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Conferința Națională




Negoescu, M.,C., 11,

The State University of Physical Education and Sport, Chișinău, Rep. Moldova

Odată cu dezvoltarea tehnologiei apar și probleme sociale legate de violența și agresiuni
fizice dar și psihice. Plecăm de la un fapt real și anume că lumea modernă face mai puțină mișcare
și exerciții fizice din comoditate, are un regim de viață dezorganizat și prezintă în plus un regim
alimentar dezechilibrat. De asemenea se observă o tendință crescută de a observa de pe margine
sportul decât să se practice efectiv.
Multitudinea de studenți care se înscriu în primul an de studii universitare au în comun
practicarea exercițiilor fizice, sportului și mai ales al autoapărării.
Cuvinte cheie: violență, exerciții fizice, sport, autoapărare, student.

With the development of technology, there are also social issues related to physical and
psychological violence and aggression. We go from a real fact, namely that the modern world does
less exercise and exercise than convenience, has a disorganized lifestyle, and has an unbalanced
diet. There is also an increasing tendency to observe sport rather than actually practice.
The multitude of students enrolling in the first year of university studies have in common
the practice of physical exercises, sports and especially self-defense.
Key words: violence, exercise, sports, self-defense, student.

1. Introduction
In the first year of university studies students face the following theories in
terms of physical education, sport and especially self-defense:
- they no longer have contact with mass sports nor with the various Martial Arts
systems from which self-defense elements can be extracted;
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- have many physical and mental deficiencies due to sedentary life;

- are amotric;
- they are anti-missile because, as they say, "sports lead to fatigue, muscle fever,
leisure time to have fun in discos, etc.";
However, many of these students choose to attend self-defense courses
based on various martial arts disciplines, even though some courses are optional,
with no previous sports experience.
From their words, the motivation to choose "sport - self defense" is
diversified, these students claiming that self-defense "helps to increase the
necessary credits for the promoters of the study years (the repetition of the first
year of studies is based on admission examinations which is inconvenient for
them), the need to find solutions for personal self-defense, recreation after intensive
intellectual effort in the university environment, but also to continue the practice of
Martial Arts (those who have previously had contact with a sportive fighting
discipline from various martial arts) .

Fig.1. Training Stages (Wigle, C., all., 2014)

This latter category is numerically speaking the less numerous category

with about 10% of the total number of enrolled students, but these are the most
valuable students for self-defense discipline because they explicitly and directly
promote the above mentioned discipline among the other students. The coach
teacher can be used by these students to demonstrate the principles, laws and
techniques of struggle for other students who are ultimately attracted to self-
defense discipline through the media impact of open demonstrations and lessons.
Here we observe that a decisive role in the choice of discipline self-defense

by the students is the teacher-trainer who can attract them at classes, through
expositions and demonstrations, explaining and showing the advantages of
knowing and mastering the specific techniques, but also by emphasizing the
ignorance of the self-defense processes in crisis situations.
These exhibitions and demonstrations are usually held at educational fairs,
various cultural and artistic events in universities and at the festive opening of the
academic year.
2. Material and method
The aim of this paper is to study the basic components that make up self-
defense and which we highlight and explain in order of their appearance in the
conflicts as follows:
The psychic component (in the first part of aggression) is self-control and
communication in the specific language of the moment, it has a few seconds in
which the master of the Conversation Art can avoid physical conflict.
We must quickly take into account the aggressor's intentions if he is
engaged in a psychological aggression that can quickly turn into physical
aggression if the necessary measures of protection are not taken, or the most
unfavorable case when the aggressor directly attacks physically violently, without
no prior warning. In this case he can not be stopped by psychological
communication techniques, and the attempt of dialogue always leads to our bodily
The self-control component makes us choose the best solution available to
us to successfully deal with aggression.
Communication and conversation have several chapters that we enumerate:
 verbal communication by live speech;
 non-verbal communication through bodily gestures and attitudes;
 para-verbal communication through variations of intonation and
pronunciation of words;
 scripted communication through various printed messages (which are on
clothing or personal items).
3. Results
Techniques of self-defense should be specifically extracted from various
Martial Arts styles according to the student's motor and anthropological abilities,
by going on individualizing the specific tactical tech- nical training used in various
environmental environments and at the moment at the moment.
The sports disciplines organized in Romania as national sports federations
can be divided from the point of view of Martial Arts and self-defense in two
specific classes:
Sports disciplines with fighting and self-defense (Martial Arts, Judo,
Taekwondo, Shooting, Fencing, Swimming, etc.)
general sports (volleyball, football, tennis, etc.).
This first class of sports disciplines represents about two thirds of the total

sports practiced at national level in Romania and the world.

The suggested time for training to proficiency in various martial arts based
techniques ranges from 2 weeks to several years depending on the course and the
level of proficiency desired. There are no studies, however, which have looked at
the number of sessions necessary to sufficiently train individuals in certain
techniques (Burke, D., 2011).

Table 1 Dictionary of terms for beginners

(, 2016)

In the following, we list the main martial arts martial arts arts outlining
what can be extracted for the use of application utility in self defense:
Wu Shu - Kung Fu: Because of the multitude and variety of styles of over
400 in number, each style having many schools, Chinese martial arts called Wu Shu
- Kung Fu are an infinite source of knowledge for self - defense;
Karate, Box: Attack and defense techniques with upper limbs;
Ju Jitsu, Kempo: articulation techniques, immobilization and transport
combat with domestic, agricultural and genisal objects;
Aikido, Judo, Wrestling: techniques of throwing - harvesting - designing;
Taekwondo: Attacking and defense techniques with lower limbs;
Fencing, Indo-Philippine Martial Arts: techniques for using white weapons;
All these Martial Arts go on the principle of suppleness - bypassing not
ceding, where in the initial phase it is apparently yielding to later defeat, resulting
in maximum efficiency with minimal effort in the shortest possible time.
It is also necessary to consider the time of the conflict as it is a decisive
element in the dynamics of the struggle. The longer the time is available, the more

physical the physical battle is less violent and the less the fighting time increases
the violence of the confrontation.
A large number of self-defense and martial arts training programs now
exist, with the numbers of these growing in the past decades. Reasons for the
increase in demand include self-defense for women as a means of assault/robbery
as well as for protection against sexual assault. Others have advocated self-defense
courses as a means of obtaining a level of physical fitness. This has also been
discussed for children, the disabled and the elderly.

Fig.1. The pyramid of self-defense training (Staley, C.L., 1999)

4. Conclusions and discussions

We consider it useful that the first class time for students is an oral
presentation of the multitude of situations that occur in self defense and that need
to be parameterized to gain success. Also, during the self-defense module lessons,
students study various technical and bibliographic materials on the subject of self-
defense, both in terms of psychological training and self-control, as well as general
and specific physical training for self-defense.
It should be noted that there are athletic students in various disciplines from
the Martial Arts, which come from pleasure and recreational interest in these
courses, making kinetotherapeutic prophylaxis on both the physical and the psychic
component. On these students the teacher-trainer can learn new interdisciplinary
self-defense valences, which in turn will more easily promote the Auto Defense
discipline in the academic environment. .
In the first part of the aggression that is always of a psychic nature, I must
juggle appropriately with various types of communication and specific language so
as to produce the psychic and emotional blockage due to the cognitive dissonance

phenomenon (psychological discomfort caused by the simultaneous occurrence of

two or more many cognitive elements, elements that deny or contradict each other),
resulting in a physical and mental blockage of the aggressor who can no longer
think or move for a fraction of a second long enough for us to overcome successful
In the second part of aggression, martial arts combat techniques must be applied as
quickly and efficiently as possible.
1. Burke, D., (2011), Asian journal of sports medicine, 2(1):31–36[PubMed]
2. Deliu, D., (2014), Combat Courses for Students, Discobolul Bucureşti
Publishing House
3. Deliu, D., (2006), Methodology of Combat Disciplines, Bren Publishing
House Bucharest
4. Galan, D., (2007), Self-defense for students 1st year of study, Risoprint
Publishing House Cluj Napoca
5. Galan,D., (2007), Self-defense for students 2nd year of studies,
Risoprint Publishing House Cluj Napoca
6. Păunescu, C., (2012), Effective actions in Taekwondo W.T.F., Printech
Publishing House Bucharest
7. Păunescu, C., (2013), Taekwondo manual - english modules, Didactic
and Pedagogical Publishing House R.A. Bucharest.
8. Staley, C.L., (1999), The science of martial arts training, Disclaimer,
9. Wigle, C., all., (2014), Grassroots Task Force | Training Manual v.01
10., 2016