgomot
cand
Atentia
ii
e
usor
distrasa
de
zgomot
in
timp
ce
Ii e greu sa asculte instructiuni verbale in timp ce

se
se
se

auditiv
misca
imbraca
imbraca

Sistemul
olfactiv/gustativ

Nu
poarta
haine
noi
din
cauza
mirosului
specific

Prefera
hainele
spalate
si
uscate
cu
detergent/balsam
fara
parfum
Nu ii plac hainele nou calcate din cauza mirosului care poate fi produs de caldura fierului de

calcat
Suporta greu hainele cu imprimeuri din cauza mirosului
zenobia

MANCATUL
Sistemul
tactil

Prefera
alimente
cu
aceeasi
textura
si
temperatura
Nu ii plac texturile surpriza in mancare (e.g. taieteii din supa)

Ii
vine
sa
vomite
de
cate
ori
textura
alimentelor
se
schimba
Mananca o gama restransa de alimente din cauza problemelor senzoriale
Nu suporta in gura lingura sau furculita; prefera sa manance cu mainile
Bea frecvent apa in timpul mesei ca sa indeparteze mancarea din gura
Nu simte cand e murdar pe fata, sau dimpotriva este excesiv de curat
Nu foloseste decat varful degetelor cand mananca; nu suporta sa fie atins pe palma

Face
mofturi
la
mancare
Are o sensibilitate scazuta la durere si temperatura in gura, sau senzatii reduse care il pot face
sa
se
inece
cu
mancarea

Sistemul
proprioceptiv
Prefera alimentele crocante sau care trebuie indelung mestecate pentru a creste informatia
senzoriala
primita
de
gura
(e.g.
fructe,
chipsuri)

Nu
mesteca
corect
mancarea
(se
poate
ineca)
Oboseste usor, mai ales in timpul meselor care presupun mestecat
Nu foloseste suficienta forta pentru a musca dintr-un mar sau dintr-o bucata de carne
Isi sprijina corpul, isi pune mana sub barbie sau isi sprijina capul pe brat sau corpul de masa ca
sa
se
stabilizeze
cand
mananca

Sistemul
vestibular

Nu
are
un
echilibru
bun
cand
sta
pe
scaun
Isi mentine greu atentia la ce face cand isi schiumba pozitia capului pentru a apuca
furculita/lingura
Are nevoie de miscare; se ridica in picioare si se aseaza la loc de multe ori in timpul mesei

Se
misca
mereu
pe
scaun

Oboseste
usor

Sistemul

vizual


Ii
e
greu
sa-si
ghideze
miscarile
corpului
cu
ochii
Ii e greu sa gaseasca mancarea sau tacamurile pe o fata de masa cu modele

E
deranjat
de
modelele
de
pe
masa
sau
de
pe
farfurie

Atentia
ii
e
distrasa
de
informatii
vizuale
noi
Isi tine capul aproape de mancare ca sa blocheze informatiile vizuale suplimentare

Sistemul
auditiv
Atentia ii e distrasa de mancare, tacamuri, de oamenii care vorbesc in jur

Nu
ii
place
zgomotul
facut
de
propriul
mestecat

Nu
poate
sa
manance
cand
altcineva
mananca
sau
vorbeste

Pare
sa
nu
auda,
chiar
cand
e
strigat
pe
nume

Sistemul
olfactiv/gustativ
Ii vine frecvent sa vomite; nu suporta gusturile/mirosurile puternice

Accepta
o
gama
restransa
de
alimente

Mesteca
si
mananca
obiecte
necomestibile

Nu
ii
place
sa
manance

Il
deranjeaza
mirosul
mancarii
cand
se
gateste
Are o preferinta marcata pentru anumite alimente; vrea sa le manance la fiecare masa
Pare sa nu aiba miros; nu e motivat sa manance pentru ca nu simte gustul

WHAT IS BALANCE?
http://vestibular.org/understanding-vestibular-disorder/human-balance-system

Balance is the ability to maintain the bodys center of mass over its base of support.1 A properly
functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with
respect to gravity, determine direction and speed of movement, and make automatic postural
adjustments to maintain posture and stability in various conditions and activities.
Balance is achieved and maintained by a complex set of sensorimotor control systems that
include sensory input from vision (sight), proprioception (touch), and the vestibular system
(motion, equilibrium, spatial orientation); integration of that sensory input; and motor output to
the eye and body muscles. Injury, disease, or the aging process can affect one or more of these
components.
SENSORY INPUT
Maintaining balance depends on information received by the brain from three peripheral sources:
eyes, muscles and joints, and vestibular organs (Figure 1). All three of these sources send

information to the brain in the form of nerve impulses from special nerve endings called sensory
receptors.

Figure 1. Balance is achieved and maintained by a complex set of sensorimotor control systems.
INPUT FROM THE EYES
Sensory receptors in the retina are called rods and cones. When light strikes the rods and cones,
they send impulses to the brain that provide visual cues identifying how a person is oriented
relative to other objects. For example, as a pedestrian walks along a city street, the surrounding
buildings appear vertically aligned, and each storefront passed first moves into and then beyond
the range of peripheral vision.
INPUT FROM THE MUSCLES AND JOINTS
Proprioceptive information from the skin, muscles, and joints involves sensory receptors that are
sensitive to stretch or pressure in the surrounding tissues. For example, increased pressure is felt
in the front part of the soles of the feet when a standing person leans forward. With any
movement of the legs, arms, and other body parts, sensory receptors respond by sending
impulses to the brain.
The sensory impulses originating in the neck and ankles are especially important. Proprioceptive
cues from the neck indicate the direction in which the head is turned. Cues from the ankles
indicate the bodys movement or sway relative to both the standing surface (floor or ground) and
the quality of that surface (for example, hard, soft, slippery, or uneven).
INPUT FROM THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation is provided by the
vestibular apparatus, which in each ear includes the utricle, saccule, and three semicircular
canals. The utricle and saccule detect gravity (vertical orientation) and linear movement. The
semicircular canals, which detect rotational movement, are located at right angles to each other

and are filled with a fluid called endolymph. When the head rotates in the direction sensed by a
particular canal, the endolymphatic fluid within it lags behind because of inertia and exerts
pressure against the canals sensory receptor. The receptor then sends impulses to the brain about
movement. When the vestibular organs on both sides of the head are functioning properly, they
send symmetrical impulses to the brain. (Impulses originating from the right side are consistent
with impulses originating from the left side.)
INTEGRATION OF SENSORY INPUT
Balance information provided by the peripheral sensory organseyes, muscles and joints, and
the two sides of the vestibular systemis sent to the brain stem. There, it is sorted out and
integrated with learned information contributed by the cerebellum (the coordination center of the
brain) and the cerebral cortex (the thinking and memory center). The cerebellum provides
information about automatic movements that have been learned through repeated exposure to
certain motions. For example, by repeatedly practicing serving a ball, a tennis player learns to
optimize balance control during that movement. Contributions from the cerebral cortex include
previously learned information; for example, because icy sidewalks are slippery, one is required
to use a different pattern of movement in order to safely navigate them.
PROCESSING OF CONFLICTING SENSORY INPUT
A person can become disoriented if the sensory input received from his or her eyes, muscles and
joints, or vestibular organs sources conflicts with one another. For example, this may occur when
a person is standing next to a bus that is pulling away from the curb. The visual image of the
large rolling bus may create an illusion for the pedestrian that he or sherather than the busis
moving. However, at the same time the proprioceptive information from his muscles and joints
indicates that he is not actually moving. Sensory information provided by the vestibular organs
may help override this sensory conflict. In addition, higher level thinking and memory might
compel the person to glance away from the moving bus to look down in order to seek visual
confirmation that his body is not moving relative to the pavement.
MOTOR OUTPUT
As sensory integration takes place, the brain stem transmits impulses to the muscles that control
movements of the eyes, head and neck, trunk, and legs, thus allowing a person to both maintain
balance and have clear vision while moving.
MOTOR OUTPUT TO THE MUSCLES AND JOINTS
A baby learns to balance through practice and repetition as impulses sent from the sensory
receptors to the brain stem and then out to the muscles form a new pathway. With repetition, it
becomes easier for these impulses to travel along that nerve pathwaya process called
facilitationand the baby is able to maintain balance during any activity. Strong evidence exists
suggesting that such synaptic reorganization occurs throughout a persons lifetime of adjusting to
changing environments or health conditions. This pathway facilitation is the reason dancers and
athletes practice so arduously. Even very complex movements become nearly automatic over a
period of time. For example, when a person is turning cartwheels in a park, impulses transmitted

from the brain stem inform the cerebral cortex that this particular activity is appropriately
accompanied by the sight of the park whirling in circles. With more practice, the brain learns to
interpret a whirling visual field as normal during this type of body rotation. Alternatively,
dancers learn that in order to maintain balance while performing a series of pirouettes, they must
keep their eyes fixed on one spot in the distance as long as possible while rotating their body.
MOTOR OUTPUT TO THE EYES
The vestibular system sends motor control signals via the nervous system to the muscles of the
eyes with an automatic function called the vestibulo-ocular reflex. When the head is not moving,
the number of impulses from the vestibular organs on the right side is equal to the number of
impulses coming from the left side. When the head turns toward the right, the number of
impulses from the right ear increases and the number from the left ear decreases. The difference
in impulses sent from each side controls eye movements and stabilizes the gaze during active
head movements (e.g., while running or watching a hockey game) and passive head movements
(e.g., while sitting in a car that is accelerating or decelerating).
THE COORDINATED BALANCE SYSTEM
"Because of its crucial contributions to balance, some even informally refer to the vestibular
system as the balance system and the vestibular organs as the balance organs. But the balance
system is much more than just the vestibular system, and the vestibular system contributes to
more than just balance." - Dr. Daniel Merfeld, Massachusettes Eye & Ear Infirmary
The human balance system involves a complex set of sensorimotor-control systems. Its
interlacing feedback mechanisms can be disrupted by damage to one or more components
through injury, disease, or the aging process. Impaired balance can be accompanied by other
symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, vision problems, nausea, fatigue, and concentration
difficulties.
The complexity of the human balance system creates challenges in diagnosing and treating the
underlying cause of imbalance. Vestibular dysfunction as a cause of imbalance offers a
particularly intricate challenge because of the vestibular systems interaction with cognitive
functioning,2 and the degree of influence it has on the control of eye movements and posture.
Authors: the Vestibular Disorders Association, with contributions by Mary Ann Watson, MA, and
F. Owen Black, MD, FACS
REFERENCES
Shumway-Cook
A,
Woollacott
MH. Motor
Control:
Applications. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

Theory

and

Practical

Hanes DA, McCollum G. Journal of Vestibular Research 2006;16(3):7591.


- See more at: http://vestibular.org/understanding-vestibular-disorder/human-balancesystem#sthash.S8IjgqI2.dpuf

The Vestibular System


http://www.spdaustralia.com.au/the-vestibular-system/
The Vestibular System, which is a contributor to our balance system and our sense of spatial
orientation, is the sensory system that provides the dominant input about movement and
equilibrioception. Vestibular sense provides information related to movement and head position.
The vestibular sense is important for development of balance, coordination, eye control,
attention, being secure with movement and some aspects of language development.
The vestibular system is composed of the vesibular receptors in the inner ear, the connections
between them and other areas in the central nervous system.Together with the cochlea, a part of
the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear, situated in the vestibulum in the
inner ear (Figure 1). As our movements consist of rotations and translations, the vestibular
system comprises two components: the semicircular canal system, which indicate rotational
movements; and the otoliths, which indicate linear translations. The vestibular system sends
signals primarily to the neural structures that control our eye movements, and to the muscles that
keep us upright. The projections to the former provide the anatomical basis of the vestibular
ocular reflex, which is required for clear vision; and the projections to the muscles that control
our posture are necessary to keep us upright.
Vision is an important component of the vestibular system. About twenty percent of visual
neurons respond to vestibular stimulation (e.g. when spinning, head shaking, or rocking).
Adults who have suffered damage to the vestibular organs of the inner ear can learn to depend on
visual information to maintain their balance. However, If that visual information is removed or
distorted (e.g. in the dark or when there is conflicting visual information about the horizon as
when standing on a balcony), the individual will feel as if they are drifting or falling.
The auditory system is also highly involved in vestibular functions. The vestibular and auditory
nerves join in the auditory canal and become the eighth cranial nerve of the brain. Anything that
disrupts auditory information can also affect vestibular functioning. Blocked eustachian tubes in
the inner ear, for example, create mild balance problems.
There are also other systems that provide sensory information to the vestibular system.
The hands and fingers, for example, send information to the brain about the relationship between
the body and stationary surfaces in the environment. If the brain loses information from the
vestibular organs of the inner ear (e.g. when there is fluid in the eustachian tubes) balance can be
maintained by simply touching a vertical or horizontal surface with the fingertips.
The pressors on the soles of the feet provide important information to the vestibular areas of the
brain about the texture of the ground. This information is used to calculate weight and posture
adjustments that will allow upright balance and movement.

Dysfunctions in the vestibular system can cause anxiety, nausea, a need for self-stimulation,
abnormalities in muscle tone, academic problems, etc.
SIGNS OF VESTIBULAR DYSFUNCTION:
1.

HYPERSENSITIVITY

TO

MOVEMENT

(over-responsive):

__ avoids/dislikes playground equipment; i.e., swings, ladders, slides, or merry-go-rounds


__ prefers sedentary tasks, moves slowly and cautiously, avoids taking risks, and may appear
wimpy
__ avoids/dislikes elevators and escalators; may prefer sitting while they are on them or, actually
get motion sickness from them
__ may physically cling to an adult they trust
__ may appear terrified of falling even when there is no real risk of it
__ afraid of heights, even the height of a curb or step
__ fearful of feet leaving the ground
__ fearful of going up or down stairs or walking on uneven surfaces
__ afraid of being tipped upside down, sideways or backwards; will strongly resist getting hair
washed over the sink
__ startles if someone else moves them; i.e., pushing his/her chair closer to the table
__ as an infant, may never have liked baby swings or jumpers
__ may be fearful of, and have difficulty riding a bike, jumping, hopping, or balancing on one
foot (especially if eyes are closed)
__ may have disliked being placed on stomach as an infant
__ loses balance easily and may appear clumsy
__ fearful of activities which require good balance
__ avoids rapid or rotating movements
2.

HYPOSENSITIVITY

TO

MOVEMENT

__ in constant motion, cant seem to sit still


__ craves fast, spinning, and/or intense movement experiences
__ loves being tossed in the air
__ could spin for hours and never appear to be dizzy

(under-responsive):

__ loves the fast, intense, and/or scary rides at amusement parks


__ always jumping on furniture, trampolines, spinning in a swivel chair, or getting into upside
down positions
__ loves to swing as high as possible and for long periods of time
__ is a thrill-seeker; dangerous at times
__ always running, jumping, hopping etc. instead of walking
__ rocks body, shakes leg, or head while sitting
__ likes sudden or quick movements, such as, going over a big bump in the car or on a bike

Importance of Balance & Sensory Integration Skills Development in Children


http://learningbreakthrough.com/learning-breakthrough-blog/importance-of-balance-sensoryintegration-skills-development-in-children/

Balance is a multi-sensory activity. Our sense of balance, from the time of our embryonic
development through full-fledged adulthood, is based on the proper functioning of the vestibular
system in close conjunction with our visual, motor skills and positioning (proprioceptive)
systems. Body position, muscular-skeletal control, tactile feedback, motor coordination and
visual processing inputs all combine to form a multi-sensory network with many functions.
This seamless system of inputs and feedback must work precisely to form what we call our sense
of balance. Highly calibrated sensory integration skills are required for good balance and a range
of learning, reading and other difficulties occur when the relationship between balance and our
other sensory systems is upset or out of sync.
Without a well-functioning vestibular system, any child or adult will have extreme difficulty
balancing on a beam or standing on one foot, for instance, but the complications certainly do not
end there. Those with deficits in their vestibular function can also experience a range of other
issues that are indirectly related to balance, even though we tend not to think of them in the same
way we do tiptoeing along a balance beam. With a system as complex and multifaceted as the
human neurological system, the systems basic inputs (in this case sensory) must be calibrated to
an external constant (just like other complex systems are) in order to function in a measureable
and repeatable fashion. Gravity, actually the acceleration of gravity as interpreted through the
vestibular, is what provides this critical reference point and is what enables our senses to
integrate thoroughly in reference to an unchanging environmental constant.
Although the vestibular system develops in infants, the developmental process continues
throughout childhood. Around age thee, children are making the transition from vestibular
control based on vision, to control that becomes somatosensory (which broadly means it is
rooted in the sense of touch and sensation). As early as the pre-school level, an in-tact vestibular

system contributes to sensory integration and the maturation of eye movements that are required
for efficient reading and learning. (Solan, 2007) Without an effective transition from basic
balance and sensory integration, learning and reading development (dyslexia, for example) can
be significantly delayed.
Children do not demonstrate adult-like use of sensory information until they are around 12 years
of age (Peterson, 2006), which means that the initial process of vestibular development extends
almost into puberty. This means that there are ample opportunities available over a long period of
time to help children, even those without dyslexia, ADD, ADHD and learning disabilities,
improve their developmental skills. With focused efforts on improving balance and sensory
processing skills, children with healthy vestibular systems can thrive and those with challenges
or weaknesses in these areas can begin to improve, often dramatically.
Therapy using a sensory integrative approach is the most common treatment for [those with
sensory integration issues] and has been shown to be effective in more than 80 studies. This
type of therapy presents the child or adult with a movement activity that they are to perform
while the vestibular, proprioceptive, and tactile stimuli are presented. This treatment method,
again with its roots in balance and sensory integration, has been shown to improve pursuits,
saccades, convergence, fusional reserves, accommodative facility, visual perception and reading
skills in children with sensory integration issues and dyslexia. (Allison, 2007) For a child
without a learning disability or problems associated with sensory integration and balance issues,
this type of therapy (which is similar in nature to that provided by the Learning Breakthrough
Program) can enhance the skills that exist and prevent compensating sensory behaviors from
forming.
Sources
Allison CL. (2007). An optometric approach to patients with sensory integration
dysfunction. Optometry- The Journal of the American Optometric Association (St. Louis,
Mo.), 78(12), 644-51.
Peterson ML. (2006). Children achieve adult-like sensory integration during stance at 12-yearsold. Gait & Posture, 23(4), 455-63.
Solan, H. A. (2007). Vestibular Function, Sensory Integration, and Balance Anomalies: A Brief
Literature Review. Optometry & Vision Development, 38(1), 13-17.