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UNIVERSITATEA DIN BUCURETI

FACULTATEA DE TIINE POLITICE


PROGRAMUL DE STUDII:
(STUDY PROGRAMME / PROGRAMME DTUDES)
Politicile Egalitii de anse n Context Romnesc i European
ANUL DE STUDII: 1
AN UNIVERSITAR: 2013-2014
(YEAR OF STUDY / ANNE DTUDES)
(ACADEMIC YEAR / ANNE ACADMIQUE)
SEMESTRUL DE STUDII: I
COD DISCIPLIN:
(SEMESTER / SEMESTRE)
(COURSE CODE / CODE DU COURS)
SP2401
ANALIZA DIACRONIC A POLITICILOR EGALITII DE ANSE
Titular: prof.dr. Georgeta Ghebrea
(INSTRUCTOR/ ENSEIGNANT)
Asisteni:
(ASSISTANTS)
Tip curs: obligatoriu (compulsory / obligatoire);
(COURSE TYPE / TYPE DE COURS)
SCURT DESCRIERE
(BRIEF DESCRIPTION / DESCRIPTION SYNTHTIQUE)
Cursul vrea s ofere masteranzilor instrumentele necesare pentru a realiza o analiz i o
evaluare a politicilor publice din domeniul egalitii de anse. Se urmrete geneza i
evoluia preocuprilor legate de politicile egalitii, analizndu-se contextul i factorii
apariiei acestor preocupri precum i mutaiile produse n diferite spaii culturale i
diferite perioade de timp. Se analizeaz, de asemenea, impactul acestor mutaii asupra
statusului persoanelor i categoriilor vizate dar i asupra relaiilor sociale i contextului
general.
Sunt dezbtute principalele orientri teoretice n ceea ce privete cauzele i motivaia
naterii politicilor egalitii de anse dar i modul n care aceste sunt puse n practic,
rezultat din jocul complex i contradictoriu al interaciunii dintre actorii politici i sociali
implicai. Cursul ia n considerare mai multe dimensiuni de analiz : temporal, spaial,
cultural, social, politic, naional i supranaional, nregistrnd tendine i puncte de
inflexiune. Sunt analizate ministudii de caz, potrivit tematicii fiecrei sptmni, selectate
din diferite societi i din diferite perioade de timp.
Cursul se plaseaz n aria teoretica i metodologic a politicilor publice dar cultiv o
viziune interdisciplinar, utiliznd cunotine i abiliti din sfera sociologiei, asistenei
sociale, psihologiei i antropologiei.
Activitile de seminar sunt diverse : lecturile propuse sunt dezbtute mai ales ca fundal
pe care sunt identificate i exemplificate situaii concrete de formulare i implementare a
politicilor egalitii de anse. Aceste lecturi sunt un prilej de meditaie asupra unor teme
fundamentale legate de condiia uman i de organizarea social. In afar de aceste
aspecte caracteristice studiului academic, studenii sunt invitai s fac explorri n teren,
pentru a observa n mod direct condiiile de via i comportamentele unor grupuri de
risc.
OBIECTIVE DE NVARE
(LEARNING OBJECTIVES / OBJECTIFS PDAGOGIQUES)
- cunoaterea principalelor momente din evoluia politicilor egalitii de anse
- nelegerea mecanismelor cauzale i contextuale care stau la baza apariiei i mutaiilor
acestor politici
- nelegerea rolului stereotipurilor culturale n perpetuarea inegalitilor
- cunoaterea etapelor unui demers de analiz i evaluare a politicilor egalitii de anse.
BIBLIOGRAFIE GENERAL
(GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY / BIBLIOGRAPHIE GNRALE)

BERLOWITZ, MARVIN J.; HUTCHINS, BRANDI N.; JENKINS, DERRICK J.; MUSSMAN, MARK P.;
AND SCHNEIDER, C. A., "Oppositional Culture Theory and the Delusion of Colorblindness,"
Multicultural Learning and Teaching, Vol. 1: Iss. 2, Article 6. 2006, DOI: 10.2202/21612412.1009 Available at: http://www.bepress.com/mlt/vol1/iss2/6
BEVERIDGE, F.: Gender, the acquis, and beyond, in S. Millns and M. Mateo Diaz eds)
Gender Equality and the Future of the EU, London: Palgrave, 2005.
BOUDON, R.: LIngalit des chances. La mobilit sociale dans les socits industrielles,
Armand Colin, Paris, 1973.
CARABINE, J., New Horisons? New Insights? Postmodernising Social Policy and the Case
of Sexuality n Carter, J. (ed.): Postmodernity and the Fragmentation of Welfare,
Routledge, London, 1998, pp. 121 136.
DEMIER, F.: Istoria politicilor sociale. Europa, sec. XIX-XX, Institutul European, Iai, 1998.
DOMINELLI, L., The Postmodern Turn in Social Work: The Challenges of Identity and
Equality:, Social Work and Society, Vol 5, No 3 (2007) ,
ESPING-ANDERSEN, G. (ed.): Why we need a new welfare state, Oxford University Press,
Oxford, 2002.
ESPING-ANDERSEN, G., The incomplete revolution. Adapting to womens new roles, Polity
Press, Cambridge, 2009.
FOUCAULT, M., Reader, ed. by P. Rabinow, Pantheon Books, New York, 1984.
GAL, S. & G. KLIGMAN, Introducere, n GAL, S. & G. KLIGMAN (editoare), Reproducerea
diferenelor de gen. Politici, sfer public i via cotidian n rile postsocialiste, Efes,
Cluj-Napoca, 2003.
GERHARDS, J., "Non Discrimination towards Homosexuality: The European Union's Policy and
Citizens' Attitudes towards
Homosexuality in 27 European Countries." International Sociology, 25/2010, pp. 5-28.
GHEBREA, G., De la srcie la bunstare i napoi? Editura Univesitii din Bucureti,
2010.
GHEBREA, G., M. TTRM, I. CREOIU: Politici de gen n Romnia. Dou studii de caz,
Nemira, 2005.
GHEBREA, G.: Regim social-politic si viata privat, Editura Universitatii, Bucuresti, 2000.
GIDDENS, A., Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age,
Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1991.
GRUNBERG, G., N. MAYER, P.M. SNIDERMAN, La dmocratie lpreuve, Presses de
Sciences Po, Paris, 2002. (bibl. FSP)
HALL, P.A., Brother, Can You Paradigm?, Governance: An International Journal of Policy,
Administration, and Institutions, Vol. 26, No. 2, April 2013, pp. 189192..
JENKINS, R., SOLOMOS, J., Racism and equal opportunity policies in 1980s, Press
Syndicate of University of Cambridge, New York, 1989.
KELLOUGH, J.E., Understanding Affirmative Action. Politics, Discrimination and the Search
for Justice, Georgetown University Press, Washington DC, 2007.
KEUNE, M.: EU enlargement and social standards: exporting the European Social Model?,
WP 01 /2008, European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and
Safety (ETUI-REHS) Brussels, 2008.
MAGYARI-VINCZE, E., Diferena care conteaz. Diversitatea social-cultural prin lentila
antropologiei feministe, Editura Fundaiei Desire, Cluj, 2002.
McLANAHAN, S., PERCESKI, C., Family structure and reproduction of inequalities, Annual
Review of Sociology, 34/2008, pp. 257-276.
MORALES-GOMEZ, D., Les politiques sociales transnationales. Les nouveaux dfis de la
mondialisation pour le dveloppement, Centre de recherche pour le dveloppement
international, Ottawa, 2000.
MORAN, M. REIN, M., GOODIN, R., The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 2006.
MOSLEY, H., J. OREILLY, K. SCHOMANN, Labour Markets, Gender and Institutional Change,
E. Elgar Publishing, Northhampton, 2002.
OBRIEN, M., S. PENNA, Oppositional postmodern theory and welfare analysis: antioppressive practice in a postmodern frame n CARTER, J. (ed.): Postmodernity and the
Fragmentation of Welfare, Routledge, London, 1998, pp.49-67.
PASTI, V., Ultima inegalitate. Relaiile de gen n Romnia, Polirom, Iai, 2003.

ROSANVALLON, P.: Noua problema sociala, Institutul European, Iasi, 1998.


SAPRU, R.K., Public Policy: Art and Craft of Policy Analysis, PHI Learning Private Limited,
New Delhi, 2010.
TOURAINE, A., Lumea femeilor, Art, Bucureti, 2007.
VOICU, M., Egalitate, inegalitate i roluri tradiionale. O analiz comparativ a valorilor
implicate n legitimarea politicilor de support pentru femei, Calitatea vieii, an 13, nr.1-4
(2002), pp. 147-158.
VOLLET, D., HADJAB, F., Manuel dvaluation des politiques publiques, Editions Quae,
Paris, 2008.
WELDON-JOHNS, M., EU WorkFamily PoliciesChallenging Parental Roles or Reinforcing
Gendered Stereotypes? European Law Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5, September 2013, pp. 662
681.
WILENSKY, H., The Welfare State and Equality: Structural and Ideologic Roots of Public
Expenditure, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975, p.16-37; 199 210.
MODALITI DE EVALUARE
(REQUIREMENTS AND EVALUATION / FORMES ET CRITRES DVALUATION)
Studenii trebuie :

S aib intervenii active (participare activ la dezbaterile din cadrul cursurilor i


seminariilor rezolvarea exerciiilor de seminar i discuii asupra lecturilor propuse)

S redacteze un proiect concret de evaluare a unei msuri de politic public n


domeniul egalitii de anse, urmrindu-se aplicarea tuturor etapelor prezentate si
exersate pe parcursul semestrului. Proiectul va avea aproximativ 15 000 de semne i va fi
predat profesorului sub form scris i susinut n ziua programat pentru examenul final.

S prezinte n sptmna a unsprezecea a cursului rezultatele unei explorri de


teren privind grupul de risc avut n vedere de proiectul de evaluare: un interviu cu o
persoan care face parte din grupul respectiv, observaie direct a condiiilor de viaa,
reeaua de relaii presonale, familiale, sociale, instituionale etc. Explorarea trebuie s
identifice manifestrile concrete ale problemei sociale, modurile concrete de aciune ale
politicilor egalitii de anse precum i percepiile, nivelul de satisfacie i sugestiile
persoanei intervievate.
Nota final va fi obinut dup formula urmtoare :

4 puncte proiectul de evaluare

3 puncte asiduitate (intervenii active la cursuri i seminarii, in special asupra


lecturilor propuse

2 puncte raportul explorrii de teren

1 punct din oficiu.


Indicaii privind proiectul de evaluare pot fi gsite n Anex.
Studenii sunt obligai s cunoasc politica de probitate intelectual a Facultii: plagiatul,
copiatul, neltoria, multipla utilizare a unui referat, recursul nemrturisit la surse
bibliografice sau la internet vor conduce la nepromovarea cursului. n conformitate cu
Carta Universitii din Bucureti, cazurile de plagiat pot fi sancionate prin exmatriculare
fr drept de apel.
Students should be aware of the Departments policy of academic integrity: cheating,
falsification, forgery, multiple submission, plagiarism, complicity and computer misuse
will automatically trigger a failing grade for the respective course. According to the
provisions of the Charter of the University of Bucharest, students found guilty of
plagiarism can be expelled from the University without the right to appeal.
Les tudiants sont tenus connatre la politique de la Facult en matire dhonntet
intellectuelle : le plagiat, la contrefaon, le dpt multiple des travaux, la falsification, le
recours inavou aux sources bibliographiques et lInternet entranent lannulation du
cours. Selon la Charte de lUniversit de Bucarest, les cas de plagiat peuvent etre
sanctionns par lexmatriculation sans droit dappel.

PLANUL CURSURILOR I AL SEMINARIILOR


(COURSE AND SEMINARS OUTLINE / PROGRAMME DES SANCES)
I.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Introducere : Ce sunt politicile publice si care este relevana lor
pentru egalitatea de anse ?
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
MORAN, M. REIN, M., GOODIN, R., The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 2006, pp.205-225.
DEMIER, F.: Istoria politicilor sociale. Europa, sec. XIX-XX, Institutul European, Iai, 1998,
pp.8-9.
ROSANVALLON, P.: Noua problema sociala, Institutul European, Iasi, 1998, pp. 27-47 ; 6275.
Suplimentar:
HABERMAS, J., Legitimation Crisis, (translated by Thomas McCarthy). Beacon Press,
Boston, 1975, pp. 68-75.
SAPRU, R.K., Public Policy: Art and Craft of Policy Analysis, PHI Learning Private Limited,
New Delhi, 2010, pp. 31-35; 44-50; 56-73.
II.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Metodologia analizei i evalurii politicilor publice
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
GHEBREA, G., De la srcie la bunstare i napoi? Editura Universitii din Bucureti,
2010, pp.27-49.
HALL, P.A., Brother, Can You Paradigm?, Governance: An International Journal of Policy,
Administration, and Institutions, Vol. 26, No. 2, April 2013, pp. 189192..
Suplimentar:
VOLLET, D., HADJAB, F., Manuel dvaluation des politiques publiques, Editions Quae,
Paris, 2008, pp. 13-20

III.

Sptmna / Week / Semaine :


Tema / Topic / Thme : Egalitate i inegalitate social ; grupuri de risc i factori predictori
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
HRAN, F.: Ingalits et discriminations, Rapport du Commed, 2010, pp. 156-167.
GIDDENS, A., Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age,
Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1991, pp. 187-201.
BERLOWITZ, MARVIN J.; HUTCHINS, BRANDI N.; JENKINS, DERRICK J.; MUSSMAN, MARK P.;
AND SCHNEIDER, C. A., "Oppositional Culture Theory and the Delusion of Colorblindness,"
Multicultural Learning and Teaching, Vol. 1: Iss. 2, Article 6. 2006, DOI: 10.2202/21612412.1009 Available at: http://www.bepress.com/mlt/vol1/iss2/6
IV,
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Societatea industrial i contextul social al constituirii egalitii ca
problem de politic public
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
BOUDON, R.: LIngalit des chances. La mobilit sociale dans les socits industrielles,
Armand Colin, Paris, 1973, pp.8-13 ; 54-55 ; 90-95 ; 128-129 ; 158-159 ; 206-209. (BCU
III421032).
TOURAINE, A., Lumea femeilor, Art, Bucureti, 2007, pp. 139-160.
McLANAHAN, S., PERCESKI, C., Family structure and reproduction of inequalities, Annual
Review of Sociology, 34/2008, pp. 257-276.
V.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Statul bunstrii i politicile sale n domeniul egalitii de anse
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
WILENSKY, H., The Welfare State and Equality: Structural and Ideologic Roots of Public
Expenditure, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975, p.16-37; 199 210.
ESPING-ANDERSEN, G. (ed.): Why we need a new welfare state, Oxford University Press,

Oxford, 2002, pp. 68-95.


VI.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Politicile egalitii n regimurile comuniste
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
GAL, S. & G. KLIGMAN, Introducere, n GAL, S. & G. KLIGMAN (editoare), Reproducerea
diferenelor de gen. Politici, sfer public i via cotidian n rile postsocialiste, Efes,
Cluj-Napoca, 2003, pp. 9-31.
GHEBREA, G.: Regim social-politic si viata privat, Editura Universitatii, Bucuresti, 2000,
pp. 147-156.
VII.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Politicile anti-opresive i micrile pentru drepturi civile. Aciunea
afirmativ, discriminarea pozitiv
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
FERRY, L. (ed.), La discrimination positive: le pour et le contre. Pour une socit de la nouvelle
chance
Une approche rpublicaine de la discrimination positive, 2007.

OBRIEN, M., S. PENNA, Oppositional postmodern theory and welfare analysis: antioppressive practice in a postmodern frame n CARTER, J. (ed.): Postmodernity and the
Fragmentation of Welfare, Routledge, London, 1998, pp.49-67.
Suplimentar:
TOMASSON, R.F., F.J. CROSBY, S.D. HERZBERGER, Affirmative action: the pros and cons of
policy and practice, Rowman &Littlefield Publishers, Boston, 1996, pp.65-85.

VIII.

Sptmna / Week / Semaine :


Tema / Topic / Thme : Politicile postmoderne ale egalitii de anse. Transnaionalizare
i globalizare
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :

BARIL, A., De la construction du genre la construction du "sexe" : les thses


fministes postmodernes dans luvre de Judith Butler , Recherches fministes,
vol. 20, n 2, 2007, p. 61-90.
DOMINELLI, L., The Postmodern Turn in Social Work: The Challenges of Identity and
Equality:, Social Work and Society, Vol 5, No 3 (2007) ,
Suplimentar:
MORALES-GOMEZ, D., Les politiques sociales transnationales. Les nouveaux dfis de la
mondialisation pour le dveloppement, Centre de recherche pour le dveloppement
international, Ottawa, 2000, pp. 1-22.
IX.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Egalitatea de anse n Uniunea European: evoluii ale viziunii i
practicilor
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
KEUNE, M.: EU enlargement and social standards: exporting the European Social Model?,
WP 01 /2008, European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and
Safety (ETUI-REHS) Brussels, 2008.
BEVERIDGE, F.: Gender, the acquis, and beyond, in S. Millns and M. Mateo Diaz (eds)
Gender Equality and the Future of the EU, London: Palgrave, 2005.(google books)
X.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine : Politici pentru stimularea participrii i reprezentrii
sociale i politice i mobilizarea grupurilor de risc
Tema / Topic / Thme :
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
TOURAINE, A., Lumea femeilor, Art, Bucureti, 2007, pp. 115-135.
KELLOUGH, J.E., Understanding Affirmative Action. Politics, Discrimination and the Search
for Justice, Georgetown University Press, Washington DC, 2007, pp. 145-151.
XI.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Politici publice sectoriale n domeniul egalitii de anse :
formarea profesional, securitatea social, piaa muncii

Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :


SABEG, Y., MHAIGNERIE, Les oublis de lgalit des chances, Institut Montaigne, 2004,
pp. 239-254.
WELDON-JOHNS, M., EU WorkFamily PoliciesChallenging Parental Roles or Reinforcing
Gendered Stereotypes? European Law Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5, September 2013, pp. 662
681.
MOSLEY, H., J. OREILLY, K. SCHOMANN, Labour Markets, Gender and Institutional Change,
E. Elgar Publishing, Northhampton, 2002, pp. 1-18.
XII.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Politicile sexualiti
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
GERHARDS, J., "NonDiscrimination towards Homosexuality: The European Union's Policy and
Citizens' Attitudes towards
Homosexuality in 27 European Countries." International Sociology, 25/2010, pp. 5-28.
CARABINE, J., New Horisons? New Insights? Postmodernising Social Policy and the Case
of Sexuality n CARTER, J. (ed.): Postmodernity and the Fragmentation of Welfare,
Routledge, London, 1998, pp. 121 136.
FOUCAULT, M., Reader, ed. by P. Rabinow, Pantheon Books, New York, 1984, pp.333-339..
XIII.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Politicile egalitii de anse i opinia public ; mutaii n sfera
culturii sociale i politice legate de acest subiect
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
GRUNBERG, G., N. MAYER, P.M. SNIDERMAN, La dmocratie lpreuve, Presses de
Sciences Po, Paris, 2002, pp. 171-192. (bibl. FSP)
MAGYARI-VINCZE, E., Diferena care conteaz. Diversitatea social-cultural prin lentila
antropologiei feministe, Editura Fundaiei Desire, Cluj, 2002, pp. 145-168.
VOICU, M., Egalitate, inegalitate i roluri tradiionale. O analiz comparativ a valorilor
implicate n legitimarea politicilor de support pentru femei, Calitatea vieii, an 13, nr.1-4
(2002), pp. 147-158.
XIV.
Sptmna / Week / Semaine :
Tema / Topic / Thme : Dimensiuni de analiz i evaluare a impactului aderrii la Uniunea
European asupra politicilor egalitii de anse n Romnia
Lecturi / Readings / Lectures :
PASTI, V., Ultima inegalitate. Relaiile de gen n Romnia, Polirom, Iai, 2003, pp. 231-255.
GHEBREA, G., M. TTRM, I. CREOIU: Politici de gen n Romnia. Dou studii de caz,
Nemira, 2005, pp. 37-43.
ANEXA: Proiect de evaluare a unei msuri de politic de egalitate de anse

1. Obiectul evalurii : Denumire msurii evaluate :


2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Obiectivele evalurii : eficacitatea, eficiena, evaluare juridic, evaluare


administrativ, politic, organizaional ?
Opional : Moduri de utilizare a evaluarii : conceptual (informare), tehnic (optimizare,
reformulare de politici), politic (justificarea, legitimarea sau delegitimarea unei politici)
Descrierea i analiza de coninut a elementului formal (documentul normativ lege,
hotrre, ordonan, proiect etc.)
Obiectivele explicite/implicite ; vizibile/ascunse ; ce probleme vrea sa rezolve
respectiva politica, ce nevoi sa acopere ? ce constrngeri ntmpin ?
Ideologia latent, valorile pe care le promoveaz
Este o politic instrumental sau simbolic ?
ncadrarea ntr-o tipologie a politicilor publice

9. Instrumente (tipul de intervenie statal utilizat : Autorizaie/interdicie. 2). Prestaii n


bani, natur, servicii. 3). Stimulente/sanciuni. 4). Redistribuire. 5). Persuasiune. 6).
Crearea de structuri instituionale. 7). Instituii-cadru. 8) Altele.)
10. Resurse financiare, materiale, umane (surse, cantitate, calitate) . Scurt comentariu
evaluativ/critic
11. Organizatii responsabile de concepere, implementare, control
12. Colaborarea cu actorii asociativi (organizatii ale actorilor sociali - stakeholders
interesai de respectiva politic)
13. Grupurile int ; beneficiari direci i indireci ; sunt bine alese i definite ? de ce da/de
ce nu ?
14. Grupuri de interese : pro si contra respectivei politici
15. Pozitia opiniei publice (sondaje sau alte cercetri existente) i a mass-media
16. Stabilirea indicatorilor (si a standardelor dezirabile) adecvati pentru analiza si
evaluarea respectivei msuri (pentru descrierea situatiei inainte/dupa implementarea
respectivei politici)
17. Sursele datelor necesare pentru evaluare
18. Metode de culegere a datelor primare/secundare [de ex. : observaia, experimentul,
studii de caz, interviuri, sondaje, monotorizare media)
19. Metode de analiza a datelor (analiza statistic, analiza documentara, analiza de
coninut)
20. Rezultatele respectivei politici sociale : outputuri, impactul real asupra
comportamentului grupurilor int, efecte asupra realitatii sociale (rezolvarea efectiv
a problemei indusa de comportamentul grupurilor int) - comparaia nainte/dup
implementarea respectivei politici)
21. Anticiparea diagnosticului : succes, eec, succes parial/eec parial ? Argumentai !
(succes=atingerea obiectivelor ; eec=lipsa de rezultate sau rezultate indezirabile)
22. Cauzele ipotetice ale succesului/eecului
Unde se ntlnesc principalele obstacole, inegaliti, disfuncii, surse de ineficacitate etc ?
n formularea politicii? n insuficienta resurselor ? n implementare ? incompeten ?
politizare ? lipsa de colaborare dintre actorii implicai ? instrumente inadecvate ? influena
unor factori contextuali ? (exemple concrete)

23. Bibliografie.