Sunteți pe pagina 1din 10

TIMPURILE VERBELOR IN ENGLEZA Pentru verbul in engleza timpurile difera fundamental fata de cele ale limbii romane.

De aceea nu trebuie cautate in permanenta echivalente exacte intre cele doua limbi. Asa cum ne asteptam exista 3 timpuri de desfasurare a unei actiuni: prezent(present), trecut(past) si viitor(future). Verbul la aceste timpuri il voi numi deocamdata simplu. Mai jos se observa ca la randul lor aceste timpuri ale verbului in engleza (tenses) pot fi: propriu-zise sau propriu-zis perfecte. Dar si timpurile propriu-zise si propriu-zis perfecte pot fi propriu-zise sau continui. Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza Timp simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in timp. Timp continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor care in momentul acela se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Timp simplu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor Timp continuu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor si continuind sau nu in acel moment In limba engleza nu exista conjugari ca in limbile latine (romana, franceza etc) Verbul in engleza este fie regulat fie neregulat. Pentru ilustrarea timpurilor in engleza vom folosi un verb regulat Ca si in romana, verbul in engleza are 2 diateze: activa si pasiva VERBUL IN ENGLEZA LA DIATEZA ACTIVA Actiunea e facuta de subiect De exemplu luam verbul to work (a munci). In engleza verbul to work e regulat: work - worked - worked Iar verbul to fall(a cadea) e neregulat: fall - fell - fallen Desi doar Alice in tara minunilor poate cadea cu verbul la un timp continuu (pentru ca dureaza in timp), chiar si acest verb are timpuri continui pentru ca apare in diferite expresii: I am falling in love = Ma indragostesc My life is falling apart = Mi se duce viata de rapa Diferente intre timpurile verbelor regulate si neregulate nu exista. Ceea ce se poate observa la verbul neregulat este modul cum se folosesc cele trei cuvinte care definesc verbul adica: fall, fell si fallen. Pentru orice alt verb neregulat cele trei parti se inlocuiesc fiecare in parte cu cele trei parti ale verbului considerat.

To work = A munci (verb regulat) Present Tense I work You work He works

She works We work You work They work Present Continuous I am working You are working He is working She is working We are working You are working They are working Present Perfect I have worked You have worked He has worked She has worked We have worked You have worked They have worked Present Perfect Continuous I have been working You have been working He has been working She has been working We have been working You have been working They have been working Past Tense I worked You worked He worked

She worked We worked You worked They worked Past Continuous I was working You were working He was working She was working We were working You were working They were working Past Perfect I had worked You had worked He had worked She had worked We had worked You had worked They had worked Past Perfect Continuous I had been working You had been working He had been working She had been working We had been working You had been working They had been working Future Tense I will work You will work He will work

She will work We will work You will work They will work Future Continuous I will be working You will be working He will be working She will be working We will be working You will be working They will be working Future Perfect I will have worked You will have worked He will have worked She will have worked We will have worked You will have worked They will have worked Future Perfect Continuous I will have been working You will have been working He will have been working She will have been working We will have been working You will have been working They will have been working

Conjugarea pentru verbul neregulat to fall - a cadea e la lectia verbe neregulate. Oricum timpurile verbelor si cand se folosesc este aceeasi si la verbe regulate si la cele

neregulate. Numai modul in care se conjuga difera.

1.1. I work - Present Tense - Timpul Present Verbul exprima o actiune prezenta nelimitata in timp. 1. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

O actiune prezenta in derulare (mereu, cateodata sau niciodata) What do you do? I work at a bank. She never works so late Cu ce te ocupi? Lucrez la o banca Ea niciodata nu lucreaza atat de tarziu

Un adevar absolut, chiar daca se desfasoara si in clipa asta The earth spins around the sun. Pamantul se invarteste in jurul soarelui.

Se poate folosi pe post de viitor The store closes at 9:00pm Magazinul se inchide la 9:00pm.

Viitorul limbii romana se traduce cu Present Tense in limba engleza dupa: after, before, when, as soon as, while etc daca exprima o actiune viitoare Someday when I am big and strong. Candva, cand voi fi mare si puternic

2. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiune care se desfasoara acum (in clipa dialogului) atunci se foloseste Prezentul Continuu. I am working in the garden Lucrez in gradina

Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te referi la clipa asta. I work in the garden - inseamna ca asta e ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti gradinar. Sus 1.2. I am working - Present Continuous - Prezent Continuu Verbul exprima o actiune in derulare in prezent care se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Este legat de actiuni concrete. 1. Situatii in care timpul prezent din romana este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune ce se petrece in clipa asta (simultana cu momentul in care se vorbeste) I am working on my new book. Lucrez la noua mea carte.

Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu o alta actiune Cand suna ceasul eu deja lucrez (am inceput lucrul)

By the time the alarm goes off I am already working.

2. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului prezent 1.1. I work

Sus 1.3. I have worked - Present Perfect - Prezent Perfect Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent 1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect al limbii engleze

Daca actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului prezent si e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul ei se vede in prezent I have worked all my adult life. Am muncit toata viata mea adulta (si inca mai muncesc).

Daca verbul e insotit de un adverb (mereu, cateodata, niciodata etc): I have never worked so late before. Niciodata nu am mai lucrat atat de tarziu (pana acum).

Atentie: Fata de 1.1. exista urmatoarea diferenta: I never work so late. inseamna: Nu lucrez atat de tarziu (ca si in romana) adica refuzi ideea pentru ca nu lucrezi niciodata atat de tarziu, pe cand I never have worked so late before inseamna ca desi nu ai mai lucrat atat de tarziu, acum lucrezi (atat de tarziu). 2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus al limbii romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect din limba engleza 1. Cand se foloseste Present Perfect Continuous 1.4 I have been working 2. Cand se foloseste Past Tense 1.5 I worked Sus 1.4. I have been working - Present Perfect Continuous - Prezent Perfect Continuu O actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor. 1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous din limba engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa in trecut, continuata in prezent, si care poate continua si in viitor I have been working on the railroad Am muncit la calea ferata

All live long day I've been working on the railroad Just to while my time away.

Cat e ziua de lunga Am muncit la calea ferata Ca sa mai treaca timpul.

E un binecunoscut cantec englezesc. Am muncit la calea ferata toata ziua si o voi face probabil si in viitor. 2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked Vezi cazurile timpului Past Tense 1.5. I worked

Sus 1.5. I worked - Past Tense - Timpul Trecut Past Tense reprezinta actiunea care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat. 1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza Verbul reprezinta o actiune trecuta ce nu a fost intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune, nu se continua in prezent. I worked till my hands hurt Am muncit pana ma dureau palmele.

Asta e usor de inteles, Am muncit dar acum m-am oprit. Deasemeni acest timp se foloseste foarte mult in povestiri (de exemplu vezi poeziile de la Literatura) 2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect Continuous 1.5. I have been working Exista situatii in care Past Tense din limba engleza nu se traduce prin Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana. Ca exemplu vedeti primul caz de mai sus sau binecunoscutul cantec pentru copii de mai jos. All around the cobbler's bench The monkey chased the weasel The monkey thought it was all in fun Pop! goes the weasel In jurul mesei cizmarului Maimuta fugarea nevastuica Maimuta credea ca se joaca Bum! face nevastuica

Dupa cum vedeti verbul to chase cu Past Tense chased (e verb regulat la fel ca to work) se traduce prin fugarea (Imperfect) sau fugari (considerat timpul folosit in povestiri in romaneste) iar thought(Past Tense de la to think) se traduce tot prin Imperfect. Atentie: Daca aveti indoieli ce timp trecut al verbului sa folositi in propozitii alegeti acest timp Past Tense. Va fi mai putin deranjanta greseala. Sus 1.6. I was working - Past Continuous - Trecut Continuu Past Continuous se refera la un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu un alt eveniment.

1. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Continuous din limba engleza Verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de alta actiune (ca si "munceam" pe romaneste) I was working when the meteorite fell/the phone rang/you showed up. I was walking in the park one day In the merry, merry month of May I was taken by surprise By a pair of pearly eyes In the merry, merry month of May Munceam cand meteoritul a cazut/a sunat telefonul/ai aparut tu. Ma plimbam in parc intr-o zi In vesela, vesela luna Mai Am fost luat prin surprindere De niste ochi perlati In vesela, vesela luna Mai

Atentie: In cantecul de mai sus was walking este Past Continuous dar was taken nu este Past Continuous. I was taken inseamna am fost luat (este la Diateza Pasiva). Daca vrei sa exprimi verbul la Past Continuous zici I was taking. 2. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Continuous din engleza Verbul exprima o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat sau anterioara unei alte actiuni tot in trecut - atunci se foloseste Past Perfect I had worked as a goldminer for a long time when I finally struck it rich. Sus 1.7. I had worked - Past Perfect - Trecut Perfect Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute. 1. Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Perfect din engleza Verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se raporteaza Emily a spus (trecut) ca lucrase in gradina (si mai vechi) in dimineata aceea Emily said she had worked in her garden that morning. Atentie: La fel ca in romaneste aceste timpuri nu sunt batute in cuie. Emily a spus ca a lucrat in gradina in dimineata aceea Emily a spus ca lucra in gradina in dimineata aceea Emily a spus ca lucrase in gradina in dimineata aceea Toate aceste forme sunt des folosite iar folosirea lor in romaneste depinde (oarecum) de context. Traducerea acestor propozitii: Emily said she worked in the garden that morning Emily said she was working in the garden that morning Emily said she had worked in the garden that morning Emily said she had been working in the garden that morning Lucram de mult timp ca miner de aur cand in sfarsit am dat de bogatii.

se folosesc deasemeni in limbajul curent in engleza depinzand si ele (oarecum) de context, dar fiind interschimbabile de multe ori. Sus 1.8. I had been working - Past Perfect Continuous - Trecut Perfect Continuu Verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprit de o alta actiune a carui urmari continua si azi. 1. Situatii in care imperfectul (munceam, lucram) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza Verbul exprima o actiune trecuta, ce se afla inca in desfasurare, in momentul cand s-a produs o alta actiune tot din trecut. They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it He had been working slowly before hearing of the new deadline. (Ei)lucrau la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc (El)muncea incet inainte sa afle de noul termen limita.

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza They had been working on the new house for many months before the fire destroyed it (Ei) lucrasera luni de zile la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul si/sau imperfectul din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.6. I was working Vezi cazurile timpului Past Continuous 1.7. I had worked Sus 1.9. I will work - Future Tense (I am going to work) - Timpul Viitor Verbul reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp. 1. Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza Daca verbul reprezinta o actiune in viitor si nu va fi intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune folositi Future Tense. I will work OK? Someday when I am big and strong I will walk that road and sing a song I will sing of roads so green and wide That turn and bend from side to side I will sing of roads that turn and bend That go from town to rainbow's end Am sa muncesc, BINE? Intr-o zi cand voi fi mare si puternic Voi merge pe acel drum si voi canta un cantec Voi canta despre drumuri verzi si late Care se indoaie si serpuiesc dintr-o parte in alta Voi canta despre drumuri serpuitoare Care merg din oras pana la capatul curcubeului

Atentie: vezi (1.1 I work) pentru primul vers din poezia de mai sus Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza

Cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor - atunci se foloseste Future Continuous 1.10. I will be working I will be working in Paris next year Sus 1.10. I will be working - Future Conntinuous - Viitor Continuu Verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor She will be coming round the mountain when she comes Sus 1.11. I will have worked - Future Perfect - Viitor Perfect Echivalentul lui voi fi lucrat I will have worked for 20 years next month. Luna viitoare eu o sa fi lucrat de 20 de ani. Sus 1.12. I will have been working - Future Perfect Continuous - Viitor Perfect Continuu Acest timp nu prea se foloseste, pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lunga de timp decat 1.11 Future Continuous Se traduce tot prin voi fi lucrat, si ca toate formele de timpuri continue implica o actiune in derulare By 2015 he will have been working for 40 years In 2015 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani Cand vine, (ea) va veni in jurul muntelui Voi lucra la Paris la anul

Sus VERBUL IN ENGLEZA LA DIATEZA PASIVA Actiunea e suportata de subiect. Diateza pasiva exista si in limba romana De exemplu verbul to wash - a spala (verb regulat: wash - washed - washed) Eu spal rufele saptamanal (Diateza Activa) devine Rufele sunt spalate saptamanal (de mine) 2.1 I wash the laundry weekly - The laundry is washed weekly (by me). 2.2 I am washing laundry now - The laundry is being washed now (by me). 2.3 I have washed the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me). 2.4 I have been washing the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me). 2.5 I washed the laundry yesterday - The laundry was washed yesterday (by me). 2.6 I was washing the laundry - The laundry was being washed (by me). 2.7 I had washed the laundry- The laundry had been washed (by me). 2.8 I had been washing the laundry - The laundry had been washed (by me). 2.9 I will wash the laundry- The laundry will be washed (by me). 2.10 I will be washing the laundry - The laundry will be washed (by me). 2.11 I will have washed the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me). 2.12 I will have been washing the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).