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The Plural

Regula generala pluralul se formeaza prin adaugarea la forma de singular a terminatiei -s sau -es. * - es : se adauga la substantivele terminate in : s, ss, ch, sh, x, zz, o. e.g. buses, dresses, watches, brushes, boxes, buzzes potato - potatoes tomato - tomatoes Exceptii: 1. substantivele terminate in o provenite din prescurtari primesc s : e.g. photo-photos 2. substantivele provenite din alte limbi in special italiana, primesc s: e.g. piano - pianos soprano - sopranos 3. atunci cand o este precedat de o vocala se adauga s: e.g. kangaroo-kangaroos 4. substantivele terminate in f si fe se transforma in v + es. e.g. wolf wolves = lup shelf shelves = raft live lives = viata knife - knives = cutit * - exceptie fac urmatoarele substantive care primesc s : e.g. cliff - cliffs = faleza / stanca roof roofs = acoperis cuff - cuffs = manseta / catusa chief chiefs = sef handkerchief handkerchiefs = batista proof proofs = dovada safe - safes = seif strife strifes = lupta gulf - gulfs = golf * - urmatoarele substantive cu doua forme de plural : e.g. scarf - scarfs - scarves = esarfa / fular dwarf dwarfs dwarves = pitic 5. substantivele terminate in y + consoana _i + es y + vocala _y + s e.g. factory - factories cry - cries toy - toys

boy - boys 6. la substantivele compuse dintr-un : - substantiv + adj - substantiv + particula adverbiala - substantiv + prepozitie ; se face pluralul doar la substantiv. e.g. court martial - courts martial = curte martiala passer-by passers-by = trecator 7. - substantivele compuse alcatuite din alte cuvinte primesc pluralul la ultimul element. e.g. grown-up grown-ups = adult forget-me-not forget-me-nots = floare de nu ma uita 8. cand substantivele compuse sunt alcauite din doua substantive dintre care primul este folosit adjectival, acesta ramane neschimbat, pluralul primindu-l substantivul propriu-zis. e.g. toy-horse toy-horses race-car race-cars = masini de cursa car-race car-races = cursa de masini 9. daca in substantivul compus format din doua substantive unul din ele este man sau woman, amandoua primesc pluralul. e.g. man driver men drivers woman doctor women doctors * - nu se face acelasi lucru la substantivele care alcatuiesc un singur cuvant e.g. postman postmen policeman policemen 10. substantivele neregulate au forme speciale la plural e.g. man men woman women child children foot feet = laba de picior goose geese = gasca ox oxen / oxes = boi mouse mice = soareci louse lice = paduche tooth teeth = dinte 11. substantivele invariabile : a) substantive terminate in s au aceeasi forma de singular si plural e.g. means = mijloc ( e ) barracks = baraca ( i ) species = specie ( i ) series = serie ( i )

headquartes = cartier ( e ) general ( e ) b) substantivele invariabile au aceeasi forma la singular si plural. Desemnand animale : e.g. sheep = oaie ( i ) fish = peste ( i ) deer = caprioara ( e ) trout = pastrav ( i ) salmon = somon (i ) c) substantivele care desemneaza stiinte sau obiecte de studio terminate in s se acorda cu verbul la singular : S + VB la singular e.g. Mathematics is difficult . ( toate care se termina in ics. ) d) substantivele care desemneaza boli se acorda cu verbul la singular e.g. measles = pojar mumps = oreion e) substantivele care desemneaza jocuri se acorda cu verbul la singular e.g. billiards, cards, die-dice ( zaruri ) , dominos The dice is cast. ( Zarurile sunt aruncate. ) f) substantivele care desemneaza obiecte alcatuite din doua parti se acorda cu verbul la plural e.g. glasses = ochelari trousers, pyjamas, spectacles, tongs ( clesti ), scissors, compasses, shorts Pentru singular : a pair of : trousers, pyjamas, glasses 12. Pluralul substantivelor imprumutate din limbi straine : um a e.g. memorandum memoranda is es oasis oases a ae formula formulae us i hippotamus hippotami on a criterion criteria 13. substantivele care se termina in s se acorda cu verbul la plural : e.q. ospices, surroundings, outskirts ( imprejurimi ), effects, thanks, pains ( trunda ), sands ( plaja ), remains, manners ( buna crestere ), annals ( anale ), regards ( urari ) = au sens de singular sau plural . Her savings were not enough to buy a car. 14. substantivele urmatoare : advice, furniture, information, luggage, knowledge, money, news, equipment, business, progress, poetry, lighnting ( fulgere ), thunder ( tunete ), evidence ( dovezi scrise ), a flash of lightning, a bolt of thunder ( o lovitura de tunet ) = au sens de plural, dar se acorda cu verbul la singular. Pentru a singularize : a piece of / an item of e.q. The piece of information he gave me helped me a lot.

This information is good. The money I have is not enough. 15. substantivele proprii terminate in s se acorda cu verbul la singular Naples ( Neapole ), Bruxeles, Athens e.q. Athens is the capital of Greece. 16. substantivele abstracte denumind calitati, virtuti, etc. se folosesc cu verbele la singular ( fara plural ) si nu sunt insotite de articol. e.q. You must always tell truth. * - exceptie : the beautiful, the good provin din adjective abstracte care sunt substantivizate. e.q. The good always wins in the fairy-tales. ( basme ) 17. substantivele abstracte ce desemneaza materia, substantivele ce nu se pot numara, se pot cuantifica cu ajutorul : - a piece of - a slice of ( o felie de ) - a loat of bread ( o franzela ) - five loaves of breat ( cinci paini ) Aceste substantive se folosesc cu verbele la singular, in afara de situatiile in care folosesc cuantificanti. e.q. lichide : - a glass of - a cup of zahar / orez : - a teaspoon of ( lingurita ) - a spoon of ( lingura ) a bar of ( chocolate ) a cake of soap ( o bucata de sapun ) 18. unmarked plurals * - cattle, infantry, people, police + VB la plural e.q. The ( people ) police are after the thief. BUT : When they are used generically + VB la singular. e.q. His family is large. * His family are at home. ( Ai lui ) membri familiei sunt acasa. 19. subtantivized adjectives: * the rich, the poor, goods + VB la plural e.q. The poor are suffering. The goods were carried by train. 20. Initials can be made plural : MPs ( Members of Parliament) VIPs ( very important persons ) OAPs ( old age pensioners ) UFOs ( unidentified flying objects )

The Gerund

O forma gramaticala care corespunde intr-o oarecare masura gerunziului din limba romana, avand in acelasi timp caracteristici sociale. Are forma in * ING * a verbului care capata caracteristici substantivale fiind de multe ori tradus printr-un substantiv. e.g. His arriving late annoyed everybody. Aceasta forma are caracteristici substantivale pentru ca poate fi insotita de : * un articol e.q. The reading of such books is useful. ( Citirea unor asemenea carti este folositoare. ) * un adjectiv posesiv e.q. His staying here long annoyed us all. ( Sederea lui aici ne-a suparat pe toti. ) * un alt substantiv in cazul genitiv e.q. Their friends leaving upset her. ( Plecarea prietenilor lor a suparat-o. ) Este cerut de : 1. Anumite prepozitii : before, after, with, without, from, on, by, for, of, about. e.q. He left without saying good-bye. ( A plecat fara sa spuna la revedere. ) He is waiting here for buying bread. ( El asteapta aici sa cumpere paine. ) Before leaving they phoned us. ( Inainte sa plecam ei ne-au sunat.) 2. In expresii arata prohibitia, interdictia + NO. e.q. No smoking ! No parking ! 3. Anumite verbe : - to avoid = a evita - to admit = a admite - to advise = a sfatui - to intend = a intentiona - to miss = a pierde - to save = a economisi - to try = a incerca - to fancy = a-si imagina - to omit = a omite - to understand = a intelege - to involve = a se implica - to imagine = a-si imagina - to deny = a nega - to anticipate = a anticipa - to consider = a considera - to expect = a se astepta - to mind = a deranja ( + propozitie negativa / interogativa )

- to suggest = a sugera - to risk = a risca - to postpone = a amana - to escape = a scapa e.q. I avoided meeting him. ( Am evitat s ail intalnesc. ) Do you mind me opening the window ? ( Te deranjeaza daca deschid fereastra ? ) 4. Verbe care arata sentimente : - to hate - to like - to enjoy - to love - to prefer Nota : + G un obicei, o actiune permanenta, repetata + INF o actiune temporara ocazionala e.q. I prefer yo staying at home. ( intotdeauna ) I prefer to stay home now. 5. Verbele care arata inceputul, continuarea si sfarsitul unei actiuni : - to start - to begin - to continue - to go on - to keep on - to stop - to finish e.q. The started reading. ( A inceput sa citeasca. ) She stopped laughing. ( Ea s-a oprit din ras. ) Go on speaking. ( Continua sa vorbesti. ) Nota : To stop + G a te opri dintr-o actiune pe care o faci atunci + INF cand arata scopul unei actiuni de atunci incolo e.q. I remember seeing her at the theatre. ( ca am vazut-o ) I remember to see her tonight. ( sa o vad ) I imagine him swimming to the shore. ( cum a inotat spre tarm ) I imagine him to swim to the shore. ( cum ar fi ca sa inoate ) 7. Dupa verbele to go on, to give up. 8. Dupa expresiile cu to be + adj + prepozitie : - to be afraid of = a-i fi teama de - to be capable of = a fi capabil de - to be interested in = a fi interesat de - to be tired of = a fi satul de - to get used to = a se obisnui cu

- to get accustomed to = a se obisnui cu e.q. I am afraid of getting lost. ( sa nu ma ratacesc ) He is tired of waiting. ( de asteptat ) 9. Expresiile : - to be worth = a valora, a merita sa - its no use = nu are rost - its no good = nu e bines a - to feel like = a se simti, a dori sa faca ceva - cant help = a nu se stapani, a nu avea ce face - cant stand = a nu suporta - to be looking forward to = a astepta cu nerabdare e.q. The book is worth reading. ( merita sa citesti ) Its no use waiting here. ( n-are rost sa astepti ) I feel like sleeping. ( am chef sa dorm ) I cant stand your smoking here. ( Nu support ca tu sa fumezi aici. ) 10. Verbele cu prepozitii fixe : - to accuse of - to aim at = a tinti la - to apologize for = a se scuza pentru - to excuse for - to consist in = a consta din - to succed in = a reusi sa - to count on = a se baza pe - to think about = a se gandi la - to think of - to prevent from = a se gandi la - to dream about = a visa la - to complain about = a se plange de - to recover from = a-si reveni din - to agree with = a fi de acord cu e.q. I accuse him of stealing the apples. 11. Parti de vorbire insotite de prepozitii : a) substantive : - confidence / belief / delight / difficult / experience in - interest / luck / pride in - opportunity / favour / habit / hope / intention for ( of ) - contribution / objection / opposition to e.q. I had no confidence in asking him to help us. ( N-am avut incredere sa il rog sa ne ajute. ) b) adjective cu prepozitie :

- angry / anxious / pleased / sure / worried / certain about - surprised / angry / astonished / bad / good at - famous / sorry for - proud of - successful / quick for - expert in - afraid of - accustomed to e.q. He is famous for solving all the contemporary problems of the society. how about = what about = ce ar fi sa + gerund

I Present Tense Simple

Tense = > timp grammatical Infinitiv lung Infinitiv scurt

to eat ( a manca ) to dance ( a dansa )

eat ( manca ) dance ( dansa )

Definitie : Arata o actiune prezenta , repetata sau generala : - adverbe specifice : - every morning - every afternoon - every evening - every day - every week - every month - every year * Forma afirmativa : SB + VB to Ei invata in fiecare dimineata. They to learn every morning. Noi muncim in fiecare zi. We to work every day. Voi vorbiti la telefon in fiecare seara. You to speak on the phone every evening. Ele danseaza frumos. They to dance beautifully. Voi intelegeti totul. You to understand everything. adj + ly => adverb beautiful => beautifully Exceptie ! face persoana a III-a singular ( she, he, it ) care la sfarsitul verbului primeste terminatia s sau es pentru verbele terminate in : - ch She watches -sh He washes -o He goes -x He fixes - ss He dresses - zz She fly buzzes She, He, It : SB + VB + s / es

Ea conduce in fiecare noapte. She drives every night. El vine la noi in fiecare dimineata She comes tu us every morning. Ea citeste mult. She reads a lot. Ei dorm in fiecare dimineata. They sleep every morning. Persoanele : I = eu you = tu she = ea he = el we = noi you = voi they = ei, ele it = el, ea; pentru obiecte, animale, fenomene ale naturii El rezolva totul. He solves all. * Forma negativa : SB + DO / DOES(she,he,it) + NOT + VB to I do not know. She does not know. Noi nu ne uitam la TV in fiecare seara. We do not watch TV every afternoon. Ele nu zambesc. They do not smile. Ea nu fumeaza. She does not smoke. El nu ne ajuta. He does not help us. Ei nu mananca fructe. They do not eat fruit. * Forma interogativa : DO / DOES(she,he,it) + SB + VB to ? Scrie ea in fiecare zi ? Does she write every day ? Yes, she does. No, she doesnt.

Inoata el ? Does he swim ? Yes, he does. No, he doesnt. Beau ele cafea ? Do they drink their coffee ? Yes, they do. No, they dont.

Pronumele in N, G, Ac
Intrebari : - G ( genitiv ) = ( ai, a, al, ale ) cui ? - Ac ( acuzativ ) = pe cine ? ce ?

Nominativ I = eu you = tu she = ea he = el it = el / ea we = noi you = voi they = ei / ele

Genitiv my = al meu my father your = al tau your mother her = al ei her daughter his = al lui his son our = al nostru our parents your = al vostru their = al lor their bussines

Acuzativ me = pe mine, ma call me you = pe tine, te I call you her = pe ea, o call her him = pe el call him us = pe noi, ne call us you = pe voi, va them = pe ele, le, pe ei, ii, i call them

Pronumele Personal I = eu you = tu she = ea he = el it = el, ea pentru obiecte, animale, etc we = noi you = voi they = ei, ele

To be = la prezent
* forma afirmativa I am => Im You are => youre

She is => shes He is => hes It is => its We are => were You are => youre They are => theyre * forma negativa I am not => Im not You are not => you arent She is not => she isnt He is not => he isnt It is not => it isnt We are not => we arent You are not => you arent They are not => they arent * forma interogativa Am I ? Are you ? Is she ? Is he ? Is it ? Are we ? Are you ? Are they ?

II Present Tense Continuous

tense = timp gramatical

Definitie : Arata o actiune prezentata in curs de desfasurare sau temporala. Arata o actiune care se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii. Adverbe : - now - right now - at the moment * forma afirmativa : SB + TO BE + VB to + ing present ( am, is, are ) Noi mancam o inghetata acum. We are eating an ice cream noi. El vine acum. He is coming now. Noi inotam chiar acum. We are swimming right now. Make + ing => making Take + ing => taking Have + ing => having * cand avem o vocala intre doua consoane dublam ultima consoana e.q. swim Ele citesc acum. They are reading now. * forma negativa : SB + TO BE + NOT + VB to + ing present ( am, is, are ) Swim + ing => swimming El nu plange acum. He is not crying now. Ele nu dorm acum. They are not sleeping now. Noi nu scriem chiar acum. We are not writing now. Ele nu danseaza in acel moment. They are not dancing at the moment. * forma interogativa : TO BE + SB + VB to + ing ? present ( am, is, are ) Conduce ea acum ? Is she driving now ? Yes, she is. Now, she is not.

Gradele de comparative ale adjectivului

I adjective regulate a) adjective scurte ( unu, doua silabe ) -> ow, le, er, y

adjectiv tall inalt big mare narrow ingusta, stramta clumsy neindemanatic b) adjective lungi :

comparativ adjectiv + er taller mai inalt bigger mai mare narrower mai ingusta clumsier mai neindemanatic

superlativ the + adjectiv + est the tallest cel mai inalt the biggest cel mai mare the narrowest cel mai ingust the clumsiest cel mai neindemanatic

comparativ mare + adjectiv faithful handsome industrious more faithful more handsome more industrious

superlativ the most + adjectiv the most faithful the most handsome ( chipes ) the most industrious ( harnic )

II adjective neregulate good - adjective better the best well - adverb better the best mai bun cel mai bun bad - adjective ill - adverb worse the worst worse the worst mai rau cel mai rau

many adjective more the most much adverb more the most mai mult cel mai mult little putin less mai putin the least cel mai putin

old older the oldest eld ( pentru frati ) elder the eldest far ( pentru distanta ) farther the farthest

further the furthest Its five km farther. I need further information. more

Comparativ de egalitate
as + adjective + as so + adjective + as La fel de frumos ca o floare.

As beautiful as a flower. So beautiful as a flower. La fel de interesant ca o poveste. As interesting as a story. So interesting as a story.

Comparativ de inferioritate
not so + adjective + as less + adjective + than Nu la fel de sexy ca el. Not so sexy as him. Less sexy than him.

III Future Tense Simple

Adverbe specifice : - tomorrow - next week - by 4 oclock = pana la ora 4

* forma afirmativa : SB + SHALL ( I, we ) / WILL + VB to + alte parti. Eu voi pleca. I shall go. Ill go. Ele vor manca o inghetata. Theyll eat an ice cream. They will eat an ice cream. Noi vom conduce. Whe shall drive. Well drive. El va dansa. He will dance. Hell dance. * forma negativa : SB + SHALL ( I, we ) / WILL + VB to + alte parti. shall + not = shant will + not = wont Noi nu vom gati. We shall not cook. Well not cook. We shant cook. El nu va veni la ora patru. He will not come by 4 oclock. Hell not come by 4 oclock. He wont come by 4 oclock. Ea nu va scrie. She will not write. Shell not write. She wont write. * forma interogativa : SHALL ( I, we ) / WILL + SB + VB to + alte parti. Sa o cumpar ?

Shall I buy it ? Va citi ea ? Will she read ? Yes, she will. No, she wont. to be trecut * forma afirmativa I was = eu am fost / eu eram You were = tu ai fost / tu erai She was = ea a fost / ea era He was = el a fost / el era It was = el / ea a fost / era We were = noi am fost / eram You were = voi ati fost / erati They were = ei / ele au fost / erau vase = dishes to wait for = a astepta pe cineva * forma negativa I was not = I wasnt You were not = youre not He was not = he wasnt It was not = it wasnt We were not = we werent You were not = you werent They were not = they werent * forma interogativa Was I ? Were you ? Was she ? Was he ? Was it ? Were we ? Were you ? Were they ?

IV Past Tense Continuous ( imperfect )

Se introduce prin : WHILE in timp ce AS cand pe cand Definitie : Arata o actiune trecuta, in curs de desfasurare sau temporara. * afirmativ : SB + TO BE ( was ( I, he, she, it ) / were ) + VB to ing + alte parti.

El spala vasele. He was washing the dishes. El o asteapta. He was waiting for her. iron = fier to iron = a calca Ea dormea in timp ce el se uita la TV. She was sleeping WHILE he was watching TV. Ea calca. She was ironing. * negativ : SB + was (I, she, he, it ) / were + not + VB to ing + alte parti Ea nu dansa. She was not dancing. Ele nu veneau. They were not coming. Ea nu o suna. He was not calling her. * interogativ : TO BE ( was ( I, he, she, it ) / were ) + SB + VB to ing + alte parti. Radeau ele ? Were they laughing ? Yes, they were. Not, they werent.

V Present Perfect Simple

Se traduce prin perfectul compus. ( am intarziat ) Se folosesti pe o perioada de timp nedeterminata. Definitie : Arata o actiune din trecut cu rezultate in prezent. Arata o actiune incheiata. - always = intotdeauna - often = deseori - already = deja - usually = de obicei - just = tocmai - never = niciodata - ever = vreodata - seldom = rareori Adverbe specifice :

- se aseaza intre auxiliarul have si VB la forma a III-a

- lately = in ultima vreme, se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei - yet = inca, se foloseste in propozitii negative sau interogative si se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei - this week / month / year - until now = by now = so far = pana acum - for arata perioada intreaga for two days = de doua zile for a long time = de mult timp for more than a week = de mai bine de o saptamana - since = arata inceputul perioadei since 1997 = din 1997 since morning = de dimineata

Perfect /

he left . PS de cand a plecat ( VB ed sau VB la forma a II-a )

* forma afirmativa : SB + HAVE / HAS ( she, he, it ) + VB la forma a III-a El tocmai a scris. He has just written. Ea deja a inteles. She has already understand. Ele deseori s-au ajutat. They have often helped. El rareori a condus. He has seldom driven. * forma negativa : SB + HAVE / HAS ( she, he, it ) + NOT + VB la forma a III-a Ele nu au venit inca. They have not came yet. Ea nu l-a mai vazut de trei zile. She has not seen him for three days.

El nu s-a mai jucat din luna mai. He hasnt played since May. * forma interogativa : HAVE / HAS ( she, he, it ) + SB + VB la forma a III-a A plouat de cand a plecat el ? Has it rained since he left ? Yes, he has. No, he hasnt. Au dansat ele de dimineata ? Have they danced since morning ? Yes, they have. No, they havent. y vocala + y play vocala + y + ing => consoana + y try y=y she plays played playing y <-> ie she tries tried consoana + y + ing => trying to lie He lies me all the time. He is lying to me now.

VI Past Perfect Simple

Se traduce prin mai mult ca percet. Se foloseste cu aceleasi adverbe ca si Present Perfect Simple. Definitie : Arata o actiune din trecut desfasurata inaintea altei actiuni din trecut . eat ate eaten * forma afirmativa : SB + HAD + VB la forma a III-a Noi mancasem deja. He had already eaten. Ele muncisera inainte. They had worked before. El tocmai sosise.

He had just arrived. * forma negativa : SB + HAD + NOT + VB la forma a III-a Ea nu venise inca. She hadnt come yet. Ele nu citisera in ultima vreme. They hadnt read lately. * forma interogativa : HAD + SB + VB la forma a III-a Vazuse el filmul ? Had he seen the film ? Yes, he had. No, he hadnt. Please ea inainte ? Had she left before ? Yes, she had. No, she hadnt.

Gradele de comparative ale adjectivului

I Adjective regulate a) adjective scurte ( unu, doua silabe ow, le, y, er ) Adjectiv Comparativ adj + er adj + es busier narrower Superlativ the + adj + est vb + adj + est the busiest the narrowest

busy narrow

b) adjective lungi ( peste doua silabe ) Adjectiv industrious = harnic faithful = credincios Comparativ more + adj more industrious more faithful Superlativ the most + adj the most industrious the most faithful

II Adjective neregulate as + adj + as so + adj + as La fel de important ca = so important as = as important as La fel de interesant ca o poveste = as interesting as a story = so interesting as a story - comparative de inferioritate not as + adj + as not so + adj + as less + adj + THAN nu la fel de frumos ca = not as beautiful as = not so beautiful as = less beautiful than handsome = chipes adj + ly = adverb adj + subst adverbe langa verb She is a beautiful girl. The girl looks beautifully.

VII Present Perfect Continuous

Se traduce prin prezent. Se foloseste cu aceleasi adverbe ca si Present Perfect Simple. Arata o actiune din trecut cu rezultate in prezent, actiunea fiind in curs de desfasurare sau temporara. * forma afirmativa : SB + HAVE/HAS(she, he, it) + been + vb to ing Ea scrie de dimineata. She has been writing since morning. Noi citim de doua ore. We have been reading for two hours. Ele plang de zece minute.

They have been crying for ten minutes. El conduce de douazeci de ani. He has been driving for twenty years. * forma negativa : SB + HAVE/HAS(she, he, it) + NOT + been + vb to - ing El nu mai doarme de doua zile. He has not been sleeping for two days. Ele nu au mai vorbit din may. They have not been talking since May. Ea nu s-a mai uitat la televizor de cand a terminat facultatea. She has not been watching TV since graduated the faculty. graduated = termina * forma interogativa : HAVE/HAS(she, he, it) + SB + been + vb to ing ? Invata ele de cand aveau cinci ani ? Have they been learning since they were five years old ? Yes, they have. No, they havent. Inoata ea de zece minute ? Has she been swimming for ten minutes ? Yes, she has. No, she hasnt.

VIII Past Perfect Continuous

Se traduce prin imperfect. Se foloseste cu aceleasi adverbe ca si Present Perfect Simple. Definitie : Arata o actiune trecuta, desfasurata inaintea altei actiuni din trecut ; actiunea find in curs de desfasurare sau temporara. * forma afirmativa : SB + HAD + been + vb to + ing El dansa de doua minute. He had been dancing for two minutes. Ea plangea de doua ore. She had been crying for two ours.

* forma negativa : SB + HAD + NOT + been + vb to + ing Ele nu zambeau de doi ani. They had not been smiling for two years. El nu mai canta din august. He had not been singing since August. * forma interogativa : HAD + SB + been + vb to + ing Conducea el de cinci ani ? Had he been driving for five years ? Yes, he had. No, he hadnt. Construia el o casa de cinci ani ? Had he been building a house for five years ? Yes, he had. No, he hadnt. to be used to + vb ing to get used to + vb ing I am used to working. despite of = in ciuda faptului = in spite of although = though = desi vb ed / vb II <-> had + vb III Its ( high ) time + Past Tense ( vb ed / vb II ) E timpul ca el sa stie. Its the first time Present Perfect ( HAVE / HAS + vb III ) Its the second time Present Perfect ( HAVE / HAS + vb III ) Its the first time she has eaten an apple.

The adjective
many ( mult ) substantiv numarabil few ( putin ) substantiv numarabil e.q. I have many books. I have few books. I have a few books. ( 1 2 0 carti ) much ( a little ) + substantive nenumarabile sugar = zahar + vb la singular butter = unt + vb la singular honey = miere + vb la singular rice = orez + vb la singular

sand = nisip + vb la singular money = bani + vb la singular I have much money. I have little money ( 50 lei ) I have a little money ( 10 bani )

Recapitulare Prezent
I Present Simple actiune repetata Noi invatam in fiecare zi. We learn every day. F.A. SB + vb to ; pentru : she, he, it : SB + vb to + s/es F.N. SB + DO/DOES(she,he,it) + NOT + vb to F.I. DO/DOES + SB + vb to

II Present Continuous Noi invatam acum. We are learning. F.A. SB + TO BE ( prezent ) + vb to + ing F.N. SB + TO BE ( prezent ) + NOT + vb to + ing F.I. TO BE ( prezent ) + SB + vb to + ing III Present Perfect Continuous ( for, since ) Noi invatam de doua ore. We have been learning for two hours. F.A. SB + HAVE/HAS(she,he,it) + been + vb + ing F.N. SB + HAVE/HAS(she,he,it) + NOT + been + vb to + ing F.I. HAVE/HAS(she,he,it) + SB + been + vb to + ing

Perfect Compus ( eu am mancat )

I Past Simple - perioada mentionata - actiunea s-a incheiat adverbe : - last week - two days ago - in June 1991 - on Monday - from . to ( de la . pana la ) - between . and ( intre . si ) F.A. vb ed / vb II F.N. SB + DID + NOT + vb to F.A. DID + SB + vb to II Present Perfect Simple - perioada mentionata - actiune din trecut cu rezultate in prezent

adverbe : - always intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - just intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - already intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - usually intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - often intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - never intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - ever intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - seldom intre auxilar HAVE + VB III - lately = in ultima vreme - yet = inca - this week - until now = by now = so far - for / since F.A. SB + HAVE/HAS + vb III F.N. SB + HAVE/HAS + NOT + vb III F.I. HAVE/HAS + SB + vb III

1. Imperfect ( eu lucram ) while = in timp, as = cand, pe cand

Eu lucram cand el a venit. I was working when he came. was working Past Continuous came Past Simple ( vb ed / vb II ) Eu lucram in timp ce el dormea. I was working while he was sleeping. F.A. SB + WAS(she,he,it,I) / were + vb to + ing F.N. SB + WAS/WERE + NOT + SB + vb to + ing


WAS/WERE + SB + vb to + ing

2. Past Perfect Continuous for, since

Lucram de doua ore cand a venit la mine. I had been working for two hours when he came. came Past Simple F.A. SB + HAD + BEEN + vb to + ing F.N. SB + HAD + NOT + BEEN + vb to + ing F.I. HAD + SB + BEEN + vb to + ing

Mai mult ca perfectul

I Past Perfect Simple Eu lucram cand el a venit. I had worked when he came. F.A. SB + HAD + vb to III F.N. SB + HAD + NOT + vb to III F.I. HAD + SB + vb to III vb ed / vb II


El neaga ca o iubeste. He denies that he loves her. He denies loving her.

Perfect Gerund ( having + vb III )

El a negat ca a iubit-o. He denied that he had loved her. He denied having loved her. Gerund generala / trecut to temporara how about / what about = ce ar fi sa + gerund would you mind = v-ar deranja sa to look forward to = a astepta cu nerabdare I ( am ) look ( - ing ) forward to seeing him.

X Present Conditional
Se traduce prin conditional prezent. * forma afirmativa : SB + shoud(I,we) / would + vb to Eu as inota. I should swim. Id swim. El te-ar ajuta. He would help you. Hed help you.

Ea ar conduce lumea. She would lead the world. Shed lead the world. * forma negativa : SB + should / would + not ( shouldnt/wouldnt) + vb to Ea nu ar fuma. She would not smoke. She wouldnt smoke. El nu ar veni. She would not come. She wouldnt come. * forma interogativa : Should / would + SB + vb to Ar vorbii ea la telefon ? Would she talk on the phone ? Yes, she would. No, she wouldnt.

S-ar uita ei la televizor ? Would they watch TV ? Yes, they would. No, they wouldnt.

XI Past Conditional
Se traduce prin conditional perfect. Eu as ( fi ) plecat.

* forma afirmativa : SB + should(I,we) / would + have + vb III I should have gone. El s-ar fi uitat la TV. He would have watched TV. Ele s-ar fi jucat la calculator. They would have played on the computer. * forma negativa : SB + should(I,we) / would + not + have + vb III El nu ar fi incercat. He would not have tried. El nu ar fi mancat o balena. He would not have eaten a whale. Ei nu ar fi inteles. They wouldnt have understand.

* forma interogativa : should(I,we) / would + SB + have + vb III ? Ar fi citit el ? Would he have read ? Yes, he would. No, he wouldnt. S-ar fi intalnit ele ? Would they have met ? Yes, they would. No, they wouldnt.

Tag Questions ( Nu-i asa ? )

Intrebari disjunctive to tag = a agata - se face inversiunea intre verbul auxiliar si subiect - daca propozitia este afirmativa, intrebarea este negativa - daca propozitia este negativa, intrebarea este afirmativa

I Present Continuous
She is eating, isnt she ? We are not eating, are we ? I am not eating, am I ? I am eating, arent I ? ( EXCEPTIE ) !

II Past Continuous ( was(I,she,he,it) ,where )

She was dancing, wasnt she ? They were not watching TV, were they ? He was not reading, was he ?

III Present Perfect ( have / has(she,he,it) )

He hasnt been working for six months, has he ? They havent met, have they ? He has never understand me, has he ?

IV Past Perfect ( had )

We had hardly spoken, had we ? Tom, Marie and John had left, hadnt they ?

V Future ( shall(I,we), will )

We shall be going, shant we ? They wont agree, will they ?

VI Present Simple ( do / does(she,he,it) )

She doesnt like him, does she ? She likes him, doesnt she ? We love animals, dont we ? They dont learn, do they ?

VII Past Simple ( did )

They didnt came, did they ? They came, didnt they ? He explained, didnt he ?

VIII Imperativ
Open the door, will you ? Dont open the door, will you ? Lets go, shall we ? She cant came, can she ? there is = este, exista, se afla ; se folosesc pentru singular e.q. There is a girl in the street. there are = sunt, se afla, exista ; se folosesc pentru plural. e.q. There are two girls in the street.

If Clauses
clause = propozitie secundara

I PP eu voi bea Prezent ( SB + VB to ) Viitor ( SB + shall(I,we) / will + VB to ) El va stii daca va invata. He will know if he learns. El stie daca invata. He knows if he learns. Noi vom manca daca vom avea timp. We shall eat if we have time. Daca va ploua va veni. If it rains she will ocme. Daca noi vom scrie vom intelege. If we write we shall understand. El va bea daca va cumpara bauturi. He will drink if he buys beverages. Beverage = bauturi II PP eu as bea Present Conditional SB + should(I,we) / would + VB to El ar stii daca ar invata. He would know if he learnt. Noi am manca daca am avea timp. We should eat if we have time. Daca ar ploua ea ar veni. If it rained she would come. Daca noi am scrie am intelege.

IF Prezent ( niciodata viitor )

IF Past Simple VB ed / VB II

If we write we should understand. El ar bea daca ar cumpara bauturi. He would drink if he bought beverages. III PP eu as fi baut Past Conditional SB + should(I,we) / would + have + VB III El ar fi stiut daca ar fi invatat. He would have known if he had learnt. Noi am fi mancat daca am fi avut timp. We should have eaten if we had had time. Daca ar fi plouat ea ar fi venit. If it had rained she hould have come. Daca noi am fi scris am fi inteles. If we had written, we should have understood. El ar fi baut daca ar fi cumparat bauturi. He would have drunk if he had bought beverages. IF Past Perfect SImple SB + HAD + VB III

XII Future Perfect Simple

Se traduce prin viitor anterior ( eu voi fi spalat ) . F.A. : SB + shall(I,we) / will + have + VB III. Eu voi fi spalat. I shall have washed. El va fi inteles. He will have understood.

Noi vom fi plecat. We shall have gone. El va fi sosit pana saptamana viitoare. He will have arrived by next week. F.N. : SB + shall(I,we) / will + not + have + VB III El nu va fi dansat. He will not have danced. Ei nu vor fi cantat. They will not have sung. Ele nu vor fi scris. They will not have written. F.I. : Shall(I,we) / Will + SB + HAVE + VB III ? Va fi mancat el ? Will he have eaten ? Yes, he will. No, we will not.

Vor fi inteles ei ? Will they have understood ? Yes, he will. No, he will not.

Time clauses ( circumstantiala de timp )

I PP Prezent : SB + VB to Viitor : shall(I,we) / will + VB to CT Prezent ( niciodata viitor)

when = cand after = dupa ( ce ) while = in timp ce before = inainte until = till = pana cand as soon as = de indata ce as long as = atat timp cat so long as = atat timp cat El va sti cand va invata. He will know when he learns. II PP Prezent Viitor CT Present Perfect ( have / has(she,he,it) + VB III )
cand in limba romana avem viitor anterior

Noi vom sti cand vom fi exersat. We shall know when we have practiced enough. Noi vom manca cand vom fi avut timp. We shall eat when we have had time.

Modal Verbs
Caracteristici : 1. Dupa un verb modal urmeaza intotdeauna un verb la infinitivul scurt. e.q. El poate sa scrie. He can to write. 2. Forma negativa se formeaza prin adaugarea negatiei not, fara auxiliar. e.q. He cant write. He cannot write. 3. Forma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea verbului modal cu subiectul, fara auxiliar. e.q. Can he write ?

4. Verbul la persoana a III-a singular care urmeaza dupa verbul modal nu primeste terminatia s sau es. e.q. He can write. 5. Modal verb + have + VB III / ed e.q. El trebuie sa fi scris. He must have written. I must = trebuie, arata obligatia sau necesitatea. Noi trebuie sa mancam ca sa traim. We must eat to live. El trebuie sa doarma. He must sleep. Voi trebuie sa munciti in fiecare zi. You must work every day. El trebuie sa fi dormit. He must have slept. * Must arata probabilitatea ( 90% adevarat ) El probabil citeste in fiecare zi. He must read every day. Ea probabil bea cafea in fiecare dimineata. She must drink coffee every morning. * Mustnt arata interdictia totala fiind sinonim cu it is forbidden Nu trebuie sa fumati in spital. You mustnt smoke in hospital. Nu trebuie sa traversati strada pe rosu. You mustnt cross the street when the traffic light is red.

* Must se inlocuieste pentru viitor si trecut cu have to Viitor ( SB + shall(I,we) / will + have to(trebuie) + VB to ) El va trebui sa inteleaga. He will have to understand. Ele vor trebui sa se imbrace. They will have to dress. Ea va trebui sa vina. She will have to come. Trecut ( SB + had to(trebuie) + VB to ) El a trebuit sa ne ajute. He had to help us. Ele au trebuit sa cumpere un ou. They had to buy an egg. Lipsa necesitatii sau a obligatiei se reda cu : - neednt = nu trebuie, nu e necesar - have to ( negativ ) 1. dont have to 2. doesnt have to 3. didnt have to Nu trebuie / nu e necesar / sa pleci. You neednt / dont have to / leave. Ea nu trebuie sa aspire sufrageria. She neednt vacuum clean the living room. She doesnt have to vacuum clean the living room. El nu a trebuit sa ma ajute. He didnt have to help me.

II can = a putea, arata capacitatea fizica sau intelectuala Noi putem sa inotam. We can swim. Noi putem sa invatam mai bine. We can learn better. Can se inlocuieste pentru viitor si trecut cu : - to be capable to - to be able to DE RETINUT !!! unless = daca nu + propozitie afirmativa Viitor ( SB + shall(I,we) / will ) + BE ABLE TO + VB to Noi vom putea sa conducem cand vom implini 18 ani. We shall be able to drive when we are 18 years old. Ea va putea citi saptamana viitoare. She will be able to read next week. Trecut ( SB + was(I,she,he,it) / were + ABLE TO + VB to El a putut sa rezolve problema. He was able to solve the problem. Ele au putut sa danseze. They were able to dance. Trecutul lui CAN este COULD ( as putea / am putut ) As putea sa te ajut dar nu vreau. I could help you but I dont want to help you.

III may = a putea, arata permisiunea sau posibilitatea Pot sa intru ? May I come in ? Yes, you may. No, you maynt. E posibil ca ea sa planga. May she cry. E posibil ca ea sa fi plans. She may have cried. E posibil ca el sa fi incercat. He may tried. May se inlocuieste pentru viitor si trecut cu to be permited to sau to be allowed to . Viitor ( SB + shall(I,we) / will + be allowed to / be permited to + VB to ) Noi vom putea manca dupa ora 5. We shall be allowed to eat after 5 oclock. I se va permite sa vina maine. You will be permited to come tomorrow. Trecut ( SB + has(I,she,he,it) / were + permited to / allowed to + VB to ) I s-a permis sa plece ieri. He was permited to go yesterday. Ele au putut sa adoarma. They were allowed to sleep. Trecutul lui MAY este MIGHT = am putut, as putea S-ar putea sa ninga. It might snow.

IV should = ar trebui, arata un sfat sau recomandare Ele ar trebui sa vina la timp. They should came in time. Ele ar fi trebuit sa fi venit la timp. They should have come in time. El ar trebui sa cante la pian. He should play the piano. El ar trebui sa fi cantat la pian. He should have played the piano. V ought to = arata un sfat sau o recomandare mai accentuate decat should intre mama-fiica, prieteni Voi ar trebui sa invatati mai mult. You ought to learn more. Voi ar fi trebuit sa invatati mai mult. You ought to learn more. VI will = a avea, arata o cerere sau o invitatie Will you dance with me ? Yes, I will. No, I will not. El vrea sa devina inginer. He will became a engineer. wont = a nu vrea, arata refuzul obiectelor de a face ceva Stiloul nu scrie. The pen wont write.

Usa nu se deschide. The door wont open. will + VB to = arata o actiune prezentata din prezent fiind sinonim cu Present Tense Simple. Barbatii sunt barbati. Men will be men. VII would = ar vrea, arata o cerere sau o invitatie mai politicoasa decat will ( intre persoane cu statut social diferit ) Ati bea o ceasca de cafea ? Would you drink a cup of coffee ? Yes, I would. No, I wouldnt. Would + VB to => arata o actiune repetata din trecut fiind sinonim cu Past Tense Simple (VB-ed / VB II ) Ea ne vizita diminca. She would visit ( visited ) us on Sunday. VIII shall = trebuie, arata o amenintare, promisiune ( se foloseste in acte oficiale ) El trebuie sa plateasca pentru asta. He shall pay for this. Noi vom avea o masina. We shall have a car next week. Trebuie sa semnati transferul astazi. You shall sign the transfer today. IX dare = a indrazni El indrazneste sa se uite la ea. He dares to look at her. He dare look at her.

Trecutul lui DARE este DURST. El a indraznit sa plece. He durst to leave. He durst go. He durst to go.

Verbele care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu

1. Verbele care arata perceptii senzoriale - to see = to notice = to observe = a vedea - to smell = a mirosi - to taste = a gusta - to hear = a auzi - to touch = a atinge - to feel = a simti 2. Verbele care arata sentimentele, dorinta, preferinta sau opusul acestora - to love ( opus ) to hate - to like ( opus ) to dislike - to want a dori - to prefer a prefera - to desire = a dori - to resent = a nu-i placea - to wish = a-si dori 3. Verbele care arata activitati mentale - to thing = a crede = a gandi - to remember = a-si aminti - to remind = a aminti - to know = a sti - to understand = a intelege - to forget = a uita - to forgive = a ierta

4. Verbele - to seem = a parea - to appear = a aparea - to look = a arata

Acuzativul cu infintivul