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SUCCES IN INVATAREA LIMBII ENGLEZE !

<titlu> Gramatica limbii engleze, pentru uz


colar </titlu> Autori: Georgiana Gleanu Ecaterina Comiel Editura didactic i pedagogic
ucureti 1982 <coperta I> Sanda Retinschi - asistent universitar Refereni: Alexandr
a Vasiliu - profesoar Anca Iliescu - profesoar </coperta I> Contribuia autoarelor l
a elaborarea lucrrii a fost urmtoarea: G. Gleanu: cap. I.O.; 1-2.3; 3.1.-3.6; 7-10; I
I.0; 43; 18; 19; 22; 23; III.0.; 24-26. E. Comiel: cap. 2.4.-2.5; 3.7.-3.10; 4-6;
11; 12; 14-17; 20; 21. Redactor: Simona Bosetti Tehnoredactor: Constantina Velc
ovici Coperta: Ion Hacik Pag. 003 <titlu> CUVNT NAINTE </titlu> Lucrarea de fa a fos
t conceput ca un material de referin pentru elevi, profesori i alte categorii de per
soane interesate de studiul limbii engleze. n tratarea problemelor, s-a avut n ved
ere modul n care acestea sunt prezentate n majoritatea manualelor i gramaticilor de
limb englez din ara noastr. Au fost de asemenea n atenia autorilor progresele nregist
ate n analiza fenomenului lingvistic n general, nu numai n Romnia, dar i n rile unde
vorbete limba englez, precum i caracteristica limbii engleze contemporane de a apli
ca regulile flexibil i nuanat, n funcie de scopul comunicrii, de interlocutor (limbaj
oficial sau familiar) i de aspectul limbii (scris sau oral). Lund n consideraie toa
te aceste aspecte, Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz colar prezint fenomenele gra
maticale n mod descriptiv. n cadrul prii I, Morfologia, sunt studiate regulile privi
toare la forma cuvintelor. Aceast prim parte este considerat ca deosebit de importa
nt pentru cel care studiaz limba englez, deoarece primul lucru care se nva n gramatica
unei limbi strine este cum se formeaz categoriile gramaticale de baz: timpurile ver
bului, pluralul substantivelor, comparaia adjectivelor etc. Partea a II-a i partea
a III-a, Sintaxa propoziiei i Sintaxa frazei, cuprind regulile privitoare la mbina
rea cuvintelor n propoziii i a propoziiilor n fraze. Aceast parte este considerat de.
semenea important, deoarece ea arat celui care studiaz limba englez cum s foloseasc fo
rmele gramaticale pe care le-a nvat. In descrierea formei cuvintelor (n cadrul morfo
logiei) i a funcionrii lor n comunicare (n cadrul sintaxei), lucrarea reia afirmaiile
coninute n manualele colare n vigoare. Ceea ce aduce n plus Gramatica limbii engleze,
pentru uz colar este o imagine funcional, de ansamblu, asupra fenomenului gramatic
al contemporan, prin specificarea att a unor posibile abateri de la reguli, ct i a
situaiilor n care se folosesc formele gramaticale: n vorbirea curent sau n limba scri
s, n stilul oficial sau n literatur, n varianta britanic sau cea american a limbii eng
eze. n elaborarea lucrrii, s-a pornit de la explicaiile gramaticale i compendiile de
gramatic cuprinse n

manualele de limb englez actualmente n uz n colile din ara noastr i de la experiena


nal i a altor cadre didactice n predarea limbii engleze. n primul rnd, autoarele s-au
bazat pe tradiia creat de gramaticile elaborate de: Leon Levichi, Ioan Preda - Gra
matica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific 1967; Alice Bdescu - Gramatica limbii engleze, E
d. tiinific, 1963; Catedra de limb i literatur englez. Universitatea din Bucureti - G
atica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific, 1962; Ioana tefnescu - Lectures in English Morpho
logy, Univ. din Buc., 1978. Avnd n vedere tendinele recente din limba englez contemp
oran, au fost folosite i lucrri publicate n Marea Britanie i n alte ri (vezi cap. Bib
grafie); iar pentru a oferi cititorului un cadru de referin familiar i posibilitate
a de a face comparaii cu structura limbii romne, definiiile generale, structura luc
rrii i terminologia au fost elaborate pe baza unor gramatici ale, limbii romne: Aca
demia R.S.R. Gramatica limbii romne, Ed. Academiei R.S.R., 1966; C. Dimitriu - Gr
amatica limbii romne explicat. Morfologia, Junimea, 1979; I. Iordan, VI. Robu - Li
mba romna contemporan, E.D.P., 1978. Trimiterile la sursele folosite -romneti sau st
rine -nu au fost de regul menionate pe parcursul lucrrii pentru a nu ngreuia lectura,
materialele de referin fiind specificate la sfritul lucrrii. Datorit caracterului pra
ctic al lucrrii, faptele de teorie gramatical coninute n Gramatic au fost expuse succ
int i nsoite de numeroase exemplificri. Exemplele prezente n lucrare sunt dintre cele
mai simple, aa cum sunt ele folosite n vorbirea curent sau prezentate n alte gramat
ici ale limbii engleze, fiind. construite pe baza unui vocabular redus i accesibi
l, uor de neles pentru elevi. Situaiile n care deosebirile dintre cele dou limbi prezi
nt dificulti pentru elevul romn au fost subliniate n lucrare i practicate n exerciiil
are urmeaz fiecrui capitol. Rezolvarea unui mare numr de exerciii a fost inclus la sfr
tul volumului. Autoarele doresc s-i exprime gratitudinea fa de autorii gramaticilor
limbii engleze menionai anterior, care au pus bazele unei solide tradiii de anglist
ic n Romnia; mulumirile noastre se ndreapt de asemenea ctre asist. univ. Sanda Retinsc
i de la Universitatea din Bucureti, prof. Alexandra Vasiliu, de la liceul de art Ge
orge Enescu" i prof. Anca Iliescu, de la coala general nr. 50 din Bucureti, pentru c
ompetena i rbdarea cu care au parcurs lucrarea n' stadiul de elaborare, oferind bine
venite sugestii critice. n egal msur, autoarele in s mulumeasc redaciei de specialit
e la Editura didactic i pedagogic pentru recomandrile preioase date i munca desfurat
gtirea volumului pentru publicare. Elaborarea unei asemenea gramatici prezentnd nu
meroase dificulti' autoarele ateapt eu interes sugestii i recomandri din partea citito
rilor, n vederea mbuntirii lucrrii, pentru o eventual reeditare. G. G. i E. C.
pag: 005 Partea I MORFOLOGIA (Morphology) I.0. GENERALITAI 0.1. Morfologia i sinta
xa

Cele dou pri constitutive ale gramaticii tradiionale sunt mofologia i sintaxa. Morfol
ogia cuprinde regulile privitoare la forma cuvintelor i la modificrile formale ale
cuvintelor studiate pe pri de vorbire; s i n t a x a cuprinde regulile privitoare
la mbinarea cuvintelor n propoziii i fraze*.1 <note> 1. Gramatica limbii romne, vol.
I, Ed. Acad. R.S.R., Bucureti, 1966, p.11. </note> 0.2. Criterii de utilizare n d
efinirea prilor de vorbire Unitatea de analiz n gramatica tradiional este cuvntul. Gra
atica tradiional grupeaz cuvintele n zece clase mari, numite pri de vorbire: substanti
vul, articolul, adjectivul, pronumele, numeralul, verbul, adverbul, prepoziia, co
njuncia i interjecia. mprirea cuvintelor n zece pri de vorbire se bazeaz de folosir
omitent a trei criterii: a) criteriul semantic = sensul lexical cel mai general a
l claselor de cuvinte; b) criteriul morfologic = schimbrile ce au loc n forma cuvi
ntelor pentru exprimarea categoriilor gramaticale de gen, numr, caz, persoan, comp
araie, mod, timp, aspect i diatez; c) criteriul sintactic = posibilitatea cuvintelo
r de a ndeplini funcii sintactice n cadrul propoziiei. Definirea prilor de vorbire se
bazeaz pe toate cele trei criterii, un singur criteriu fiind insuficient. 0.2.1.
Din punct de vedere semantic, prile de vorbire se disting dup ceea ce exprim ele: nu
mele unui obiect (substantivul, indirect i pronumele, care ine locul unui substant
iv), o nsuire a unui obiect (adjectivul), un numr sau o determinare numeric (numeral
ul), o aciune sau o stare (verbul), o caracteristic a unei aciuni, stri sau insuiri (
adverbul), exteriorizarea unui sentiment, a unei stri fizice, a unui act de voin sa
u imitarea unui sunet (interjecia)*2 <note> 2. Ibid., p. 12. </note> pag: 006 Din
punct de vedre al criteriului semantic, prile de vorbire se mpart n: a) pri de vorbir
e cu sens lexical de sine stttor, i care pot fi pri de propoziie: substantivul, adject
ivul, pronumele, numeralul, verbul, adverbul i interjecia; b) pri de vorbire care nu
au ntotdeauna sens lexical de sine stttor, exprimnd raporturi ntre noiuni, i care nu
ot fi pri de propoziie: prepoziia, conjuncia i articolul. 0.2.2. n funcie de criteriu
orfologic, cuvintele din limba englez i modific forma pentru exprimarea categoriilor
gramaticale de gen, numr,caz, persoan, comparaie, timp, mod, aspect i diatez. Schimbr
ile m forma cuvintelor care exprim categoriile gramaticale alctuiesc flexiunea. n fu
ncie de prezena sau absena flexiunii, cuvintele se mpart n: a) cuvinte flexibile, car
e au cel puin o categorie gramatical, pentru exprimarea creia i modific forma;
1 2
Gramatica limbii romne, vol. I, Ed. Acad. R.S.R., Bucureti, 1966, p. 11. ibid., p.
12

b) cuvinte neflexibile, care nu sunt marcate pentru categorii gramaticale. 0.2.3


. n funcie de criteriul sintactic, cuvintele se mpart n: a) cuvinte care ndeplinesc o
funcie sintactic n propoziie, putnd fi o parte principal (subiect, predicat) sau secu
ndar (atribut, complement, element predicativ suplimentar) de propoziie; b) cuvint
e care nu au o funcie sintactic, dar care marcheaz funcii sintactice: Ive bought this
book for Mary. She receiverd the parcel afeter paying for it.
1. VERBUL (The Verb)
1.1. Definiie Verbul este partea de vorbire care: a) exprim aciuni, procese sau stri
; b) are categorii gramaticale de persoan i numr comune cu alte pri de vorbire i categ
oriile specifice de timp, mod, aspect i diatez; c) ndeplinete funcia sintactic de pred
icat. pag: 007 1.2. Clasificare Verbele pot fi clasificate din punct de vedere a
l structurii morfologice sau din punct de vedere al sensului lexical i al funciei.
1.2.1. Din punct de vedere al structurii morfologice, verbele pot fi clasificat
e n: a) verbe simple: go; b) verbe compuse: spotlight; c) verbe cu particul adverb
ial: put on, put off, put away; d) verbe cu prepoziie obligatorie: look at, listen
to, wait, for, succees in; e) locuiuni verbale: take care of, make use of. Grupe
le a), b) i e) nu prezint particulariti deosebite. Pentru c) vezi &8.7, iar pentru d
) vezi &8.2.5. 1.2.2. Sensul lexical al verbelor. Verbele n limba englez se mpart n:
a) verbe cu sens lexical plin, numite de obicei verbe noionale; b) verbe cu sens
lexical redus, care sunt folosite mai mult cu funcii gramaticale. n clasa verbelo
r cu sens lexical redus intr verbele copulative, verbele auxiliare i verbele modal
e. 1.2.3. Funcia sintactic a verbelor. Pe plan sintactic verbele cu sens lexical p
lin sunt predicative, adic pot forma singure predicatul unei propoziii, pe cnd verb
ele cu sens lexical redus sunt nepredicative, au nevoie de o complinire (verb noi
onal, nume predicativ) pentru a deveni predicate: The child is clever. n schimb e
le marcheaz anumite categorii gramaticale. n: The film was seen by millions of peo
ple. Filmul a fost vzut de milioane de oameni. was are funcia de marc a diatezei pa
sive, timpul Paste Tense, persoana a III-a singular pentru verbul see. 1.2.4. Ve
rbele cu sens lexical redus se mpart n: a) verbe copulative (be, i, conform gramati
cii tradiionale: appear, seem, look, turn, become, get, remain, stay etc.): He se
ems ill. Pare bolnav.

b) verbe auxiliare (be, have, shall/should, will/would, may/might, can/could, do


) care ndeplinesc funcia de marc a categoriilor gramaticale de diatez, mod, timp, as
pect, persoan i numr, a formei interogative i negative la verbele pe care le nsoesc: H
e was told a lie. I s-a spus o minciun. - Diateza pasiv. He was trying to catch th
e ball when he fell. ncerca s prind mingea cnd a czut. - Aspectul continuu etc. c) ve
rbe semiauxiliare sau modale (can/could, must, have to, may/might, shall/should,
will/would, ought to etc.) care arat atitudinea vorbitorului fa de enun: - posibili
tate: It might rain later. S-ar putea s plou mai trziu. - necesitate: You must fini
sh before noon. Trebuie s termini nainte de prnz etc. pag: 008 1.3. Categoriile gra
maticale ale verbului n limba englez verbul are forme gramaticale determinate de c
ategoriile specifice de timp, aspect, diatez i mod i de categoriile nespecifice de
persoan i numr. n funcie de prezena sau absena categoriilor de timp, persoan i numr
le verbale n limba englez se mpart n forme personale i nepersonale. Formele personale
ale verbului (Finite Forms of the Verb) sunt modurile indicativ i subjonctiv. La
aceste forme, verbul este marcat pentru a exprima categoriile de timp, mod, dia
tez, aspect, persoan i numr, iar din punct de vedere sintactic, ele pot forma singur
e predicatul i se acord n numr i persoan cu subiectul. Formele nepersonale ale verbulu
i (Non-Finite Forms of the Verb) sunt infinitivul Gerund-ul (Gerunziul), partici
piul prezent i particupiul trecut. Aceste forme nu au categoriile de timp, person i
numr i nu pot forma singure predicatul propoziiei. 1.4. Timpul (Tense) Categoria g
ramatical a timpului (Tense), categorie specific verbelor, se refer la ordinea even
imentelor n timp, aa cum este perceput aceasta de vorbitor n momentul vorbirii. Mome
ntul n care are loc actul de vorbire este momentul prezent (now). Fa de acest momen
t care constituie axa de referin a prezentului, unele evenimente sunt: a) anterioa
re, cnd ele au loc nainte de momentul vorbirii (evenimentele sunt amintite de vorb
itor): Present Perfect; b) posterioare fa de momentul vorbirii (evenimentele fiind
anticipate de vorbitor, deoarece vor avea loc dup momentul vorbirii): Future; c)
simultane cu momentul vorbirii (avnd loc n acelai timp) Present. Considernd momentu
l vorbirii punctul prezent, vorbitorul i poate aminti un eveniment care a avut loc
la un moment anterior momentului vorbirii (then). n raport cu acest moment amint
it then, care d natere axei de referin a trecutului, alte evenimente pot fi: a) ante
rioare momentului trecut then: Past Perfect; b) simultane cu then: Past Tense; c
) posterioare: Future in the Past. De asemenea, in momentul vorbirii (now), vorb
itorul poate anticipa anumite evenimente (posterioare momentului vorbirii). n rap
ort cu un anume eveniment posterior momentului prezent (axa de referin a viitorulu
i), alte evenimente pot fi: a) anterioare: Future Perfect; b) simultane: Future;
c) posterioare: engleza nu are marc formal pentru aceste evenimente.

pag: 009 n analiza timpului, trebuie astfel luate n consideraie trei elemente: a) m
omentul vorbirii; b) momentul (svririi) aciunii; c) axa sau momentul de referin. a) Mo
mentul vorbirii este momentul n care enunul este pronunat de vorbitor: now. b) Mome
ntul aciunii este momentul n care a avut loc aciunea sau starea: now, then, tomorro
w etc. c) Momentul de referin reprezint axa pe care se plaseaz vorbitorul n percepere
a evenimentului: axa prezentului, axa trecutului, axa viitorului. n funcie de cele
trei elemente - momentul vorbirii, momentul aciunii i momentul de referin limba eng
lez cunoate urmtorul sistem de timpuri: - pe axa prezentului: Present, Present Perf
ect, Future; - pe axa trecutului: Past tense, Past Perfect, Future in the Past;
- pe axa viitorului: Future, Future Perfect* 1.5. Timpul prezent simplu (Present
Tense Simple) 1.5.1. Definiie. Prezentul simplu desemneaz un eveniment (o aciune s
au stare) care se ntmpl simultan cu momentul vorbirii (prezentul instantaneu) sau c
are include momentul vorbirii (prezentul generic i habitual). 1.5.2. Form. Din pun
ct de vedere al formei, prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul, la toate p
ersoanele singular i plural, cu excepia persoanei a III-a singular, care adaug -(e)
s: I swim Eu not You swim Tu/Voi noi/notai We swim Noi notm They swim Ei /Ele noat H
ms El noat She swims Ea noat It swim El/Ea noat (neutru) 1.5.3. Pronunarea i ortograf
ea terminaiei -(e)s la persoana aIII-a singular prezint aceleai caracteristici ca i
terminaia de plural -(e)s a substantivelor: -(e)s se pronun: [s] dup consoane surde:
He thinks [_ts_i_n_ks]. [z] dup consoane sonore i vocale: He studies [st_a_diz]. H
e runs [r_a_nz]. [iz] dup consoane sibilante: She washes [_w_o__iz] Verbele say i do
au la persoana a III-a singular o pronunare deosebit fa de celelalte persoane: I sa
y [sai] - he says [sez]; I do [du:] - he does [d_a_z]. pag: 010 Din punct de ved
ere al ortografiei, majoritatea verbelor adaug -s ;a persoana a III-a singular: H
e walks. She sees. Disinena devine -es cnd verbul se termin n s, x, z, sh, ch, tch s
au o:

She watches. It buzzes. He goes. Verbele terminate n -y precedat de consoan, schim


b y n i i adaug -es: I try - he tries. 1.5.4. ntrebuinare. Prezentul simplu are mai mu
lte ntrebuinri: 1) Prezentul generic (Generic Simple Present) exprim aciuni generale
care au loc ntr-un interval de timp nespecificat, dar care include momentul vorbi
rii: The Earth moves round the Sun. Birds fly. Three and three make six. Adverbe
le de frecven tipice pentru propoziiile generice sunt: always, never, regularly, ev
er: Wood always floats on water. 2) Prezentul simplu este folosit pentru aciuni o
binuite, repetate (Habitual Simple Present), care au loc ntr-o perioad de timp gene
ral sau specific, menionat prin adverbe sau locuiuni adverbiale de timp ca: on Monday
s, in summer, every day sau adverbe sau locuiuni adverbiale de frecven ca: often, f
requently, seldom, rarely, occasionally, sometimes, once a week/month/year: I go
to school every day. I usually watch TV in the evening. Not: Prezentul simplu de
semnnd aciuni repetate este apropiat de prezentul generic deoarece nici el nu indi
vidualizeaz evenimentele sau specific momentul aciunii. Deosebirea ntre cele dou folo
siri ale prezentului simplu este urmtoarea: n propoziii care conin aciuni repetate su
biectul este individualizat, pe cnd n cele generice subiectul este general: I go s
kiing in winter. Water boils al 100 Centigrade. A doctor works hard. 3) Prezentul
instantaneu (Instantaneous Simple Present) se refer la aciuni care sunt vzute ca a
vnd loc n ntregime n momentul vorbirii. Aceast ntrebuinare a prezentului simplu se nt
n: a) comentarii: The goal-keeper misses the ball and one more goal is scored. P
ortarul nu prinde mingea i se marcheaz nc un gol. b) demonstraii: I now mix the butte
r with the cocoa. Acum amestec untul cu cacao. c) exclamaii: Here comes our teach
er! Iat (c) vine profesorul nostru! 4) Folosirea prezentului simplu cu alte valori
temporale A) Prezentul cu valoare de viitor este ntrebuinat n propoziii principale:
a) pentru exprimarea datei: Tomorrow is December 21st. Mine este 21 decembrie. T
omorrow is Saturday. Mine este smbt. b) pentru redarea unor aciuni planificate, unor
aranjamente pentru viitor, conform unui orar sau program stabilit (de exemplu n e
xcursii organizate), mai ales cu verbe de micare ca: go, come, leave, return sau
verbe ca begin, start, end, finish: We leave Bucharest at eight. We arrive in Pr
edeal at ten. Plecam din Bucureti la ora 8. Sosim la Predeal la ora 10. pag: 011
B) Prezentul cu valoare de viitor este ntrebuinat i n propoziii subordonate: a) de ti
mp, introduse n when, after, before, as soon as: Well get home before it gets dark
. Vom ajunge acas nainte s se ntunece. b) condiionale, introduse de if, unless, provi
ded, in case: If it rains on Sunday, Ill repair my bicycle. Dac o s plou duminic, am
s-mi repar bicicleta. C) Prezentul cu valoare de trecut se folosete: a) n naraiuni,
pentru nviorarea povestirii (prezentul istoric): One day, the little boy goes to
the woods. There he finds a buried treasure. b) cu verbe ca tell, hear, learn, w
rite, pentru a sublinia efectul prezent al unei comunicri trecute:

He tells me that have won the competition. mi spune c ai ctigat concursul.

1.6. Timplul trecut simplu (Past Tense Simple)*


1.6.1. Definiie. Past Tense, aspectul simplu, desemneaz un eveniment definit care
a avut loc pe axa trecutului (evenimentul este amintit n momentul prezent). 1.6.2
. Form. Marca timpului Past Tense simplu este, la verbele regulate, -ed: We liste
ned to the concert last night. Am ascultat concertul asear. 1.6.3. Pronunarea i ort
ografierea terminaiei -ed este n funcie de terminaia infinitivului. -ed se pronun: a)
[d] cnd verbele se termin n vocal sau consoan sonor [b,g,l,m,n,v,z,dz,_dj_]: play play
ed [pleid]; arrived [__raivd]; b) [t] cnd verbele se termin n consoan surd [f,k,p,s,_
__] like - liked [laikt], cross crossed [kr_o_st]; c) [id] cnd verbele se termin n t sau -d: want - wanted [w_o_ntid]; nod - nodded [n_o_did]; Particulariti ortografic
e ale terminaiei -ed: a) consoana final a formei de infinitiv se dubleaz cnd vocala
care o precede este scurt i accentuat: stop - stopped; prefer - preferred. Not: 1. C
onsoana final se dubleaz la cteva verbe, dei silaba final nu este accentuat: kidnap ki
dnapped; handicap - handicapped; worship - worshipped; iar la verbe terminate n i
c, =c se dubleaz n ck: picnic - picnicked. 2. n engleza britanic, verbele terminate n
-l dubleaz aceast consoan, indiferent de accent: control - controlled; travel - tr
avelled. pag: 012 3. n varianta american a limbii engleze, -l se dubleaz numai dac u
ltima silab este accentuat: controlled, dar: traveled. b) verbele terminate n -y pr
ecedat de consoan l schimb n -i: study - studied; c) verbele terminate n -e adaug doar
-d: move - moved. 1.6.4. n ceea ce privete verbele neregulate, acestea au fost mprit
e n apte grupe, n funcie de pronunarea infinitivului, a formei de Paste Tense i a part
icipiului trecut: 1. verbe de tipul: burn-burnt-burnt learn-learnt-learnt lend-l
ent-lent spend-spent-spent 2. creep-crept-crept leave-left-left buy-bought-bough
t catch-caught-caught cast-cast-cast hit-hit-hit
3.

shut-shut-shut wet-wet-wet 4. meet-met-met hang-hung-hung win-won-won sit-sat-sa


t mow-mowed-mown/mowed sow-sowed-sown/sowed swell-swelled-swollen/swelled wear-w
ore-worn grow-grew-grown give-gave-given write-wrote-written begin-began-begun s
ing-sang-sung come-came-come go-went-gone
5.
6.
7.
Not: n funcie de formele pe care le au verbele la Past Tense i la participiul trecut
, ele se mpart n verbe regulate i verbe neregulate. Verbele regulate formeaz Past Te
nse i participiul trecut prin adugarea terminaiei -(e)d la forma de infinitiv: list
en (a asculta) - litened (a ascultat) - listened (ascultat). Verbele neregulate
sunt cele care au forme deosebite pentru infinitiv, Past Tense i participiul trec
ut, care trebuie nvate pe dinafar. pag: 013 Verbe neregulate Infinitiv arise (a)wake
(n) be bear beat become begin bend bid bind bite Past Tense arose (a)woke was bo
re beat became began bent bid bound bit Participiu trecut arisen (a)woken been b
orne beaten become begun bent bid bound bitten Traducerea infinitivului a se rid
ica a se trezi a fi a purta a bate a deveni a ncepe a se ndoi a ruga, a porunci a
lega a muca

bleed blow break breed bring build burn burst buy cast catch choose cling come c
ost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight
find flee fling fly forbid forget forgive freeze
bled blew broke bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chose clung ca
me cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt
fought found fled flung flew forbad forgot forgave froze
bled blown broken bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chosen clung
come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen
fed felt fought found fled flung flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen

a sngera a sufla, a bate a sparge a crete, a educa a aduce a construi a arde a izb
ucni, a nvli, a crpa a cumpra a arunca a prinde a alege a se aga a veni a costa a se t
a se furia a tia a trata, a se ocupa de a spa a face a trage, a desena a visa a be
a a ofa, a mna a locui a mnca a cdea a hrni a (se) simi a (se) lupta a gsi a fugi, a s
refugia a arunca a zbura a interzice a uita a ierta a nghea

get give go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit know la
y lead lean leap learn leave lend let light lie lose make mean mow pay put read
rid
got gave went ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit knew
laid led leant leapt learnt left lent let lit lay lost made meant mowed paid put
read rid
got
a primi, a obine given a da gone a merge ground a mcina grown a crete hung a atrna h
ad a avea heard a auzi hidden a (se) ascunde hit a lovi held a ine hurt a lovi, a
rni, a durea kept a ine, a pstra knelt a ngenunchia knit a tricota known a ti, a cun
oate laid a pune, a aeza led a conduce leant a se apleca, a se sprijini leapt a sri
learnt a nva left a pleca, a lsa lent a da cu mprumut let a lsa, a permite lit a apri
nde lain a zcea, a se afla lost a pierde made a face meant a nsemna mowed,mow a co
si n paid a plti put a pune read a citi rid a scpa de,

ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shear shed shine sho
e shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep sling slit smell sow speak spe
ed spell spend spill
rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook sheared shed
shone shod shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slung slit smelt sow
ed spoke sped spelt spent spilt
ridden rung risen run sawn,sawed said seen sought sold sent set sewn/sewed shake
n shorn/shear ed shed shone shod shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slep
t slung slit smelt sown spoken sped spelt spent spilt

a se descotorosi a clri a suna a rsri, a se ridica a fugi a tia cu fierstrul a spune a


vedea a cuta a vinde a trimite a pune a coase a scutura, a tremura a tunde oi a vr
sa (lacrimi, snge) a strluci a potcovi a mpuca a arta a se strnge, a se scoroji a nchi
e a cnta a (se) scufunda a edea a ucide a dormi a arunca a (se) crpa a mirosi a semn
a a vorbi a grbi, a accelera a ortografia a cheltui, a petrece a vrsa

spin spit split spoil spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strew stride s
trike string strive sweat swear sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell thin
k thrive throw thrust tread understand wear weave wed weep
spun spat split spolit spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stunk strewed strod
e struck strung strove sweat swore swept swelled swam swang took taught tore tol
d thought throve threw thrust trod understood wore wove wed wept
spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewn strod
e struck strung striven sweat sworn swept swollen swum swung taken taught torn t
old thought thriven thrown thrust trodden understood worn woven wed wept

a toarce a scuipa a despica a rsfa a (se) ntinde a izvor, a sri a sta (n picioare) a f
ra, a se furia a lipi a nepa a mirosi urt a presra a merge cu pai mari a lovi a nira
o aa) a nzui a transpira a jura, a njura a mtura a se umfla a nota a legna a lua a nv
a preda a rupe, a sfia a spune, a povesti a (se) gndi a prospera a arunca a nfige a
clca a nelege a purta a ese a (se) cununa a plnge

wet win wind wring write pag: 016


wet won wound wrung wrote
wet won wound wrung written
a a a a a
uda ctiga rsuci stoarce scrie

1.6.5. ntrebuinare. Past Tense simplu este folosit pentru a exprima: 1) o aciune svrit
ncheiat ntr-un moment trecut: a) Momentul n care a avut loc aciunea este de obicei m
enionat prin adverbe de timp ca: two hours ago (acum dou ore), yesterday (ieri), l
ast week (sptmna trecut), in 1970 (n 1970) etc.: I went to the opera last night. Am f
ost la oper asear. Despre acest moment se pot cere informaii prin ntrebri ncepnd cu wh
n, what time, how long ago:
When did you call on him ? Cnd ai trecut pe la el? What time did you call on him
? La ce or ai trecut pe la el? How long ago did you call on him ? Cu ct vreme n urm a
i trecut pe la el? I called on him yesterday I called on him at five oclock I cal
led on him a few days ago
Am trecut pe la el ieri Am trecut pe la el la ora 5 Am trecut pe la el acum cteva
zile

b) Aciunea este svrit i ncheiat ntr-un anume moment trecut, chiar dac acesta nu est
at, el putnd fi dedus din context. (n schimb se poate specifica locul aciunii): He
shook his head and said no. Ddu din cap dezaprobator i spuse nu. I met him outside
museum. M-am ntlnit cu el n faa muzeului. c) Aciunea este svrit i ncheiat ntr-u
ut care este precizat ca rezultat al unei ntrebri i unui rspuns la Present Perfect.
A: Have you seen this film? B:Yes, I have. I saw it last week. A:Ai vzut acest fi
lm? B: Da, l-am vzut. L-am vzut sptmna trecut. Not: n acest context (c), Past Tense a
o funcie anaforic, referindu-se la un eveniment deja introdus n vorbire i deci cunos
cut: I have been to Constana. I visited the Aquarium and walked down the pier. pa
g: 017 2) o aciune repetat n trecut, care se traduce de obicei prin imperfect n limb
a romn: I often visited him. l vizitam adesea. Not: 1. O aciune repetat n trecut se ma
poate exprima i cu ajutorul verbului modal would (cu valoare frecventativ) + infini
tiv, aceast construcie fiind caracteristic limbii literare: He would sit for hours
in front of his house, looking at the stars. Sttea / obinuia s stea ore n ir n faa cas
i privind stelele. n vorbirea curent se folosete used to + infinitiv: He used to si
t for hours in from of his house. Obinuia s stea ore n ir n faa casei. 2. Past Tense s
implu nu se folosete niciodat cu valoare generic sau instantanee, ca Present Tense
simplu. 3. Past Tense simplu poate fi folosit i cu alte valori temporale:

a) cu valoare de mai mult ca perfect (Past Perfect), pentru redarea unor aciuni s
uccesive n trecut, n special n propoziii circumstaniale de timp introduse de when, af
ter etc.: He went out to play after he finished his homework. I saw him before h
e saw me. Aceast folosire a lui Past Tense este caracteristic verbelor care exprim
aciuni (activity verbs): He addressed and sealed the envelopes. b) cu valoare de
prezent, pentru a exprima o rugminte politicoas prin verbe ca wish, want, wonder,
like, intend: I wondered if you could lend me this book. M ntrebam dac ai putea s-mi m
prumutai cartea. c) cu valoare de prezent, n vorbirea indirect, dac verbul din propo
ziia principal este la un timp trecut: He told me he was ill. d) cu valoare de vii
tor, n propoziii circumstaniale de timp, dac verbul din propoziia principal este la un
timp trecut: He told me he would show me the photos when he came. Mi-a spus c-mi
va arta fotografiile cnd va veni. 1.6.6. Traducerea lui Past Tense n limba romn, Pas
t Tense se traduce: 1) n propoziiile principale sau independente, prin: a) perfect
ul compus (de obicei la persoana I i a II-a) i perfectul simplu (aproape exclisiv
la persoana a III-a), cnd Past Tense exprim o aciune trecut ncheiat, nsoit sau nu de
oada de timp: I lost my umbrella yesterday. I lost my umbrella a few days ago. I
lost my umbrella last week. Mi-am pierdut umbrela ieri. Mi-am pierdut umbrela a
cum cteva zile. Mi-am pierdut umbrela sptmna trecut.

He said goodbye and left. Spuse la revedere i plec. b) imperfect, cnd Past Tense ex
prim o aciune repetat n trecut, de obicei nsoit de adverbe de frecven: She often lef
Englesh textbook at home. Deseori i uita manualul de englez acas. 2) n propoziii subo
rdonate prin: a) prezent, n vorbirea indirect (dup un verb trecut): He told me he w
as ill. Mi-a spus c este bolnav. b) viitor, n propoziiile temporale, cnd verbul din
principal este la un timp trecut: He said he would bring me the book when he came
to me place. Mi-a spus c-mi va aduce cartea cnd m va vizita. pag: 018
1.7. Perfectul prezent (Present Perfect)
1.7.1. Definiie. Present Perfect desemneaz un eveniment vzut din perspectiva axei p
rezentului anterior momentului vorbirii, dar a crui anterioritate nu este fixat, a
vnd un caracter nedefinit: Ive painted a picture.

1.7.2. Form. n structura formei Present Perfect intr verbul auxiliar have la prezen
t i participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat: I You Have heard a noise. Am/Ai/A
u auzit un zgomot. We ve They He She has heard a noise. A auzit un zgomot. It s 1.
7.3. ntrebuinare. 1) Present Perfect este folosit, la fel ca i Past Tense, pentru a
desemna un eveniment anterior momentului vorbirii. Deosebirea ntre cele dou timpu
ri este n axa pe care se plaseaz vorbitorul: axa prezentului (Present Perfect) sau
axa trecutului (Past Tense); i n natura evenimentului descris: a) nedefinit (Pres
ent Perfect) i b) definit, unic (Past Tense): a) Ive seen Mary. b) I saw her at th
e conference. 2) Folosirea lui Present Perfect este asociat cu adverbe care expri
m o perioad de timp deschis, neterminat: today, this week, this month etc. Ive been t
o the theatre this week. pe cnd folosirea lui Past Tense este asociat cu adverbe c
are exprim o perioad de timp nchis, terminat: I went to the theatre last week. 3) Pre
sent Perfect este uneori folosit cu valoare de Past Tense, pentru a exprima o aci
une svrit n trecut i terminat recent sau chiar naintea momentului vorbirii: He has co
A sosit. Aceast ntrebuinare a lui Present Perfect este adeseori marcat de adverbe d
e timp ca just (tocmai), already (deja), up to now, so far (pn acum), lately, rece
ntly (n ultima vreme): He has just phoned. Tocmai a telefonat. Atenie! Cu adverbe
ca today, this morning, this month, this year, recently, se poate folosi fie Pas
t Tense, fie Present Perfect, n funcie de: a) caracterul aciunii (definit/nedefinit
) i b) al perioadei de timp (ncheiat/nencheiat): a) Did you hear Ion Voicu play recen
tly ? (on a certain occasion). Have you heard Ion Voicu play recently ? (in the
near past, not a long time ago). b) Did you see him this morning ? (Now its five
oclok p.m.). Have you seen him this morning? (Now its 11 a.m.). 4) Past Tense este
folosit pentru evenimente care au avut loc n trecut i ai cror autori nu mai exist n
prezent, pe cnd la Present Perfect, evenimentele au avut loc n trecut, dar autorii
sau efectele evenimentelor mai exist i n prezent: Past Tense Marin Preda wrote sev
eral novels and short stories. (Marin Preda is dead). Did you see the exhibition
? (The exhibition is closed now). John injured his arm. (It does not hurt him an
y longer). Present Perfect Eugen Barbu has written several novels and short stor
ies. (Eugen Barbu is alive).

Have you seen the exhibition? (The exhibition is still open). John has injured h
is arm. (It still hurts him). pag: 019 5) Present Perfect este folosit i pentru a
exprima o aciune nceput n trecut i care continu i n momentul vorbirii. Complinirile
erbiale de timp caracteristice pentru aceast ntrebuinare sunt cele indicnd: a) lungi
mea perioadei de timp: for a long time (de mult vreme), for ten minutes (de 10 mi
nute), for two days (de dou zile) etc. He has been here for half an hour. Not: Pre
poziia for poate fi omis n vorbire: He has lived in Bucharest ten years. b) nceputul
perioadei de timp: since yesterday (de ieri), since December (din Decembrie), s
ince you came (de cnd ai venit) etc. He has studied English since the beginning o
f the school year. Studiaz engleza de la nceputul anului colar. Perioada de timp re
dat printr-o propoziie temporal introdus de since poate fi exprimat: a) printr-un ver
b la Past Tense, cnd se specific momentul iniial al perioadei: I was born. Ive lived
in Bucharest since my parents came to live here. I last met you. b) printr-un v
erb la Present Perfect, cnd cele dou aciuni sunt paralele: It hasnt stopped raining
since Ive been in this town. I have never come across my friends since Ive stayed
in this hotel. Atenie! Determinarea for.../since... este obligatorie pentru aceas
t ntrebuinare a perfectului prezent. Folosirea lui Present Perfect Simple fr determin
area temporal cu for/since... se refer la o aciune ncheiat (vezi ntrebuinrile 1,2,4,6
nu la una care continu i n momentul vorbirii: He has lived in Bucharest (some time
in his life; he may live there again, but he is not living there now). A locuit n
Bucureti (cndva n viaa lui; poate va mai locui acolo, dar nu locuiete n Bucureti n m
ntul de fa). He has studied Englesh (some time in the past, so the knows it, but h
e is not studying it now). A studiat engleza (cndva n trecut, aa c o tie, dar nu stud
iaz engleza acum). Not: Diferena ntre cele dou ntrebuinri reiese i din modul n care
duc n limba romn: aciunea care continu i n momentul vorbirii - prin prezent, iar cea
eiat, petrecut n trecut ntr-un moment de timp nedefinit, deci nespecificat - prin pe
rfectul compus: He has stayed in this hotel. A stat n acest hotel. He has stayed
in this hotel for a week. St n acest hotel de o sptmn. 6) Present Perfect poate exprim
a o aciune caracteristic, repetat n trecut, prezent i poate i n viitor: He has perform
d in public. A interpretat n public. Aceast ntrebuinare este marcat de adverbe de fre
cven ca: often (adesea), always (totdeauna), never (niciodat), sometimes (uneori) e
tc.: He has often performed in public. 7) n propoziii subordonate temporale sau co
ndiionale, Present Perfect este folosit pentru a reda o aciune anterioar aciunii din
propoziia principal, cnd aceasta este exprimat printr-un verb la imperativ, indicat
iv prezent sau viitor: Ring me up when you have finished. Telefoneaz-mi cnd ai ter
minat. He will help me if he has finished his own work. M va ajuta dac-i va fi term
inat treaba lui.

pag: 020 1.8. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul (Past Perfect Tense Simple) 1.8.1. Definiie.
Past Perfect este un timp folosit cnd vorbitorul se plaseaz psihologic pe o ax a tr
ecutului, pentru a desemna un eveniment anterior unui moment sau unui eveniment
trecut, care este amintit n momentul vorbirii: I had finished the book by ten oclo
ck yesterday. by the time you came. 1.8.2. Form. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul se formeaz
din forma de Past Tense a verbului have + participiul trecut al verbului de conj
ugat: I had finished the book before you came. Id finished the book before you ca
me. Terminasem cartea nainte s vii tu. He had already left by ten oclock. El plecas
e deja la ora 10. 1.8.3. ntrebuinare. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul este ntrebuinat pentru a
exprima: 1) o aciune trecut, ncheiat naintea unui moment trecut: I had finished my l
essons by ten oclock yesterday. mi terminasem leciile nainte de ora 10 ieri. 2) o aci
une trecut, ncheiat naintea altei aciuni trecute: When Doris got to the theatre, the
show had (already) started. Cnd a ajuns Doris la teatru spectacolul (deja) ncepuse
. Mother had cooked the dinner by the time father arrived home. Mama gtise deja c
ina cna a ajuns tata acas. 3) o aciune trecut, ncheiat imediat naintea unei alte aciu
trecute: I had just got into the classroom when the bell rang. No sooner had I g
ot into the classroom than the bell rang. Tocmai/de-abia intrasem n clas cnd a suna
t clopoelul. I had hardly got into the classroom when the bell rang. No sooner ha
d I got into the classroom than the bell rang. Tocmai/de-abia intrasem n clas cnd a
sunat clopoelul. 4) o aciune trecut, svrit ntr-o perioad de timp anterioar unei al
i trecute, dar ajungnd pn la aceasta (cu compliniri adverbiale ncepnd cu for sau sinc
e): He had been in the classroom for two minutes when the teacher came in. Era n
clas de dou minute cnd a intrat profesorul. He had lived in Bucharest since 1975 wh
en I met him. Locuia n Bucureti din 1975 cnd lam cunoscut. Not: 1. Mai-mult-ca-perfe
ctul este un timp utilizat mai frecvent n limba englez dect n limba romn pentru exprim
area anterioritii. (n limba romn se folosete adeseori perfectul compus cu valoare de m
ai-mult-ca-perfect: The passengers got out as soon as the train had stopped. Pas
agerii au cobort ndat ce s-a oprit trenul). 2. n limba englez se poate folosi Past Te
nse n loc de Past Perfect n urmtoarele situaii: a) dup conjucia after, care indic prin
sensul ei raportul de anterioritate nemaifiind necesar i o form verbal special: The d
river started the car after he cheked the engine. oferul porni maina dup ce verific
motorul. pag: 021

b) n propoziiile subordonate temporale transformate n vorbire indirect cnd verbul din


principal este la un timp trecut: He told me had seen a bear when he was in the
mountains. Mi-a spus c a vzut un urs cnd a fost la munte. 3. n propoziiile subordonat
e introduse de after sau until, folosirea mai-mult-ca-perfectului, prin contrast
cu folosirea lui Past Tense, subliniaz raportul de anterioritate, faptul c aciunea
din principal nu a avut loc dect dup ce aciunea din subordonat a fost ncheiat: The pu
il on duty left the classroom AFTER she had turned off the lights. Eleva de serv
ici a prsit clasa (numai) dup ce a stins lumina. The waiter didnt take the plates aw
ay UNTIL they had finished their dinner. Chelnerul n-a strns farfuriile pn n-au ter
minat masa. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul poate fi folosit: 5) n vorbirea indirect, pentru
a nlocui Present Perfect sau Past Tense, cnd verbul din propoziia principal este la
un timp trecut: Tom: I have spoken to Mary about it. I spoke to her last week.
Tom said he had spoken to Mary about it. He added he had spoken to her the week
before.

1.9. Mijloace de exprimare a viitorului.


Exist mai multe posibiliti de redare a ideii de timp viitor n limba englez. A. Viitor
ul simplu (Shall/Will Future) 1.9.1. Definiie. Viitorul simplu desemneaz un evenim
ent posterior fa de momentul vorbirii. 1.9.2. Form n structura viitorului simplu int
r verbul auxiliar shall la persoana I singular i plural, will la persoana a II-a i
a III-a singular i plural, i infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat: I shall go
to the seaside tomorrow. Voi merge la mare mine. We shall go to the seaside tomo
rrow. Vom merge la mare mine. You will go to the mountains next week. He will go
to the mountains next week. They will go to the mountains next week. Vei/Vei/Va/V
or merge la munte sptmna viitoare. n engleza britanic vorbit i n engleza american n
l se folosete will i la persoana I singular i plural, fr nici o schimbare de sens: I
will go the seaside tomorrow. Voi merge la mare mine. We will go the seaside tomo
rrow. Vom merge la mare mine. Forma contras a viitorului este ll + infinitiv la toa
te persoanele: Ill go, Hell go etc. Aceast form este ntrebuinat cu precdere n englez
bit, mai ales cnd subiectul este exprimat printr-un pronume personal. pag: 022

1.9.3. ntrebuinare. 1) Viitorul simplu este un viitor pur, indicnd doar c aciunea are
loc ntrun moment viitor, mai apropiat sau adeseori mai ndeprtat de momentul vorbir
ii: Hell come back tomorrow. Se va ntoarce mine. Hell come back next year. Se va ntoa
rce anul viitor. 2) Viitorul simplu nu este de obicei ntrebuinat n propoziiile subor
donate, fiind nlocuit de prezedntul simplu: He will come when he has time. Va ven
i cnd va avea timp. Viitorul simplu apare doar n propoziiile subordonate completive
directe sau prepoziionale, dup verbele think, suppose, expect, believe, doubt, as
sume, hope, wonder, be sure, be afraid, pentru a exprima opiniile sau presupuner
iule vorbitorului despre o aciune viitoare: Im sure youll feel better tomorrow. Sun
t sigur c te vei simi mai bine mine. 3) Viitorul simplu poate fi folosit i cu valori
modale (pct. 3-7). Viitorul simplu reprezentat prin will + infinitiv, de exempl
u, poate fi folosit la persoana I singurlar i plural, pentru a exprima: a) neacce
ntuat, o intenie nepremeditat, spontan, aprut n momentul vorbirii: A: Its hot in here.
B: Ill open the window. A: E cal aici. B: Am s/M duc s deschid fereastra. b) accentu
at, hotrrea, determinarea de a svri aciunea: A: Dont sell that dictionary. It is very
ood. B: I will sell it, no matter what you are saying. A: Nu vinde dicionarul, e
foarte bun. B: Am s-l vnd/sunt hotrt s-l vnd indiferent ce spui. 4) Will + infinitivul
poate fi folosit i cu valoare de prezent habitual (frecventativ): Every Sunday t
hay will go to the seaside. n fiecare duminic obinuiesc se duc la mare. obiceiul s s
e duc la mare. Children will be children. Copiii tot copii. 5) La forma negativ, l
a persoana I i a III-a singular i plural, wont + infinitiv exprim: a) neaccentuat, r
efuzul: I wont go there. Nu vreau s m duc acolo. b) accentuat, refuzul absolut: I w
ont go there. Nici nu m gndesc s m duc acolo. 6) Will + infinitiv este folosit, la fo
rma interogativ, pentru a exprima: a) o ntrebare despre o aciune viitoare: Will the
y open the exhibition tomorrow ? Vor deschide expoziia ei mine ? b) o invitaie (la
persoana a II-a): Will you come in, please? Vrei s intrai, v rog? c) o rugminte (de a
semenea la persoana a II-a): Will you help me? Te rog s m ajui. 7) La interogativ,
Shall + infinitiv exprim: a) viitorul simplu: Shall I find them at home if I go n
ow? Am s-i gsesc acas dac m duc acum? b) solicitarea unei opinii: Shall I buy this wa
tch? S cumpr acest ceas? Datorit n mare parte implicaiilor modale pe care le prezint v
iitorul simplu nu este frecvent folosit n vorbirea curent, fiind o form caracterist
ic limbii scrise (limbajul jurnalistic, emisiuni de tiri, anunuri oficiale, limbaju
l literar etc.). n vorbire se prefer viitorul cu going to pentru exprimarea ideii
de viitor apropiat sau viitorul continuu pentru redarea ideii de aciune neutr, obin
uit, n desfurarea normal a evenimentelor viitoare. pag: 023

B) Be about to + infinitiv 1.9.4. Be about to + infinitiv exprim un viitor imedia


t: We are about to leave. Suntem pe punctul de a pleca. C) Be to + infinitiv 1.9
.5. Be to + infinitiv exprim: 1) un aranjament: I am to move house soon. Urmeaz s m
mut n curnd. 2) un ordin: You are to return before nightfall. Trebuie s v ntoarcei nai
te de cderea nopii. D) Viitorul cu going to (Going to - future) 1.9.6. Viitorul cu
going to se formeaz cu ajutorul formei be going to la prezent, urmat de infinitiv
ul scurt al verbului de conjugat: I am going to write letters tomorrow. Voi scri
e scrisori mine. You are going to see a film tomorrow. We are going to see a film
tomorrow. They are going to see a film tomorrow. He is going to play tennis tom
orrow. She is going to play tennis tomorrow. 1.9.7. ntrebuinare. Viitorul cu going
to este ntrebuinat pentru a exprima: 1) o activitate viitoare apropiat de momentul
vorbirii (vezi exemplele de mai sus). Not: Verbele go i come nu pot fi precedate
de going to. Pentru a reda ideea de viitor apropiat, ele sunt ntrebuinate la preze
ntul continuu: Where are you going ? Unde te duci? He is coming tonight. El vine
disear. 2) o activitate viitoare ce va avea loc ca urmare a unei intenii prezente
: We are going to spend our holiday in the mountains. (Weve already booked a room
in Poiana Braov). Avem de gnd/Intenionm s ne petrecem vacana la munte. (Am rezervat d
eja o camer la Poiana Braov). Not: O intenie spontan, nepremeditat, se exprim cu ajuto
ul verbului auxiliar will + infinitiv: A: Im thirsty. (mi-e sete). B: I will fetc
h you a glass of water. (M duc s-i aduc un pahar cu ap). (vezi &1.9.3. pct.3a.). 3.
o aciune viitoare care va avea loc ca rezultat al unei cauze prezente: Its going t
o rain. Look at the clouds. Cred c o s plou./Are s plou. Uit-te la nori. 4) Viitorul c
u going to nu este folosit de regul n propoziiile principale, cnd ele sunt urmate de
o propoziie subordonat condiional sau temporal (se folosete infinitivul cu shall/will
). Totui aceast form poate aprea n propoziii temporale, cnd vrem s subliniem intenia
itorului: He is going to be a pilot when grows up. Are de gnd/intenioneaz s se fac pi
lot cnd va crete. E) Prezentul continuu (Present Tense Continuous) 1.9.8. Prezentu
l continuu, format din verbul be la prezent i participiul prezent (forma in -ing)
a verbului de conjugat, este folosit pentru a exprima o aciune viitoare care a f
ost planificat sau proiectat ntr-un moment prezent: We are leaving tomorrow. (This
is our plan). Plecm mine. Acesta este planul nostru).

1.9.9. Prezentul continuu exprimnd o aciune viitoare este de obicei nsoit de un adve
rb de timp viitor: We are having a meeting at 3 oclock/this afternoon/later. Avem
/Vom avea edin la ora 3/dup amiaz/mai trziu. pag: 024 F) Prezentul simplu (Simple Pres
ent) 1.9.10. Prezentul simplu exprim: 1) o aciune viitoare definit, care va avea lo
c ca parte a unui program oficial, orar stabilit etc. : The plane takes off at 7
p.m. Avionul decoleaz la ora 19.00. Term starts in September. coala ncepe n septemb
rie. 2) o aciune viitoare n proporii subordonate temporale i condiionale (vezi &1.5.4
. pct. 4b). 1.9.11. Atenie. Att prezentul continuu ct i cel simplu exprim o aciune vii
toare conform unui plan sau aranjament cnd sunt folosite cu verbe de micare ca go,
leave, arrive, come etc. Deosebirea este urmtoarea: Wee are leaving tonight. Ple
cam disear. (Acesta este planul nostru personal). We leave tonight. Plecm disear. (
Acesta este programul oficial, stabilit (al excursiei etc.). G) Viitorul perfect
(Future Perfect Simple) 1.9.12. Definiie. Viitorul perfect desemneaz un eveniment
anterior unui moment sau eveniment care este la rndul su posterior momentului vor
birii. 1.9.13. Form. Viitorul perfect conine n structura sa viitorul simplu al verb
ului have, urmat de participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat: I shalll/will ha
ve done my homework by the time return. mi voi fi fcut leciile pn te ntorci tu. 1.9.14
. ntrebuinare. Viitorul perfect este folosit pentru a exprima: 1) o aciune viitoare
care va avea loc naintea unui moment viitor: He will have finished the book by M
onday. El va fi terminat cartea pn luni. 2) o aciune viitoare care va avea loc naint
ea unei alte aciuni viitoare: He will have finished the book by the time you come
back home. El va fi terminat cartea pn cnd te ntorci tu acas. 3) o aciune viitoare ca
re va avea loc ntr-o perioad de timp anterioar unei aciuni viitoare, dar ajungnd pn la
aceasta: He will have worked in this factory for forty years when he retires. Va
fi lucrat n aceast fabrica timp de 40 de ani cnd se va pensiona. Not: Viitorul perf
ect este o form verbal caracteristic limbii scrise, fiind rar folosit n vorbirea cur
ent. 1.9.15. Aciuni viitoare dintr-o perspectiv trecut. Evenimentele viitoare sunt p
osterioare momentului vorbirii, care este now. Dar evenimentele pot fi posterioa
re i unui moment trecut then, care este amintit n momentul vorbirii. De pe aceast a
x a trecutului, posibilitile de exprimare a ideii de viitor sunt urmtoarele: 1) whou
ld + infinitiv. (Construcie puin frecvent n vorbirea curent, caracteristic stilului na
rativ literar): The times was not far off when he would realize his mistake. Nu
era departe momentul cnd i va da seama de greeal. 2) be going to la Past Tense + infi
nitiv, adesea cu sensul de intenie nerealizat: You were going to invite me to the
cinema. (But you didnt). Urma/Trebuia s m invii la cinema. (Dar n-ai fcut-o). 3) Past
Tense aspectul continuu (aciune conform unui plan, aranjament): I was meeting th
em in Tulcea the next day. i ntlneam/urma s-i ntlnesc n Tulcea a doua zi. 4) Be to la
ast Tense + infinitiv (construcie folosit n engleza literar , cu sensul de urma s; era
aranjat): He was to change his mind later. The festival was to be held at the en
d of term.

5) be about to la Past tense + infinitiv (a fi pe punctul de): She was about to cr


y. pag: 025 1.10. Aspectul (Aspect) 1.10.1. Definiie. n limba englez aspectul este
categoria gramatical specific verbului, care se refer la felul n care este reprezent
at aciunea exprimat de verb: ca avnd durat sau nu, ca fiind terminat sau nu. 1.10.2. E
xist dou contraste n limba englez : durativ - non-durativ (denumit de obicei continu
u - non-continuu) i perfectiv - non-perfectiv. n primul opoziia este ntre o aciune ca
re are o anumit durat, este n desfurare ntr-un anumit moment sau ntr-o anumit perioad
timp i este raportat la momentul de referin now, then etc. i ntre o aciune pentru care
o asemenea informaie nu este important. Comparai: John is reading an English newspa
per (now). John citete un ziar englezesc (acum), cu: John reads English newspaper
(every day). John citete un ziar englezesc (n fiecare zi). n al doilea aciunea este
ntre aciuni vzute ca terminate n momentul vorbirii: I have read an interesting arti
cle on pollution. Am citit un articol interesant despre poluare. i ntre aciuni desp
re care nu se d o asemenea informaie: I have been reading since 10 oclock. 1.10.3.
Pentru a analiza contrastul durativ - non-durativ i perfectiv - non-perfectiv n li
mba englez trebuie pornit de la sensul lexical al verbelor*: A) Verbe care exprim
activiti n limba englez (activity verbs) sunt de dou feluri: - verbe de activitate du
rativ (exprimnd aciuni a cror svrire necesit o anumit durat de timp): eat, dress, d
ead, walk etc. - verbe de activitate non-durativ, care exprim aciuni momentane, fr du
rat, fiind ncheiate aproape n acelai timp cu efectuarea lor: catsh, hit, kick, slam,
slap, snap etc. Not: Adeseori sensul non-durativ al unor verbe este semnalat de
prezena unor particule adverbiale ca down, out, up, care le deosebesc de verbele
de activitate durativ. Comparai: sit - sit down stand - stand up drink - drink up
pick - pick up La rndul lor, verbele de activitate durativ se mpart n: - verbe care
nu implic nici un scop: rub, run, walk etc. - verbe care implic atingerea unui sco
p: iron a shirt, make a dress, read a book, write an essay. B) Pe lng verbele care
definesc activiti (durative sau non-durative) exist i verbe care denumesc stri. Aces
tea sunt durative, deoarece exprim existena unor fapte pe o perioad ndelungat de timp
: be clever, be able, know how, exist, live. Aspect continuu (The Continuous Asp
ect) 1.10.4. Form. Timpurile aspectului continuu se formeaz dintr-un timp al verbu
lui be i participiul prezent (forma n -ing) a verbului de conjugat: Present Contin
uous : I am reading Past Continuous: I was reading Present Perfect Continuous: I
have been reading Past Perfect Continuous: I had been reading

Future Continuous: I will be reading Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been
reading pag: 026 1.10.5. Ortografia participiului prezent depinde de forma verb
ului la infinitiv: a) consoana final se dubleaz dac vocala care o precede e scurt i a
ccentuat: stop - stopping; refer - referring. Not: n engleza britanic, -l final se d
ubleaz indiferent de accent: control - controlling; travel travelling. n engleza a
merican -l final se dubleaz numai dac accentul cade pe ultima silab: controlling; da
r: traveling. b) -y final se pstreaz, indiferent dac este precedat de consoan sau de
vocal: study studying; play - playing, iar -ie final se transform n -y: lie - lyin
g; die - dying; c) -e final se omite: have - having Excepii: agree - agreeing; be
- being; see - seeing; dye - dyeing (a vopsi). 1.10.6. ntrebuinarea aspectului co
ntinuu a) Folosirea aspectului continuu cu verbele de activitate durativ fr scop ar
at c aciunile denumite de verbe sunt n desfurare pe axa prezentului, a trecutului sau
a viitorului: They are walking n the park now. He was swimming n the lake at this
time yesterday. b) Cu verbele de activitate durativ care implic atingerea unui sco
p, folosirea aspectului continuu arat c scopul nu a fost atins, aciunea nu a fost t
erminat: He is reading a book now. Citete o carte acum (Nu a terminat-o).She was i
roning a shirt. Ea clca o cma. c) Verbele de activitate non-durativ arat o aciune repe
at atunci cnd sunt folosite la aspectul continuu: He is kicking. D din picioare. d)
Verbele care exprim o stare arat c aceast stare este limitat atunci cnd sunt folosite
la aspectul continuu: I live in Braov (thats where my house is). Im living in Buch
arest this year. Anul acesta locuiesc n Bucureti. ntrebuinrile aspectului continuu la
diverse timpuri sunt cele enumerate la &1.10.6. Diferenele de la un timp la altu
l constau n momentul n care are loc aciunea i n momentul de referin. 1.10.7. Prezentul
continuu este utilizat pentru a exprima: 1) cu verbe de activitate durativ fr scop:
a) o aciune n desfurare n momentul vorbirii: Listen! He is singing in the bathroom!
Ascult! Cnt n baie! Aceast ntrebuinare este marcat de obicei de adverbe de timp ca: n
(acum) right now (chiar acum), at this moment (n acest moment): A: What ia Dan do
ing? B: He is shaving right now, dar poate aprea i fr ele, momentul de fa al aciunii r
ieind din forma continu a verbului: A: What is Dan doing? B: He is shaving. A: Ce
face Dan (acum)? B: Se brbierete. b) o aciune obinuit, repetat, prezentat n desfura
anumite circumstane: I always take my umbrella when it is raining. Totdeauna mi i
au umbrella cnd plou. I never read while I am walking in the Botanical Gardens. l ntl
nesc ori de cte ori m plimb n Grdina botanic. 2) cu verbele de activitate durativ impl
icnd un scop, o aciune care nu a fost terminat la momentul vorbirii: He is doing hi
s homework. i face temele. 3) cu verbe de activitate non-durativ, o aciune repetat n m
omentul vorbirii: He is knocking on the door sau o aciune repetat n mod frecvent, c
are deranjeaz sau imit pe vorbitor: My neighbour

is always starting his car when I want to have a rest. Vecinul meu totdeauna i por
nete maina cnd vreau s m odihnesc. pag: 027 Aceast folosire a prezentului continuu est
e obligatoriu nsoit de adverbe de frecven ca: always, forever (totdeauna), continuall
y, all the time (tot timpul). Acestea se aeaz ntre auxiliarul be i forma n -ing, cu e
xcepia lui all the time care ocup poziie final n propoziie: That little child is conti
nually crying dar: He is crying all the time. 4) cu verbe care denumesc o stare,
o aciune cu caracter temporar care are loc pentru o perioad limitat de timp, (incl
uznd i momentul vorbirii): Ann is attending the Poly. Ana urmeaz politehnica (studi
az politehnica). Complinirile adverbiale pentru aceast ntrebuinare a prezentului con
tinuu sunt: today (astzi), this week (sptmna aceasta), these days (zilele acestea),
this month (luna aceasta), this year (anul acesta) etc: My father usually teache
s geometry, but he is teaching algebra this year. Tatl meu pred geometria de obice
i, dar anul acesta pred algebra. 5) Prezentul continuu este de asemenea folosit p
entru a desemna o aciune viitoare planificat din prezent (vezi & 1.9.8.): We are l
eaving tomorrow. Plecm mine. 1.10.8. Past Tense Continuous exprim: 1) cu verbe de a
ctivitate durativ fr scop: a) o aciune n desfurare ntr-un moment trecut, amintit n
l vorbirii: I was walking at two oclock yesterday. I was walking at this last wee
k. Not: Aceast form verbal este frecvent folosit n descrieri, pentru redarea unor acti
viti durative, n desfurare, care contrasteaz cu activiti non-durative, succesive i t
ate, pentru redarea crora se folosete Past Tense simplu (forma caracteristic naraiun
ilor): It was a cold winter evening. Outside, the wind was blowing. A big fire w
as burning in the fireplace. The old woman came in and went near the fire. She w
armed her hands and sat down. b) o aciune durativ n desfurare, ntrerupt de o aciune n
durativ, momentan: He came in when/while I was eating. A intrat cnd/n timp ce mncam.
When he rang up I was (just) going out. Cnd a telefonat (tocmai) ieeam. He called
me just as I was leaving. M-a strigat exact cnd plecam. c) dou aciuni paralele n des
furare n trecut: She was eating while I was washing. Ea mnca n timp ce eu m splam. Not
Dac nu ne intereseaz aspectul de desfurare, de durat al aciunilor, ci doar c aciunile
avut loc ntr-un moment din trecut putem spune: She ate while I washed. sau: She
ate while I was washing. (ate - aciunea a fost mai scurt, terminat; was washing aciu
ne - mai de durat, nencheiat n momentul n care cealalt a fost ncheiat). 2) cu verbe d
ctivitate durativ care implic atingerea unui scop: - o aciune trecut, dar nencheiat: H
e was reading a book last night. Citea o carte asear. (Comparai cu: He read a book
last night. a citit o carte asear. pag: 028

3) verbe de activitate non-durativ, o aciune repetat n trecut, iritant pentru ceilali


(+always, forever, continually, all the time): He was always coming late to the
English lesson. Totdeauna ntrzia la ora de englez. 4) cu verbe care exprim o stare,
o aciune trecut cu caracter temporar: He was living in Braov when I met him. 5) Pas
t Tense aspectul continuu mai poate exprima i o aciune viitoare, planificat ntr-un m
oment trecut, fiind subneleas nendeplinirea ei (Vezi &1.9.15. pct.3): We were leavin
g the next day. 1.10.9. Viitorul continuu (Future Continuous) 1) cu verbe de act
ivitate durativ fr scop, viitorul continuu exprim: a) o aciune n desfurare ntr-un mo
viitor, posterior momentului vorbirii: I shall be walking at two oclock tomorrow.
I will be walking at this time next week. M voi plimba mine la ora dou. M voi plimb
a sptmna viitoare la ora asta. b) o aciune n desfurare n viitor ntrerupt de o aciu
an. When he comes, I will be eating. Cnd va veni, eu voi fi n mijlocul mesei. c) o
aciune n desfurare n viitor, n paralel cu o alt aciune n desfurare de asemenea n
will be walking while I am sleeping. Ea se va plimba n timp ce eu voi dormi. Ate
nie! A doua aciune viitoare n desfurare nu poate fi pus tot la viitorul continuu deaor
ece face parte dintr-o propoziie subordonat temporal (n care nu se folosete viitorul n
limba englez). 2) cu verbe de activitate durativ care implic atingerea unui scop,
o aciune nencheiat: She will be having her piano lesson when you come. 3) Viitorul
continuu exprim i ideea de aciune viitoare care va avea loc n desfurarea fireasc a eve
imentelor: Ill be seeing him tomorrow morning (This happens every morning). l vd min
e diminea. (l vd n fiecare diminea). Ill be passing the grocers on my way to school.
prin faa bcniei n drum spre coal. 1.10.10. Traducerea formelor aspectului continuu n
imba romn: Verbul romnesc nu are o categorie marcat formal pentru redarea contrastul
ui aspectual continuu-noncontinuu. Ideea de desfurare sau durat limitat a aciunii est
e redat n limba romn cu ajutorul adverbelor de timp: He is teaching now. Pred/Are or a
cum. He is teaching arithmetic this year. Pred aritmetica anul acesta. Singura fo
rm verbal din limba romn care exprim, ca i aspectul continuu din limba englez, o aciu
neterminat la un moment dat, sau de durat limitat, este imperfectul i acesta este fo
losit de obicei pentru traducerea lui Past Tense continuu n limba romn: She was wor
king in the garden when I arrivied. Muncea n grdin cnd am sosit. Mai dificil ns este t
aducerea imperfectului n limba englez, deoarece exist tendina de a folosi Past Tense
Continuous i atunci cnd imperfectul romnesc are alt valoare, cea de aciune repetat n
recut pentru care limba englez folosete Past Tense Simple: Romn: Munceam n grdin cnd
ceam la bunici. Englez: I worked the garden when I went to my grandparents. pag:
029

1.10.11. Verbe care nu pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu. Exist mai multe clas
e de verbe, care datorit sensului lor lexical nu pot fi folosite la aspectul cont
inuu. Acestea sunt: A) verbe de activitate non-durativ, care sunt considerate ca
fiind ncheiate n momentul n care au fost iniiate: He kicks, slams, bangs the door. B
) verbe care exprim aciuni desfurate att de rapid sub ochii vorbitorului, nct pot fi c
nsiderate non-durative: score, shoot, place in the oven. Aceasta se ntmpl de obicei
n comentarii sportive sau demonstraii practice (aa numitul prezent simplu instanta
neu - vezi &1.5.4. pct.3). C) verbe care exprim un adevr universal sau o caracteri
stic general: Fish swim. Cows give milk. The Danube flows into the Black sea. D) v
erbe care exprim o percepie senzorial (Verbs of inert perception): see, hear, smell
, feel, sound. The flower smells nice. Floarea are un miros plcut. Atenie! Verbele
de percepie se folosesc cu verbul modal can pentru a reda o aciune unic, concret n d
esfurare: I can see him now. l vd acum. I see him every day. l vd n fiecare zi. Verbel
care redau percepia senzorial pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu dac ele indic o
folosire contient a simurilor: a) prin folosirea unor perechi sinonimice: listen to
, look at, watch: Aspectul simplu: I (can) hear music I (can) see him. I (can) s
ee the TV set. Aspectul continuu: I am listening to music. I am looking at him.
I am watching TV. b) prin folosirea tranzitiv (ca activiti) a unor verbe care expri
m o calitate permanent (folosite intranzitiv): The cake tastes good. I am tasting
the cake. c) verbele de percepie pot avea forme ale aspectului continuu cnd sunt f
olosite cu alte sensuri: Ive been hearing all about her exams. Am auzit (Mi s-a s
pus totul) despre examenele ei. (hear = a primi veti). Im seeing him tonight. M ntlne
sc cu el disear. He is seeing the sights. Viziteaz obiectivele turistice. (see = a
ntlni, a vizita locuri turistice). pag: 029 E) verbele care exprim o activitate mi
ntal (Verbs of cognition): believe, know, think, imagine, mean, mind, remember, r
ecollect, recall, suppose, forget, suspect, guess, presuppose, realize, understa
nd. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de obicei de o propoziie subordonat introdus de that s
au de un cuvnt relativ ncepnd cu wh-: I think (that) you are right. Cred c ai drepta
te. I dont remember what he said. Nu-mi amintesc ce-a spus. Unele din ele pot fi
folosite la aspectul continuu dac sunt folosite ca verbe de activitate: A: What i
s he doing? B: He is thinking of his future. A: Ce face el? B: Se gndete la viitor
. F) Verbe care exprim sentimente, stri sufleteti: love, like, carefor, adore, hate
, dislike, detest, regret, prefer, wish. I like my job. mi place serviciul meu. I
detest lazy people. Detest oamenii lenei, dar i: How are you liking the trip? Cum
i place cltoria/Cum te distrezi?

pag: 030 G) Verbe exprimnd o relaie: apply to, be, belong to, concern, consist of,
contain, cost, depend on, deserve, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, o
wn, possess, have, require, resemble, seem: This book belongs to him. Aceast cart
e i aparine lui. He owns this house. Aceast cas e proprietatea lui. Helen resembles
her mother. Elena seamn cu ama ei. Aceste verbe nu pot fi folosite la aspectul con
tinuu, cu excepia lui be i have cnd ele nu exprim starea, respectiv posesia: He is k
ind. El este amabil (n general). Why, he is being kind today! Ei, se poat cu amabi
litate (este amabil astzi!) (este o situaie necaracteristic, temporar). He has a new
bike. Are o biciclet nou. He is having a ride now. Se plimb cu bicicleta acum. n vo
rbirea curent verbe ca resemble, cost, etc. sunt uneori ntrebuinate la aspectul con
tinuu, dac exprim o intensificare treptat a aciunii: Peter is resembling his father
more and more. Petre seamn din ce n ce mai mult cu tatl su. Groceries in britain are
costing so much more these days! n Anglia, preul articolelor de bcnie a crescut aa de
mult n zilele noastre! H) Verbe care exprim o senzaie fizic. (Verbs of body sensati
on). Aceste verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu sau simplu, cu mici difer
ene de sens: How do you feel today? How are you feeling today? Cum te simi astzi? A
spectul perfectiv (The Perfective Aspect) 1.10.12. Definiie. Aspectul perfectiv a
rat c un eveniment (o aciune sau stare) este reprezentat ca ncheiat de ctre vorbitor n
momentul n care este discutat. 1.10.13. ntrebuinare. n funcie de sensul lexical al v
erbelor i adverbele care le nsoesc, aspectul perfectiv are tradiional mai multe valo
ri: 1) aspectul perfectiv rezultativ (Resultative Perfect) apare cu verbe de act
ivitate durativ care implic un scop i arat c acest scop a fost atins: a) I have broke
n the vase. Am spart vaza. b) He had read the book. (El) citise cartea. n conseci
n, vorbitorul simte efectul sau rezultatul unei aciuni anterioare: a) The vase is b
roken now. Vaza este spart acum. b) He knew what the book was about. tia despre ce
este vorba n carte. 2) aspectul perfectiv continuativ (Continuative Perfect) est
e folosit cu verbe care exprim o stare i sunt nsoite de adverbe de durat, pentru a ex
prima o aciune nceput nainte i care continu i n momentul prezent, amintit sau anticip
We have lieved in Bucharest for ten years. Locuim n Bucureti de zece ani. London
has stood on the Thames for thousands of years. Londra este situat pe Tamisa de m
ii de ani. 3) aspectul perfectiv al experienei (The Perfect of Experience) arat c a
ciunea a avut loc o dat sau de mai multe ori n experiena vorbitorului. They had live
d in several touwns in Romania. Locuiser n mai multe orae din Romnia. Whenever I hav
e asked my father a question, I have received a straightforward anwer. Ori de cte
ori i-am pus tatlui meu o ntrebare, am primit un rspuns fr ocoliuri. pag: 031 1.10.14
. Aspectul perfectiv i aspectul continuu sunt combinate n urmtoarele forme verbale:
perfectul prezent continuu, mai-mult-ca-perfectul continuu i viitorul perfect co
ntinuu.

Perfectul prezent continuu (Present Perfect Continuous) este alctuit din forma de
Present Perfect a verbului be urmat de participiul prezent (n -ing) al verbului d
e conjugat: I have been reading for three hours. Citesc de trei ore. Ive been rea
ding for three hours. He has been reading for three hours. Hes been reading for t
hree hours. Citete de trei ore. Aceast form verbal exprim: 1)o aciune nceput ntr-un
t trecut, care continu n prezent i poate i n viitor: They have been playing tennis fo
r half an hour. Joac tenis de jumtate de or. (= They began playing tennis half an h
our ago. They are stil playing tennis an they may continue doing so.) Aceast ntreb
uinare a lui Present Perfect continuu poate fi redat i cu ajutorul lui Present Perf
ect simplu n cazul unor verbe ca live, stay, work, study etc. Folosirea aspectulu
i continuu, prin contract cu acea a aspectului simplu, scoate n eviden continuitate
a, in Bucharest for ten years. Un alt contrast poate fi cel de aciune tocmai nchei
at - aciune nencheiat: Ive worked on this composition since five oclock. (Ive just fin
shed it). Ive been working on this composition since five oclock. (and Im still wor
king). 2) o aciune repetat frecvent, ntr-o perioad de timp care se ntinde dint trecut
pn n prezent: Ive been riding a bicycle for three years. Merg cu biciclete de trei
ani. He has been writing poems since he was a child. Scrie poezii de cnd era copi
l. n aceast situaie (2) se folosete Present Perfect simplu (i nu continuu) dac se spec
ific de cte ori a fost svrit aciunea repetat: Ive ridden my bicycle hundreds of time
mers cu bicicleta de sute de ori. He has written fifty poems. A scris cincizeci
de poezii. ntrebuinrile 1 i 2 ale lui Present Perfect sunt marcate de compliniri ad
verbiale incidnd: a) lungimea perioadei de timp: for ages (de mult vreme), for a f
ew minutes (de cteva minute), for three hours (de trei ore) etc. b) nceputul perio
adei de timp: since December 25th (de la 25 decembrie), since last year (de anul
trecut), since Monday (de luni) etc. 3) o aciune trecut, ncheiat recent, care este
cauza unui efect simit n prezent: A: Why are your hands dirty? B: Ive been repairin
g my bike. A: De ce ai minile murdare? B: Mi-am reparat bicicleta. 1.10.15. Mai-m
ult-ca-perfectul continuu (Past Perfect Continuous) se formeaz din verbul be la m
ai-mult-ca-perfect i din participiul n -ing al verbului de conjugat. El are aceleai
valori ca i Present Perfect continuu, momentul de referin fiind ns axa trecutului. p
ag: 032 Acest form verbal exprim: 1) o aciune trecut, nceput naintea unei alte aciu
ute i continund pn la ea: I had been waiting for my friend since two oclock when he f
inally. I had been waiting for my friend for half an hour arrived. l ateptam pe pr
ietenul meu de la ora dou cnd n sfrit a sosit. l ateptam pe prietenul meu de jumtate
or cnd n sfrit a sosit. 2) o aciune trecut nceput naintea unui moment sau a unei ac
cute, continund pn n acel moment sau pn la acea aciune i poate i dup aceea: The boy
still playing football at noon. They had been playing football all morning. The
y had been plaing football since ten oclock. Bieii mei jucau fotbal la ora prnzului.
Ei jucaser fotbal toat dimineaa./ Ei jucau fotbal de la ora zece.

3) o aciune repetat frecvent ntr-o perioad de timp trecut, anterioar unui moment sau u
nei aciuni de asemenea trecute: He had been writing poems for two years when I me
t him. Scria poezii de doi ani cnd l-am cunoscut. Atenie! Dac se face o precizare n
umeric, se folosete Past Perfect simplu: He had written fifty poems when I met him
. Scrisese cincizeci de poezii cnd l-am cunoscut. 4) o aciune anterioar unei alte a
ciuni de asemenea trecut terminat cu puin naintea ei, i fiind cauza acesteia: He was c
arrying a hammer and nails because he had been mending the fence. Avea n mn un cioc
an i cuie pentru c reparase gardul. 5) Present Perfect i Past Tense continuu devin
mai-mult-ca-perfect continuu n vorbirea indirect, dup un verb trecut n propoziia prin
cipal: Ive been reading for three hours. She said she had been reading for three hou
rs. Atenie! Timpul Past Tense continuu devine Past Perfect continuu numai dac se r
efer la o aciune ncheiat.(vezi & 26.3.9.): I was thinking of going away, but I have c
hanged my mind. He said he had been thinking of going away, but he had changed hi
s mind. Altminteri Past Tense aspectul continuu rmne neschimbat n vorbirea indirect
mai ales dac el apare ntr-o proproziie subordonat temporal (vezi &26.3.8. pct.f): When
I was attending the secondary school in Craiova, I often met Dan. He said that w
hen he was attending the secondary school in Craiova, he (had) often met Dan. 1.
10.16. Viitorul perfect continuu (Future Perfect Continuous) se formeaz din viito
rul perfect al verbului be i din participiul n -ing al verbului de conjugat. Viito
rul perfect continuu exprim o aciune n desfurare n viitor, nainte i pn la o alt ac
are (i poate i dup aceea) : when the bell rings, we shall / will have been writing
for fifty minutes. Cnd va suna clopoelul noi vom fi ocupai cu scrisul / Noi vom fi
scris de cincizeci de minute. pag: 033 Atenie! Aciunea svrit n aceast perioad de tim
toare, anterioar unui moment sau unei aciuni de asemenea viitoare, este la viitoru
l perfect continuu dac se specific lungimea perioadei de timp sau nceputul ei: By s
ix oclock p.m. i will have been selling blouses for eight hours. Pn la ora 18 ea va
fi vndut bluze timp de opt ore; i la viitorul perfect simplu dac este prezent o prec
izare numeric n legtur cu aciunea: By six oclock p.m. i will have sold eighty blouses.
Pn la ora 18 ea va fi vndut 80 de bluze. Not: Viitorul perfect continuu este rar fol
osit n vorbire, fiind o form caracteristic limbii scrise.
1.11. Diateza (Voice)
1.11.1. Definiie. Diateza este categoria gramatical specific verbului care exprim ra
portul dintre verbului predicat, pe de o parte, i subiectul i obiectul. (complemen
tul direct sau de agent) al verbului predicat, pe de alt parte. n limba englez exis
t dou diateze marcate formal: diateza activ, diateza pasiv.

1.11.2. Diateza activ (Active Voice). Verbul este la diateza activ cnd subiectul gr
amatical svrete aciunea care, la verbele tranzitive, se rsfrnge asupra obiectului: Luc
(subiect) has written (predicat) a letter (obiect). Lucia a scris o scrisoare.
Not: Pentru clasificarea verbelor din punct de vedere al tranzitivitii, vezi &14.5.
- 14.8. 1.11.3. Diateza pasiv (Passive Voice). Verbul este la diateza pasiv cnd su
biectul gramatical sufer aciunea svrit de obiect: This letter (subiect) has been writt
en (predicat) by Lucy (obiect). Aceast scrisoare a fost scris de Lucia. 1.11.4. Be
+ participiul trecut. Indicii formali ai diatezei pasive sunt: a) verbul be sau
uneori get, b) complementul de agent introdus de prepoziia by. a) Verbul be marc
heaz categoriile de mod, timp, persoan i numr la diateza pasiv. El este urmat de un v
erb noional la participiul trecut: She was met at the station by my brother. Ea a
fost ateptat la gar de fratele meu. (Was - modul indicativ, Past Tense, persoana a
III-a singular). 1.11.5. Conjugarea unui verb la diateza pasiv, modul indicativ
este: Aspectul simplu Present: I am seen. He is seen. We are seen. Past: I was s
een. We were seen. Present Perfect: I have been seen. He has been seen. Past Per
fect: I had been seen. Future: I shall be seen. He will be seen. Future Perfect:
I shall have been seen. He will have been seen. Aspectul continuu este folosit
la diateza pasiv doar la Present i Past Tense. Forma continu de la diateza pasiv are
n structura sa verbul be la aspectul continuu (timpul Present sau Past) i partici
piul trecut al verbului de conjugat: The classrooms are being cleaned now. Se fa
ce curenie n clase acum. The school was being cleaned when we wented to visit it. S
e fcea curenie n coal cnd am vrut s-o vizitm. pag: 034 1.11.6. Get/become + participi
trecut. n afar de verbul be se mai poate folosi i verbul get pentru formarea diatez
ei pasive. Verbul get + participiul trecut este utilizat mai ales n vorbirea cure
nt, pentru a indica trecerea dintr-o stare n alta: Her skirt got caught in the doo
r. I s-a prin fusta n u. All our glasses got broken when we moved. S-au spart toate
paharele cnd ne-am mutat. Un sinonim al verbului get cu sensul de schimbare trep
tat este verbul become, nsiit deseori de more and more, increasingly: The productio
n of this factory is becoming increasingly specialized. Producia acestei fabrici
devine din ce n ce mai specializat. 1.11.7. Complementul de agent. Complementul de
agent introdus de prepoziia by indic cine a svrit aciunea suferit de subiectul gramat
cal al propoziiei: The poem was recited by Mary. (not by Lucy or Ann). Poezia a f
ost recitat de Maria (nu de Lucia sau Ana). Not: Complementul de agent este consid
erat subiectul logic sau real al propoziiei, deoarece el svrete aciunea.

Complementul de agent nu este menionat n majoritatea proproziiilor pasive. El se om


ite cnd: a) nu se cunoate subiectul real, cel care a svrit aciunea: All villages in Ro
mania are supplied weve electricity. Toate satele din Romnia sunt alimentate cu cu
rent electric. A doctor has been send for. Au / s-a trimis dup doctor. b) Vorbito
rul nu dorete s menioneze subiectul real al aciunii: This subject will be. Treated f
ully in the next charter. Aceast problem va fi tratat pe larg n urmtorul capitol. c)
subiectul real al aciunii se poate deduce din context: He was elected President o
f the Teacher - Parent - Association. A fost ales preedinte al comitetului de prini
. n aceste cazuri subiectul verbului la diateza activ este de obicei exprimat prin
tr-un pronume personal cu valoare generic: You, they, one, printr-un pronume neho
trt: everybody, somebody, all, sau printr-un substantiv ca people: Activ: They spe
ak English over the world. People speak English all over the world. Pasiv: Engli
sh is spoken all over the world. Atenie! Complementul de agent se omite i cnd forma
pasiv este get + participiul trecut: The little boy got hurt on his way to schoo
l. Bieelul s-a lovit n drum spre coal. 1.11.8. ntrebuinarea diatezei pasive. n limba
lez ca i n limba romn se folosesc contrucii pasive i nu active cnd intenia vorbitoru
ste de a se sublinia aciunea i nu pe cel care a svrit-o. Activ: Millions of people ha
ve seen this film. (Accentul cade pe subiect: Milioane de oameni au vzut acest fi
lm). Pasiv: This film has been seen by millions of people. (Accentul cade pe ver
b: Acest film a fost vzut de milioane de oameni). Construciile pasive sunt ntrebuina
te mai frecvent n limbajul tiinific i n cel jurnalistic, caracterizate printr-o expri
mare impersonal, obiectiv. pag: 035 Diateza pasiv se folosete cu majoritatea verbelo
r tranzitive i cu unele verbe intranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie n care verbul f
ormeaz o unitate semantic cu prepoziia, devenind practic echivalent cu un verb tran
zitiv. Verbele cel mai frecvent folosite din aceast categorie sunt: care for/look
after = tend, come to = reach, deal with = analyse, laugh at = ridicule, listen
to = hear, look upon = regard, rely on = trust, send for = call, talk of = disc
uss, think of = consider. This metter will be dealt with at once. Ne von ocupa nd
at de aceast problem. An alternative was not tought of. La o alternativ nu s-au gndit
. Pe plan sintactic, trecerea unei propoziii de la diateza activ la cea pasiv aduce
cu sine mai multe schimbri: Diateza activ: Our form teacher has lent me this book
. Diateza pasiv: a) subiectul activ al aciunii devine complement de agent pasiv (c
are poate fi omis n cazurile de la &1.11.7.): This book has been lent to me by ou
r form teacher. b) obiectul activ (complementul direct sau indirect) devine subi
ectul verbului pasiv: This book has been lent to me by our form teache, sau: I h
ave been lent this book by our form teacher. c) prepoziia by este introdus naintea
agentului: I have been lent this book BY our form teacher. Not: Pentru descrierea
transformrilor pasive, vezi paragraful 14.8.

1.11.9. Traducerea construciilor pasive n limba romn. Un verb englezesc la diateza p


asiv se traduce de obicei tot printr-o construcie pasiv: The car was repaired yerte
rday. Maina a fost reparat ieri. n cazul verbelor urmate de un complement direct i u
nul indirect, se pot folosi i construcii reflexive cu valoare pasiv cnd complementul
indirect al persoanei devine indirect: The teacher was offered flowers by her p
upils. Profesoarei i s-au oferit flori de ctre elevi. Verbele intranzitive cu pre
poziie obligatorie se traduc prin diatez pasiv, diateza activ sau prin forme reflexi
v-pasive, de la caz la caz: The children were well looked after. Copiii au fost
bine ngrijii. A doctor has been sent for. Au trimis / S-a trimis dup un doctor. Not:
n limba englez exist o categorie aparte de verbe intranzitive folosite la diateza
activ cu valoare pasiv i care se traduc n limba romn fie prin construcii reflexive pas
ve, fie prin verbe la diateza pasiv: The book has sold very well. Cartea s-a vndul
foarte bine. The cake cuts easly. Prjitura se taie uor. The clause reads both wai
ys. Clauza poate fi interpretat n dou feluri. 1.12. Persoana i numrul (Person and Num
ber) Spre deosebire de verbul romnesc verbul englez are puini indici formali care
s marcheze persoana i numrul. Singura desinen specific este -s pentru persoana a III-a
singular indicativul prezent, adugate la forma de infinitiv a verbelor noionale.
(Verbele modate nu primesc -s): He plays the piano. El cnt la pian. Datorit absenei
formelor flexionare, persoana i numrul n limba englez sunt identificate de obicei cu
ajutorul subiectului, mai ales cnd aceasta este exprimat printr-un pronume perso
nal. pag: 036 n consecin subiectul este de regul exprimat n limba englez mai ales cnd
ste un pronume personal spre deosebire de limba romn: I work very hard. (Eu) munce
sc foarte mult. We work very hard. (Noi) muncim foarte mult. 1.13. Modul (Mood)
1.13.1. Definiie. Modul este categoria gramatical specific verbului care arat felul n
care vorbitorul consider aciunea din punctul de vedere al posibilitii de ndeplinire
a ei n realitate. Pentru redarea acestui raport al aciunii cu realitatea, limba en
glez dispune de dou moduri marcate formal: indicativul (aciune real) i subjonctivul (
aciune posibil sau presupus). Not: Unele gramatici menioneaz i modurile condiional i
rativ. n aceast lucrare formele de condiional (prezent i trecut) sunt tratate n cadru
l modului subjonctiv (vezi &1.13.10 i &1.13.12). datorit formei identice cu unele
forme ale sunjonctivului analitic i funciei similare (aciune posibil sau presupus, n a
cest caz condiionat de ndeplinirea unei altei aciuni), iar folosirea condiionalului e
ste tratat n cadrul Sintaxei frazei: & 25.14.4. Formele folosite pentru exprimarea
unei aciuni poruncite (aa-numitul mod imperativ) sunt analizate n cadrul capitolul
ui Felurile propoziiilor, Propoziia imperativ, &23.4. Dup categoria gramatical a pers
oanei i a posibilitii de a forma predicatul unei propoziii, formele verbale n limba e
nglez se mpart n personale (indicativul i subjonctivul) i nepersonale (infinitivul, p
articipiul i Gerund-ul).

FORMELE PERSONALE ALE VERBULUI (The Finite Forms of the Verb)


1.13.2. Modul Indicativ (The Indicative Mood) Modul indicativ prezint aciunea, sta
rea etc. exprimat de verb ca real ndeplinit chiar. Modul indicativ are urmtoarele tim
puri, n nvecinarea lor cronologic: Pe axa trecutului: Past Past Perfect Future in t
he Past Pe axa prezentului: Present Present Perfect Future Pe axa viitorului: Fu
ture Future Perfect _ He returned the book to the library after he had read it.
A inapoiat cartea la bibliotec dup ce a citit-o. I can return the book to the libr
ary now. I have read it. Pot s napoiez cartea la bibliotec (acum). Am citit-o. He w
ill return the book to the library next Monday. He will have read it by then. Va
napoia cartea la bibliotec lunea viitoare. O va fi citit pn atunci. Not: Pentru anal
iza folosirii timpurilor, vezi & 1.5. - &1.9. 1.13.3. Modul subjonctiv (The Subj
onctive Mood). Modul subjonctiv prezint aciunea ca posibil, cnd aciunea este proiecta
t n viitor, sau ca virtual, nerealizat, deci ireal, cnd aciunea trebuia s aib loc n
. Modul subjonctiv n limba englez are forme sintetice i analitice. 1.13.4. Subjonct
ivul sintetic (The Synthetical Subjonctive). Subjonctivul sintetic are forme de
prezent i trecut. pag: 037 1.13.5. Subjonctivul prezent (The Present Subjonctive)
este identic ca form cu infinitivul scurt al verbului: It is necessary that he b
e here. It is necessary that he come in time. Este necesar ca el s fie aici. Este
necesar ca el s vin la timp. Subjonctivul prezent exprim o aciune considerat posibil,
deci nu contrar realitii. Subjonctivul prezent este puin folosit n engleza contempor
an, fiind de obicei nlocuit de alte contrucii: subjonctivul analitic, infinitivul. n
trebuinrile lui sunt limitate la: 1) propoziii principale coninnd: a) urri: Long live
peace! Triasc pacea! b) anumite expresii, n construcii fixe (Formulaic Subjonctive):
So be it then! Aa s fie! Suffice it to sauy that... Este de ajuns s spun c...

2) propoziii subordonate introduse de that, cnd propoziia principal exprim o recomand


are, decizie, rugminte, speran sau intenie pentru viitor ori un sentiment de surprin
dere (Mandative Subjonctive). Astfel subjonctivul sintetic este folosit n urmtoare
le tipuri de propoziii subordonate: a) n propoziii subiective: It is necessary that
the chairman inform the committee of the decision. Este necesar ca preedintele s
informeze comitetul asupra deciziei. b) n propoziii atributive apropoziionale: Ther
e was a proposal that he be elected peace chairman. Exista o propunere ca el s fi
e ales preedinte. c) n propoziii completive directe: They suggested that steps be t
aken to consolidate peace and security in Europe. S-a propus luarea de msuri pent
ru consolidarea pcii i securitii n Europa. d) n propoziii condiionale sau concesive i
oduse de o conjuncie: If this rumour be true, we cannot stay here. Dac acest zvon
e cumva adevrat nu putem rmne aici. Though everyone desert you, I will not. Chiar d
ac lumea te va prsi, eu nu o voi face. Folosirea subjonctivului prezent este caract
eristic stilului oficial, fiind ntlnit n tratate, rezoluii, regulamente sau n stilul t
hnico-tiinific. Subjonctivul prezent este mai frecvent folosit n engleza american (l
iterar i vorbit). Engleza britanic curent prefer construcii cu: a) infinitivul: It is
ecessary for him to come in time. b) should + infinitivul: They suggest that ste
ps should be taken. 1.13.6. Subjonctivul trecut (The Past Subjonctive). Subjonct
ivul trecut coincide ca form cu Past Tense simplu, modul indicativ: I wish he tol
d the truth. A dori s spun adevrul. Verbul be are o form unic pentru toate persoanele
: were: I wish he/they were here. n vorbirea curent ns, exist tendina de a-l nlocui pe
were cu was la persoana I i a III-a singular: If he were/was ill, I would send fo
r the doctor. Dac ar fi bolnav, a trimite dup doctor. Forma de subjonctiv trecut po
ate fi folosit i la aspectul continuu. Ea conine n structura sa forma were urmat de p
articipiul n -ing al verbului de conjugat: I wish he were revising for his exam n
ow. A dori s repete pentru examen acum. pag: 038 Subjonctivul trecut este folosit n
propoziii subordonate, pentru a exprima o aciune contrar realitii: a) n propoziii sub
ective, dup its (high) time: Its time you went to bed. E de mult timpul s v ducei la c
ulcare (Este foarte trziu). Not: Comparai cu: Its time + infinitiv: Its time for you
to go bed. E timpul s v ducei la culcare. (E ora de culcare). b) n completive direct
e, dup verbul wish: I wish you were telling the truth. A dori s spui adevrul. c) n pr
opoziii condiionale: If I saw him, I would give him your message. Dac l-a vedea i-a t
ransmite mesajul tu. d) n circumstaniale de mod comparative: She talked as if she w
ere ill. Vorbea de parc era bolnav. e) n propoziii concesive: Even though he were il
l, he would not miss school. Chiar dac ar fi bolnav, n-ar lipsi de la coal. Subjonc
tivul trecut este utilizat att n stilul literar ct i n limba vorbit. El este confundat
de obicei cu Past Tense, cu care este identic ca form.

Not: n capitolele de sintax a frazei s-a folosit termenul de Past Tense i nu de subj
onctiv trecut n discuia propoziiilor subordonate n care apare aceast form, pentru simp
lificare i uurarea memorrii. 1.13.7. Subjonctivul II trecut. Forma de mai-mult-ca-p
erfect a indicativului are i valoare de subjonctiv perfect, cnd exprim o aciune cont
rar unei realiti trecute, deci ireal, n unele propoziii subordonate: a) n propoziii c
letive directe, dup verbul wish: I wish I had been there too. (but I wasnt). A fi d
orit s fiu i eu acolo. b) n circumstaniale de mod comparative: He talkes as if he ha
d seen her. Vorbea de parc ar fi vzut-o. c) n propoziii condiionale: If he had read t
he book, he would have written a better term paper. Dac ar fi citit cartea ar fi
scris o tez mai bun. 1.13.8. Subjonctivul analitic (The Analytical Subjonctive). n
limba englez contemporan exist tendina de a folosi subjonctivul analitic, mai frecve
nt dect subjonctivul sintetic, pentru a exprima fapte sau aciuni ipotetice, sub fo
rma unor presupuneri, ndoieli, urri, condiii, concesii sau a unui scop. Formele sub
jonctivului analitic conin n structura lor verbe modale urmate de verbe noionale la
infinitiv. (prezent sau perfect). Exist mai multe posibiliti de exprimare a subjon
ctivului analitic (cu o form unic pentru toate persoanele): should + infinitiv : s
hould leave should + infinitivul perfect : should have left would + infinitiv :
would leave would + infinitivul perfect : would have left may + infinitiv : may
leave may + infinitivul perfect : may have left might + infinitiv : might leave
might + infinitivul perfect : might have left could + infinitiv : could leave co
uld + infinitivul perfect : could have left pag: 040 Formele de subjonctiv alctui
te din verbe modale urmate de infinitivul prezent se refer la o aciune simultan sau
posterioar aciunii din propoziia principal, pe cnd cele urmate de infinitivul perfec
t redau o aciune anterioar aciunii din propoziia principal. Atenie! Dei conin verbe m
le, formele subjonctivului analitic i-au pierdut n multe cazuri nelesul modal, verbe
le modale devenind simple verbe auxiliare: He left early so that he might arrive
in time. A plecat devreme ca s ajung la timp. 1.13.9. ntrebuinarea subjonctivului a
nalitic. Formele de subjonctiv analitic sunt folosite att n propoziiile principale,
ct i n propoziiile subordonate. Folosirea acestor forme n propoziiile principale este
limitat de obicei la exprimarea unor urri , n expresii fixe, sau pentru exprimarea
ideii de condiional: May he live long! I should like to go now. Formele subjonct
ivului analitic (mai ales should + infinitiv) sunt mai frecvente n propoziiile sub
ordonate (n special cele introduse de that), pentru a exprima o aciune posibil, pre
supus, pentru a sublinia ideea de aciune i nu aciunea propriu-zis sau ndeplinirea ei,
care sunt redate prin indicativ.

Comparai: The idea is that sport facilities should be improved. Ideea este s se mbu
nteasc baza material pentru sport. (Aceasta se poate ntmpla sau nu). The fact is that
port facilities will be improved. Faptul este c baza material pentru sport va fi mb
untit. (Aceasta se va ntmpla). 1.13.10. Should + infinitivul. Should + infinitivul est
e folosit: 1) n propoziii principale, n alctuirea formelor de condiional prezent i tre
cut: a) Should + infinitivul prezent este utilizat pentru a reda condiionalul pre
zent n limba englez, la persoana I singular i plural: I/we should like to see him.
A/Am dori s-l vedem. Not: n vorbirea curent exist tendina de a folosi would n loc de
uld: I/We would like to see him. b) Should + infinitivul perfect este folosit cu
funcie de condiional trecut la persoana I singular i plural: I/We should have like
d to see him. i aici este prezent tendina de a nlocui should cu would: I/We would ha
ve liked to see him. c) Tot n propoziii principale, should + infinitivul este folo
sit pentru exprimarea unei atitudini emoionale, n ntrebri ncepnd cu why sau how: Why s
hould we quarrel about such a trifle? De ce s ne certm pentru un asemenea fleac ?
2) n propoziii subordonate: a) n propoziii subiective introduse it is/was necessary,
strnge, unusual, important, impossible, natural, (un)fortunate, remarkable, sup
rising etc.: It is necessary that the chairman should inform the committee of th
e decision taken. Este necesar ca preedintele s informeze comitetul despre decizia
luat. pag: 040 b) n propoziii subiective introduse de it/was a pity, shame, surpri
se, wonder: It is wonder that they should come so early. E o minune ca ei s vin aa
devreme. c) n propoziiile atributive apoziionale, dup substantivele reason, supposit
ion, though, idea, hint: This is no reason why he should be late. Aceasta nu est
e un motiv pentru care s ntrzie. d) n propoziiile completive directe dup verbe care ex
prim un ordin, o sugestie, o hotrre: order, command, demand, request, insist, sugge
st, propose, offer, arrange, agree, settle: They demanded that the meeting shoul
d be held without delay. Au cerut ca edina s fie inut fr ntrziere. e) n propoziii
e prepoziionale dup adjective ca: I am glad, pleased, anxious, sorry etc., care re
dau sentimentele vorbitorului: She was anxious that they should see her dancing.
Era nerbdtoare ca ei s o vad dansnd. f) n propoziii condiionale, pentru exprimarea u
condiii puin probabile: If he should come, tell him to wait in the room. Dac vine
cumva/se ntmpl s vin, spune-i s atepte n camera de zi. g) n propoziii circumstania
ip negative introduse de lest, for fear (that), in case (that), urmate de un ver
b la forma afirmativ: He hurried for fear he should be late. Se grbea de fric s nu ntr
zie. h) n propoziii concesive introduse de though, although, whatever pentru a exp
rima o aciune ipotetic: Whatever he should do, he is not likely to succeed. Orice
ar face nu are anse s reueasc. i) n propoziii subordonate temporale (rar): He was advi
sed to keep a diet till he should feel better. A fost sftuit s in regim pn se va simi
ai bine.

pag: 040 1.13.11. May/might + Infinitivul. Subjonctivul analitic exprimat prin m


ay/might + infinitivul prezent sau perfect este folosit: 1) n propoziii principale
, pentru a exprima o urare, dorin: May you live long ! S trieti muli ani ! Oh, that he
might recover soon ! O, de s-ar nsntoi repede ! 2) n propoziii subordonate. Atenie! D
c verbul din propoziia principal este la un timp prezent, n propoziia subordonat se po
ate folosi may sau might + infinitiv (perfect). Utilizarea lui might + infinitiv
indic o nesiguran mai mare dect may: It is possible that he may come later. Este po
sibil / Se poate s vin mai trziu. It is possible that he might come later. S-ar put
ea s vin mai trziu. Might + infinitivul este ntrebuinat ntotdeauna dup un verb trecut
propoziia principal: He spoke loudly so that everybody might hear him. A vorbit ta
re ca sl aud toat lumea. May/might + infinitivul (prezent sau perfect) este folosit
n urmtoarele tipuri de propoziii subordonate: pag: 041 a) n propoziii subiective int
roduse de it is/was possible, probable, likely, la forma afirmativ: It was possib
le that they might have visited the Exhibition the day before. Era posibil ca ei
s fi vizitat expoziia cu o zi nainte. Not: La forma interogativ sau negativ, aceste c
onstrucii sunt urmate de should + infinitiv: Was is possible that should have vis
ited the Exhibition alread ? Era pozibil ca ei s fi vizitat deja expoziia ? b) n pr
opoziii completive prepoziionale dup be afraid: : He was afraid I might turn down h
is offer. Se temea s nu-i resping oferta. c) n propoziii circumstaniale de scop intr
oduse de conjunciile that, so that, in order that: She repeated the explanation s
o that de pupils might understand the lesson better. A repetat explicaia ca elevi
i s neleag mai bine lecia. d) n propoziii concesive introduse de though, although, wha
ever, however, no matter etc., pentru a reda o aciune nesigur, presupus: However ti
redhe might be, he must come down and talk to us. Orict de obosit ar fi, trebuie
s coboare s vorbeasc cu noi. 1.13.12. Would + infinitivul. Subjonctivul analitic ex
primat prin would + infinitivul prezent sau perfect este utilizat: 1) n propoziii
principale, pentru construirea formelor de condiional: a) condiionalul prezent, la
toate persoanele, este format din would + infinitivul prezent: They would like
to come now. Ei ar dori s vin acum.

b) would + infinitivul perfect este ntrebuinat pentru formarea condiionalului trecu


t la toate persoanele: They would have liked to come now. Ei ar dori s vin acum. 2
) n propoziii subordonate: a) n propoziii completive directe, dup verbul wish, pentru
a exprima o aciune dorit, dar avnd puine anse de realizare n viitor: I wish he would
lend me his book. (but I dont think he will). A dori s-mi mprumute cartea (dar nu cr
ed c o va face).b) n propoziii circumstaniale de scop intr5oduse de so that: She kep
t the food in the oven so that they would eat it hot. A inut mncarea n cuptor ca so mnnce cald. 1.13.13. Could + infinitivul. Could + infinitivul este folosit de obi
cei n Could + infinitivul. circumstaniale de scop, ca o alternativ a lui may/might
+ infinitivul. Deosebirea dintre cele dou construcii este urmtoarea: may/might este
mai formal i indic un grad mai mare de nesiguran; could este utilizat n vorbire i ind
ic un grad mai mare de nesiguran; could este utilizat n vorbire i indic de obicei o ac
une real: She sent him money so that he could buy the dictionary. Ia trimis bani
ca s poat cumpra / s cumpere dicionarul. 1.13.14. Subjonctivul sau indicativul. n unel
e din situaiile de mai sus n care se ntrebuineaz subjonctivul analitic se poate folos
i i indicativul. Acesta este utilizat de obicei cnd aciunea este menionat ca un faptr
eal i nu ca o presupunere; Its a pity you have missed such an opportunity. E pcat c
ai pierdut o asemenea ocazie. (Se subliniasz ideea de a pierde o asemenea ocazie)
. Not: Pentru analiza mai detaliat a folosirii modurilor i timpurilor n propoziiile s
ubordonate, vezi Sintaxa frazei, & 25.4. - &25.17. pag: 042 1.14. Formele nepers
onale ale verbului (The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb) 1.14.1. Formele nepersonal
e ale verbului n limba englez sunt infinitivul, participiul n -ing, forma Gerund (g
erunziul) i participiul trecut. Formele nepersonale ale verbului nu au categoriil
e gramaticale de mod, persoan i numr i nu pot ndeplini n propoziie funcia de predicat
unele situaii ns ele pot forma construcii cu caracter predicativ n care forma verbal s
e afl ntrun raport predicativ implicit fa de elementul nominal: Father coming home e
arly, we went for a walk. Tata venind devreme acas, ne-am dus la plimbare. The pr
eparations for the exam completed, the candidates were allowed to enter the exam
ination room. Pregtirile pentru examen (fiind) terminate, li s-a permis candidailo
r s intre n sala de examen. Formele nepersonale ale verbului cu att caracteristici
verbale, ct i caracteristici nominale.

1.14.2. Caracteristicile verbale comune cu cele ale formelor nepersonale sunt: a


) Formele nepersonale ale verbului au tradiional categoria de timp, diatez iar inf
initivul are i categoria de aspect. b) pe plan sintactic, pot avea subiect (formnd
construcii predicative implicite), complement direct (dup verbe tranzitive) sau c
omplemente circumstaniale, ca i forme personale: I can imagine them worrying about
it. mi imaginez c-i fac probleme despre acest lucru. Having read the book, she ret
urned it to the library. Dup ce a citit cartea a napoiat-o la bibliotec. We noticed
some pupils running in the playground. Am observat civa elevi alergnd n curtea colii
. 1.14.3. Pe lng aceste caracteristici verbale, infinitivul i Gerund-ul au i caracte
ristici substantivale, datorit crora ele pot ndeplini n propoziie i funcii specifice s
bstantivului, iar participiul are i caracteristici adjectivale, datorit crora se po
ate comporta ca un adjectiv n propoziie: To see her again was his only desire. S-o
vad din nou era singura lui dorin. Running is good for you. Crosul i face bine. He w
ould add stamp after stamp to his growing collection of old Romanian stamps. Adug
a timbru dup timbru la colecia lui n cretere, de vechi mrci potale romneti. There is
Lost Property Office. Acolo este Biroul de obiecte gsite.

1.15. Infinitivul (The Infinitive)


1.15.1. Formele infinitivului. Infinitivul are dou forme: infinitivul lung (The L
ong Infinitive), marcat de particula to i infinitivul scurt (The Short Infinitive
), fr particula to. Not: Infinitivul cu adverb intercalat (The Split Infinitive). G
ramaticile mai menioneaz i infinitivul cu adverb intercalat, o construcie destul de
frecvent n engleza contemporan, alctuit dintr-un infinitiv lung i un adverb de mod, ae
at ntre verbul principal. De exemplu: to clearly understand = a nelege clar to full
y appreciate = a aprecia cum trebuie to flaty refuse = a refuza categoric etc Th
ey came to fully realize the importance of the event. Au ajuns s-i dea seama pe de
plin de importana evenimentului. 1.15.2. Caracteristicile verbele ale infinitivul
ui. a) Infinitivul are categoriile gramaticale de timp (prezent i perfect), aspec
t (simplu i continuu) diateza (activ i pasiv). Infinitivul (timp, aspect, diatez) Tim
pul Prezent Aspectul continuu Diateza activ wash Diateza pasiv be washed Aspectul
continuu Diateza activ be washing

a spla Perfect have washed a fi splat


a fi splat
a spla
have been have been washed washing a fi fost splat a fi splat
1.15.3. Caracteristicile substantivale ale infinitivului n proproziie, infinitivul
ndeplinete de regul funciile unui substantiv. Infinitivul este folosit: 1) la nceput
ul propoziiei: a) cu funcie de subiect: To err is human. A grei este omenesc. Not: n
vorbirea curent, subiectul exprimat printr-un infinitiv este anticipat de pronume
le it: It is quite easy to learn English. Este destul de uor s nvei englezete. b) ca
element independent n propoziie, n construcii parentetice: to be sure, to put it mil
dly, to speak frankly, to tell the truth etc.: To tell the truth, I dont like him
. 2) dup substantive ndeplinind funcia de atribut: He is not the man to do it. El n
u este omul (care) s fac acest lucru. New blocks of flats will be built in this ar
ea in the years to come. n anii ce vor veni se vor construi noi blocuri de locuine
n aceast zon. Nota: Unele dintre aceste substantive provin din verbele de la 1.15.
3., pct.6: attempt, decision, intention, wish etc.: He announced his decision to
resign. i-a anunat hotrrea de a demisiona. 3) dup verbe modale, ca parte a predicatu
lui: a) infinitivul lung, dup: ought (to), have (to), be (to), used (to) i uneori
dup dare i need (vezi 1.20.5. i 1.20.11.), ca parte a predicatului: We have to get
up early every day. Trebuie s ne sculm devreme n fiecare zi. b) infinitivul scurt,
dup can, may, must, need, dare, shall/should, will/would: You should see a doctor
. Ar trebui s mergi la doctor. 4) dup verbe copulative (n special be), ndeplinind fu
ncia de nume predicativ: To see her is to like her. A o vedea nseamn a o plcea. 5) c
a o complinire a unor adjective care exprim stri sufleteti, folosite predicativ: af
raid, certain, content, eager, glad, pleased sorry, sure, wrong etc.: He is eage
r to help you. Este dornic s te ajute. Im very glad to have seen them. Sunt foarte
bucurod c i-am vzut. 6) dup verbe tranzitive: arrange, attempt, decide, learn, off
er, promise, refuse, want, wish etc. ndeplinind funcia de complement direct. a) si
ngure: They have decided to repeat the experiment. Au hotrt s repete experiena. b) n
construcia Acuzativ cu infinitiv, dup verbe exprimnd o activitate mintal (believe, c
onsider, think etc.), permisiunea (allow, permit), un ordin sau o

rugminte (order, command, request, beg, ask etc.): We requested them to complete
the survey. Le-am cerut s termine ancheta. pag: 044 c) Atenie! Dup verbele de perce
pie: hear, see, watch, notice, observe, perceive i dup have, let i make n construcia A
cuzativ cu infinitiv (vezi 18.3.1.) se folosete infinitivul scurt: I heard them c
ome. I-am auzit venind. I made her work harder. Am fcut-o s munceasc mai mult. Not:
1. Verbul notice poate fi urmat i de infinitivul cu to: I noticed them (to) come.
I-am observat venind. 2. Verbele de la pct.6 c)sunt urmate de infinitivul cu to
n transformarea pasiv a construciei Acuzativ cu infinitiv - Nominativ cu infinitiv
: They were heard to come. She was made to work harder. 7) n construcia Infinitivu
l cu for - to: They were anxious for her to begin her song. Erau nerbdtori ca ea s-i
nceap cntecul. 8) n construcia Nominativ cu infinitiv: They were requested to comple
te the survey. Li s-a cerut s termine ancheta. 9) dup verbe tranzitive sau intranz
itive, ndeplinind funcia de complement circumstanial de scop: I came to talk to you
. Am venit (ca) s stau de vorb cu tine. Not: Infinitivul cu funcie de complement cir
cumstanial de scop poate fi precedat de in order to, so as to: He repetead the ne
w words everyday 9in order) not to forget them. Repeta cuvintele noi n fiecare zi
ca s nu le uite. 10) pentru a nlocui o propoziie subordonat, precedat de un pronume
/adverb interogativ, sau de o conjuncie: Show me where to go (= where I must go).
He has told me what to buy (= what I must buy). how to do it. (= how I should d
o it). Not:1. Verbul know cu sensul de a ti cum s ... este urmat de how+infinitiv: Sh
e knows how to captivate her audience. tie cum s-i captiveze auditoriul. 2. Forget,
learn i teach sunt folosite n mod similar: She taught me how to catch butterflies
. M-a nvat cum s prind fluturi. 11) Particula to poate fi folosit pentru a nlocui un v
erb care a fost deja menionat: A: Lets go. B: I dont want to. A: Hai s mergem. B: Nu
vreau (s mergem). She bought the book although I had told her not to. Ea a cumpra
t cartea dei i-am spus s n-o cumpere. 1.15.4. Traducere. Infinitivul se traduce de
obicei n limba romn printr-o propoziie subordonat: I want to see her. Vreau s-o vd. H
e could come. A putut s vin.
1.16. Forma n -ing (The -ing Form)

1.16.1. Forma n -ing reprezint dou forme verbale distincte: participiul n -ing i Geru
nd-ul. Acestea au form identic, putnd fi difereniate numai dup funciile pe care le nde
linesc n propoziie, pe baza determinrilor pe care le au. Forma n -ing se construiete
din infinitivul verbului de conjugat, la care se adaug terminaia -ing: read + -ing
= reading; writw + -ing = writing; cry = -ing = crying; lie + -ing =lying; sit
+ -ing = sitting. (Pentru ortografierea acestei forme verbale, vezi 1.10.5.). pa
g: 045 Funciile ndeplinite de cele dou forme verbale deriv din caracteristicile lor:
participiul n -ing are caracteristici verbale i adjectivale: He is sleeping. El d
oarme. The sleeping child. Copilul care doarme. iar Gerund-ul, caracteristici ve
rbale i substantivale: We had the adavantage of working in a factory near our sch
ool. Am avut avantajul s lucrm ntr-o fabric lng coala noastr. Working in a factory is
eful for our future careers. Munca n fabric este folositoare pentru viitoarea noas
tr profesiune. 1.16.2. Participiul n -ing sau participiul prezent (the -ing Partci
ple, the Present Participle) exprim o aciune n desfurare sau o stare nelegate de un a
gent prin categoriile de persoan sau numr. 1.16.3. Caracteristicile verbale ale pa
rticipiului n -ing. a) Participiul n -ing are categoriile gramaticale de timp i dia
tez: Participiul n -ing (timp i diatez) Timp Diatez activ Present participle reading P
articipiul Prezent citind Present Participle having read Participiul Perfect cit
ind
pasiv being read fiind citit heaving been read fiind citit
Participiul prezent exprim o aciune simultan cu verbul la mod personal din propoziie
: Running across the park, he heard somebody call his name. n timp ce traversa pa
rcul n fug, a auzit pe cineva strigndu-l pe nume. Participiul perfect3 se formeaz di
n participiul prezent al verbului have din participiul trecut al verbului de con
jugat. El exprim o aciune anterioar verbului predicativ din propoziie: Having run ac
ross the park, he felt tired. Dup ce a traversat parcul n fug s-a simit obosit.

Participiul perfect (Perfect Participle) i participiul trecut (Past Participle) n


u sunt una i aceeai form verbal. Participiul perfect reprezint forma perfect a partici
piului n -ing indicnd o aciune svrit anterior aciunii exprimate de verbul predicativ:
ving finished the book, he went to bed. Deoarece / Dup ce a terminat cartea, s-a
dus la culcare. Participiul trecut reprezint alt form verbal, lipsit de categoria de
timp i care denumete aciunea ca rezultat: The furniture made in Romania is exported
to many countries. Mobila fabricat n Romnia este exportat n mute ri. Participiul trec
t intr n structura formei din participiu perfect: Having made a useful suggestion,
he had our support. Deoarece a fcut o propunere util, (el) s-a bucurat de sprijin
ul nostru.
3

b) Participiul n -ing este folosit pentru formarea aspectului continuu al verbelo


r: They are going home. Se duc acas. I was playing ches when the telephone rang.
Jucam ah cnd a sunat telefonul. c) Pe plan sintactic, participiul n -ing poate avea
subiect, complement direct (dup verbe tranzitive) i complemente circumstaniale , c
a i formele personale: I saw him reading an English book in the library. L-am vzut
citind o carte englezeasc la bibliotec. 1.16.4. Caracteristicile adjectivale ale
participiului n -ing. Parcicipiul n -ing poate fi folosit i ca adjectiv. El se aeaz na
intea substantivului, dac se accentueaz latura sa adjectival i dup substantiv, dac lat
ura verbal este mai evident: All sleeping children are beautiful (sleeping = not a
wake). Toi copii adormii sunt frumoi. The child sleeping in the next room is my bab
y brother (sleeping = who is sleeping). Copilul care doarme n camera alturat este f
riorul meu. pag: 046 1.16.5. Funciile sintactice ale participiului n -ing. Participi
ul n -ing este folosit (singur sau precedat de conjucii, n special when sau while):
1) n expresii parentetice: generally speaking = n general, judging by appearances
= judecnd dup aparene; beginning with September 15 = ncepnd cu 15 septembrie, consid
ering the circumstances = lund n considerare condiiile. Judging by appearances, nob
ody is to blame. Judecnd dup aparene nimeni nu este vinovat. 2) ca nume predicativ,
dup verbele stand, sit, lie: She STOOD gazing at the brightly lit shop windows.
Se uita cu admiraie la vitrinele viu luminate. 3) ca nlocuitor al unor propoziii su
bordonate, ndeplinind n propoziie funcia de: a) atribut: She looked at the children
playing in the garden (= who were playing): Se uita la copii care se jucau n grdin.
b) parte dintr-un complement direct complex (Acuzativ cu participiu n -ing): She
heard somebody knocking at the door. (= that somebody was knocking). A auzit pe
cineva btnd la u. c) complement circumstanial, mai ales de: - timp: Arriving at the
station, he started looking for his friend (= when he arrived...) Sosind la gar,
a nceput s-i caute prietenul. - cauz: Having read the book, he was able to comment o
n ir. (= As he had read the book...) Deaorece citise cartea, a putut s o comentez
e. - mprejurri nsoitoare: She came out of the room wearing a long evening dress. (Sh
e came out... She was wearing...) A ieit din camer purtnd o rochie lung de sear. Not:
Exprimarea complementului circumstanial printr-un participiu n -ing este o trstur car
acteristic englezei literare. n vorbire se refer propoziiile subordonate (Vezi paran
tezele).

1.16.6. Traducere. Participiul n -ing se traduce n limba romn printr-un gerunziu sau
printr-o propoziie subordonat: Passing the shop, he saw his mother inside. Trecnd
/ n timp ce trecea prin faa magazinului, o vzu pe mama sa nuntru.
1.17. Forma -ing ca Gerund (The Gerund)

1.17.1. Caracteristicile verbale ale formei Gerund. Gerund are, la fel ca i parti
cipiul n -ing, caracteristici verbale: a) are categoriile gramaticale de timp i di
atez: Diateza activ: Gerund: I enjoy learning English. mi place s nv engleza. Perfect
erund: He denies having taken the books. Neag c a luat crile. pag: 047 Diateza pasiv:
Gerund: He cant stand being interrupted. Nu poate suferi s fie ntrerupt. Perfect G
erund: He denies having been invited to the party. Neag c a fost invitat la petrec
ere. Gerund denumete de regul o aciune simultan cu aciunea verbului predicativ (cu ex
cepia situaiilor n care Gerund-ul este precedat de prepoziia before sau after). The
teacher enjoyed taking the children to the museum last Sunday. Profesorului i-a
fcut plcere s-i duc pe copii la muzeu duminica trecut. Forma perfect (Perfect Gerund)
denumete o aciune anterioar verbului predicativ. Aceast form este mai rar folosit dect
Gerund i ea apare mai ales dup verbul deny: He DENIES having seen her. Neag c a vzuto. n cazul altor verbe, mai ales remember, excuse, forgive, thank i dup prepoziiile
on, after, without, raportul de anterioritate poate fi exprimat i de Gerund. I ca
nt remember doing this exercise before. I cant remember having done this exercise
before. Nu -mi amintesc s mai fi fcut acest exerciiu. I thanked him for helping me.
I thanked him for having helped. I-am mulumit c m-a ajutat. Not: Sensul pasiv al G
erund-ului este redat de obicei prin forma pasiv: The children enjoied being take
n to the museum. Copiilor le-a fcut plcere s fie dui la muzeu. Dup verbele want, need
, require, deserve, i dup adjectivul worth se folosete ns Gerund-ul activ pentru reda
rea sensului pasiv: Your shoes NEED mending. Trebuie s-i repari pantofii / Pantofi
i ti trebuie reparai. What is WORTH doing is WORTH doing well. Ce merit fcut merit fcu
t bine.

b) Pe plan sintactic, Gerund poate avea subienct, complement direct n cazul verbe
lor tranzitive, complemente circumstaniale: I cant imagine him driving a car in th
is weather. Nu mi-l imaginez conducnd maina pe o asemenea vreme. 1.17.2. Caracteri
sticile substantivale ale formei Gerund. Spre deosebire de participiul n -ing, ca
re are i caracteristici adjectivale, Gerund are i caracteristici substantivale: a)
poate fi determinat de articole, adjective, substantive la cazul genitiv sintet
ic: The sound of a loud knocking on the door interrupted their discussion. The s
ound of her coming in interrupted their discussion. The sound of a babys crying i
nterrupted their discussion. Not: Dac un verb tranzitiv + complementul su direct es
te folosit la Gerund precedat de un articol, complementul direct se transform ntrun atribut prepoziional cu of. Comparai: The stranghening of peace and security in
Europe is an essential prerequisite for strengthening peace and security throug
hout the world. ntrirea pcii i securtii n Europa este o condiie esenial pentru nt
ecuritii n ntreaga lume. pag: 048 The writting of books takes a great deal of time.
Writting books takes a great deal of time. Scrierea crilor ia foarte mult timp. b)
este ntrebuinat dup prepoziii: AFTER walking for an hour, we went to the cinema. Du
p ce ne-am plimbat o or, ne-am dus la cinema. He is in the habit OF going fishing
every week. Are obiceiul / Obinuiete s mearg la pescuit n fiecare sptmn. c) pe plan
ctic, Gerund-ul ndeplinete funcii proprii substantivului 1) subiect: Camping is the
ideal way to spend a holiday. Not: Subiectul exprimat prin Gerund este adeseori
introdus de un it anticipativ: Its no good worring. Its hopeless trying to get thi
s car going. 2) parte dintr-un predicat verbal, dup verbele indicnd nceputul begin,
start; continuarea: continue, go on, keep (on) i sfnitul aciunii: stop, end, finish
, cease: He BEGAN searching for the document. He WENT ON searching for the docum
ent. He FINISCHED searching for the document. 3) nume predicativ (rar): Seeing i
s document.

4) complement direct: Fancy meeting you here ! 5) parte dintr-un complement prep
oziional: He was succeeded in collecting all the material. 6) parte dintr-un comp
lement complex: I can imagine her getting upset. I can imagine Marys getting upse
t. 7) parte dintr-un complement circumstanial (precedat de o prepoziie care indic i
felul complementului: - de timp: After cycling douwn the avenue, he turned right
. - de mod: He won the competition by quessing all the answers. 8) parte dintr-u
n atribut prepoziional: I had the pleasure of travelling with them. 1.17.3. ntrebu
inarea formei Gerund 1) Forma Gerund este folosit: a) dup prepoziii ca after, before
, by, for, from, on etc., care indic relaii temporale, cauzale, de mod, de scop, e
tc.: ON waking up, he found himself in a hospital ward. Cnd s-a trezit s-a vzut ntr
-un salon de spital. Read your paper again BEFORE handing it in. Citete nc o dat luc
rarea nainte s o predai. Youll get a ticket FOR parking here. Ai s primeti amend pentr
u c ai parcat aici. She keeps healthy BY keeping a strict diet. i menine sntatea innd
regim strict. b) dup pri de vorbire urmate n mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziii: substantive cu prepoziie obligatorie: - doubt + about; - cause, reason + for; be
lief, confidence, delight, difficulty, experience, faith, interest, luck, pride
+ in; charge, favour, habit, hope, intention, opportunity, point + of; - contrib
ution, objection, opposition + to; etc. He has a lot of EXPERIENCE IN foreign la
nguage teaching. Are mult experien n predarea limbii strine. pag: 049 - adjective i pa
rticipii trecute cu prepoziie obligatorie: - angry, anxious, certain, enthusiasti
c, happy, optimistic, pleased, sure, worried + about; - angry, astonished, bad,
clever, delighted, expert, good, pleased, skiful, surprised + at; excellent, fam
ous, responsible, sorry, suitable, useful + for; - consistent, correct, diligent
, experienced, expert, fortunate, helpful, interested, late, prompt, quick, cons
cious, convinced, fond, guilty, proud, tired + of; - based, dependent, intent, k
een + on; - accustomed, equal, equivalent, opposed, used + to; - annoyed, bored,
content, delighted, furious, disappointed, happy, pleased, satisfied, sick, ups
et + with. I am DELIGHTED AT her winning the first prize. Sunt ncntat c a ctigat prem
iul nti. I am USED TO getting up early. Sunt obinuit s m scol devreme.

- verbe cu prepoziie obligatorie: - complain, dream, learn, worry + about; - aim,


hesitate +; - fight, struggle + against; - begin, conclude, end + by; - apologi
ze, care + for; - prevent, recover. refrain, retire + from; - believe, consist,
delight, participate, succeed + in; - accuse, approve, boast, complain, consit,
hear, think + of; - agree, concentrate, congratulate, count, decide, focus, insi
st, live, rely + on; - agree, contribute, look forward, object, resort + to; - a
gree + with. I dont AGREE TO your leaving earlier than the others. I OBJECT TO yo
ur leaving earlier than the others. Nu sunt de acord s pleci mai devreme dect ceil
ali. I wont HEAR OF buying a new TV set. Nu vreau s aud s cumprm un televizor nou. Im
OOKING FORWARD TO seeing you again. Atept cu nerbdare s te vd din nou. These measure
s CONTRIBUTE TO strengthening peace and security. Aceste msuri contribuie la ntrire
a pcii i securitii. 2) Gerund este ntrebuinat dup substantivul use n contrucia it is
se sau there is no use i dup adjectivul worth: This book is WORTH reading. Aceast c
arte merit citit. ITS NO USE trying to mend the vacuum-cleaner. Degeaba ncerci s repa
ri aspiratorul. 3) dup verbe tranzitive: admit, avoid, consider, deny, detest, di
slike, escape, fancy, finish, give up, cannot help, keep (on), dont mind, miss, p
ostpone, practise, put off, resent, resist, risk, cannot stand, stop, suggest et
c. You must AVOID being late in future. Trebuie s evii s ntrzii n viitor. He HAS GIVEN
UP smoking. S-a lsat de fumat. I CANNOT HELP laughing at his jokes. Nu pot s nu rd
la glumele lui. I CANNOT STAND being interrupted in my work. Nu pot suferi s fiu
ntrerupt din lucru. 4) dup verbe exprimnd o activitate mintal: forget, remember, un
derstand etc sau o stare sufleteasc: cannot bear, dread, hate, like, love, neglec
t, prefer, regret, etc. n alternan cu infinitivul: I remember being disappointed. mi
amintesc c am fost dezamgit. I HATE their arriving late. Nu-mi place c ntrzie. 5) du
p verbe indicnd un proces: plan, try, undertake; nceputul: begin, start; continuare
a: continue sau sfritul aciunii: cease, n alternan cu infinitivul. They STARTED compar
ing notes. They CONTINUED comparing notes. They CEASED comparing notes. pag: 050
1.17.4. Traducere. Forma Gerund nu are corespondent perfect n limba romn. Ea se tr
aduce de obicei, n funcie de context, prin: a) un gerunziu: He ented his speech by
thanking everybody for their attention. ia ncheiat cuvntarea mulumind tuturor pentr
u atenie. b) un substantiv: Swimming keeps you fit. notul te menine n form. c) o prop
oziie subordonat: He is fond of reading aloud. i place s citeasc cu glas tare.

1.17.5. Infinitivul cu to i forma Gerund. Infinitivul cu to i forma Gerund au unel


e caracteristici substastantivale i verale comune, datorit crora: a) pot avea: - su
biect: I want you to go first. I cant stand Tom interrupting me all the time; - c
omplement direct: I intend to read this tomorrow. I remember spending a holiday
with them. - complement circumstanial: We wanted to go to the theatre. He had the
benefit of studying at a Romanian university. b) pot ndeplini acelelai funcii n pro
poziie: - subiect, nume predicativ: To see her is to like her. Seeing is believin
g. - complement direct: I love to swim in the sea. I love swimming. - atribut pr
epoziional: He has no desire to go. He has no intention of going etc. n alte cazur
i ns, numai una din cele dou forme este posibil. Vom analiza deci cazurile: 1) cnd se
folosete numai infinitivul; 2) cnd se folosete numai forma Gerund; 3) cnd se poate
folosi sau infinitivul sau Gerund-ul i care sunt diferenele de sens. 1.17.6. Folos
irea infinitivului cu to este obligatorie: a) dup verbele enumerate la &1.15.3. p
ct. 6: arange, ask, attempt, choose, decide, demand etc. + agree, aim, consent,
determine, hope, manage, etc.: They DECIDED to make another attempt. They AGREED
to make another attempt. They CONSENTED to make another attempt. b) dup verbe, s
ubstantive sau adjective, pentru a exprima scopul: We hurried to explored the ca
ve. We had no time explored the cave. We found it exciting explored the cave. c)
n construcia Acuzativ cu infinitiv, dup verbe care exprim un ordin sau o rugminte: H
e ORDERED us to leave immediately. He REQUESTED us to leave immediately. He ASKE
D us to leave immediately. 1.17.7. Folosirea formei Gerund este obligatorie: a)
dup verbele enumerate la & 1.17.3. pct. 3: He AVOIDS mentioning the subject. Why
do you PUT OFF telling her the truth ? I DONT MIND doing it again. b) dup prepoziii
: BEFORE going out, switch off the lights please. He is keen ON reading poetry.
c) dup adjectivele worth, like i dup there is no: Its WORTH listening to him. THERE
IS NO accounting for tastes.

pag: 051 1.17.8. n alte situaii se poate folosi fie Infinitivul cu to i forma Gerun
d. Deosebirile principale ntre cele dou forme, n anumite situaii, sunt urmtoarele: a)
Gerund indic n general, infinitivul - svrirea aciunii n anumite circumstane: Its no
to deny that I was frightened at first. Nu are rost s neg c mi=a fost team la nceput
. Its no use crying over spilt milk. b) Gerund indic o aciune anterioar verbului la
mod personal, infinitivul - o aciune viitoare: I remember giving her the parcel. m
i amintesc c i-am dat pachetul. I must remember to give her the parcel. Trebuie s
nu uit s-i dau pachetul. c) Gerund indic o aciune anterioar, infinitivul - scopul aci
unii exprimate de verbul predicativ: He stopped reading. S-a oprit din citit. He
stopped to read the advertisement. S-a oprit s citeasc reclama. d) Gerund-ul se r
efer la o aciune deliberat, infinitivul, la o aciune involuntar: She began speaking.
A nceput s vorbeasc. She began to weep. A nceput s plng, etc. Deoasebirile de ntrebui
dintre infinitiv i forma Gerund, detaliate pe verbe, sunt urmtoarele: 1.17.8. Deo
sebirile de ntrebuinare dintre infinitiv i Gerund Verb, Substantiv, Adjectiv hate,
like, dislike, prefer + Infinitiv Sens Exemplu + Gerund Sens Exemplu
remember forget
regret begin cease
- cu referire I hate to get la o anumit up earluy on ocazie: Mondays. I like to g
o to concerts conducted by Ion Voicu. aciune I must posterioar: remeber to post th
e letter. I forgot to phone her last night. aciune I regret to simultan say it was
nt cu regretul: true. aciune It began to involuntar rain while they were walking. H
e began to
aciune I hate vzut n getting up general: early. I like going to concents. aciune I re
member anterioar: posting the letter. Ill never forget seeing her dance. aciune I r
egret anterioar: saying it wasnt true. aciune He began deliberat: writing when he wa
s fifty.

realize his mistake. stop scopul He stopped aciunii: to talk to her. (= in order
to talk) continue, - frecvent n I intend to dread, fear, vorbire i n spend the inte
nd, exprimarea holidays at neglect scris the seaside. familiar: deserve, + infinit
iv His need, pasiv: statement require, needs to be want checked.
- ncetarea He stopped aciunii: talking. (He became silent). - n limba I intend scri
s, spending my literar: holidays at the seaside. Your shoes need mending.
try
mean
- construcia cu Gerund mai frecvent dect cu infinitivul pasiv: - a ncerca, Try to wr
ite - a trece a face un with your prin, a efort: left experimenta hand.(your : r
ight hand is in plaster) a I meant to - a nsemna: inteniona: tell you, but I forgo
t.
I tried writting with my left hand when I was a child.
allow, permit
+ complement indirect al persoanei: + verbul be = un moment convenabil, ocazie: n
tr-o anumit situaie:
opportunity
afraid
His coming tomorrow means mothers working extra hard today. He doesnt fr He doesnt al
low / complement allow / permit indirect: permit pupils to talking talk during d
uring tests. tests. Thjis will be I had the a good posibilitate: opportunity opp
ortunity of meeting (for you) to him. meet him. Im afraid to - n general: I cant pl
ay disturb him records here at this late as Im afraid hour. of disturbing him.

pag: 052 1.17.9.Exist i situaii n care folosirea infinitivului cu to sau a Gerund-ul


ui nu implic diferene mari de sens: a) Unele substantive, ca ambition, change, cha
rge, honour, intention, possibility, pot fi urmate fie de infinitiv, fir de of +
Gerund: We had the HONOUR OF meeting the great sinbger. Am avut onorea de a fi
prezentai marei cntree. I do not have the HONOUR to belong to this association. Nu a
m onoarea de a fi membru al acestei asociaii. She had no INTENTION OF going on th
e trip. Nu avea nici o intenie s mearg n excursie. She left at eight, with the INTEN
TION to go to bed early. A plecat la 8 cu intenia s se culce devreme. b) Unele sub
stantive, adjective sau verbe pot fi folosite uneori fr prepoziie, i atunci sunt urm
ate de un infinitiv, iar alteori cu prepoziie i atunci sunt urmate de un Gerund: S
he AGREED to come. A fost de acord s vin: I AGREE TO her coming. Sunt de acord s vi
n. We DECIDED to visit the exhibition. Am hotrt s vizitm expoziia. We DECIDED ON visit
ing the exhibition. You were quite RIGHT to refuse his offer. Ai avut dreptate si refuzi oferta. She was RIGHT IN refusing him. (Ea) a fcut bine c l-a refuzat. At
enie la urmtoarele situaii care prezint deseori dificulti pentru elevii romni: a) mana
e + infinitiv; succeed + in + Gerund; He MANAGED to set everything right, dar: H
e SUCCEEDED IN setting everything right. b) aim + infinitiv; aim + at + Gerund:
This book AIMS to give description of the structure of present - day English. Th
is book AIMS AT giving description of the structure of present - day English. c)
occasion + infinitiv; opportunity + of + Gerund: I hope I wont have OCCASION (=
reason for / need to) to punish you. Sper c nu voi avea motive s te pedepsesc. If
I have OCCASION to meet him, Ill give him your message. Dac am motiv s-l ntlnesc, am
s-i transmit mesajul tu. If I have an OPPORTUNITY OF meeting him, Ill him your mess
age. Dac se ivete vreo ocazie / Dac am pozibilitatea s-l ntlnesc am s-i transmit mesaj
l tu. d) (un)able + infintiv; (un)capable + of + Gerund: He was (UN)ABLE to do it
. He was (UN)CAPABLE OF doing it. pag: 053 1.18. Participiul trecut (The Past Pa
rticiple) 1.18.1. Participiul trecut este forma nepersonal a verbului care denumet
e aciunea ca rezultat. Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se formeaz de la in
finitiv, la care se adaug terminaia -ed: listen - listened, move - moved, carry carried, stop stopped, etc. (Pentru particilaritile fonetice i ortografice ale form
ei n -ed, vezi &1.6.3.) Pentru forma de participiu trecut a verbelor neregulate,
vezi lista principalelor verbe neregulate, pp.12 - 16.

1.18.2. Caracteristicile verbale ale participiului trecut: a) Participiul trecut


este folosit la formarea diatezei pasive, mpreun cu verbul be: Fresh fruit and ve
getables are sold here. Aici se vnd fructe i legume proaspete. b) Participiul trec
ut este ntrebuinat la formarea timpurilor perfecte ale verbelor, mpreun cu verbul au
xiliar have: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Future Perfect: Past Conditional: He
has read the book. El a citit cartea. He had read the book. El citise cartea. H
e will have read the book. El va fi citit cartea. He would have read the book. E
l ar fi citit cartea.
Not: Verbul go i mai rar come pot reda idea de perfect prezent i respectiv de mai-m
ult-ca-perfect, cu ajutorul verbului be la prezent sau Past Tense (n loc de auxil
iarul have): The plumber is come. A sosit instalatorul. The quest were gone. Mus
afirii plecaser. 1.18.3. Caracteristicile adjectivale ale participiului trecut. P
articipiul trecut are i caracteristici adjectivale, putnd funciona ca un adjectiv n
propoziie. Sublinierea, fie a naturii verbale a participiului trecut, fie a celei
adjectivale, reiese din poziia acestuia. Cnd se accentueaz caracterul verbal, part
icipiul urmeaz substantivul, funcionnd ca un nlocuitor al unei propoziii relative: Th
e things not wanted were given away (= which were not wanted). Cnd este accentuat
aspectul adjectival al participiului, el se aeaz naintea substantivului: These are
portraits of wanted persons. 1.18.4. Atenie ! Unele verbe au forme speciale pent
ru participiile trecute folosite adjectival: a) participiul unor verbe regulate
(aged, beloved, learned, cursed, blessed) i schimb pronunia, adugnd un [id] silabic: p
ag: 054 Participiul trecut He was aged.???? He was beloved ???? by his students.
He has learned ???? this lesson. Adjectiv din participiu: He is an aged ???? ma
n. Our beloved ???? country. He is a learned ???? man.
b) Unele verbe neregulate au forme la participiul trecut: una folosit ca particip
iu, cealalt ca adjectiv (care poate aprea fie singur, fie n anumite combinaii): Part
icipiu trecut: Adjectiv din participiu: The little child was beaten by the He wa
s dead-beat (mort de bigger boys. oboseal) after the days work.

We have drunk too much coffee. The steel has melted.


The tree was struck by lightning.
A drunken man is unpleasant to look at. (folosirea atributiv a adjectivului) dar i
: He was half drunk. (folosirea predicativ a adjectivului) Molten steel.gold/lava
(atributiv), pentru metale, dar: melted butter/snow.
He was grief stricken (folosit predicativ). The lawn was mown/mowed He was panic
stricken (folosit yesterday. predicativ). She has sewn/sewed a dress. He was te
rror stricken (folosit He has just shaved. predicativ). They have shourn/sheared
the sheep. He was stricken with fever. The shirt has shrunk. Mown grass/hay (do
ar atributiv) The ship has sunk. A handsewn dress. He has sown/sowed the field.
A cleanshaven man. He has spilt/spilled the milk. A shorn lamb. They have spoilt
/spoiled the child. Shrunken clothes. They have worked here. Sunken eyes. Sown s
eeds. Spilt milk. A spoilt child. Wrought iron; wrought-up nerves. 1.18.5. Funcii
le sintactice ale participiului trecut. Participiul trecut ndeplinete funciile sint
actice de: a) atribut: There is the Lost Property Office. Acolo este biroul de o
biecte gsite. b) nume predicativ: He was, impressed by her kindness. A fost impre
sionat de buntatea ei. c) parte dintr-un complement direct complex (Acuzativ cu p
articipiu trecut): I want it done immediately. Vreau ca aceasta s fie fcut imediat.
d) parte dintr-un complement circumstanial (de timp, cauz, condiie, comparaie), des
eori precedat de conjunciile when, if, as if/as though etc.: Struck with the emot
ion in his tone, she turned and looked at him.Impresionat de emoia care se simea n v
ocea lui, (ea) se ntoarse i-l privi. She kept silent AS IF puzzled by my words. Tce
a ca i cnd cuvintele mele i-ar fi strnit nedumerirea. 1.18.6. Traducere. Participiu
l trecut se traduce de obicei n limba romn printr-un participiu sau printr-o propoz
iie subordonat: He looked at the clerk bent over the papers. Privi la funcionarul a
plecat peste hrtii. The preparations for the birthday party completed, I went out
to buy a birthday cook. Dup ce am terminat pregtirile pentru aniversare, am ieit s
cumpr un tort.

pag: 055 1.18.7. Conjugarea verbului call Timpul Indicativul prezent Perfectul p
rezent Past Tense Diateza activ Aspectul Aspectul simplu continuu I call I am cal
ling I have called I have been calling I called I was calling I had been calling
I am going to be calling I shall/ will be calling I shall/will have been callin
g I be calling I should be calling etc. I should/woul d be calling I should/ I w
ould have should/woul called d have been calling Let me call ! Let me bbe Call !
calling ! Be calling ! call be calling Diateza pasiv Aspectul Aspectul simplu co
ntinuu I am called I am being called I have been called I was called I was being
called I had been called I am going to be called I shall/will be called I shall
/will have been called I be called I should be called etc. I should/woul d be ca
lled. I should/woul d have been called Let me be called ! Be called ! be called
Mai mult ca I had called perfect Viitorul I am going apropiat to call Viitorul I
shall/will simplu call Viitorul I shall/ perfect will have called Subjonctivul
I call I should call etc. Condiionalu I should/ l prezent would call Condiionalu l
trecut Imperativul
Infinitivul prezent Infinitivul have called perfect Participiul calling prezent i
Gerund Participiul i having Gerund-ul called perfect Participiul called trecut
have been have been calling called being called having been called called -

pag: 056

1.19. Verbele auxiliare (Auxiliary Verbs)


1.19.1. Verbele auxiliare au urmtoarele caracterisitici: 1) sunt golite de sens l
exical: I shall leave after he comes. Voi pleca dup ce vine el. Not: Unele verbe a
uxiliare (will/would, shall/should, may/might) pot fi folosite i ca verbe modale:
You should see this film. Trebuie s vezi filmul acesta. Alte verbe auxiliare pot
fi folosite i ca verbe noionale, avnd un sens lexical propriu n anumite contexte: I
have a book. Am o carte. Do this translation, please, will you. F te rog aceast t
raducere. 2) ndeplinesc funcia de marc a categoriilor gramaticale de diatez, mod, ti
mp, persoan i numr la verbele pe care le nsoesc: She was offered flowers. I s-au ofer
it flori. 3) nlocuiesc verbele noionale n rspunsurile scurte i ntrebrile disjunctive (
a fel ca i verbele modale): A: Do you like this book ? B: Yes, I do. He has writt
en a good composition, hasnt he ? 4) din punct de vedere al pronunrii i ortografiei,
verbele auxiliare apar adesea sub forme reduse, contrase, ele fiind de obicei n
eaccentuate n vorbire. Folosirea formelor contrase este caracteristic vorbirii cur
ente i exprimrii familiare n scris. Not: Unele forme contrase sunt caracteristice ex
primrii dialectale sau vorbirii necultivate. He aint no fool (= He is no fool) El
nu e prost deloc. Ele apar ca forme incorecte din punct de vedre gramatical n rap
ort cu limba standard. 1.19.2. Forme contrase constau n scrutarea berbelor auxili
are la forma afirmativ i a negaiei not la forma negativ: Ive got a book. I havent got
a book. O form contras poate avea mai multe valori: Hes come = He has come. Hes here
= He is here. Formele contrase ale verbelor auxiliare i modale (la afirmativ i la
negativ cu adverbul not contras) sunt urmtoarele: 1.19.2. Forme verbale contrase
Forma contras ve (ive, youve etc.) s (hes etc.) d m (Im) n loc de have 1) has 2) i
d 2) should 3) would am are Forma contras havent hadnt isnt arent wasnt werent n loc
have not had not is not are not was not were not

re (youre etc.) 1) shall ll (Ill, youll 2) will etc.) do not does not dont did not doe
snt didnt cannot could not cant must not couldnt mustnt pag: 057
shant shouldnt wont wouldnt darent neednt lets lemme aint
shall not should not will not would not dare not need not let us let me 1) am no
t 2) is not
Atenie ! Formele contrase ale verbelor auxiliare la afirmativ nu pot fi folosite:
a) n rspunsurile scurte: Has he got a new bicycle ? Yes, he has. b) n propoziii int
erogative: Shall we go to cinema ? Where did he go ? c) n partea final a ntrebrilor
disjunctivale: He wasnt there, was he ? d) cnd sunt accentuate, pentru subliniere:
He was at the conference. I did see him there. 1.19.3. Be, was/were, been (a fi
). Verbul be, Past Tense: was, were, participiul trecut been, apare n structura:
a) aspectului continuu (be + participiul prezent): Diateza activ Infinitive: be r
eading Present: He is reading. Past: He was reading. Future: He will be reading.
Conditional: He would be reading. Infinitive Perfect: Have been reading. Presen
t Perfect: He had been reading. Future Perfect: He will have been reading. Condi
tional Perfect: He would have been reading. Diateza pasiv I is being read. It was
being read. b) a diatezei pasive (be + participiul trecut): Infinitive: be read. Perfect Inf
initive: have been read Gerund: being read. Perfect Gerund: having been read. Pr
esent: It is read. Present perfect: It has been read. Past: It was read. Past Pe
rfect: It had been read. Future: It will be read. Future Perfect: It will have b
een read.

Conditional: It would be read.


Conditional Perfect: It would have been read.
1.19.4. Have, had, had (a avea). Verbul have, Past Tense: had, participiul trecu
t: had, apare, att la diateza activ, ct i la cea pasiv, n structura formelor perfecte:
Diateza activ Perfect Infinitive: have read Perfect Gerund: having read. Present
Perfect: He has read. Past Perfect: He had read. Future Perfect: He will have r
ead. Conditional Perfect: We would have read. Diateza pasiv have been read having
been read It has been read It had been read It will have been read It would hav
e been read
1.19.5. Shall, should Shall, Should apare: a) la ambele diateze, n structura timp
urilor viitoare, modul indicativ i ale timpurilor modului condiional, la persoana
I singular i plural: Diateza activ Future: I shall give Future Perfect: I shall ha
ve given. Conditional:I should give Conditional Perfect: I should have given Dia
teza pasiv I shall be given I shall have been given I should be given I should ha
ve been given
Not: Should + infinitiv este folosit i ca viitor-n-trecut (Future in the Past): I s
aid I should do it. Am spus c am s-o fac. b) la toate persoanele, pentru formarea
subjonctivului analitic: Its strange that they should be here now. Its strange th
at they should have been here. 1.19.6. Will, would intr n componena acelorai forme v
erbale ca i shall, should (viitor i condiional), la persoanele a II-a i a III-a sing
ular i plural, iar n vorbire, i la persoana I singular i plural: Diateza activ: Diate
za pasiv: Future: He will give. He will be given. Future Perfect: He will have gi
ven. He will have been given. Conditional: He will give. He would be given. Cond
itional Perfect: He would He would have been given. have given. Not: Would + infi
nitiv este folosit i ca viitor-n-trecut: He said be would do it. A spus c o s-o fac.

1.19.7. May, might apare n structura subjonctivului analitic, folosit mai ales n p
ropoziiile circumstaniale de scop: Hurry up, so that we may arrive in time. Grbete-t
e ca s ajungem la timp. They hurried so that they might arrive in time. S-au grbit
ca s ajung la timp. 1.19.8. Let apare n structura imperativului, persoana I i a III
-a singular i plural: Let Let Let Let me think ! us think ! him think ! them thin
k !

1.19.9. a) Do, does, forma de Past Tense did, intr n alctuirea formei interogative i
negative a verbelor noionale la timpul Present Simple, respectiv Past Tense Simp
le: Do you live in this town ? Locuieti n acest ora ? Does he work here ? Lucreaz ai
ci ? Did he attend this school ? A urmat aceast coal ? I dont like it. He doesnt unde
rstand. They didnt go. Not: 1. Verbul auxiliar be primete auxiliarul do la imperati
vul negativ: Dont be silly ! Nu fi prost(u) ! 2. Verbul have formeaz interogativul i
negativul cu ajutorul lui do n engleza vorbit i n varianta american a limbii engleze
: I dont have enough time to do this. N-am destul timp ca s fac asta. b) Do apare n
structura formei negative a modului imperativ: Dont listen to that nonsense. Dont
lets listen to that nonsense. c) Do este ntrebuinat pentru sublinierea predicatulu
i la forma afirmativ a indicativului, timpurile prezent i Past Tense i a imperativu
lui, n care situaie este accentuat: She does make all her dresses herself. ntr-adevr
i face toate rochiile singur. Do read this letter to me. Citete-mi te rog, scrisoar
ea. pag: 059 1.20. Verbele modale (Modal Verbs) 1.20.1. Verbele modale exprim ati
tudinea vorbitorului fa de enun, aciunea din cadrul acestuia fiind vzut ca posibil, pr
babil, necesar, obligatorie, de dorit etc.: It might rain later. S-a putea s plou ma
i trziu. You must meet him at the station. Trebuie s-l atepi la gar. Din punct de ved
ere al caracteristicilor formale, verbele modale englezeti se mpart n: 1) verbe noio
nale exprimnd modalitatea (want, wish, order, oblige, advise, intend, mean, prefe
r, etc.) care se comport ca celelalte verbe noionale: He

wants to see the play. Vrea s vad piesa. Dont oblige him to do this. Nu-l obliga s f
ac asta. 2) verbe modale defective (Defective Modal Verbs) (can/could, may/might,
must, have to, shall/should, will/would, ought to, be to, used to, need, dare),
care exprim de asemenea modalitatea, dar care din punct de vedere formal, prezin
t anumite caracteristici. Not: Termenul de verbe modale folosit pe parcursul lucrri
i se refer la verbele modale defective. 1.20.2. Caracteristicile verbelor modale.
Verbele modale au urmtoarele caracterisitici: a) sunt defective, adic le lipsesc
anumite forme verbale. n consecin, nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile i timpurile
. Formele pe care le au verbele modale pot fi folosite pentru redarea mai multor
timpuri i moduri. Can, may, must, need i dare, de exemplu, exprim indicativul prez
ent: I can help you. Dac ele sunt ns urmate de un adverb de timp viitor, aciunea exp
rimat de verbul la infinitiv se refer la un moment viitor: I can only help you nex
t week. Am s te pot ajuta abia sptmna viitoare. Formele aparent trecute ale verbelor
modale au valori: - de Past Tense, condiional i subjonctiv (could, would, might):
I could skate when I was a child. tiam s patinez cnd eram copil. I could help you
if you wanted me to. A putea s te ajut dac ai dori. She lent him the camera so that
he could take photos on the trip. I-am mprumutat aparatul de fotografiat ca s fac
fotografii n excursie. Not: Might poate fi folosit cu valoare de Past Tense doar n
vorbirea indirect: She said you might go. - de condiional i subjonctiv (should): I
should like to come tomorrow if you dont mind. A dori s vin mine, dac nu te deranjeaz.
He demanded we should come the next day. A cerut s venim a doua zi. - la unele f
orme care le lipsesc, verbele modale sunt nlocuite de perifraze modale, de anumit
e construcii cu sens modal (Modal Equivalents): can - be able to; must - have to;
may - be allowed to/permitted to: Present: You may go now. Poi / Ai voie s pleci
acum. Past Tense: He was allowed go to. I s-a permis / dat voie s plece. Past Per
fect: He had been allowed to go out and play before they left. I se permisese s i
as afar s se joace nainte ca ei s plece. b) nu primesc s la persoana a III-a singular
(cu excepia lui be to i have to): He must see this play. Trebuie s vad aceast pies. c
) formeaz interogativul i negativul fr ajutorul auxiliarului do/did (cu excepia lui h
ave to): Must you do this ? Trebuie s faci asta ? She cannot swim. Nu tie s noate, d
ar: Do you have to type that report ? Trebuie s dactilografiezi raportul ?

pag: 060 d) sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt al verbelor noionale (cu excepia lui
be to, have to, ought to): She can cook. tie s gteasc, dar: He has to get up early e
very day. Trebuie s se scoale devreme n fiecare zi. Cnd sunt urmate de infinitivul
prezent, verbele modaqle se refer la o aciune prezent sau viitoare: He might be the
re now. S-ar putea ca el s fie acolo acum. She might come later. Ea s-ar putea s v
in mai trziu. Cnd sunt urmate de infinitivul prezent, verbele modale se refer la o a
cfiune prezent sau viitoare: He might be there now. S-ar putea ca el s fie acolo ac
um. She might come later. ea s-ar putea s vin mai trziu. Cnd sunt urmate de infiniti
vul perfect, aciunea exprimat de verbul noional are un caracter trecut, de anterior
itate: He might have been here before we arrived. S-ar putea s fi fost aici nainte
s sosim noi. e) pe plan sintactic, verbele modale defective alctuiesc un predicat
verbal compus mpreun cu un alt verb la infinitiv: You can buy a TV-set in instalm
ents. Poi s cumperi un televizor n rate. n cadrul predicatului verbal compus, verbel
e modale ndeplinesc o funcie dubl: - funcia gramatical de marc a timpului: He can skat
e now. tie s patineze acum. He could skate when he was a child. tia s patineze cnd er
a copil. - funcia lexical de exprimare a modalitii: She can type. tie s bat la main.
neednt type this. Nu este nevoie s bai asta la main. 1.20.3. CAN / COULD. Can este fo
losit pentru toate persoanele la indicativ prezent. Could este folosit pentru to
ate persoanele la Past Tense i subjonctiv-condiional. Can/could poate exprima: 1)
capacitatea (fizic sau intelectual) de efectuare a unei aciuni: Tom can speak three
foreign languages. Tom tie trei limbi strine. I could run faster than you last ye
ar. Puteam s alerg mai repede dect tine anul trecut. Not: Can urmat de un verb de p
ercepie senzorial (see, hear etc,) corespunde aspectului continuu al verbului resp
ectiv: I can see the car now. I can hear footsteps. Can exprimnd capacitatea fizi
c sau intelectual (ability) este nlocuit de be able to/be capable of/know how to: P
rezent: I can ski now/I am able to ski now. (mai puin frecvent) Past Tense: I cou
ld skate when I was a child. tiam s patinez cnd eram copil. (capacitatea de a patin
a n general). Although it was very cold yesterday, we were able to skate for an h
our. Dei a fost foarte frig ieri, am reuit s patinm o or. (capacitatea de a patina manifestat n anumite condiii, n special nefavorabile). Viitor: Ill be able to skate n
ext year. Condiional: Would you be able to manage by yourself if it was necessary
? Could you manage by yourself if it was necessary ?

Te-ai putea descurca singur dac ar fi nevoie ? Atenie ! Diferena de sens ntre could i
was/were able to se pierde la negativ sau cu verbe de percepie: I couldnt ski yes
terday as the weather was very bad. I wasnt able to ski yesterday as the weather
was very bad. I couldnt see him in the dark. I wasnt able to see him in the dark.
pag: 061 2) Can este folosit pentru a exprima permisiunea, ca o alternativ a lui
many n exprimarea familiar: A: Can I borrow your umbrella ? B: Of course you can.
Pot s iau umbrela ta ? Desigur. Could este folosit pentru a exprima permisiunea n
trecut: On Sundays we could stay in bed until ten oclock. Duminic aveam voie s stm n
pat pn la ora 10. n acest sens, can/could poate fi nlocuit de be allowed to, be perm
itted to: On Sundays we were allowed to stay in bed until ten oclock. 3) Posibili
tatea datorit circumstanelor se exprim astfel: Prezent: You can ski at Predeal now.
There is enough snow. Past Tense: We could ski at Predeal last year. There was
enough snow. Viitor: It will be possible for you to ski at Predeal, there will b
e plenty of snow in December. You will be able to ski at Predeal, there will be
plenty of snow in December. Forme de condiional: Its foggy. The airport could be c
losed. If he had enough money he could buy a bicycle. 4) Can/could sunt folosite
pentru a exprima: o cerere, rugminte politicoas: Can you wait a few moments ? Cou
ld este mai politicos dect can. 5) Could + infinitivul perfect este folosit pentr
u a exprima capacitatea nerealizat de efectuare a unei aciuni n trecut: She could h
ave helped me. (But she didnt). Ar fi putut s m ajute. 6) Cant/couldnt + infinitivul
prezent al verbului be exprim o deducie negativ despre un eveniment prezent: A: Im h
ungry. B: You cant be hungry. Youve just had your dinner. Cant/Couldnt + infinitivul
perfect exprim o deducie negativ despre un eveniment trecut: A: Did Ann type the r
eport ? B: She cant/couldnt have typed it. She hasnt learned to type yet. 1.20.4. M
AY/MIGHT. May este folosit la toate persoanele cu valoare de indicativ prezent i
viitor. Might este folosit pentru toate persoanele cu valoare de condiional i subj
onctiv. Might este ntrebuinat cu valoare de Past Tense doar n vorbirea indirect. It m
ay rain later. , he said. He said it might rain later. May este folosit:

1) pentru a cere (a) sau a acorda (b) permisiunea (mai oficial dect can): a) May
I go ? Pot s plec ? b) You may go. Poi s pleci. Forma negativ de neacordare a permis
iunii de may not, rar maynt: A: May I go out ? B: No, you may not. Must not (musnt
) este folosit pentru a exprima interdicia, mai ales n regulamente, instruciuni: Yo
u mustnt walk on the grass. Nu clcai pe iarb. Echivalentul modal pentru exprimarea p
ermisiunii este be allowed to / be permitted to: He was allowed to go. I s-a per
mis/I s-a dat voie s plece. He was permitted to go. I s-a permis/I s-a dat voie s
plece. pag: 062 2) May/might poate exprima o cerere, o rugminte politicoas (may es
te mai politicos i oficial dect can/could): May I use your phone ? mi dai voie s dau
telefon ? Folosirea lui might n acest sens indic un grad de nesiguran mai mare dect m
ay (cu privire la rspuns): Might I use your phone ? A putea s dau un telefon ? 3) M
ay/might + infinitivul prezent exprim o posibilitate prezent sau viitoare (n sau du
p momentul vorbirii): He may come today. Se poate s vin azi. He might come tomorrow
. S-ar putea s vin mine. Might este folosit: a) pentru a exprima o posibilitate mai
ndeprtat (s-ar putea...) b) dup un verb trecut, n vorbirea indirect: He said he might
come. c) n fraze coninnd subordonate condiionale: If you shouted, he might hear you
. Dac ai striga, s-ar putea s te aud. La forma interogativ i negativ, may exprimnd pos
bilitatea este nlocuit de construciile do you think + prezent / viitor sau be like
ly + infinitiv: Do you think hell come today ? Crezi c o s vin astzi ? Is he likely t
o come today ? Crezi c o s vin astzi ? May/might + infinitivul perfect este folosit
pentru a exprima o speculaie despre o aciune trecut: He may have arrived. Se poate
s fi sosit. He might have arrived. S-ar putea s fi sosit. 4) Might mai este folosi
t: a) n cereri insistente sau atunci cnd vorbitorul este iritat de nendeplinirea un
ei aciuni (might + infinitivul prezent): You might give me a copy of that paper.
(Please give me a copy. Im annoyed that you havent given me one.) b) pentru a expr
ima iritarea, reproul n legtur cu neefectuarea unei aciuni trecute (might + infinitiv
ul perfect): You might have told me what had happened. Ai fi putut s-mi spui ce s
-a ntmplat. 1.20.5. MUST / HAVE TO / NEED. Must este folsit la toate persoanele, l
a indicativul prezent i viitor.

Have to este folosit ca nlocuitor a lui must exprimnd obligaia, iar need este folos
it cu valoare de prezent i viitor, mai ales n propoziii negative i interogative. Mus
t se folosete pentru a exprima: 1) obligaia: They must stop because the traffic li
ght is red now. Must exprimnd obligaia poate fi nlocuit de have to sau ve got to. HA
VE TO. ntre must i have to exist urmtoarele diferene de sens: a) Must exprim o obligai
impus de ctre vorbitor, pe cnd have to exprim o obligaie impus din exterior: I must g
o. (Its my decision). We have to go. (The shop is closing). b) Must exprim o oblig
aie important, urgent: I must be at the hospotal at two. Its most important. Have to
exprim o obligaie obinuit, repetat (habitual obligation): I have to be at the hospit
al at seven oclock every morning. I begin work ar seven. Prezent: You must stay i
n bed for a few days. Youve got flu. You have to stay in bed when you have flu. p
ag: 063 Past Tense: He had to stay in bed last week. He was quite ill. Viitor: Y
ou must stay in bed tomorrow if you dont feel better. Youll have to stay in bed wh
en you feel feverish again. HAVE GOT TO n vorbirea familiar, se adaug got la have t
o, iar have se contrage obinndu-se Ive got/I havent got to phone her. Aceast form expr
im de obicei obligaia mplinirii unei singure aciuni. Forma must not (mustnt) exprim in
terdicia, sau un sfat la prezent sau viitor: You must not move. You mustnt walk on
the grass. You mustnt miss that film, it is very good. Lipsa obligativitii se expr
im cu ajutorul lui neednt, sau not have to/not need to: You neednt come early. You
dont have to come early. Forma negativ a lui have to exprim o obligaie extern sau rep
etat, habitual: We dont have to get up early Sundays. (We dont go to schoool on Sund
ays). We wont have to get up early Sundays. (We dont go to schoool on Sundays). Ne
ed poate fi folosit la mai multe timpuri (ca i not have to): Prezent: A: Need I g
o there now ? B: No, you neednt. A: Do I need to come every day ? B: You dont need
to. Past Tense: Did you need to go there yesterday ? I didnt need to go. Viitor:
You neednt/wont need to go there tomorrow. Not: n propoziiile interogative, folosire
a lui need n locul lui must arat v vorbitorul se ateapt la un rspuns negativ: A: Need
I wash the dishes ? (I hope not.)

Atenie ! Need i neednt sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt. Celelalte forme sunt urmat
e de infinitivul lung: You neednt have bought two loaves of bread. Ive bought a lo
af myself. Not: Need poate fi folosit i ca verb principal, nsemnnd: He needs help. A
re nevoie de ajutor. Did she need the dictionary ? A avut nevoie de dicionar ? 2)
Must poate exprima i deducia logic: She must be at home. She left an hour ago. Ded
ucia negativ se exprim cu ajutorul lui cannot/cant + infinitivul prezent al verbului
to be: She left ten minutes ago, she cant be at home now. Must + infinitivul per
fect exprim o deducie logic (n prezent) despre o aciune trecut: Shes got a ten in her
erm paper. She must have worked very hard. Deducie logic negativ se exprim cu ajutor
ul lui cant/couldnt + infinitivul perfect: She cant have baked this pie. She cant co
ok. She couldnt have baked this pie. She cant cook. n vorbirea indirect se folosete m
ust sau have to dup caz, dup un verb declarativ la un timp trecut: She said she wo
uld have to leave early in the morning (obligaie). We thought she must be ill. Am
crezut c este bolnav (deducie logic). pag: 064 1.20.6. SHALL/SHOULD. Shall este fol
osit: 1) pentru a exprima obligaie, n stil oficial - acte, regulamente, etc. la pe
rsoana a II-a i a III-a: The seller shall supply the spare parts in due time. Vnzto
rul va furniza piesele de schimb n timp util. Vnztorul este obligat s furnizeze pies
ele de schimb n timp util. 2) Shall este folosit n propoziii interogative, la perso
ana I singular sau plural: a) pentru a cere un sfat, o sugestie, un ordin: Where
shall we put the flowers ? Unde s punem florile ? Shall we go to the cinema toni
ght ? (Ce spui), mergem la cinema disear ? What shall I do ? Ce trebuie s fac ? b)
pentru a face o ofert: Shall I help you ? S te ajut ? Should este folosit pentru
a exprima: 1) obligaia, necesitatea logic de nfptuire a unei aciuni, de obicei sub fo
rm de sfat de ctre vorbitor: The book is very interesting. You should read it. Car
tea e foarte interesant. Ar trebui s-o citeti. He shouldnt tell lies. N-ar trebui s
mint. 2) o presupunere (indicnd un grad de nesiguran mai mare dect will): He should b
e there by now. Ar trebui s fi ajuns acolo deja. He should have left by now. Ar t
rebui s fi plecat deja. 3) Should este frecvent folosit n propoziiile subordonate (
vezi cap. 25): a) n propoziii subiective: Its strange that he should behave like th
at. b) n propoziii completive directe: I suggest we should leave at once. c) n prop
oziii condiionate pentru a exprima o condiie mai puin probabil: If she should come, t
ell her to wait for me. Dac se ntmpl s vin, spune-i s m atepte.

d) n propoziii de scop, n paralel cu would: She put on her sun glasses so that ne o
ne should/would see her tears. i puse ochelarii de soare ca s nu-i vad nimeni lacrim
ile. e) n propoziii de scop negative, dup lest i uneori dup in case: She was afraid i
n case she should slip on the icy road. i era team s nu alunece pe drumul ngheat. Sho
uld + infinitivul perfect exprim nendeplinirea unei obligaii sau a unei aciuni n trec
ut:You should have sent her a telegram. Why didnt you ? Ar fi trebuit s-i trimii o
telegram. De ce n-ai fcut-o ? 1.20.7. OUGHT TO. Ought to indic obligaia sau datoria,
de obicei sub form de sfat dat de ctre vorbitor (la fel ca should): A: You ought
to finish the book before going on holiday. A: Ar trebui s termini cartea nainte s
pleci n vacan. B: I know I should. B: tiu c-ar trebui. Exprimarea unui sfat, a unei
recomandri, sugestii, prin ought to/should este mai puin puternic dect prin must: Co
mparai: You should see a doctor. Ar trebui s te duci la doctor. You ought to see a
doctor. Ar trebui s te duci la doctor. You must see a doctor. Trebuie s te duci l
a doctor. Ought to + infinitivul perfect exprim o datorie nendeplinit, o aciune care
ar fi trebuit efectuat (la fel ca should): You ought to have crossed when the li
ghts were green. You should have crossed when the lights were green. Ar fi trebu
it s traversezi cnd lumina semaforului era verde. pag: 065 You oughtnt to have cros
sed when the lights were red. You shouldnt have crossed when the lights were red.
N-ar fi trebuit s traversezi pe lumina roie a semaforului. Ought to/should rmne nes
chimbat n vorbirea indirect, dup un verb la un timp trecut.: He told me you ought t
o attent the conference. He told me you should attent the conference. Mi-a spus
c ar trebui s vii la conferin. 1.20.8. WILL/WOULD. Will este folosit pentru a exprim
a: 1) o comand impersonal (similar cu must, be to): You will come here at once. Vi
no ncoace imediat. 2) insistena, hotrrea de a efectua o aciune: He will study chemist
ry whatever his father says. Va studia / este decis s studieze chimia, indiferent
de prerea tatlui su.

3) o aciune repetat, un obicei al unei persoane (will frecventativ): He will sit on


the bench for hours and gaze at the stars. Obinuiete s stea ore-n ir pe banc i s se ui
e la stele. 4) o invitaie, n propoziii interogative, la persoana a II-a: Will you h
ave another sanwich ? Mai vrei / ia te rog un sandvi. 5) o cerere sau rugminte (pe
un ton politicos, dar mai autoritar dect would): Will you sign the register ? V r
og s semnai n registru. 6) o intenie spontan, nepremeditat, n momentul vorbirii la per
oana I (de obicei contras n ll): A: Im thirsty. B: Ill fetch you a glass of water. A
: Mi-e sete. B: S-i aduc un pahar cu ap. Will devine would sau infinitiv n vorbirea
indirect, n funcie se sens: Would este folosit: 1) pentru a exprima o cerere, o rugm
inte politicoas: Would you do me favour ? Vrei s-mi facei un serviciu ? Would you do
me a favour ? V rog s-mi facei un serviciu ? Not: Would like este de obicei folosit
n locul lui want, fiind o form de exprimare mai politicoas: I would like to talk t
o the manager. I want to talk to the manager. A dori s vorbesc cu directorul. Woul
d you like to talk to him now ? Dorii cu el acum ? 2) Ca forma de Past Tense a lu
i will, woud este folosit pentru a exprima: a) intenia (n vorbire indirect): I said
, I will help her. I said I would help her. b) intenia negativ (refuzul): Present: H
e wont help me. Nu vrea s m ajute. Past tense: He wouldnt help me. Nu voia s m ajute.
pag: 066 c) insistena, hotrrea de a efectua o aciune n trecut: He would keep silent f
or hours, no metter what arguments I used. d) o activitate repetat, un obicei n tr
ecut (would frecventativ): She would wait for me in front of the school gates. 3)
Would este folosit i pentru a exprima probabilitatea: That would be their car. Pr
obabil c aceea este maina lor. (Ac eeaq trebuie s fie maina lor). Atenie ! Would + ra
ther/sooner + infinitivul scurt este folosit pentru a exprima preferina: I would
rather listen to the concert than see the film. I d sooner listen to the concert
than see the film. A prefera s ascult concertul dect s vd filmul. 1.20.9. USED TO. Us
ed to este folosit doar la Past Tense, pentru a exprima:

1) o aciune repetat, un obicei trecut, care nu mai este practicat n prezent: I used
to swim in the Olt river when I was a child, but I dont do this any longer. Obinu
iam s not n Olt cnd eram copil, dar acum nu mai not. 2) o aciune repetat, un obicei tr
cut, care mai este practicat i n prezent: They used to spend their holidays in the
mountains. (Its very likely they still do it.). Atenie ! 1. Used to poate fi nlocu
it de would la sensul 2). Would este frecvent: They would spend their holidays i
n the mountains. i petreceau vacanele la munte. Obinuiau s-i petreac vacanele la munt
Atenie ! Used to nu are form la prezent. Pentru a exprima un obicei prezent, folos
ii prezentul simplu: I (usually) spend my holidays in the mountains. De obicei mi
petrec vacanele la munte. Obinuiesc s-mi petrec vacanele la munte. 1.20.10. BE TO. B
e to este folosit pentru a exprima: 1) o comand sau instruciuni ntr-un mod imperson
al (de obicei la persoana a IIIa): He is to stay here till we return. Trebuie Va
sta s stea aici pn ne ntoarcem. Urmeaz Va sta s stea aici pn ne ntoarcem. 2) o aci
nificat (construcie des folosit n limbajul jurnalistic): The competition is to start
in a weeks time. 3) un ordin sau comand, n vorbirea indirect: He says, Wait here til
l I come. He says that I am to wait here till he comes. La Past Tense, be poate f
i urmat: a) de un infinitiv prezent: He was to go. Urma s plece. propoziie din car
e nu aflm dac aciunea planificat a fost ndeplinit sau nu; b) de un infinitiv perfect,
pentru a exprima o aciune plnuit dar nendeplinit: He was to have gone (but he didnt).
pag: 067 1.20.11. DARE. Dare se folosete cu saensul de a ndrzni, a avea curajul, n s
pecial n propoziii interogative i negative: How dare you contradict me ? Cum ndrzneti
s m contrazici ? The boy dared not tell his father what he had done. Biatul n-a ndrzn
it s-i spun tatlui su ce a fcut. La afirmativ, dare se conjug ca un verb principal: Pr
ezent: dare, dares; Past Tense: dared. La negativ i interogativ, dare poate fi co
njugat ca un verb noional sau ca un verb modal: Dare he speak ? ndrznete s vorbeasc ?
Does he dare (to) speak ? Dare ca verb modal este urmat:

a) de infinitivul fr to dup forma invariabil dare (persoana a III-a singular sau Pas
t Tense): I wonder whether he DARE come. M ntreb dac va ndrzni s vin. He felt that he
ARENT try. i-a dat seama c n-are curajul s ncerce. b) de infinitivul cu to, dup partic
ipiul prezent sau dup persoana a III-a singular: Now he dares to attack me ! Acum
ndrznete s m atace ! c) de infinitivul cu sau fr to dup forma de infinitiv a verbulu
forma de Past Tense dared i participiul trecut: He wouldnt dare (to) tell me this.
N-ar ndrzni s-mi spun acest lucru. He dared (to) write upon the subject. A avut cur
ajul s scrie despre acea problem. He had never dared (to) ask me. Nu ndrznise niciod
at s m ntrebe. Atenie ! Verbul dare este urmat de infinitivul cu to cnd este folosit c
a verb principal: He dared me to compete with him. M-a provocat la ntrecere. EXER
CIII I. Ortografiai urmtoarele verbe la persoana a III-a singular Past Tense, forma
n -ing i participiul trecut: study, ply, pay, write, stop, cut, travel, occur, di
e, dye, refer, wash, watch,go to, begin, cry, see, regret, free, show, sew. II.
Punei verbele din parantez la timpul potrivit. 1. Look! It (rain). Take you umbrel
le. 2. Why (he, drive) so fast today? 3. It (start) to rain while she (walk) in
the park yesterday. 4. The telephone (ring) just as he (go) out a few minutes ag
o. 5. If the weather (be) fine tomorrow, we (go) on a trip to Poiana Braov. 6. Wh
at (you, go) tonight ? 7. What time (the train leave)? It (leave) at 8 oclock acc
ording to schedule. Rezolvare: 1. It is raining. 2. Is he driving; drives; 3. st
arted, was walking. 4. rang, was going out; 5. is, shall be skiing; 6. does the
train leave, leaves; 7. are you doing; am looking; have you been looking;came; d
id you came; came. III. Traducei n limba englez: 1. Plou. Plou adesea toamna. 2. Plou
de cnd ai venit. 3. A plouat. 4. A plouat i ieri. 5. Ploua cnd m-am uitat pe fereas
tr. 6. St s plou. 7. Vom face o plimbare dup ce va fi stat ploaia. 8. Nu vom merge n p
arc dac nu va sta ploaia. Rezolvare: 1. It is raining. It often rains in autumn.
2. It has been raining since you came. 3. It has rained. 4. It rained yesterday
too. 5. It was raining when I looked out of the

window. 6. Is looks like rain. 7. Well go for a walk when the rain has stopped. 8
. We shant go for a wak unless it stops raining. IV. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii la
diateza pasiv, transformnd complementul persoanei n subiect. Exemplu: They offered
her flowers. She was offered flowers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The guide is showing the
m the museum. They have appointed him president. She has given me a good diction
ary. They will tell you what time the bus leaves. Ill pay the cartenter for his w
ork. He promised them new bicycles.
Rezolvare: 1. They are being shown the museum. 2. He has been appointed presiden
t. 3. I have been given a good dictionary. 4. You will be told what time the bus
leaves. 5. The carpender will be paid for his work. 6. They were promised new b
icycles. V. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez, folosind verbe la diateza p
asiv: 1. Aceast problem trebuie analizat. 2. Nu s-a dormit n acest pat. 3. Copiii au
fost bine ngrijii. 4. Cinele a fost clcat de un autobuz. 5. Vor rde de tine dac vei pu
rta rochia asta. Rezolvare: 1. This matter must be looked into. 2. This bed has
not been slept in. 3. The children were well looked after. 4. The dog was run ov
er by a bus. 5. You will be laughed at if you wear this dress. VI. n propoziiile d
e mai jos, nlocuii, subjonctivul sintetic cu subjonctivul analitic cu should sau m
ay: Exemplu: a) It is necessary that he sand the letter at once. It is necessary
that he shoul send the letter at once. b) Whoever the woman be, you must send f
or a doctor. Whoever the woman may be, you must send for a doctor. 1. Father ins
isted that his son read books in Romania history. 2. It is imperative that they
exceed production. 3. The doctor recommended that the old woman keep to bed for
a few days.

4. Long she be happy. 5. The chairman demanded that proposals be made. VII. Trad
ucei n limba englez folosind forme ale subjonctivului sintetic sau analitic: 1. Est
e recomandabil s fii acolo la ora 8 fix. 2. Ei cer ca trupele inamice s fie retras
e de pe teritoriul lor. 3. De ce s facem noi asta ? 4. Dorina lui ca noi s devenim
profesori s-a ndeplinit. 5. Fie ce-o fi, voi porni motorul. Rezolvare: 1. It is a
dvisable that you be / should be there at eight oclock sharp. 2. They require tha
t the enemy troops be/should be withdrawn from their territory. 3. Why should we
do this? 4. His wish that we should become teachers has been fulfilled. 5. Come
what may, Ill start the engine. pag: 069 VIII. Punei verbele din paranteze la inf
initivul lung (cu to) sau scurt (fr to). Exemplu: a) You must (hel) him. You must
help him. b) They want (come) now. They want to come now. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. He has
decided (become) a mechanic. Will you (come) to the theatre with me? You ought (
revise) for your exams this week. We can (wait) for you here. I saw them (cross)
the street.
Rezolvare: 1. to become; 2. come; 3. to revise; 4. wait; 5. cross. IX. Completai
spaiile libere cu prepoziiile necesare. Punei verbele din paranteze la forma Gerund
. Exemplu:

He finally succeeded ... (sell) his old car. He finally succeeded in selling his
old car. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The bad weather prevent him... (leave) last Monday.
Our teacher doesnt approve... (study) late at night. He worries... (lose) his pos
ition. He finally succeeded... (post) the letter. She insists... (do) everything
herself. This research aims... (find) a more efficient method.
Rezolvai: 1. from leaving 2. of studying; 3. about losing; 4. in posting; 5. on d
oing; 6. at finding. X. Punei verbele din paranteze la forma Gerund. Punei pronume
le personale la acuzativ (pentru o exprimare familiar), sau transformai-le n pronum
e posesive (pentru o exprimare mai literar). Exemplu: I cant understand (he, forge
t) to come to the meeting. I cant understand him / his forgeting to come to the m
eeting. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. My mother hates (I, read) while Im while Im eating. I do
nt remember (he, come) late before. Excuse (I, interrupt) you. I dont like (she, w
ear) my dresses. I object to (they, make) so much noise. He doesnt agree to (we,
come) late to school.
Rezolvare: 1. me/my reading; 2. him/his coming; 3. me for interrupting you/my in
terrupting you; 4. her/her wearing; 5. them/their making; 6. us/our coming. XI.
Punei verbele din paranteze la infinitivul cu to sau forma Gerund n funcie de sens:
1. I will remember (give) your mother your message. 2. I remember (meet) him at
your birthday last year. 3. Please stop (interrupt) me in the middle of a sente
nce. 4. He stopped (talk) to his former pupils.

5. Did you forget (give) him that message? 6. I definitely recall (leave) my coa
t in this room. Rezolvare: 1. to give. 2. meeting. 3. interrupting. 4. to talk.
5. to give. 6. leaving. pag: 070 XII. Punei cuvintele din paranteze la forma core
ct: participiu n -ing sau participiu trecut: Exemplu: a) We saw an (entertain) pro
gramme on TV last night. We saw an entertaining programme on TV last night. b) T
he carpenter repaired the (break) chair. The carpenter repaired the broken chair
. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Well have to work hard the (follow) weeks. The police were on
the tracks of the (follow) man. That was a very (interest) book. The (interest)
parties signed the agreement. They sell (freeze) goods here. The temperature is
below (freeze) point.

Rezolvare: 1. following. 2. followed. 3. interesting. 4. interested. 5. frozen 6


. freezing. XIII. Traducei n limba englez: 1. Crile mprumutate de la bibliotec trebuie
apoiate la timp. 2. Ferestrele salonului se deschideau spre o teras cu privire la
mare. 3. Auzind pai, se ntoarse tresrind. 4. Toate lucrurile pe care le tim de mult
ne sunt dragi. 5. Tcu, prnd mirat de purtarea mea. 6. Dup ce a terminat ce-avea de
fcut, se ridic s opreasc maina.

Rezolvarea: 1. Books borrowed from the library must be returned in time. 2. The
windows of the drawing-room opened on to a terrace overlooking the sea. 3. Heari
ng footsteps, he turned with a start. 4. All long known objects are dear to us.
5. He kept silent, as if puzzled by my behaviour. 6. Having completed her piece
of work, she rose to switch off the machine. XIV. nlocuii cuvintele scrise cursiv
cu verbe potrivite ca sens i verbe noionale la infinitivul prezent sau perfect: Ex
emplu: We are obliged to do our homework every day. We have to do our hemwork ev
ery day. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. You are given permission to leave. Perhaps they have
heard the news. He probably went to Oradea on business. Children are forbidden t
o play with matches. She didnt forget about the appointment; it is impossible. As
you dont feel well its good for you to see a doctor.

Rezolvare: 1. may leave. 2. may have heard. 3. must have gone. 4. must not play.
5. couldnt have forgotten. 6. should see. XV. Traducei n limba englez, folosind ver
be modale potrivite ca sens: 1. Vrei s-mi aduci ziarul, te rog ? 2. S cumpr nite ban
ane ? A prefera s cumpr nite portocale. 3. Vrei s semnai n registru, v rog ? 4. Pute
utai la bagaje ? 5. Dorii o ceac de cafea ? Nu, mulumesc. A dori o ceac de ceai. 6. E
u tie ns englezete dar va ti aceast limb peste civa ani. Rezolvare: 1. Will you fetc
the newspaper, please. 2. Shall I buy some bananas ? Youd rather buy some oranges
. 3. Would you sign in the register, please. 4. Could you help me with my luggag
e ?

5. Would you like a cup of coffee? No, thank you. 6. She cant speak English yet,
but she will be able to do so in a few years time.
pag: 071
2. Substantivul (The Noun)
2.1. Definiie Substantivul: a) denumete obiecte n sens foarte larg, adic fiine, lucru
ri, fenomene (man, chair, snow, walk, wisdom); b) are categorii gramaticale de g
en, numr i caz; c) poate ndeplini n propoziie funciile de subiect, nume predicativ, at
ribut, apoziie, complement, element predicativ suplimentar, sau poate fi echivale
ntul unei propoziii sau fraze. 2.2. Clasificare. Substantivele din limba englez po
t fi clasificate din mai multe puncte de vedere. 2.2.1. Din punct de vedere al f
ormrii lor, substantivele se mpart n: a) substantive simple: boy, meal, day; b) sub
stantive formate din derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: childhood, disgust, unhappi
ness; c) substantive formate prin compunere (substantivele compunse): schoolboy,
classroom; pag: 072 d) substantive formate prin conversiune, din alte pri de vorb
ire: - adjective: the good, the evil, the rich, the poor; - verbe la infinitiv:
cook, fall; - verbe la Gerund: reading, boxing; - verbe la participiul trecut: t
he injured; e) substantive formate prin contragere: ad (advertisement), fridge (
refrigerator), gym (gymnasium), lab (laboratory), liv (livingroom), poly (polyte
chnic), pram (perambulator), pub (public house); f) abrevieri: MP (Member of Par
liament), Dr (doctor), Mr Brown (Dl. Brown), Mrs Brown (dna Brown), Miss Brown (
dra Brown), Ms Brown (apelativ pentru femei, cstorite sau necstorite). 2.2.2. Din pu
nct de vedere al gradului de individualizare, substantivele n limba englez se mpart
n dou clase mari: substantive comune i substantive proprii.

A. Substantivele comune sunt lipsite de posibilitatea de a individualiza prin el


e nsele. Ele denumesc un element printr-o categorie de obiecte de acelai fel: tabl
e, school. Substantivele comune se subclasific n: a) substantive apelative, care d
enumesc un element dintr-o categorie: table, school; b) substantive colective, c
are denumesc obiecte constnd din mai multe elemente de acelai fel: family, people;
c) substantive concrete, care denumesc obiecte sau substana constitutiv a unor ob
iecte: table, wood, steel; d) substantive abstracte, care denumesc abstraciuni: d
ifficulty, worry, peace, love, music. B. Substantivele (numele) proprii au capac
itatea de a individualiza un obiect dintr-o categorie de obiecte de acelai fel, d
enumind n principiu un singur element dintr-o categorie. n limba englez, substantiv
ele proprii denumesc: a) nume de persoane: Churchill; b) denumiri geografice: nume de localiti - nume de tri i continente - nume de ape i muni c) diviziuni temporal
e: - lunile anului - zilele sptmnii - srbtori d) nume de cri, ziare, reviste e) nume d
instituii Ortografia substantivelor proprii. n limba englez substantivele proprii
se scriu cu liter mare, ca i n limba romn: Helen - Elena; Rome - Roma. Exist ns unele
tuaii n care uzajul n limba englez este diferit de cel din limba romn: pag: 073 a) num
ele lunilor anului i ale zilelor sptmnii se scriu cu liter mare n limba englez, fiind
onsiderate substantive proprii: April - aprilie, Sunday - duminic; b) toate cuvin
tele (cu excepia articolelor, prepoziiilor i conjuciilor) dintr-un substantiv propri
u exprimat printr-o perifraz substantival se scriu cu liter mare n limba englez: - ti
tluri de cri: Dombey and Son - Dombey i fiul - titluri de ziare: The Daily Mirror titluri de reviste: English Language Teaching Journal; - titluri de capitole, a
rticole, lucrri, instituii etc.: The Conference for Peace an Security in Europe Conferina de pace i securitate n Europa; the United Nations Organization - Organizai
a Naiunilor Unite, c) numele de naionaliti i limbi se scriu de asemenea cu liter mare
limba englez: He speaks English. (El) Vorbete englezete. We are Romanians. Noi sun
tem romni.

2.3. Numrul substantivelor. (Number of Nouns) Substantivele n limba englez au categ


oriile gramaticale de gen, numr i caz. Numrul este categoria gramatical care se recu
noate cel mai uor, datorit desinenei -s, specific pentru forma de plural a substantiv
elor. Din punct de vedere al ideii de numr, substantivele n englez se mpart n numrabil
e (Count nouns) i nenumrabile (Mass nouns). Substantivele numrabile sunt de obicei
variabile ca form (Variable Nouns), avnd att singular ct i plural, iar cele nenumrabil
e sunt de regul invariabile ca form (Invariable nouns), avnd forma numai de singula
r sau numai de plural. 2.3.1. Substantivele numrabile (Count Nouns). Substantivel
e numrabile denumesc noiunile ca uniti separate, care pot fi numrate: a boy, two boys
, a few boys, etc. Substantivele numrabile au urmtoarele caracteristici: a) sunt v
ariabile ca form, avnd att numrul singular, ct i numrul plural: museum - museums, chil
- children; b) pot fi precedate de numerale cardinale sau cuantificatori: one b
ook, three books, several apples, a lot of brushes; c) la numrul singular se acor
d cu verbe la singular: The book is on the table. iar la numrul plural, cu verbe l
a plural: The apples are in the basket. 2.3.2 Clasificarea substantivelor numrabi
le. Substantivele numrabile pot fi: apelative: garden, pencil; sau colective: com
mittee, audience; concrete: child, school; sau abstracte: difficulty, question.
Substantivele colective sunt o diviziune a substantivelor numrabile. Ele se compo
rt: 1) ca substantive numrabile propriu-zise cnd denumesc o colectivitate considera
t ca un ntreg: The two football teams are in the field now. Cele dou echipe de fotb
al sunt acum pe teren. n acest caz ele au numrul singular i numrul plural i se acord c
u verbe la singular sau la plural: His family is larger than mine. Familia lui e
ste mai numeroas dect a mea. On each floor live two families. La fiecare etaj locu
iesc dou familii. pag: 074 2) Cnd aceste substantive se refer la membrii componeni a
i colectivitii, ele se comport ca substantive colective propriu-zise. n aceast situaie
, substantivele colective se folosesc ca forma de singular, referirea fiind la o
colectivitate: family, team, care se acord cu verbul la plural, referirea fiind
la membrii colectivitii: My family are at home. Familia mea este acas. (=All the me
mbers of my family...). Din grupa substantivelor colective fac parte substantive
le: army, assembly, audience, class, club, committee, company, crew, crowd, fami
ly, government, jury, party, press, public, regiment, troop, flight (of birds, i
nsects, planes), flock (of sheep), herd (of cattle), pack (of wolves), poultry,
shoal (of fish), swarm (of bees).

2.3.3. Formarea pluralului substantivelor numrabile. Substantivele numrabile au do


u forme: o form de singular i o form de plural. Forma de singular este nemarcat: book
, box, child. Formele de plural sunt de dou feluri: A. regulate, cnd pluralul se f
ormeaz prin adugarea desinenei -s la forma de singular: book - books. B. Neregulate
, cnd pluralul se formeaz n alte moduri. A. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor se f
ormeaz prin adugarea desinenei -s la forma singular al substantivului. 2.3.4. Pronu
narea pluralului regulat este urmtoarea: a) [-s] dup consoane surde: books, proofs,
lamps, carpets, months; b) [-z] dup consoane sonore i vocale: gloves, tables, boy
s, tree; c) [iz] dup sunete: classes, noses, brushes, matches, villages. 2.3.5. O
rtografia pluralului regulat. 1) Desinena -s se scrie -s dup majoritatea substanti
velor, incluznd substantivele terminate n -e mut: book - books, table - tables. 2)
Excepii: Exist unele situaii care fac excepie de la aceast regul general: a) Substant
vele terminate n -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh adaug es: bus - buses; glass glasses; buzz buzzes; box - boxes; watch - watches; brush - brushes; b) La cteva dintre substa
ntivele din acest grup se dubleaz consoana final: fez - fezzes, quiz - quizzes. c)
Substantivele terminate n -o: adaug desinena -s: - cnd -o e precedat de o vocal: cuc
koos; kangaroos; radios; scenarios; studios, zoos; - la substantive proprii: Ner
os, Romeos; - n abrevieri: kilos (kilogrammes), photos (photographs), pros (profe
sionals); - la unele substantive strine: concertos, dynamos, pianos, solos, sopra
nos, tangos, tabaccos; - adaug -es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, mosquitoes,
Negroes, potatoes, tomatoes; pag: 075 - au dou forme de plural: banjos - banjoes
; buffalos - buffaloes; cargos cargoes; mementos - mementoes; mottos - mottoes;
volcanos - volcanoes; d) Substantivele terminate n -y precedat de o consoan transf
orm pe y n i i adaug -es: city - cities; factory - factories. Transformarea nu are l
oc: - dup vocale: boy - boys, play - plays; - n substantive proprii: the Kennedys;
- n substantive compuse: stand-bys; e) Literele, numeralele i abrevierile formeaz
pluralul prin adugarea unui apostrof i -s: As, 1920s; MPs: There are two As and three
2s in the number of that Enghish car. There are two MPs in the lobby.

n engleza contemporan exist tendina ca numeralele i abrevierile s formeze pluralul i p


in adugarea doar a unui -s la singular: in the 1930s; MP (Member of Parliament) Mps; Mt (Mountain) - Mts. Forma de plural fr apostrof este mai frecvent folosit de
ct cea cu apostrof. 3) Pluralul substantivelor compuse a) Majoritatea substantive
lor compuse adaug -s la ultimul element: classroom classrooms; forget-me-not - fo
rget-me-nots; race horse (cal de curse) - race horses; b) Unele substantive comp
use, de obicei cele alctuite dintr-un substantiv i dintr-o construcie prepoziional, a
daug -s la primul element: looker-on lookers-on; mother-in-low - mothers-in-low;
c) substantivele compuse n care primul element este man sau woman transform la plu
ral ambele elemente: man singer - men singers; woman doctor women doctors. 2.3.6
. B. Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor se formeaz n mai multe feluri: a) consoa
na surd [], [f], sau [s] n care se termin substantivul se transform n perechea ei sono
r: [v], [z] (voicing) la unele substantive: 1) -th ths: bath - baths; mouth - mou
ths; path - paths; 2) -f(e) [f] ves [vz]: calf - calves; elf - elves; half - hal
ves; knife - knives; leaf leaves; life - lives; loaf - loaves; self - selves; sh
elf - shelves; 3) -se [s] ses [ziz]: house - houses. pag: 076 Atenie ! Acest feno
men de sonorizare a consoanei finale nu se produce la toate substantivele termin
ate n [], [f], sau [s]. Exist i forme de plural regulat i oscilaie ntre cele dou form
Plural regulat (1): consoan + -th: vocal + -th: berth - berths cloth - cloths eart
h - earts death - deaths lengh - lengths faith - faiths Plural regulat (2): beli
ef - beliefs chief - chiefs cliff - cliffs proof - proofs roof - roofs safe - sa
fes Forme duble (1): oath - oaths truth - truths
Forme duble (2): dwarf - dwarfs - dwarves handkerchief - handkerchiefs - handker
chieves hoof - hoofs - hooves scarf - scarfs - scarves wharf - wharfs - wharves
- Sonorizarea lui [s] se produce numai la substantivul house. b) vocala sau dift
ongul final se schimb n alt vocal sau diftong (mutation): man - men; woman - women;
foot - feet; goose - geese; tooth - teeth; mouse mice; louse - lice.

c) Trei substantive adaug desidena -en (cu sau fr mutaie vocalic): ox oxen; child - ch
ildren; brother - brethren. d) Unele substantive numrabile au aceeai form la singul
ar i plural (primesc desidena zero - plural zero). Pluralul zero este folosit: - c
u unele substantive n -s: barracks - barac; headquarters - sediu; means mijloc; se
ries - serie. This is an army barracks. These are army barracks. The bus, trolle
ybus and the underground are modern means of transport. Autobuzul, troleibuzul i
metroul sunt mijloace moderne de transport; - cu numele de naionaliti terminate n -e
se: the Chinese, the Japanese, the Portuquese, the Vietnamese: He is speaking to
a Portuquese. El vorbete cu un portughez. The Portuquese live in Europe. Portugh
ezii triesc n Europa; pag: 077 - cu substantivele denumind animale. Acestea pot av
ea: 1) doar pluralul zero: carp - carp; deer - deer; game - game; grouse - grous
e; sheep - sheep; pike - pike. 2) pluralul zero (folosit mai ales n limbajul vntore
sc) i pluralul regulat n -s, folosit pentru indicarea unor varieti: antelope - antel
ope - antelopes; cod - cod cods; duck - duck )rae slbatice) - ducks (rae de ferme);
3) doar pluralul regulat: cow - cows; dog - dogs; hen - hens; horse - horses; e
) Plurale strine (Foreign Plurals). Exist mai multe desidene de plural de origine s
trin care sunt folosite n limba englez, mai ales n limbajul tiinific: Plurale strine
Singular Terminaia -us -a -um -ex -ix -is -on -eau zero -o Exemple stimulus corpu
s genus alga larva stratum codex thesis criterion, phenomenon tableau chamois, c
hassis, corps graffito Plural Terminaia -i -ora -era -ae -a -ices -es -a -eaux ze
ro -i Exemple stimuli corpora genera algae larvae strata codices theses criteria
, phenomena tableaux chamois, chassis, corps graffiti (de obicei plural)
Unele dintre aceste desinene sunt mai bine reprezentate n limba englez: -us
mulus
stimuli; bacillus
bacili.

-i: sti

-um -a: addendum


addenda; datum
data; agendum
agenda; erratum
errata; bacterium
bacteria; stratum strata. -is -es: analysis
analyses; ellipsis ellipses; axis
ax
es; hypothesis hypotheses; basis
bases; crisis
crises; paralysis
paralyses; diag
nosis
diagnoses; parenthesis parentheses; synthesis
syntheses; thesis
theses. pa
g: 078 n ceea ce privete pluralele strine exist mai multe situaii: 1. Unele substanti
ve de origine strin i-au pstrat forma de plural din limba din care au fost mprumutate
(vezi tabelul de pe pag. 77). 2. Unele substative au numai pluralul cu -s: -us
uses : bonus bonuses campus
campuses chorus
choruses circus
circuses ignoramus i
gnoramuses -a
as : arena arenas drama
dramas dilemma dillemas encyclopedia
encyc
lopedias diploma diplomas era
eras -um ums: album
albums gymnasium gymnasiums ge
ranium geraniums museum
museums -on
ons: demon demons electron
electrons lexicon
lexicons -o
-os: soprano
sopranos 3. Alte substantive de origine strin au dou form
e de plural: pluralul regulat cu -s i pluralul de origine strin: -us -uses: cactus
cactuses cacti -i genius
geniuses
genii (spirite, duhuri) (oameni de geniu) syll
abus syllabuses
syllabi terminus terminuses
termini -a -as: antenna
antennas ant
ennae -ae formula
formulas formulae vertebra
vertebras
vertebrae -um -ums: aquar
ium aquariums
aquaria -a curriculum curriculums
curricula medium mediums
media

-ix -ex
sanatorium symposium -ixes: appendix -ices index
-on -ons -on -a automaton -eau -eaus: bureau -eaux plateau -o -os: libretto -i v
irtuoso pag: 079
sanatoriums

symposiums

appendixes (n anatomie)

sanatoria

symposia

appendices (n cri)

automatons
uosi

automata

bureaus

bureaux

indexes (cuprinsuri)

indices (indici - n matematic)

plateaus

plateaux

librettos libretti

virtuoso

Not: Formele de plural n i sunt rare. La substantivele cu dou forme de plural, form
ele strine de plural sunt de obicei folosite n limbajul tehnic, iar pluralul n s es
te ntlnit n vorbirea curent. 2.3.7. Substantivele nenumrabile (Mass Nouns). Substanti
vele nenumrabile denumesc noiuni vzute ca un ntreg. Substantivele nenumrabile pot fi
concrete: sugar, coal, steel sau abstracte: beauty, kindness. Substantivele nenu
mrabile au urmtoarele caracteristici: a) sunt invariabile ca form: tea, information
, cattle. b) neavnd contrastul singular - plural, ele nu pot fi numrate cu ajutoru
l numeralelor sau al altor cuantificatori: I need (some) tea. I need (some) info
rmation. I need (some) scissors. c) Se acord cu verbul singular: Chinese tea is v
ery good. Ceaiul chinezesc este foarte bun, sau la plural: The scissors are on t
he table. Foarfeca este pe mas. d) Unele substantivel englezeti fac parte att din c
lasa substantivelor numrabile, ct i din a celor nenumrabile, cu diferene de sens: She
is a beauty. (Ea) este o frumusee. Beauty is to be admired. Frumuseea trebuie adm
irat. The main character of the story is on old fisherman. Eroul/personajul princ
ipal al nuvelei este un btrn pescar. He is a man of character. (El) este un om de
caracter. I had an interesting experience when travelling in the North of countr
y. Mi s-a ntmplat ceva interesant cnd am cltorit n nordul rii. This teacher has a gre
deal of experience. Acest profesor are foarte mult experien. Give me an ice, please
. D-mi o ngheat te rog. That block of ice is very dangerous. Acest bloc de ghea este f
oarte periculos. She has got a new iron. Are un nou fier de clcat. This tool is m
ade of iron. Aceast unealt este din fier. pag: 080

e) Uneori diferenele de sens dintre substantivele nemumrabile sunt exprimate prin


cuvinte diferite.
numrabile
i
cele
Ive bought two loaves. Am cumprat dou pini. Ill buy bread at the supermarket. Am s cum
pr pine la autoservire. There are two sheep in the field. Sunt dou oi pe cmpie. I li
ke mutton. mi place carnea de oaie. This pig is very fat. Porcul acesta este foar
te gras. Ive bought some pork for dinner. Am cumprat nite carne de porc. f) n limba
englez fac parte din clasa substantivelor invariabile la singular unele substanti
ve care sunt numrabile sau invariabile la plural n limba romn: advice, business, fur
niture, homework, income, information, knowledge, luggage, merchandise, money et
c. He always gives me good advice. Totdeauna mi d sfaturi bune. You must do your h
omework carefully. Trebuie s-i faci cu atenie leciile. I need further information. A
m nevoie de informaii suplimentare. His knowledge of English is poor. Cunotinele lu
i de englez sunt slabe. 2.3.8. Numrul substantivelor invariabile. Substantivele in
variabile nu au opoziia singular - plural. Ele au numai singular: gold, sau numai
plural the police, cattle etc. A. Substantivele invariabile la singular Un numr
de substantive invariabile au numai form de singular: sugar, wisdom, news, measle
s, the good. Wales. Acestea se acord cu verbul la singular: Phonetics is a branch
of linguistics. Folosirea lor cu form de plural i/sau cu un verb la plural se fac
e doar n situaii speciale. Din clasa substantivelor invariabile la singular fac pa
rte: a) substantivele nenumrabile concrete: bread, butter, chalk, food, fruit. Fr
uit is good to eat. Este bine s mnnci fructe. pag: 081 b) Substantive nenumrabile ab
stracte: advice, cleanliness, homework, information. c) Unele substantive termin
ate n -s, care exprim urmtoarele noiuni: 1) substantivul news: Here is the 9 oclock n
ews. Acestea sunt tirile de la ora nou. 2) nume de boli: measles - pojar; mumps oreion; rickts - rahitism: Measles is a catching disease. Pojarul este o boal con
tagioas. 3) nume de tiine i obiecte de studiu terminate n -ics: acoustics, cybernetic
s, economics. Acoustics is the scince of sound. Acustica este tiina sunetelor. De
asemenea: athletics, ethics, gymnastics.

4) Unele nume de jocuri: billiards, bowls, cards, darts. Dominoes is a game for
children. Dar: a billiard-table, a bowling-alley, a dart-board. 5) Unele substan
tive proprii: Athens, Brussels, Naples, Wales, the Thames: Wales is in the sount
h-west of great Britain. ara Galilor se afl n partea de sudest a Marii Britanii. d)
Adjective abstracte substantivizate: the beautiful, the sublime, the good, the
evil: In fairy-stories the good always wins. n basme binele nvinge totdeauna. Cuat
ificarea substantivelor invariabile la singular se poate realiza cu ajutorul uno
r cuvinte ca: a piece of, an item of, a bar of, a bag of etc. Substantive concre
te: a piece of bacon a slice of cake a pice of bread a loaf of bread a pice of l
and a strip of land a piece of furniture an article of furniture a bit of grass
a blade of grass a piece of paper a sheet of paper pag: 082 Substantive abstract
e: a piece of advice a word of advice a pice of information an item of news an i
tem of business a bit of business a piece of work a bit of work a word of abuse
a fit of passion an attack of fever B. Subtantive invariabile la plural Substant
ivele invariabile la plural au numai form de plural i se acord de regul cu un verb l
a plural: The binoculars are on the table. Binoclul este pe mas. Din clasa substa
ntivelor invariabile la plural fac parte: a) substantivele care denumesc obiecte
formate din dou pri egale. Aceste substantive se numesc summnation plurals n limba
englez. Ele denumesc: 1) unelte: binoculars, compasses, glasses, pincers, pliers.

Where are the scissors ? Unde este foarfeca ? 2) articole de mbrcminte: braces, clo
thes flannels, jeans, overalls, pants, pyjamas, shorts, trousers: These trousers
are too long for you. Aceti pantaloni sunt prea lungi pentru tine. Not: 1. Observ
ai forma de singular a unora dintre aceste substantive cnd sunt folosite atributiv
: a spectacle case- toc de ochelari, a pyjama cord - cordon de pijama, a suspend
er belt - portjartier, a trouser leg - crac de pantalon 2. Substantivele care de
numesc obiecte din dou pri se numr cu ajutorul cuvntului pair: a pair of scissors, a p
air of trousers; two pairs of glasses; three pairs of skis, etc. b) alte substan
tive folosite numai la plural (pluralia tantum), terminate de regul n -s: He lives
in the outskirts of the touwn. Locuiete la periferia oraului. Exemplele de plural
ia tantum n limba englez sunt numeroase: Pluralia tantum n -s annals anale the anti
podes antipozi arms arme auspices auspicii effects efecte, mbrcminte funds fonduri
grounds za, drojdie letters litere the Lords Camera Lorzilor regards salutri remai
ns resturi suds clbuc de spun stairs scri thanks mulumiri troops trupe tropics tropi
ce pag: 083 Unele substantive fac parte din clasa pluralia tantum doar n limba en
glez, n limba romn ele fiind substantive variabile sau invariabile la singular: arch
ives arhiv ashes cenu contents coninut goods marf holydays vacan minutes proces-verbal
pains osteneal sands plaj

spirits dispoziie wages salariu Atenie ! Exist unele substantive care au dou form, cu
nelesuri diferite: o form invariabil la singular i o form invariabil la plural: Subst
invariab. Subst. invariab. la singular la plural advice-sfaturi advices-ntiinri, av
ize air-aer airs-aere (figurat) ash-scrum de igar ashes-cenu (n general) brace-perech
e (de potrnichi) braces-bretele honour-onoare honours-onoruri; distincie la examen
e middle age-vrst mijlocie the Middle Ages-Evul mediu respect-stim, consideraie resp
ects-omagii pag: 084 Substantivele pluralia tantum i summation plurals se confund
uneori cu forma de plural a unor substantive numrabile: colour = culoare; pl. col
ours colours (pl. tantum) = drapel compass = busol; pl. compasses compasses (pl.
tantum) = compas damage = avarie; pl. damages damages (pl. tantum) = despgubiri e
ffects (pl. tantum) = efecte, haine glass = pahar; pl. glasses glasses (pl. tant
um) = ochelari ground = motiv, cauz; pl. grounds grounds (pl. tantum_ = za, teren
letter = scrisoare; pl. letters letters (pl. tantum) = literatur, litere minute =
minut; pl. minutes minutes (pl. tantum) = proces-verbal pain = durere; pl. pain
s pains (pl.tantum) = osteneal quarter = sfert, cartier; pl. quarters quarters (p
l. tantum) = locuin, cantomament scale = gam muzical, solz; pl. scales scales (pl. t
antum) = balan spectacle = spectacol; pl. spectacles spectacles (pl.tantum) = oche
lari term = perioad, termen, trimestru; pl. terms terms (pl.tantum) = termeni, re
laii, raporturi, condiii

c) Substantive nemarcate la plural. n clasa substantivelor invariabile la plural


intr i unele substantive folosite numai la plural dar nemarcate formal pentru aces
t numr. Aceste substantive sunt: cattle, clergy, gentry, people, police. The catt
le are in the field. Vitele sunt pe cmp. There are a lot of people in the street.
Sunt muli oameni pe strad. d) Adjectivele sau participiile personale substantiviz
ate: the handicapped, the injured, the poor, the rich, the sick, the wounded: Th
e injured were taken to hospital. Rniii au fost dui la spital. pag: 085 e) Unele su
bstantive proprii: the Alps, the East / West Indies, the Hebrides, the Highlands
: The Highlands are mountainous region. Regiunea Highlands este o regiune muntoa
s. Numrul substantivelor Substantive variabile Felul Forma pluralului pluralului P
lurale +s [s] regulate +s [z] +es [iz] sonorizarea consoanei [0]-[_tz_]+[z] [f][v]+[z] [s]-[v]+[iz]
Exemple Singular book pencil, boy watch bath knife house
Plural books pencils, boys watches baths knives houses
mutaie vocalic
man foot mouse plural n -en +- ox mutaie vocalic child Zero sheep works the Japanes
e -us: -i; -ora; -era; stimulus -a:-ae; corpus -um: -a; genus Plurale -ex, -ix:
-ices; larva strine -is: -es; desideratum -on: -a codex zero analysis
men feet mice oxen children sheep works the Japanese stimuli corpora genera larv
ae desiderata codic s analyses

-o: -i
phenomenon chassis tempo
phenomena chassis tempi
Substantive invariabile Forma invariabil Singular Felul substantivelor a) nemumrab
ile concrete b) nenumrabile abstracte c) substantive n -s d) adjective abstracte s
ubstantivizate e) substantive proprii a) summation plurals b) pluralia tantum n s c) substantive cu plural nemarcat d) adjective personale substantivizate e) un
ele substantive proprii Exemple gold, milk, honey art, patriotism news the beaut
iful, the good Helen, Brown, Antarctica scissors customs, goods cattle, police t
he rich, the poor
Plural
the Carpathians, the Hebrides, the United States pag: 086 2.4. Genul substantive
lor (Gender of Nouns) 2.4.1. Genul este categoria gramatical caracteristic n primul
rnd substantivelor, adic cuvintelor care indic numele obiectelor. Coninutul categor
iei gramaticale a genului const n aceea c obiectele din lumea

inconjurtoare, dac reprezint fiine, sunt unele de sex brbtesc (masculin) i altele de s
x femeiesc (feminin), iar dac reprezint lucruri, sunt n afar sexului (neutre). Spre
deosebire de limba romn, n care partea final a substantivelor constuie marca categor
iei gramaticale a genului: mas, frate etc., n limba englez genul substantivelor est
e rareori marcat formal. n afara cazurilor n genul este marcat formal: boy - girl,
lion - lioness, genul substantivelor n limba englez se identific de obicei cu ajut
orul pronumelor care se refer la substantive i care au forme diferite dup gen: The
librarian is at his desk. He is written something. Bibliotecarul este la biroul
su. El scrie ceva. The librarian is at her desk. She is writting something. Bibli
otecara este la biroul ei. Ea scrie ceva. 2.4.2. Clasificarea substantivelor dup
ideea de gen. Din punct de vedere al apartenenei la genul masculin, feminin sau n
eutru, substantivele din limba englez se mpart n trei grupe mari: A. substantive nu
me de persoane; B. substantive nume de animale i C. substantive nume de obiecte.
2.4.3. Genul substantivelor nume de persoane (Gender of Personal Nouns). n limba
englez, substantivele care denumesc persoane de sex brbtesc sunt de gen masculin: m
an, brother, iar substantivele care denumesc persoane de sex femeiesc sunt de ge
nul feminin: woman, sister. La substantivele nume de persoane, categoria gramati
cal a genului poate fi marcat: 1) lexical; 2) morfologic; 3) identificat cu ajutoru
l unor cuvinte care marcheaz genul, iar substantivele nemarcate pentru gen (genul
comun). 1) la substantive nume de persoane genul este marcat lexical, prin cuvi
nte diferite: brother
sister earl
countess father
mother king
queen lord lady ma
n woman uncle
aunt 2) la alte substantive nume de persoane, genul este marcat mo
rfologic, prin adugarea unui sufix la forma de masculin: a) ess: actor
actress co
unt countess god
goddess master
mistress waiter
waitress

b) -ine: hero
heroine; sau prin adugarea unui sufix la forma de feminin: a) -er:
window widower b) -groom: bride
bridegroom 3) alte substantive nume de persoane
au o singur form att pentru masculin ct i pentru feminin. Ele aparin genului comun. E.
: artist, chairman, cook, cousin, doctor, foreiner, friend, quest, musician, par
ent, teacher, writer. Apartenena la genul masculin sau feminin se precizeaz n conte
xt: pag: 087 cu ajutorul pronumelor: The teacher asked the pupil a few more ques
tions as she wanted to give him a better mark.
cu ajutorul unor cuvinte la care
genul este marcat lexical, ca boy, male, female: boy-friend
girl-friend male-stu
dent female-student chairman
chairwoman
cu ajutorul unor adjective folosite doar
pentru un singur sex: My neighbour is pregnant. 2.4.4. Genul substantivelor num
e de animale (Gender of Animate Nouns) Substantivele nume de animale de subclasi
fic n: 1) nume de animale mari i 2) nume de animale mici. 1) Substantivele nume de
animale mari sunt considerate de obicei de genul masculin, fiind nlocuite de pron
umele he: The horse was rather restive at first, but he soon become more managea
ble. La unele dintre aceste animale, distincia de sex masculin-feminin este marca
t formal, situaie n care substantivele sunt nlocuite de pronumele he sau she: The ma
re whinnied when she saw her master. Iapa a nechezat cnd i-a vzut stpnul. Marca genul
ui poate fi realizat: a) lexical: horse: stallion mare ox: bull
cow sheep: ram
ew
e pig: boar sow deer: stag hind b) morfologic: lion
lioness, tiger tigress. 2) S
ubstantivele nume de animale mici sunt considerate de obicei neutre, fiind nlocui
te de pronumele it: I saw a frog by the lake. It was big and ugly. n unele cazuri
ns se pot indica diferenele de sex:

a) lexical: cock
hen dog
bitch drake
duck b) prin cuvinte marc ale genului: cock
sparrow
hen sparrow he goat
she goat Tom cat she cat 2.4.5. Genul substantivelor
nume de obiecte (Gender of Inanimate Nouns) Substantivele nume de obiecte sunt
de genul neutru: Wheres your umbrelle ? It is my bag. 2.4.6. Folosirea stilistic a
categoriei gramaticale a genului. A. Unele substantive nume de obiecte care sun
t de regul neutre n vorbirea curent sunt uneori personificate n literatur, unde ele p
ot fi tratate ca substantive masculine sau feminine. Sunt masculine substantivel
e care denumesc: a) pasiuni intense i aciuni violente: anger, fear, murder. b) fen
omene naturale puternice: ocean, river, sun. c) nume de fluvii: the Danube, the
Thames. d) nume de muni: the Carpathians, the Cheviot. pag: 088 Sunt feminine: a)
substantivele care sugereaz o caracteristic feminin, un caracter blnd, afectuos, ce
le care indic fertilitatea: affection, devotion, faith, hope, justice; b) substan
tivele care denumesc trsturi negative de caracter: ambition, folly, jealousy, reve
nge, vanity; c) substantive abstracte ca: fortune, liberty, mercy, nature, peace
, science. B. Substantivele nume de obiecte, de animale sau persoane se pot ndeprt
a de la folosirea lor obinuit, la genul neutru masculin sau feminin, n vorbirea cur
ent. Exist dou tendine: 1) substantivele inanimate sunt personificate, devenind she
sau he ntr-o exprimare afectuoas, iar substantivelor animate folosite de obicei la
genul neutru li se atribuie genul masculin sau feminin. n aceast categorie intr:
d
enumirile de vehicule, maini, ambarcaiuni: boat, bus, car, engine, locomotive, mot
or, ship. Persoanele care manipuleaz aceste vehicule le consider de genul feminin n
tr-o exprimare afectuoas: I am very fond of my car and I wash her every day.
nume
le de ri, inuturi, localiti, cnd sunt privite ca uniti politice economice: Romania ha
ratly developed her tourism.

animale domestice sunt n general de genul neutru, dar cnd intervin din considerent
e de ordin afectiv li se atribuie genul masculin sau feminin: Where is the cat ?
She is on the bed. Have you seen the dog ? I dont know where he is.
substantivel
e baby, infant, child, care sunt de obicei neutre, pot fi folosite i la genul mas
culin sau feminin, ntr-o exprimare afectuoas: The child hasnt eaten his breakfast.
Fetch the baby from her cot; she is crying. 2) Exist i o alt situaie, opus celei menio
nate anterior, referitoare la substantive nume de persoane. Cnd o persoan este tra
tat cu dispre, aceasta poate fi considerat un obiect nensufleit, referirea la ea fcndu
se cu pronumele it: So youve found the girl at last. Where did you find it ? 2.5.
Cazul substantivelor (Case of Nouns) 2.5.1. Cazul este categoria gramatical care
indic raporturile dintre obiecte sau dintre obiecte i aciuni. Sistemul cazului est
e folosit pentru a marca funciile sintactice ale substantivelor. Astfel, n limba e
nglez, ca i n limba romn, raporturile stabilite ntre obiecte i ntre obiecte i aciun
t reda prin cinci cazuri, fiecare dintre ele fiind folosit mai ales pentru expri
marea unui anumit raport. Nominativul este mai ales cazul subiectului, acuzativu
l, cazul complementului direct, dativul, cazul complementului indirect, genitivu
l, cazul atributului, iar vocativul este n afara funciile sintactice. n limba romn, c
ategoria gramatical a cazului este marcat de obicei prin desinene (crile copiilor), i
prepoziii (pe mas). pag: 089 n limba englez, categoria gramatical a cazului este marc
at prin: desinen: the childs book
topic: The man (N) opened the window (Ac).
prepo
: I bought it for Mary. 2.5.2. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case). Cazul nomi
nativ este cazul substantivelor care ndeplinesc funcia de subiect, nume predicativ
i apoziie. Un substantiv n cazul nominativ n limba englez se poate identifica cu aju
torul topicii. Observai exemplele: The audience liked the play. These women are n
urses. My neighbour, a very experienced engineer, helped me to mend the car. Fun
ciile sintactice ale cazului nominativ sunt: a) subiect al propoziiei: The boy is
waiting for his friend. b) nume predicativ: He is a teacher. c) apoziie, sau part
e a unei propoziii: Charles, a friend of mine, will help you to do it.

2.5.3. Cazul acuzativ (The Acusative Case). Cazul acuzativ este cazul complement
ului direct: I ate an icecream an hour ago. Cazul acuzativ nu este marcat prin d
esinene n engleza modern. De aceea el este identificat cu ajutorul topicii: a) Dac e
xist numai un complement n propoziie, acesta este, n majoritatea cazurilor, un compl
ement direct n cazul acuzativ i este aezat imediat dup verbul tranzitiv: Shut the wi
ndow, please. b) Dac n propoziie exist dou complemente, unul este n cazul acuzativ, ia
r cellalt este tot n cazul acuzativ, sau n cazul dativ, n funcie de verbele dup care u
rmeaz: I asked him (Ac) a question (Ac). I lent her (D) my umbrella (Ac). Urmtoare
le verbe sunt urmate de dou acuzative: ask, envy, excuse, forgive, save, strike:
The teacher asked the pupils several questions. I envy you your garden. That sav
ed us a lot of trouble. n timp ce verbe ca: deny, give, hand, lend, pay, read sun
t urmate de un complement indirect n cazul dativ i un complement direct n cazul acu
zativ: Can you lend me this book ? She told the children an interesting story. I
wish you a good journey. Cazul acuzativ este folosit dup: a) verbe tranzitive, p
entru a denumi obiectul care sufer aciunea verbului: drink, eat, meet. b) dup unele
verbe intranzitive, tranformndu-le n verbe tranzitive: weep, tears, look compassi
on. c) dup unele verbe intranzitive care au aceeai rdcin ca i substantivul n acuzativ,
formnd aa-numitul acuzativ intern: fight terrible fight, sing a song. d) dup prepoz
iii. Majoritatea prepoziiilor n limba englez sunt urmate de substantive / pronume n c
azul acuzativ: Im looking at John. Im looking at him. pag: 090 Funciile n propoziie a
le unui substantiv n cazul acuzativ sunt: a) complement direct: She met my brothe
r in the street. b) parte dintr-un complement prepoziional: The boys were talking
about the match. c) parte dintr-un atribut: I know him to be a man of honour. d
) parte dintr-un complement circumstanial: They arrived in the evening. 2.5.4. Ca
zul dativ (The dative Case). Un substantiv n cazul dativ ndeplinete funcia de comple
ment indirect i arat ctre cine sau ctre ce este ndreptat aciunea exprimat de verb. n
a englez, cazul dativ este marcat de prepoziia to sau for sau prin topic: She gave
some sweets to the children. I bought a present for my mother. I lent her (D) a
book (Ac). Cazul dativ este folosit: a) dup unele verbe intranzitive, urmate de u
n complement indirect al persoanei: come, happen, occur, propose: He came to me.
It happened to my mother. He proposed to her.

b) dup verbe tranzitive urmate de complement direct i complement indirect precedat


de pre4poziia to: deny, give, hand, offer, read, tell: I paid the money to the c
ashier. Im wiriting a postcard to my friends. Exist ns un numr de verbe urmate n mod o
bligatoriu de cazul dativ + prepoziia to: address, announce, communicate: I intro
duced him to my friends. c) dup verbe tranzitive urmate de complement direct i com
plement indirect precedat de prepoziia for: buy, choose, do, leave, make, order,
save: She made a new dress for her daughter. d) dup unele substantive: Her attitu
de to animals surprised us. Her cruelty to animals surprised us. Her kindess to
animals surprised us. e) dup unele adjective: Dint be cruel to animals. She advise
d me to be kind to the little boy. f) dup adjective de comparaie ca: adequate, cor
responding, equal, equivalent, similar, inferior: The result was not equal to hi
s effort. Man is superior to animals. 2.5.5. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case).
Substantivul n cazul genitiv exprim n principal ideea de posesiune i ndeplinete funcia
de atribut n propoziie: Anns bag is new. n limba englez, cazul genitiv este marcat de
regul de desinena -s, precedat de un apostrof. De aceea genitivul cu s se mai numete
genitivul n s sau genitivul sintetic. pag: 091 Ortografia desinenei genitivului a)
Desinena -s precedat de un apostrof se adaug:
la forma de singular a substantivulu
i: the girls dress; the pupils uestion la cteva substantive cu form neregulat de plu
ral: Mens clothes are more expensive than womens. We keep the childrens toys here.
la cteva substantive comune terminate n sunetul -s i urmate de cuvntul sake : for go
odness sake; for convenience sake. Not: Apostroful nu este obligatoriu n acest caz,
construciile de mai sus ntrebuinndu-se i sub forma: for goodness sake; for convenienc
e sake. b) Apostroful singur, fr desinena -s se adaug: - la forma de plural a substa
ntivelor regulate: the boys bicycles; the drivers attention. - la substantivele nu
me de persoane terminate n -s: Dickens life; Charles books. Not: 1. La numele propri
i terminate n -s se poate ntlni i genitivul cu s: Dickenss novels. Tendina n limba en
z contemporan favorizeaz ns scrierea fr -s dar pronunarea cu [iz], ca i n cazul scr
u s: Burns [b__:nziz] poems.

2. La unele nume proprii care nu se termin n -s se observ tendina de dispariie a apos


trofului i uneori i a substantivului determinat: Earls Court; Harrods; St. Davids;
St. Albans . (Earls Court; St. Davids etc). Cazuri speciale a) Grupurile de cuvin
te i titulaturile compuse au marca genitivului adugat la ultimul cuvnt: a year and a
halfs delay; my sister-in-laws job. b) dou substantive legate prin and care repr
ezint posesorii aceluia[i obiect adaug marca genitivului la ultimul cuv~nt: To
m and Marys parents (Tom i Mary sunt frai). With Mr and Mrs Browns compliments. c) D
ac obiectul nu aparine amndorura, marca genitivului o primete fiecare substantiv n pa
rte: Toms and marys friends. d) Apoziia primete de obicei semnul genitivului la ulti
mul cuvnt; Have you met my brother Jimmys son ? Pronunarea desinenei genitivului sin
tetic se realizeaz dup regulile de pronunare a desinenei de plural a substantivelor:
[s] [z] [iz] Spots the boys the judges the architects the teachers Bruces Dicks Henry
Alices Locul substantivului n cazul genitiv: a) Substantivul n cazul genitiv, deter
minantul, precede substantivul determinat cnd este folosit atributiv: This is my
sisters schoolbag. b) Substantivul n genitiv poate aprea singur, substantivul deter
minat fiind omis. Asemenea situaii apar:
cnd substantivul determinat a fost meniona
t anterior: This is Toms book. Marys is in her bag.
cnd substantivul determinat est
e cuvntul shop, house, place, museum: I bought these at the grocers (shop). I was
at the Browns (house) yesterday. pag: 092 d) Substantivul n cazul genitiv poate ur
ma substantivul determinat cnd este desprit de acesta prin prepoziia of (genitiv dub
lu): a book of the teachers; those skates of Peters. Folosirea genitivului sinteti
c Genitivul sintetic este folosit cu: a) nume proprii: Toms car b) substantive nu
me de persoane: the boys new shirt c) substantive colective: the nations security
d) substantive care denumesc animale mari: the lions mane e) denumiri geografice i
ale unor instituii: Europes future; Romanias foreign policy; the schools programme

f) substantive care denumesc uniti de timp, spaiu, msur: todays work; a moments talk;
days journey g) cteva substantive comune urmate de cuvntul sake: for pitys sake; fo
r mercys sake; h) substantive nume de obiecte care pot deveni masculine sau femin
ine prin personificare, n literatur: truths victory, Loves Labours Lost; the oceans ro
ar; i) unele pronume nehotrte ca: another, either, neither, one i compuii lui some,
any, no, every precum i adverbul else; somebodys advice; nobodys fault; j) n unele e
xpresii: a needles eye; her hearts desire; to a hairs breadth; k) cnd substantivul d
eterminat este omis: St Pauls (Cathedral) is one of Tussauds (museum). Construcia c
u OF (The OF Construction) Construcia cu prepoziia of este uneori folosit ca un ech
ivalent al genitivului sintetic: Shakespeares plays - the plays of Shakespeare. L
ocul construciei cu of este dup substantivul determinat: the life of the great wri
ter; the roof of the house. Folosirea construciei cu of Construcia cu of se foloset
e: a) cu substantivele nume de obiecte: the title of the book; b) cu denumiri ge
ografice urmate de un nume propriu: the City of London the Gulf of Mexico. c) cu
nume proprii, n locul genitivului sintetic:
cnd numele proprii sunt exprimate pri
n substantive coordonate: the teacher of Peter and Mary
cnd numele propriu const d
intr-un substantiv cu apoziie: the reign of Queen Elisabeth cnd dorim s subliniem n
umele propriu: the sonnets of William Shakespeare pag: 093 d) cu substantivele n
ume de persoan: cnd substantivul determinat este precedat de articolul nehotrt sau d
e un demonstrativ: I am a great admirer of this writer. e) pentru ntrire: The arri
val of his grandfather surprised him. f) cu nume de animale mici: the tail of th
e mouse; the wings of a butterfly. Genitivul implicit (The Implicit Genitive) Ge
nitivul implicit este o contrucie genitival n care substantivului determinat i lipset
e desinena de genitiv: audience participation, student hostel, afternoon tea. Gen
itivul dublu (The Double Genitive)

Genitivul dublu const din genitivul sintetic + construcia cu of. Aceast construcie e
ste folosit cu substantive nume de persoane: This joke of Peters A threat of our t
eachers. Genitivul dublu difer ca sens de constrcuia cu of folosit singur. a descript
ion of Galsworthys = o descriere fcut de Galsworthy; a description of Galsworthy =
o descriere a lui Galsworthy (fcut de altcineva) 2.5.6. Cazul Vocativ (The Vocativ
e Case) - (vezi & 21.4) EXERCIII I. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez, folo
sind substnative proprii i abrevieri: 1. coala ncepe n septembrie. 2. Noi mergem la n
ot duminica. 3. Dl. Brown este membru al parlamentului. 4. n fiecare an la data d
e 4 iulie, americanii srbtoresc Ziua Independenei. 5. Dunrea se vars n Marea Neagr. 6.
Doctorul Ionescu consult elevii n fiecare luni. 7. Spania se nvecineaz cu Frana. 8. C
hinezii, vietnamezii i japonezii triesc n Asia. 9. Hotelul Intercontinental din Buc
ureti se afl, lng Teatrul Naional. 10. Studiem engleza i rusa la coal. 11. n 1976 a
loc la Helsinki conferina pentru pace i securitate n Europa. II. Trecei urmtoarele su
bstnative compuse la numrul plural: schoolboy; masterpiece; brother-in-law; fathe
r-in-law; headmaster; milkman; woman dentist; postman; blackboard; son-in-law; p
asser-by; bedroom; car race; looker-on; man singer; merry-go-round; horse-race;
forget-me-nor; footspet; fireman. III. Punei substantivele din paranteze la numrul
plural: 1. There are hundreds of (book) on the (shelf). 2. All his (toy) are in
his room. 3. Those (man) are (tourists). 4. (Child) like (story). 5. They left
their (watch) on the table. pag: 094 IV. Alegei forma potrivit a substantivelor pe
ntru a completa propoziiile de mai jos: hundred/hundreds 1.....of pupils attend t
his school. 2. Six ..... pupils attend the school round the corner. million/mill
ions 3. Romania has a population a twenty-two... people. 4. Two... people live i
n Bucharest. V. Trecei la plural urmtoarele substantive de origine strin: a) stimulu
s; phenomenon; desideratum; addendum; b) campus; virus; encyclopedia; villa; c)
syllabus; genius; formula; curriculum;

VI. Completai propoziiile urmtoare cu cuantificatori potrivii ca sens: piece, bit, i


tem, pair, head etc. 1. I need a white... of paper. 2. She bought two... of choc
olate yesterday. 3. I want a .... of white bread and two... of brown bread. 4. G
ive me a .... of chalk, will you? 5. What a .... of work is man! VII. Traducei ur
mtoarele propoziii n limba englez: 1. tirile pe care le-am primit sunt interesante. 2
. Mi-am fcut bagajele asear. 3. Vom publica toate informaiile care sunt necesare ca
ndidailor. 4. Cunotinele lui de istorie sunt remarcabile. 5. Am cumprat fructe i cteva
prjituri. 6. i-ai fcut temele? VIII. Citii urmtoarele propoziii coninnd pluralia tan
n -s i traducei-le n limba romn: 1. The standard of living in the Middle Ages was ver
y low. 2. She tried to make amends for her former behaviour. 3. All Dacians rose
in arms when the Romans invaded Dacia. 4. The letter burnt to ashes. 5. He's go
t good brains, he'll manage. 6. Clothes do not make the man. 7. Have a look at t
he table contents. 8. They couldnt finish the project for lack of funds. 9. Goods
are usually transported in goods trains. 10. Where are you going to spend your
holidays? 11. He has good looks. 12. You are forgetting your manners, young man!
pag: 095 IX. Traducei n limba englez: 1. Unde este cletele? 2. Multe mulumiri. 3. Sau ncercat toate mijloacele. 4. Cartierul general al armatei era lng Londra. 5. Fiz
ica este obiectul lui preferat. 6. Am prins trei pstrvi mari. 7. Tocmai s-a public
at o carte despre petii de ap dulce din Romnia. 8. Are pr aten. 9. Ea are cteva fire d
e pr alb. 10. D-mi dou pini, te rog. 11. A fcut progrese mari n nvarea limbii englez
. Acesta este procesul verbal al edinei. X. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba romn
1. There is a glass of milk on the table. 2. Does he wear glasses? 3. You have t
o declare everything at the customs. 4. They want to get acquainted with this Ro
manian custom. 5. Are you writing a letter? 6. He is a great man of letters. 7.
I don't like her airs. 8. There is something in the air. XI. Traducei n limba engl
ez: Dragul meu Mo Ghi, Mii de mulumiri pentru prietenoasa ta felicitare. De ndat ce vo
primi exemplarele de autor de la Academie, i voi trimite un volum din lucrarea me
a despre Marea Neagr. Noi avem o iarn neplcut i eu i soiam fiind bolnavi.

Dragul nostru Tou este ns voinic i-mi face o mare plcere s aud glasul su la telefon. G
. Antipa XII. Care sunt corespondentele feminine ale urmtoarelor substantive masc
uline: 1. son; 2. lor; 3. nephew; 4. uncle; 5. father; 6. brother. 7. cock; 8. s
tag; 9. boy; 10. husband; 11. man; 12. king. XIII. Care sunt formele de masculin
i feminin ale urmtoarelor substantive: 1. friend; 2. goat; 3. stundent; 4. cat; 5
. ass; 6. frog. XIV. Formulai propoziii cu substnative la genitiv, conform modelul
ui: John has got a book. This is Johns book. 1. My neighbour has got a car. 2. Li
ly has got a doll. 3. Dick has got a new bicycle. 4. My cousin has got a new sta
mp-book. 5. Mr White has got an umbrella. 6. Lawrence and Paul have got an elect
ric train. 7. Peter has got a bicycle and Mary has got a bicycle too. pag: 096 X
V. Traducei n limba romn: at a miles distance; yesterdays newspaper; in two years time
a pounds weight; at a stones throw; to my hearts content; art for arts sake.
XVI. Trecei urmtoarele substantive n cazul genitiv la numrul plural. 1. My cousin's
house is large. 2. The girl's room is very pretty 3. The pupil's uniform is blue
4. The woman's work is very much appreciated. 5. The worker's life is much bett
er today. 6. The teacher praosed the student's work 7. Where are the child cloth
es? 8. The baby's food is in the fridge. XVII. Punei substantivele din paranteze
la genitivul sintetic sau analitic. Mary is (David) sister 2. The (book) pages h
ave numbers. 3. What is your (brother) hobby? 4. This is a (woman) hat. 5. What'
s ( this boy) favourite sport? 6. The (shed) roof was blown off by the wind. 7.
That is (Alice) pencil-box. 8. (Ladies) hats are very pretty this year. 9. This
is (mybrother and sister) room. 10. Where are the (girls) blouses? 11. (Dickens)
novels are very interesting.
1.

12. The house is at a (mile) distance. 13. Have you read (yesterday) paper. XVII
I. Construii propoziii conform modelulului: show-Mike-the building I showed Mie th
e building. I showed the building to Mike. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. give- money - her son.
tell - secret- Mary. hand-paper-the teacher. lend- umbrella-my friend throw-bal
l-his friend. 6. write-letter-grandma 7. offer-flowers-teacherr XIX. Reformulai u
rmtoarele propoziii, folosind prepoziia to sau for dup caz. 1. 2. 3. 4.
5.
6. 7. 8.
I bought Mike a dog. He gave Tom some presents. I chose my sister a nice present
. Mary showed the teacher her compozition. They sent their parents a parcel. Did
you make Helen this new cardigan? Did he give his mother a bunch of flowers? I
ordered my sister a lemonade.

XX. Traducei n limba englez: a) 1. Congresul al XII-lea al partidului a luat hotrri d


e mare nsemntate pentru poporul nostru i pentru progresul patriei. 2. Ai citit ziar
ul de ieri? 3. Dup un moment de gndire, elevul a rspuns perfect la toate ntrebrile me
le. 4. Juriul a nmnat premii ctigtorilor ntrecerii. 5. Ne-am distrat foarte bine la pe
trecerea suroriii prietenului meu. 6. Cred c am luat plria altcuiva. 7. Stiloul est
e al lui Bo. 8. Ce tii despre clima acestei ri? 9. Profesorul a vorbit mai bine de
o or despre progresul tiinei. 10. Elevii i-au oferit nvtoarei lor un buchet de flori.
1. Ar fi bine s ne ntlnim acas la Maria. 12. Publicarea acestei cri a nsemnat un succe
deosebit. b) 1. Cea mai modern poet a noastr a vorbit despre ultimul ei volum de p
oezii. 2. Vei fi nsoii de fiul i fiica mea. 3. Nu tiu cine joac rolul prinesei.

Nu iam vzut pe unchiul i mtua mea de cteva luni. 5. Nepoata ei cea mai mic este moteni
oarea casei. 6. Vecinul meu a lsat ua deschis i a uitat de ea.
4.
pag: 097
3. Articolul i Determiners)
ali
determinani
(The
Article
and
other

3.1. Categoria determinrii 3.1.1. Categoria determinrii a aprut n limba englez, ca i n


limba romn, din necesitatea de a indica un element unic (the Danube) sau specific
(this man) dintr-o categorie, sau de a denumi o ntreag categorie de elemente de ac
elai fel (The lion is a strong animal). n limba englez exist mai multe pri de vorbire
care pot determina un substantiv: the first two students. Ele formeaz n gramatica
structuralist clasa determinanilor, care este subdivizat n predeterminani, determinani
propriuzii i postdeterminani. Aceast terminologie a fost stabilit pe baza categoriei
gramaticale pe care o reprezint aceste cuvinte pe lng substantiv (determinarea) i p
e baza poziiei pe care o ocup unul fa de altul: Half (predeterminant) the (determina
nt propriu-zis) second (postdeterminant) chapter. 3.1.2. Determinanii propriu-zii.
n calasa determinanilor propriu-zii intr articolul i alte pri de vorbire care pot nl
i articolul naintea unui substantiv: adjectivul demonstrativ (this, that, these,
those), adjectivul posesiv (my, your, his etc.), adjectivul nehotrt (each, every,
either etc.) i unele adjective interogative (what, which) i negative (no, neither)
: a book the book no book each book every book either book this book my book wha
t book Determinanii propriu-zii ai substantivului Determinantul Articolul hotrt Arti
colul nehotrt Articolul zero Exemple the man a tree; an apple men; trees, apples

Adjectivul demonstrativ Adjectivul posesiv


Adjectivul interogativ Adjectivul nehotrt
this newspaper, that magazine these articles, those papers my house; your car; h
is watch; her dress; its tail; our school; their classroom. What book do you wan
t ? Which books do you want ? Whose book do you want ? Each pupil, every day, ei
ther side; some books; any students; no children; neither student.

pag: 098 Articolul ocup un loc central n cadrul determinanilor, neavnd alt funcie dect
cea de determinare a substantivului. Ali determinani pot funciona independent de su
bstantivele pe care le preced, ca pronume: I want this/some. What is this ? Pe lng
determinanii propriu-zii, substantivele mai pot fi precedate i de alte clase de cuv
inte: predeterminani, numerale cardinale i ordinale / cuantificatori (post determi
nani). Aceste dou clase au fost stabilite pe baza poziiei lor fa de determinani n rela
unul cu altul. 3.1.3. Predeterminanii. Predeterminanii se numesc astfel deaorece
ei apar naintea determinanilor: a) all the books both my books half these books b)
double the / these amount twice the / these amount three times the / these amou
nt c) ine-third the time three quarters the / these amount Cnd sunt urmai de subst
antive, predeterminanii pot aprea n trei construcii: all of the children all the chi
ldren all children both of the teachers both the teachers both teachers

Cnd determinanii sunt urmai de pronume, construcia cu of este obigatorie: all of the
m, both of them, half of it. Predeterminanii all, both i half pot fi folosii i ca pr
onume: All understood the teachers explanation. Both understood the teachers expla
nation. Half understood the teachers explanation. n cazul lui all, se folosete dete
rminantul zero n cazul substantivelor numrabile la plural folosite generic: All th
e pupils went into the classroom. Dar: All soldiers must wear uniforms (generic)
. pag: 099 All poate fi de asemenea folosit cu articolul zero n expresii ca: all
(the) day / morning / night, n special ntr-un context negativ: I havent seen her al
l day: Ca determinant, all precede: a) substantive (ne)numrabile concrete (rar) s
au abstracte la singular, avnd sensul de ntreg, tot: She interrupted him all the t
ime. l ntrerupea tot timpul. He didnt spend all his money. Nu i-a cheltuit toi banii.
He hasnt read all the story. He hasnt read the whole story. b) substantive numrabi
le la plural, avnd sensul de toi, toate: Where are all your books ? Unde sunt toat
e crile tale ? All poate fi folosit att ca predeterminant ct i ca pronume nehotrt: Hav
you drunk all the milk ? Ai but tot laptele ? Have you seen all ? Ai vzut tot ? A
ll (the) people came in time. All (of them) were punctual. Both. Both nseamn amndoi
, amndou, fiind folosit pentru referirea la dou persoane (accentuat): Both children
are very quit. Amndoi copiii sunt foarte tcui. Both poate fi folosit att ca predete
rminant: Both (of) these features are very important. ct i ca pronume: Both are im
portant. Half. Half (jumtate) este folosit att cu substantive nenumrabile: He didnt
say a word half the time he stayed there. ct i ca substantive nenumrabile: Half the
students in the student hostel were asleep. Half este folosit ca: - predetermin
ant: half the book - substantiv: Your half is bigger than mine. - pronume nehotrt:
half (of them) left. Numeralele multiplicative (vezi & 4.7.) sunt incluse n clas
a predeterminanilor, deoarece ele pot fi aezate naintea determinanilor: twice the am
ount, double that price. La fel i numeralele fracionare (vezi &4.5.), care pot ave
a i construcii cu of, n mod similar cu all, both i half: The vegetables boiled in on
e third (of) the time the meat did.

3.1.4. Postdeterminanii. Ordinalele sunt postdeterminani. Ele urmeaz determinanii n g


rupul nominal, dar preced cuantificatorii i adjectivele: The first three importan
t events. n clasa ordinalelor intr: a) numeralele ordinale: first, second, third,
fourth etc. b) (an)other, next, last. Cuantificatorii urmeaz determinanii i ordinal
ele i preced adjectivele: The first three important events. Din clasa cuantificat
orilor fac parte: a) numeralele cardinale: one, two, three, four, five, etc. pag
: 100 b) cuantificatorii, cuvintele care exprim numrul (many, few, several) sau ca
ntitatea (much, little) n mod nedefinit. Cuatificatorii sunt folosii: a) numai cu
substantive numrabile: many children a great number of children few children a la
rge number of children several children a good number of children b) numai cu su
bstantive nenumrabile: much time a great/good deal of money little time a great/g
ood deal of money a little time great/good deal of money much time a large/small
quantity/amount of money little time a large/small quantity/amount of money a l
ittle time a large/small quantity/amount of money c) cu substantive numrabile sau
nenumrabile (n exprimarea familiar): a lot of children/money lots of children/mone
y plenty of children/money Much = mult, mult se folosete mai ales n propoziii intero
gative i negative: There isnt much sugar left. Nu a rmas mult zahr. n propoziii afirma
tive se folosete: very much, a lot of, a great deal of, a large (small) amount of
, plenty of: There is a lot of sugar in the sugar basin. Este (foarte) mult zahr n
zaharni. There is very much sugar in the sugar basin. Este (foarte) mult zahr n zah
arni. There is plety of sugar in the sugar basin. Este foarte mult zahr n zaharni. Lit
tle nseamn puin, puin, indic o cantitate insuficient, implic o apreciere negativ: Sh
s little bread. Ea mnnc puin pine (aproape deloc). A little indic o cantitate mic, da
uficient i implic o apreciere pozitiv: I eat a little bread. Mnnc ceva pine.

Many = muli, multe se folosete mai ales n propoziii interogative i negative: Did he r
ead many English books ? A citit multe cri englezeti. I have not invited many peopl
e to my birthday party. N-am invitat mult lume la ziua mea de natere. n propoziii af
irmative se folosete very many, a lot of, a great / large number, lots of: Hes rea
d a lot of English books. Hes read very many English books. Hes read a great numbe
r of English books. Hes read lots of English books. Few = puini, puine indic un numr
insuficient i implic o apreciere negativ: Few people live to be a hundred. Puini oam
eni triesc 100 de ani. A few = civa, cteva indic un numr mic, dar suficient i implic
preciere pozitiv: There are few flowers in the vase. Sunt cteva flori n vaz. Several
este folosit pentru mai mult de dou persoane: He read several books on Dacia. El
a citit mai multe cri despre Dacia. He read several books on Dacia. El a citit cte
va cri despre Dacia. pag: 101
3.2. Articolul (The Article)
3.2.1. Definiie. Articolul este partea de vorbire care: a) constituie un mijloac
de individualiza a obiectelor i fenomenelor ntr-un context lingvistic sau situaiona
l; b) nu are forme flexionare, fiind neflexibil din punct de vedere morfologic;
c) ndeplinete funcia de determinant. Articolul ocup un loc central n cadrul determina
nilor, fiind considerat determinantul propriu-zis. Aceasta se datoreaz faptului c a
rticolul nu poate fi o parte de vorbire independent, el contribuind doar la deter
minarea unic sau individual a substantivului pe care l nsoete. Articolul este redat pr
in articolul hotrt the, articolul nehotrt a sau an sau prin articolul zero. Aceste a
rticole se folosesc pentru a realiza: 1) referina unic (unique reference) i 2) refe
rina individual (individual reference). 3.2.2. 1) Articolul se folosete pentru refe
rin unic atunci cnd se identific cu un membru anume al unei clase: The boy was runnin
g very fast. Biatul alerga foarte repede. 3.2.3. 2) Articolul se folosete pentru r
eferin individual cnd referirea se face la orice membru al unei clase, fr ca acesta s
ie identificat n mod unic. Pentru referina unic, se folosete articolul hotrt pentru su
bstantive numrabile i nenumrabile: Where is the book I gave you ? Where are the boo
ks I gave you ? Where is the chalk I gave you ?

Pentru referin individual, se folosesc: - articolul nehotrt a(n), cu substantive numra


bile la singular: There is a book on the table. There is an orange on the table.
- articolul zero sau some/any, cu substantive numrabile la plural i substantive n
enumrabile: There are (some) books on the table. There is (some) salt on the tabl
e. Atenie! Articolul se folosete generic cnd unei clase de elemente i se atribuie o
proprietate; folosirea generic are n vedere clasa i nu anumii membri ai clasei: Boy
s like to play football. Bieilor le place s joace fotbal. A boy runs faster than a
girl. Un biat alearg mai repede dect o fat. The tiger lives in the jungle. Tigrul tri
ete n jungl. Substantivele folosite generic nu au distincia de numr deoarece ele denu
mesc ceea ce este tipic, general pentru membrii unei clase. De aceea, folosirea
generic apare cu cele trei articole: pag: 102 a) articolul hotrt the, articolul neh
otrt a(n) sau articolul zero pentru substantivele numrabile: The cow gives us milk.
A cow gives us milk. Cows give us milk. b) articolul zero pentru substantivele
nenumrabile: Milk is good for our health. 3.2.4. Numele proprii i referina unic. Num
ele proprii sunt substantivele cu referin unic prin excelen, deoarece ele sunt consid
erate membri unici ai clasei din care fac parte: Helen, Mount Everest, the Danub
e, France, Monday. Prin aceasta, numele proprii se deosebesc de substantivele co
mune: a) se scriu cu liter mare: Mr. Thomson, the English Channel, the Haque. b)
nu au contrastul articulat-nearticulat: unele nume proprii sunt folosite cu arti
colul zero, altele sunt folosite cu articolul the, fr s existe o opoziie ntre ele: Au
stralia, Italy, Bucharest, Windsor Castle. c) numele proprii nearticulate primes
c articol cnd se intenioneaz restrngerea referinei la un anumit timp sau loc care ide
ntific, numele printr-o propoziie relativ restrictiv, o construcie prepoziional cu of
au una provenit dintr-o propoziie relativ restrictiv: in Romania in the Romania of t
oday Bucharest the Bucharest I like Eminescu the young Eminescu

in Victorian England in the England of Queen Victoria 3.3. Articolul hotrt (The De
finite Article) 3.3.1. Forma articolului hotrt. Articolul hotrt are forma unic the. T
he se pronun [_tz__] a) inaintea sunetelor consonantice: the pupil; the house; b) na
intea sunetelor semiconsonantice, reprezentate de obicei prin literele u, y, w:
the university, the window, the year, the one. The se pronun [_tz_i(:)] a) naintea
sunetelor vocalice: the artists; b) naintea lui h mut: the hour; the honest man;
the honour; the heir; c) pronunarea [_tz_i:] este de asemenea folosit pentru subli
niere: These are the facts. 3.3.2. Funciile articolului hotrt. Articolul hotrt este f
olosit pentru a exprima referina unic. El ndeplinete mai multe funcii. Acestea sunt:
1) funcia deictic, cu substantive a cror referin este imediat neleas de vorbitorii li
i, ea fiind specific n contextul situaional al comunicrii. Anumite substantive au d
eterminare deictic n contexte situaionale. De exemplu: a) ntr-o ncpere: the door, the
window, the table, the radiator. Close the window, will you ? nchide fereastra, t
e rog. b) ntr-o pdure: the wind, the sky, the ground etc. The ground is covered wi
th dry leaves. Pmntul este acoperit cu frunze uscate. pag: 103 c) ntr-un ora: the to
wnhall, the police station, the railway station, the hospital: Can you tell me h
ow to get to the townhall ? Putei s-mi spunei cum s ajung la primrie ? d) ntr-o ar: t
radio, the press, the telephone: Whats on the radio at eight oclock ? Ce program e
ste la radio la ora 8 ? e) n univers: the sun, the moon, the earth: The earth mov
es round the sun. Pmntul se nvrtete n jurul soarelui. 2) funcia anaforic, cu substant
determinate definitiv prin menionarea anterioar: I bought a book yesterday. The b
ook is intersting. Am cumprat o carte ieri. Cartea este interesant. 3) funcia cataf
oric, cnd determinarea definit apare dup substantiv, fiind exprimat printr-o propoziie
relativ restrictiv sau printr-o construcie prepoziional provenit dintr-o propoziie re
ativ restrictiv: The man who is driving the red car is our English teacher. Omul c
are conduce maina roie este

profesorul nostru de englez. The man (who is) in the red car is our English teach
er. Omul din maina roie este profesorul nostru de englez. 4) funcia generic, cnd subst
antivul este folosit n sensul su cel mai general, ca reprezentant al unei clase. n
aceast funcie the nsoete substantive numrabile la numrul singular: The horse is a usef
l animal. Calul este un animal folositor. The wild elephant can be found in some
parts of Africa. Elefantul slbatic poate fi gsit n unele zone din Africa. 5) cu nu
me proprii: Numele proprii sunt precedate de obicei de articolul hotrt cnd structur
a lor intr i un adjectiv sau substantiv folosit adjectival: The United Kingdom, th
e United States, the Art Gallery; sau o construcie prepoziional postpus (cu of): The
University of Bucharest , the Houses of Parliament; n aceste cazuri, articolul t
he este folosit chiar dac unul dintre cele dou elemente este omis: the (river) Tha
mes, the Tate (Gallery), the Pacific (Ocean), the Mediterranean (Sea), the Inter
continental (Hotel). Articolul hotrt se folosete cu urmtoarele clase de nume proprii
: a) substantive la plural: the Browns - familia Brown; the Nertherlands - Oland
a the Alps - Alpii. b) denumiri geografice: - nume de ruri: The Danube, the Olt;
- nume de mri i oceane: the Black Sea, the Atlantic Ocean; - nume de canaluri: the
Suez Canal, the Panama Canal; - nume de deerturi, golfuri, capuri: The Sahara, T
he persian Gulf, the Cape of Good Hope. c) nume de instituii: - hoteluri i restaur
ante: the Lido, the Berlin Restaurant; - teatre, cinematografe, cluburi: The Nat
ional Theatre, the Capitol Cinema; - muzee, bliblioteci:The British Museum, the
National History Museum; d) nume de ziare: The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The G
uardian. Numele de reviste au de obicei articolul zero: Life, English Language T
eaching Journal. e) nume de vase: The Transylvania. pag: 104 ara sau Adjectiv con
tinentul Substantiv Folosire individual China Japan Portugal Switzerland Vietnam
Chinese Japanase Portuguese Swiss Vietnamese Singular a Chinese a Japanese a Por
tuguese a Swiss a Vietnamese Plural Chinese Japanese Portuguese Swiss Vietnamese
Folosire generic Plural the Chinese the Japanese the Portuguese the Swiss the Vi
etnamese

Israel Pakistan Africa America Asia Australia Italy Belgium Brazil Europe German
y Greece Hungary Norway Denmark Finland Poland Spain Sweden Arabia England Franc
e
Israeli Pakistani African American Asian Australian Italian Belgian Brazilian Eu
ropean German Greek Hungarian Norwegian Danish Finish Polish Spanish Swedish Ara
bic English French
an Israeli a Pakistani an African an American an Asian an Australian an Italian
a Belgian a Brazilian a European a German
Israelis Pakistanis Africans Americans Asians Australians Italians Belgians Braz
ilians Europeans Germans
a Greek Greeks a Hungarian Hungarians a Norwegian a Dane a Finn a Pole a Spaniar
d a Swede an Arab an Englishman a Frenchman a Dutchman a Dutchman an Irishman No
rwegians Danes Finns Poles Spaniards Swedes Arabs Englishmen Frenchmen Dutchmen
Dutchmen Irishmen
Holland Dutch the Dutch Netherlands Ireland Irish Wales Britain Welsh British
a Welshman Welshmen a Briton Britons
the Israelis the Pakistanis the Africans the Americans the Asians the Australian
s the Italians the Belgians the Brazilians the Europeans the Germans the Greeks
the Hungarians the Norwegians the Danes (Danish) the Finns (Finish) the Poles (P
olish) the Spaniards (Spanish) the Swedes (Swedish) the Arabs the English Englis
hmen the French Frenchmen the Dutch the Dutch Dutchmen the Irish Irishmen the We
lsh Welshmen the British Britons

Scotland Scotland Scotland


Scots Scottish Scotch
a Scotsman a Scot a Scotchman
Scotsmen Scots Scotchmen
Scotsmen the Scots the Scotch
pag: 105

3.4. Articolul nehotrt (The Indefinite Article)


3.4.1. Forma articolului nehotrt Articolul nehotrt are dou forme: a i an. A se pronun
] (forma slab, cnd este neaccentuat), sau [ei] (forma tare cnd este accentuat) i se
folosete naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu un sunet consonantic sau semiconsonantic:
a buider, a magazine; a water-melon, a year. An se pronun [__n] (forma slab) sau [_a
e_n] (forma tare) i se folosete naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu un sunet vocalic sau
h mut: an architect, an egg, an orange, an hour, an heir, an honest man. 3.4.2.
Funciile articolului nehotrt. Articolul nehotrt are mai multe valori. Acestea sunt:
1) funcia epiforic, specific articolului nehotrt, folosit pentru introducerea n comuni
are a unei noiuni care nu a fost menionat anterior: There is a young boy waiting fo
r you. Te ateapt un biat. I read an interesting novel last month. Am citit un roman
interesant luna trecut. Funcia epiforic a articolului nehotrt este folosit n situaii
care obiectul sau persoana menionat n comunicare este necunoscut asculttorului: A ma
n came and knocked at our door. A venit un om i a btut la u; sau n situaiile n care vo
bitorul nu dorete s determine definit obiectul sau persoana respectiv ci se refer do
ar la un membru al unei clase: I saw a cat on the stairs. Am vzut o pisic pe scar.
2) funcia numeric, n situaiile n care forma a(n) are valoarea numeralului one. Pentru
a reda aceast idee de numr gramatical (singularul), articolul nehotrt se folosete: cu substantivele numrabile la singular, de obicei n serii numerice: She bought a
dress, two blouses and an umbrella. A cumprat o rochie, dou bluze i o umbrel. - cu n
umeralele (n locul lui one): a/one hundred; a/one thousand. pag: 106 3) funcia gen
eric Articolul nehotrt poate fi folosit i cu valoare generic, cu substantive numrabile
la singular, pentru a reprezenta o ntreag clas: A cow gives us milk. Vaca ne d lapt
e. 4) articolul nehotrt este folosit i naintea numelui predicativ exprimat printr-un
substantiv:

He is a teacher. He was a headmaster. He is a teacher. He became a headmaster. H


e is a teacher. He remained a headmaster. Atenie ! Articolul nehotrt nu se folosete:
1) cu substantive nenumrabile Comparai: a) substantiv numrabil. I bought an iron y
esterday. Am cumprat un fier de clcat ieri. - substantiv nenumrabil. This fence is
made of iron. Acest gard este din fier. 2) cu substantive numrabile la plural Com
parai: - substantiv numrabil la singular: I watched an interesting film on TV last
night. Am vzut un film interesant la televizor asear. - substantiv numrabil la plu
ral: You can watch (some) interesting films on TV. Poi s vezi (nite) filme interesa
nte la televizor. n cazul substantivelor numrabile la plural, determinarea nedefin
it se realizeaz: a) cu articolul zero: There are films on TV. Sunt filme la televi
zor. b) cu ajutorul lui some sau any: There are some interesting films on TV. Su
nt unele/nite filme interesante la televizor. 3.5. Articolul zero (The Zero Artic
le) 3.5.1. n unele cazuri, substantivele nenumrabile, substantivele numrabile la pl
ural i numele proprii par nensoite de articol: She drinks tea every day. Clothes do
not make the man. Bobby Charlton was a good football player. n astfel de cazuri,
absena articolului echivaleaz ca funcia cu prezena unui articol. Acesta este de obi
cei numit articolul zero. pag: 107 Este necesar s distingem ntre existena unui arti
col zero i omisiunea articolului hotrt sau nehotrt, pentru c articolul zero apare n si
uaii opuse celor n care se folosesc celelalte articole: I like chocolate. (Articol
ul zero pentru folosirea generic). mi place ciocolata. The chocolate you bought is
nice. Ciocolata pe care ai cumprat-o este gustoas. 3.5.2. Funciile articolului zer
o 1) articolul zero ndeplinete funcia generic cu: a) substantive nenumrabile b) subst
antive numrabile la plural I like milk / coffee. I like music / literature/ geogr
aphy / traveling I like long walks / good friends / games.

a) articolul zero cu substantive nenumrabile indic o cantitate nedefinit, cantitate


a n general: You can by sugar, flower, rice and oil at the grocers. Poi s cumperi za
hr, orez i ulei la bcnie. Aceast ntrebuinare a articolului zero este des ntlnit n
n limbajul tiinific: Haste makes waste. Graba stric treaba. Light travels faster th
an sound. Lumina se deplaseaz mai repede dect sunetul. b) cu substantivele numrabil
e la plural articolul zero se refer la toi membri unei clase: Children like to pla
y. Copiilor le place s se joace. 2) Articolul zero este ntrebuinat de regul pentru r
eferina unic a numelor proprii i a unor substantive comune n anumite contexte: Peter
and Mary will go to school in autumn. La toamn Petre i Maria vor merge la coal. A.
Urmtoarele clase de nume proprii se folosesc cu articolul zero: a) Numele de pers
oane, nsoite sau nu de apoziie: Peter, John Brown, Dr Smith. pag: 108 b) diviziuni
de timp: - zilele sptmnii: Monday, Friday. - lunile anului: april, may, june. - srbto
rile: Liberation Day. c) denumiri geografice: - continente: Europe, Asia. - ri: Ro
mania, Bulgaria, Francia. - orae: Bucharest, Edinburgh. - lacuri: Lake Ontario, L
och Lomond. - muni: Ben Nevis, Mount Everest. d) numele proprii urmate de substan
tive comune, denumind cldiri, strzi, poduri, etc.: Bran Castle, Westminster Abbey,
Oxford Street. B. Unele substantive comune se folosesc cu articolul zero, avnd r
eferin unic n anumite contexte situaionale, ntr-un mod similar cu numele proprii. Majo
ritatea acestor cuvinte intr n componena unor expresii idiomatice, n care sunt folos
ite cu articolul zero. Unele dintre ele ns pot fi folosite i cu articolul hotrt n alte
contexte: pag: 109 FOLOSIREA UNOR SUBSTANTIVE COMUNE CU ARTICOLUL ZERO
Ce denumesc substantivele Anotimpuri (in during) Anumite instituii (at, in, to, e
tc.) Articolul zero in during -spring /summer/ autumn/winter be in/go to- bed/ho
spital (mai ales engleza britanic); - class (mai ales engleza american)/prison; be
at/go to Articolul hotrt in the spring/summer/ autumn/summer lie down on the bed
modernize the hospital walk round the prison walk past the school be at/go to/st
udy at the university (mai ales engleza american)

Mijloace de transport (by)


school/college/university; be at/go home be in/leave town travel/leave/come - by
bicycle/boat/bus/car/train /plane
approach the town; sit omn the bicycle be on the bus sleep in the car take the/a
train be on the plane sit in the boat during the day admire the sunrise/sunset
see nothing in the dusk in the afternoon wake up in the night in the daytime The
breakfast was good. She cooked the dinner. The dinner they offered us was very
good. the plague (the) flu (the) measles (the) mumps He took her by the arm. He
has a book in his hand. From the beginning of the book to the end of it. Keep to
the right. He lives in the west.
Momente ale zilei i nopii (at,by,after,before)
Mesele zilei
Nume de boli
Structuri paralele
at/before dawn/daybreak/sunrise/s unset/dusk/twilight at/around/before noon/midn
ight at/by - night (by) day and night have/before/at/after breakfast/lunch/dinne
r/su pper Dinner will be served at 7.00. appendicitis anaemia diabetes influenza
arm in arm hand in hand day by day face to face from dawn to dusk from morning
till night from beginning to end from right to left from east to west

pag: 110 3. Cu elementul predicativ suplimentar se folosete articolul zero, pentr


u referin unic: They appointed him chairman. L-a numit preedinte sau articolul hotrt p
entru referin unic: They appointed him the chairman of the standing commission. Fun
ciile articolului Articolul Funcia Articolul 1. deictic hotrt 2. anaforic 3. cataforic
Exemple Turn on the radio, please. Walk past the hospital and youll get to the ra
ilway station. I saw a play last night. The play was very interesting. I have ma
naged to find the

Articolul nehotrt
Articolul zero
book on Romanticism. The family plays an important educational role. 5. cu unele
nume The United Nations, the proprii Parkers, the Rocky Mountains, The Missisip
pi, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Intercontinental Hotel, the Academy
Library 1. epiforic I saw a chimney sweep on the way to school. 2. numeric Give me
a pencil, a notebook and a rubber, please. 3. generic A horse is a useful animal
. 4. naintea unui He is a doctor. nume predicativ a) cu substantive He likes milk
/skiing. nenumrabile (generic) b) cu substantive We go on long walks in the numrab
ile la evening. plural (generic) c) cu nume proprii Mary Brown, President Kenned
y, Daddy; on Monday, in France, Oxford Street d) n expresii It often snows in win
ter. idiomatice Go to bed! I go to school by bus. See you at noon e) cu elememnt
ul They elected him President. predicativ suplimentar 4. generic

pag: 111 3.6. Omisiunea articolului (The Elypsis of the Article) Exist unele situ
aii n care articolul hotrt sau nehotrt este omis. Aceste cazuri se deosebesc de cele n
care se folosete articolul zero, deoarece omiterea articolului nu produce modificr
i de sens ci are doar o valoare stilistic. Comparai: a) I like honey. mi place mier
ea. (articolul zero = funcia generic) I like the honey they sell here. mi place mie
rea care se vinde aici. (articolul hotrt the = referin definit).

b) Take the honey to the children at the corner table ! Du mierea copiilor de la
masa din col ! Takes honey to children at corner table. Duce mierea copiilor de
la masa din col. (indicaii scenice). Articolul se omite n urmtoarele situaii: a) n vor
birea familiar: (Its a ) Pity they wont be there. Pcat c nu vor fi i ei acolo. (Is the
) Car still not working? Tot nu merge maina ? (A) Friend of mine told me about it
. Un prieten de-al meu mi-a spus despre asta. b) n limbajul jurnalistice: Employe
es have to obey safety regulations. Angajaii trebuie s respecte regulile de proteci
e a muncii. c) n indicaii scenice: (The) Old woman goes to (the) settee (on the) r
ight. Btrna se ndreapt spre canapeaua din dreapta (scenei). pag: 112

Ali determinani (Other Determiners)


3.7. Adjectivul demonstrativ (The Demonstrative Adjective) n afar de articol, mai
pot funciona ca determinani ai substantivului: adjectivul demonstrativ, posesiv, i
nterogativ i nehotrt. Demonstrativul this/that, these/those este folosit ca determi
nant cnd nsoete un substantiv: This book is more interesting than that one. El poate
fi ns folosit i ca pronume: Whats this ? Those are better than these. 3.7.1. Definii
e. Determinantul demonstrativ, n terminologie tradiional adjectivul demonstrativ, d
etermin un substantiv, indicnd n principal apropierea sau deprtarea de vorbitor. Adj
ectivul demonstrativ n limba englez are categoria gramatical de numr i ndeplinete func
sintactic de atribut. 3.7.2. Form. n limba englez, adjectivul demonstrativ are form
e deosebite dup numr, dar nu dup gen, ca n limba romn: this girl - these girls; aceast
fat - aceste fete. 3.7.3. ntrebuinare. Funciile demonstrativului this/that, these/th
ose sunt: a) funcia deictic, de a indica orientarea n spaiu sau n timp ntr-un context
situaional: These children, right here, are quieter than those. This/these sunt f
olosite pentru a arta c obiectele se gsesc n apropierea vorbitorului: This is my des
k. These boys are my brothers. That.Those sunt ntrebuinate pentru a indica obiecte
aflate la o mai mare deprtare de vorbitor: My fathers picture is on that wall. Wh
at are those children doing ?

That este utilizat pentru un obiect aflat la deprtare de vorbitor, mai ales cnd ac
esta este n contrast cu alt obiect, apropiat vorbitorului, care este identificat
prin this: This is my seat ant that is yours. I like these pictures much better
than those. Cnd se refer la timp, demonstrativele this, these sunt corelate cu pre
zentul, iar that, those cu trecutul sau viitorul: She has been very busy these d
ays. That storm destroyed everything last year. b) funcia anaforic, de referire la
un obiect menionat anterior: I saw our English teacher in his new car. This car
is really something. b) funcia cataforic, de referire la un obiect asupra cruia se
fac precizri ulterioare: These little children are very pretty. pag: 113 d) funcia
emoional, de scoatere n eviden a substantivului determinat: This Tom Brook is always
playing the piano at night. Locked that door ? Funciile demonstrativului: Funcia
Numr Singular Plural 1. Deictic (context This book over here. These books over sit
uaional) That book over here. a) apropiere; there. Those books over b) deprtare; t
here. 2. Anaforic (context Look at Marys dress! lingvistic) This dress is really s
omething. 3. Cataforic Those old women are are always gossiping. 4. Emoional This n
eighbour of mine is always loosing his key. Seen that film?

3.8. Adjectivul posesiv (The Posesive Adjective) 3.8.1. Definiie. Determinantul p


osesiv, n terminologie tradiional adjectivul posesiv, nlocuiete posesorul i determin n
mele obiectului posedat: Peters stamp collection is very valuable. His stamp coll
ection is very valuable. Adjectivul posesiv se acord n gen i numr cu numele obiectul
ui posedat: Her book - cartea ei; His bike - bicicleta lui; Their toys - jucriile
lor. n propoziie, adjectivul posesiv ndeplinete funcia de atribut: My books are here
on the table.

3.8.2. Form. Adjectivul posesiv n limba englez are forme difereniate dup persoan, numr
gen: Persoan I II III Numr Singular my your his her its Gen Plural our your their
masculin feminin neutru
La persoana a II-a singular i plural, adjectivul posesiv are aceeai form: Look, the
re is a fly in your soup. Privete, e o musc n supa ta. pag: 114 Genul este marcat d
oar la persoana a III-a singular: - his se refer la substantive nume de persoan de
sex brbtesc: Johns car is new. The mans car is new. His car is new. iar her se refe
r la substantive nume de persoan de sex feminin: Marys umbrella is old. The womans u
mbrella is old. Her umbrella is old. Its se refer la substantive animate (nume de
animale) i inanimate (nume de obiecte): The cats tail is long. Its tail is long.
The door of the room is open. Its door is open. 3.8.3. ntrebuinare. Adjectivul pos
esiv este folosit ca determinant al substantivului, nlocuind numele posesorului i
determinnd numele obiectului posedat: Johns eyes are blue. His eyes are blue. Spre
deosebire de demonstrativele this/that, these/those, care pot fi folosite att ca
determinani (this book) ct i ca pronume (I want this) formele my, your, his, her,
its, our, your, their nu pot fi folosite dect ca determinani: is this your brother
? Formele posesive pronominale n limba englez sunt diferite de cele adjectivale:
Comparai:

Adjectiv posesiv This is my book. That is your book. That is her/his/its food. T
his is our classroom. That is their classroom. pag: 115
Pronume posesiv This book is mine. That book is yours. That food is hers/his. Th
is classroom is ours. That classroom is theirs.

Atenie! O situaie particular n limba englez, o prezint substantivele denumind pri ale
rpului (hand, head, bodz, leg) i articolele de mbracaminte (coat, umbrella, hat, s
hoes) care sunt ntotdeauna precedate de adjectivul posesiv n limba englez, spre deo
sebire de limba romn, unde el este de obicei omis. He has a hat on his head. Are o
plrie pe cap. Lend me your umbralla, will you? mprumut-mi te rog umbrela (ta).
3.9. Adjectivul interogativ (The Interrogative Adjective) 3.9.l. Definiie. Determ
inantul interogativ, n terminologia tradiional adjectivul interogativ, determin nume
le obiectului asupra cruia se cer informaii: What English books have you read late
ly ? Adjectivul interogativ are categoria gramatical de caz: (G: whose) i poate nde
plini funcia sintactic de atribut: What joke did he tell you ? sau de marc, introdu
cnd propoziii subordonate: I asked him what English books he had read lately. 3.9.
2. Form. Din punct de vedere al flexiunii, who are forme flexionare pentru caz, i
ar which i what sunt invariabile. Caz Pronume who Nominat iv Genitiv Dativ who wh
at whose what to whom (form what literar) who ... to (vorbire curent) whom (form lit
erar) what who (vorbire curent) what which which which which
Acuzativ
which

3.9.3. ntrebuinare. Adjectivul interogativ este folosit ca determinant pe lng numele


obiectului asupra cruia se cer informaii: What film did you see last night ? What
privete obiectul respectiv fr referire la alte obiecte: What day is today ? Which
este selectiv: Which dress does she want ? Whose se folosete att cu nume de persoa
ne ct i cu nume de animale i obiecte: Whose pen did you borrow ? Whose walls did th
ey paint ? How much se refera la cantitate si se foloseste cu substantive nenuma
rabile concrete: How much money did you spend ? How much rice did you buy ? pag:
116 How many se folosete cu substantive nenumrabile: I dont know how many exercise
s he wrote. Unele interogative se folosesc i ca adjective i ca pronume: Which book
is more important ? Which of these is more important ? What (joke) did he tell
you ? Whose (book) is this ? Alte interogative se folosesc numai ca pronume: Who
came first ? To whom did you write the letter? 3.10. Adjectivul nehotrt (The Inde
finite Adjective) 3.10.1. Definiie. Determinantul nehotrt, n terminologie tradiional a
djectivul nehotrt, determin substantivul ntr-un mod global (all the books, every pup
il) sau parial (each pupil, either side). 3.10.2. Form. Adjectivul nehotrt este inva
riabil ca form i ndeplinete funcia sintactic de atribut: Each pupil must do his homewo
rk. 3.10.3. ntrebuinare. Some. Adjectivul nehotrt some = ceva, nite, puin, unii, unele
civa, cteva, vreun, vreo, se ntrebuineaz n propoziii afirmative i indic existena
restrns de lucruri, fiine, a unei cantiti restrnse. Este folosit cu substantive numrab
ile la plural i cu substantive nenumrabile la singular: There are some books on hi
s desk. She bought some cheese. Some poate fi folosit n proproziii interogative n u
rmtoarele cazuri: a) n propoziii n care se ofer un lucru: Will you have some cake ? b
) cnd ntrebarea nu se refer la some: Did she ask father to give me some money ? Any
. Any = vreun, vreo, nici un(ul), nici o, nici una, se ntebuineaz: a) n propoziii afi
rmative cu sensul: oricare, orice: Any pupil in your form could in the question.
b) n propoziii interogative i negative: Did you meet any ? There isnt any bytter in
the fridge. Adjectivele nehotrte each, every, either prezint deosebiri de sens:

Every. Every se refer la membrii unui grup fr a-i individualiza: Every word of it i
s true. Fiecare cuvnt este adevrat. The children engaged his every thought. Toate
gndurile lui erau la copil. Every este folosit i cu substantive denumind uniti de ti
mp sau distan pentru a indica caracterul repetat: every other day - din dou n dou zil
e every three days - din trei n trei zile pag: 117 every now and then - din cnd n cn
d every other mile - din dou n dou mile Every este folosit doar ca determinant. mpre
un cu -body, -one, -thing, -where formeaz pronume i adverbe nehotrte: everybody, ever
yone, everything i everywhere. Each. Each se refer la membrii unui grup luai indivi
dual: Each pupil must bring some scrap iron to school. Fiecare copil (n parte) tr
ebuie s aduc fier vechi la coal. Each poate fi folosit i ca pronume: He talked with e
ach of us. How much are these peaches ? Five pens each. i cu referire la dou perso
ane: Each of these (two) children is right. Either. Either = fiecare (din doi):
There is no light at either end of the street. Nu este lumin la nici unul din cap
etele strzii. Either poate fi folosit att ca determinant, ct i ca pronume nehotrt. Eit
her este folosit curent cu substantivul side: There are trees on either side of
the road. Sunt copaci pe ambele pri ale drumului. n acest context, either este apro
piat ca sens de both, diferena fiind urmtoarea: both = amndoi (mpreun); either = fiec
are din doi (separat). Whatever was ridiculous in either character increased the
aversion the reader had for both. Tot ceea ce era ridicol n fiecare dintre cele
dou personaje mrea aversiunea cititorului pentru amndou. 3.10.4. Adjectivul negativ
(The Negative Adjective). Adjectivele negative sunt adjective nehotrte folosite n p
ropoziii cu sens negativ i verbul la forma afirmativ. Ele sunt o subdiviziune a adj
ectivelor nehotrte, care indic absena obiectelor sau a calitilor acestora: No = nici u
n(ul), nici una (din mai multe). No letter = nici o scrisoare. He has made no mi
stakes. Nu a fcut nici o greeal. Neither = nici unul din, nici un (din doi): I aske
d him two questions but he answered neither of them. Neither poate fi folosit ca
determinant sau ca pronume: Neither solution is acceptable. Neither (of these s
olutions) is acceptable. No este folosit numai ca determinant, cu sensul de not
any sau not a: There are no letters today. There arent any letters today. He was
no fool.

He was not a fool. Forma no este preferat lui not any/not a n vorbirea curent. pag:
118 Grupul nominal
Predetremina ni Determinan i (propriuzii) my the the the the the Postdeterminani Adj
ectiv Substantiv
Ordinal e both all double one third
Cuantificatori new children pupils pages amount students time chapters
first
three a lot of Romanian
next
four

EXERCIII I. Formulai propoziii cu cuvintele din paranteze pentru a exersa funcia ana
foric a articolului hotrt. Exemplu: a) I have a letter and a postcard. (from my fam
ily). The letter is from my family. b) She has some notebooks and textbook. (on
the table). The notebooks are on the table. 1. He has a motorbike and a bicycle.
(in the car-park). 2. She has a tent and a sleeping bag. (in the car). 3. I hav
e a camera and some films. (in my bag). 4. Auntie has some bags and some parcels
. (at the station). II. Formulai propoziii cu cuvintele din paranteze pentru a exe
rsa funcia cataforic a articolului hotrt cu substantive nenumrabile i substantive numr
bile la plural: Exemplu: a) History can be interesting (of Romania). The history
of Romania is interesting. b) Some coins are valuable. (he has) The coins he ha
s are valuable. 1. Music may be beautiful. (composed by George Enescu). 2. Some
roads are dangerous. (in the mountains). 3. Stamps may be valuable. (in my colle
ction). 4.

Some films are interesting. (about animals). 5. Poems can be beautiful (he has w
ritten). 6. Some children are intelligent (I know). 7. Honey is delicios (I boug
ht yesterday) 8. Wine can be vrey good (made in Romania). 9. Vegetable are usual
ly fresh (they sell here). 10. Architecure may be impresive (of Bran Castle). II
I. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii la plural, pentru a exersa funcia generic a articolulu
i zero. Exemplu: The horse is a useful animal. Horses are useful animals. 1. The
tiger is a wild animal. 2. The fly is an insect. 3. A chair is a piece of furni
ture. 4. A child likes sweets. 5. The elephant is a strong animal. 6. A fish can
swim. 7. A city is a big town. 8. A tulip is a beautiful flower. IV. Completai s
paiile libere cu articole, acolo unde este cazul: 1. Peter Hill, who is..... Prof
essor of History at..... University of Chicago, signed...... article. 2. They ge
nerally have...... breakfast at 8 oclock. 3. It is not visible at ........ night.
4. ...... beauty is skin deep.5. ... milk she bought was sour. 6. ... Romania l
ies in... east of ... Europe. 7. He translated the book from ... English into ..
. Romanian. 8. Is ... German language difficult to learn? 9. ....Washington DC i
s ... capital of ... United States of America. 10. Open ... book at ... page ten
and read ... uestion.11. ... foxes are not ... domestic animals. 12. She goes
to school in... morning. 13. Is your father ... worker_ 14. ... dog is ... domes
tic animal. 15. .... Mississippi is ...largest river in ... North America. 16. D
o you know where... Lido hotel is? 17. It takes me ... hour to get to Ploieti. 18
. How many times ... week do you have Physics? 19. Do you like ... music? 20. Ye
s and I can play both ... piano and ... violin. 21. Byron ... English poet, was
... important representative of ... Rommanticism. V. Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri f
olosdind articolul hotrt, nehotrt sau zero dup cum este cazul:
1.
What kind of state is Romania? 2. Where does Romania lie? 3. What states does Ro
mania border on? 4. What states does ROmania border on? 5. What is Bucharest? 6.
What is Romania's population? 7. How many people live in Bucharest? 8. How many
counties is Romania divided into? 9. Which is the longest river in Romania? 10.
Which is the highest mountain in Romania? 11. What sea is ROmania bordered by t
o the south-east? 12. What lake or river is near your town/village? 13. What is
the name of the most important mountain range in Romania? 14. What are the Carpa
tians divided into? 15. Where does the Transilvanian Tableland lie? 16. Where is
the Danube Plain? 17. What town/villagedo you live in? 18. What street do you l
ive in? 19. What important buildings are there in your town/village?
VI. Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri despre istoria Romniei, folosind articolul hotrt,
otrt sau yero, dup cum este necesar:

1. Who are the ancestors of the Romanians? 2. Who was the most important Dacian
king? 3. When did Dacia become a Roman province? 4. Which were the most importan
t princes in medieval Romania? 5. What do we celebrate on January 24th? 6. When
did Romania win its independence from the Turks? 7.When did capitalism begin to
develop in Romania? 8. When did Romania enter the First World War? 9. When was t
he Romanian Communist Party set up? 10. What can you say about Romanias partici
pation in the Second World War? VII. Traducei n limba englez: A. 1. Ce zi frumoas! 2
. O duzin de ace cost un penny. 3. Trebuie s vorbeti cu voce mai tare. 4. Ai venit c
u autobuzul? 5. De cte ori pe sptmn ai fizica ? 6. Dunrea traverseaz mai multe ri eu
e. 7. Copiilor le plac foarte mult jocurile. B. 1. La papetrie se vnd stilouri, cr
eioane, gume, paste de lipit i cerneal. 2. Unde este stiloul pe care l-am cumprat i
eri? 3. mi place muzica simfonic. 4. mi place muzica compus pentru pian. 5. La coal st
udiem istoria poporului romn. 6. Studiem de asemenea istoria universal. 7. n Canada
sunt dou limbi oficiale: engleza i franceza. C. 1. Unde sunt ai ti? Bunicul e n pat
, bunica e n buctrie, mama e la coal i tata e la serviciu. 2. De obicei merg acas cu a
tobuzul, dar uneori merg cu tramvaiul. 3. Niciodat nu pot s dorm n main sau n tren. 4.
Mama se trezete deseori noaptea s-i dea de mncare copilului. VIII. nlocuii substanti
vele la genitiv cu adjectivele posesive corespunztoare: Exemplu: The mans hair i
s white. His hair is white. 1. The boys shoes are dirty. 2. The womens hat is
pretty. 3. The womens hats are pretty. 4. Where is the birds nest ? 5. The gir
ls dress is new. 6. The mans eyes are blue. 7. The pupils books are on the de
sks. IX. Rspundei la ntrebri conform modelului: 1. A: Which answer is right (wrong)?
B: This one is. That ones wrong. 2. A: Which lessons are easy (difficult)? B:
These are. Those are difficult. 1. Which schoolbag is heavy? (light) 2. Which pa
pers are important? (unimportant) 3. Which eggs are fresh? (bad) 4. Which glass
is clean? (dirty) 5. Which story is interesting? (boring) 6. Which dress is new?
(old) 7. Which apples are good? (bad) X. Completai spaiile libere cu every, each
sau either: 1. ..... of the three lectures has a definite subject. 2. It is impo
ssible to predict the issue with these two candidates: ... candidate may win. 3.
... few weeks she saw something new to buy. 4. Ill be back in a minute, my dea
r aunt and uncle; he said nodded coolly to ... . 5. They were all men of ability
, ... in his own way. 6. ... quest had a separate room. 7. O go to work ... day.
8. This must be decided by the individual judgement of ... reader. XI. Traducei n
limba englez: - De ce dorm oamenii noaptea?

- Dar tu cnd dormi Darie? - Tot noaptea. ns, vara mai ales, n-a dormi deloc. - Dar c
e-ai face? - M-a culca pe iarb. ns cu faa n sus m-a culca. A ine ochii deschii. Dac
tea s nu clipesc, n-a clipi. A privi stelele. i privindu-le, mi-a nchipui c sunt liber

pag: 121
4. Numeralul (The Numeral)
4.1. Definiie Numeralul este partea de vorbire care: a) exprim un numr, determinare
a numeric a obiectelor (numeralul cardinal) sau ordinea obiectelor prin numrare (n
umeralul ordinal); b) ndeplinete mai multe funcii sintactice, n funcie de folosirea l
ui substantival, adjectival sau adverbial; c) nu are categorii gramaticale dect n fol
osirea substantival (milion - millions). pag: 122 4.2. Clasificare 4.2.1. Conform
gramaticii structuraliste, numeralul ntr n clasa determinanilor. Double, twice, thr
ee times etc. la fel ca i fraciile one third, two fifths etc. sunt considerate pre
determinani, fiind aezate naintea determinanilor the/this/my n cadrul grupului nomina
l: double the amount, one third (of) the time. Numeralul cardinal: one, two, thr
ee etc. i numeralul ordinal: the first, the second etc. sunt considerate postdete
rminani, ele urmnd determinanii the/this/my n cadrul grupului nominal n ordinea numer
al ordinal - numeral cardinal: the first three children, the last two persons. 4
.2.2. n cadrul gramaticii tradiionale, exist controverse cu privire la numeral, num
eralul nefiind o parte de vorbire omogen. Majoritatea gramaticilor tradiionale dis
ting urmtoarele categorii de numerale: numeralul cardinal, numeralul ordinal, num
eralul fracionar, numeralul colectiv, numeralul multiplicativ, numeralul distribu
tiv i numeralul adverbial. 4.3. Numeralul cardinal (The Cardinal Numeral) Numeral
ul cardinal exprim numrul (one, two, three) sau determinarea numeric a obiectelor (
four books, one hundred years). 4.3.1. Forma numeralului cardinal. Numeralele ca
rdinale de la 1 la 12 n limba englez sunt urmtoarele: 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5
five 6 six 7 seven

8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve Cifra 0 (zero) ocup un loc special n cad
rul numeralelor cardinale. Ea se poate citi zero [zi__r _u], oh [__u], nil, nithing
sau love. Zero este folosit pentru 0 n matematic i pentru indicarea temepraturii: I
is tem degrees below zero. La numerele de telefon, 0 se pronun [__u]: Dial 6070 [si
ks __u sevn __u] and ask for extension 90 [nain __u]. Nil [nil] sau nothing sunt folo
e n exprimarea scorului la footbal: Leeds United won 4.0. (four nil / for to noth
ing). Love [l_a_v] este folosit n tenis: Nstase leads 30.0 (Thirty - love). Numera
lele cardinale ntre 13 i 19 se formeaz cu ajutorul sufixului -teen adugat la numetel
e 3 - 9: 13 14 15 16 thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen etc.
Numeralele 13 i 15 prezint deosebiri ortografice i de pronunie fa de numeralele 3 i 5
e la care s-au format: 13 thirteen [_ts_ _:ti:n] 15 fifteen [fifti:n] pag: 123 Toate
numeralele n -teen au dou accente: eighteen [eiti:n], dar cnd sunt folosite ca adject
ive pstreaz numai primul accent: seventeen years [sevnti:n j __:z]. Numele zecilor s
e formeaz de la unitile 2 - 9, la care se adaug sufixul -ty: 20 twenty 30 thirty 40
forty 50 fifty etc. Numeralele 20, 30, 40 i 50 prezint particulariti ortografice i de
pronunare fa de numele unitilor de la care s-au format: 2 two - 20 twenty 3 three 30 thirty 4 four - 40 forty 5 five - 50 fifty

Not: Numele zecilor la plural: twenties, thirties, forties, fifties etc., preceda
te de articolul the sau alt determinant, sunt folosite pentru a exprima o perioa
d sau vrst: The literature of the thirties. Literatura anilor 30. She was a good-l
ooking woman in her forties. Era o femeie frumoas ntre 40 i 50 de ani. n limba engle
z, numele zecilor se leag de uniti direct, cu ajutorul unei liniue de unire: 68 sixty
-eight 79 seventy-nine Not: n limba englez scris, numeralele scurte se redau de obic
ei cu litere, iar cele mai lungi cu cifre: I have ten lei in my pocket. There ar
e 250 people in the conference hall. Bucharest has a population of two million i
nhabitants. Romania has a population of about 22,000,000 people. Numeralele care
denumesc sute, mii sau milioane sunt legate prin and de cele care denumesc zeci
i uniti: 115 = a/one hundred and fifteen; 3,005 = three thousand and five. ntre cla
sele unui numr ntreg se pune virgul ca n limba englez i nu punct ca n limba romn: 4,
3,140. (Punctul indic zecimale: 3.05). Not: n exprimarea curent, miile se transform n
sute: How much money have you got? Sixteen hundret lei (=1,600) Cnd sunt folosite
la singular, numeralele hundred, thousand i million sunt ntotdeauna precedate de
articolul nehotrt sau de un numeral: 100 one/a hundred books, 141 a hundred an for
ty-one; 1,200 a thousand and two hundred. Cnd sunt precedate de numrul unitilor i ace
sta este mai mare dect 1, numeralele hundred i thousand nu primesc s la plural: 30
0 three hundred; 5,000 five thousand. Atenie! Aceste numerale primesc terminaia s
cnd sunt folosite: a) ca substantive: Thousands have read this book b) cnd sunt ur
mate de prepoziia of: The number of young people studying in our school amounts t
o hundred of thounsands pag: 124 4.3.2. ntrebuinarea numeralului cardinal. n limba
englez, numeralul cardinal este folosit: a) pentru exprimarea numelor numerelor a
bstracte: one, two, three, four etc. sau a determinrii numerice a obiectelor: thr
e apples, one hundred pupils. b) pentru exprimarea datei (anilor). Anii se cites
c: 1980 - one thousand nine hundred and eight sau nineteen hundred and eighty - n
stilul oficial; 1980 nineteen eighty - n engleza vorbit. c) pentru indicarea numru
lui unui anumit obiect (pagin, lecie, capitol, cas, autobuz): Lesson 10, Chapter 3,
Flat 11, bus no. 31 etc. d) n exprimarea timpului cronologic. n acest caz, propoz
iia ncepe de obicei cu pronumele it: It is two oclock. It is five oclock sharp. Este
ora cinci fix. Oclock se folosete numai cu ora fix i se poate omite: Whats the time
? Five.

Pentru a indica fraciunile de ore pn la i jumtate se menioneaz numrul minutelor urm


repoziia past i de ora respectiv: It is ten (minutes) past nine. Este (ora) 9 i 10 (
minute). Fraciunile ntre jumtate i ora urmtoare se redau n limba englez spunnnd num
utelor, prepoziia to i apoi ora: It is twenty (minutes) to six. Este ase fr 20 (de mi
nute). It is a quarter to eight. Este opt fr un sfert. It is five to eleven. Este
11 fr cinci. pag: 125 3. n engleza american se folosesc i prepoziiile after i before
oc de past i to: 8: 10 It is ten (minutes) after 8.8:40 It is twenty (minutes) be
fore 9. iar pentru i jumtate se menioneaz ora i thirty: 8:30 Its eight thirty. e) pen
a indica un numr de telefon Numerele de telefon se citesc cifr cu cifr: 597216 = f
ive nine seven two one six; Dac primele sau ultimele dou cifre sunt la fel, se fol
osete cuvntul double: 2238 - double two three eight; Nu se folosete cuvntul double d
ac cifrele din mijloc sunt aceleai: 3002 - three oh oh one. f) n exprimarea operaiil
or artimetice n acest caz verbul poate fi folosit la singular sau plural: 2 + 5 =
7 Two plus five is/are seven. 7 - 3 = 4 Seven minus three makes/make four. g) p
entru exprimarea vrstei: How old are you ? Ci ani ai ? I am ten years old. Am zece
ani. 4.4. Numeralul ordinal (The Ordinal Numeral) Numeral ordinal indic ordinea n
timp sau n spaiu a obiectelor sau a aciunilor: He was the first to come. The second
house roud the corner is mine. 4.4.1. Forma numeralului ordinal. Numeralele ord
inale sunt alctuite din urmtoarele elemente: numeralul cardinal, care poate fi con
siderat radicalul, articolul hotrt the, care precede radicalul, i sufixul -th, care
se adaug la radical: 4 - four - the fouth; 7 - seven - the seventh. Numeralele o
rdinale de la 1 la 3 au forme care se abat parial de la aceast regul; the first, th
e second, the third. Cteva numerale ordinale prezint dificulti ortografice. 5 - the
fifth 8 - the eighth 9 - the ninth etc. La numeralele compuse, numai ultimul numr
primete -th: 27 - the twentyseventh; 236 - the two hundred and thirty-sixth. Num
eralele ordinale cuprinznd cuvintele hundred, thousand, million pot fi precedate
numai de one, nu i de a, iar articolul hotrt poate fi omis: the one hundred and thi
rty-second. Abrevierea numeralelor ordinale se face prin adugarea ultimelor dou li
tere la cifr: 1st; 2nd; 3rd; 4th; 21st etc.

pag: 126 1 the first 2 the second 3 the third 4 the fourth 5 the fifth 6 the six
th 7 the seventh 8 the eighth 9 the ninth 10 the tenth the 1st the 2nd the 3rd t
he 4th the 5th the 6th the 7th the 8th the 9th the 10th 15 the fifteenth 16 the
sixteenth 17 the seventeenth 18 the eighteenth 19 the nineteenth 20 the twentiet
h 21 the twentyfirst 30 the thirtieth 31 the thirtyfirst 32 the thirtysecond 40
the fortieth 100 hundreth 101 hundred first 1000 the thousandth the 15th the 16t
h the 17th the 18th the 19th the 20th the 21st the 30th the 31st the 32nd the 40
th
11 the the 11th eleventh 12 the twelfth the 12th 13 thirteenth the the 13th
the the 100th the the 101st and one the 1000th
14 the the 14th fourteenth
4.4.2. ntrebuinarea numeralului ordinal. n limba englez, numeralul ordinal este folo
sit: a) la exprimarea datei: April 25th, the 25th of April. n exprimarea datei, n
umeralul ordinal poate fi aezat nainte sau dup numele lunii. Dac numeralul ordinal p
recede denumirea lunii, acesta este urmat de of: I was born on the 28th of April
1965. Dac numeralul ordinal este aezat dup denumirea lunii, of este omis: Ann was
born on April (the) 28th. n engleza american ordinea este luna - data - anul.: 05.
02.1981 - May the 2nd1981. b) pentru a indica ordinea ntr-o serie: the Second Wor
ld Was the third act the tenth floor

c) pentru a exprima repetarea la intervale regulate: every second day = don dou n
dou zile/la fiecare dou zile; every third month = din 3 n 3 luni, o dat la 3 luni. n
aceste expresii articolul the este omis. 4.5. Numeralul fracionar (The Fractional
Numeral) Numeralul fracionar arat una sau mai multe pri ale ntregului: one, third, t
hree tenths. 4.5.1. Forma numeralului fracionar. Numeralele fracionare sunt redate
sub forma unor fracii. Numrul fraciei este exprimat printr-un numeral cardinal, ia
r numitorul printr-un numeral ordinal: 1/2 = a/one half = o jumtate, o doime; 1/3
/ = a/one third = o treime. pag: 127 Numitorul se citete la plural cnd numrtorul exp
rim o unitate mai mare de 1: 2/3 two-thirds; 3/4 three quarters/three-fourts. Sub
stantivul determinat de o fracie ordinar este la singular: 1/2 hour = half an hour
; 3/4 ton = three quarters ton. Substantivul determinat de numeralul 1 (one) mpre
un cu o fracie ordinar este folosit la plural n scris, dar se citete la singular dup n
reg i la plural dup fracie: 1 3/4 miles - one mile and three quarters sau one and t
hree quarter miles. Substantivul determinat de un numeral mai mare dect 1, mpreun c
u o fracie ordinar, se afl ntotdeauna la plural: 4 1/2 tons = four and one half tons
sau four and a half tons. n cazul fraciilor zecimale, ntregul se desparte de zecim
ale printr-un punct: 3.25 = three point two five. Numeralele nainte de punct se c
itesc ca un singur numr, iar cele care urmeaz punctului, cifr cu cifr: 18.75 = eight
een point seven five. n cazul fraciilor zecimale, zero se citete nought n Anglia i ze
ro n SUA : 1.05 = one point nought five (n pronunarea britanic); 1.05 = one point ze
ro five (n pronunarea american). Substantivul determinat de o fracie zecimal se afl la
singular cnd partea ntreag este zero i la plural n toate celelalte cazuri: 0.75 metr
e = nought point seven five of a metre; 4.25 metres = four point two five metres
. 4.6. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral) Numeralul colectiv arat c obiec
tele sunt considerate n grup i nu izolat. 4.6.1. Forma numeralului colectiv. Numer
alele colective sunt: couple, pair, team, dozen, score, yoke.

Numeralele couple, pair, team, yoke numesc grupe de doi: a couple of seconds = d
ou secunde; a pair of shoes = o pereche de pantofi; two team of cattle = dou perec
hi de vite; four yoke of oxen = patru perechi de boi; two pair(s) of horses = do
u perechi de cai. Numeralele dozen, score numesc grupe mai mari de doi: dozen = d
uzin two dozen eggs; score = 20; half a score = 10; a score of people = douzeci de
oameni. 4.6.2. ntrebuinarea numeralului colectiv. Majoritatea numeralelor colecti
ve sunt folosite ca substantive: I bought a new pair of shoes yesterday. Numeral
el colective se folosesc la singular cnd sunt precedate de un numeral cardinal sa
u nehotrt: two dozen of eggs, several pair(s) of shoes. pag: 128 Cnd numeralele col
ective nu sunt precedate de un numeral, indiferent dac stau singure sau sunt urma
te de prepoziia of, ele se folosesc la plural: The pupils entered the classroom i
n couples. I have asked him about it dozens of times. 4.7. Numeralul multiplicat
iv (The Multiplicative Numeral) Numeralul multiplicativ arat msura n care crete o ca
ntitate (double the amount) sau o aciune (Agricultural output has increased five
times). 4.7.1 Forma numeralului multiplicativ. Numeralul multiplicativ are forme
diferite, n funcie de stilul familiar, tehnic, oficial etc. n care el este folosit
. n vorbirea curent, numeralele multiplicative de la 1 la 3 au urmtoarele forme: on
ce - odat; twice - de dou ori; thrice - de trei ori. (Forma thrice este nvechit). De
la numrul 4 n continuare, numeralele multiplicative conin n structura lor un numera
l cardinal urmat de substantivul times (ori, di): four times, five times, six time
s etc. Forma cu times este folosit i n locul lui thrice: three times. n stilul liter
ar, tehnic sau oficial, se folosete numeralul multiplicativ format din numeralul
cardinal i sufixul -fold: twofold, threefold, a hundredfold: a threefold quantity
= o cantitate tripl. Pentru unitatea 1, forma numeralului multiplicativ este sin
gle, iar pentru 2 se folosete le lng twofold i forma double. 4.7.2. ntrebuinarea numer
alului multiplicativ. Numeralul multiplicativ se folosete ca predeterminant: doub
le the amount. sau ca adverb: The rate of industrial development has risen three
times. Ritmul dezvoltrii industriale a crescut de trei ori. 4.8. Numeralul distr
ibutiv (The Distributive Numeral)

Numeralul distributiv exprim gruparea numeric a obiectelor. Observai cteva modaliti de


a exprima aceeai idee: two at a time; two by two; by twos; two and two; in tows
(in pairs): The pupils left the classroom two by two/in twos. Elevii au prsit clas
a cte doi. He ran down three steps at time. A cobort scrile cte trei odat. 4.9. Numer
alul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral) Numeralul adverbial arat: a) de cte ori are
loc o aciune: once, twice, three times (thrice); ten times, a hundred times; bis
; once more; once again; twice as fast etc. They have English twice a week. Au e
ngleza de dou ori pe sptmn. I told you a hundred times not to lie to me. i-am spus de
o sut de ori s nu m mini. EXERCIII I. Citii n limba englez urmtoarele: a) cifre: 195
352;2934;6855. b) ani: 1821; 1848; 1453; 1066; 1918 c) ore: 11.5; 12.10; 1.30; 2
.45; 3.25. d) numere de telefon: 91.95.61; 47.18.03; 66.16.44; 39.88.51. e) nume
rale ordinale i fracionare: 3 rd; 8th; 20th; 37th; 40th; 59th; II. Scriei urmtoarele
date: 20.X.1949; 10.II.1958; 1.V.1953; 23.VIII.1944 III. Traducei n limba englez:
1. 24 Ianuarie i 1 Decembrie sunt srbtori naionale ale poporului nostru. 2. Deschidei
cartea la pagina 48 i citii capitolul 15 nc o dat. 3. Locuiesc pe strada Spiru Haret
nr. 40. 4. Ci ani ai? Am 12 ani. 5. La ora dou i jumtate iau autobuzul 331 i m duc s
zitez expoziia. 6. Ct cost o pereche de pantofi? 7. Am cumprat unt, o duzin de ou i 1
g. de fin. 8. ntre zece fr zece i zece i zece avem pauza mare. 9. Te atept de mai mul
e o jumtate de or. 10. Am format 55.79.79.25 i apoi am ateptat. 11. Cred c a plecat c
u trenul de 6.30
pag: 129
5. Pronumele (The Pronoun)

5.1. Definiie Pronumele: a) reprezint o clas eterogen, unele pronume pot nlocui subst
antive n comunicare The man is here; He is here; alte pronume desemneaz direct vor
bitorul i asculttorul (I, you) sau desemneaz global sau parial obiecte sau fenomene
(all, each); b) are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz; c) ndeplinet
e funciile sintactice de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut apoziie, complement. pa
g: 130 5.2.Rolul de substitut al pronumelui n gramatica tradiional, pronumele este
partea de vorbire care ine locul unui substantiv sau grup nominal: John is a stud
ent. He is a student. Peter and Mary are students. Those young people are studen
ts. They are students. Pronumele reprezint ns o clas eterogen. Unele pronume constitu
ie un sustitut al substantivului (he, she, it, they), altele desemneaz direct vor
bitorul i interlocutorul (I, you); iar pronume ca all, every, each desemneaz globa
l sau parial obiecte i fenomene. n gramatica structuralist, se folosete termenul de s
ubstitut pentru cuvintele care pot aprea n locul n care apar substantivele sau term
enul de pro-form pentru toate acele cuvinte care nlocuiesc alte pri de vorbire. 5.3
. Categoriile gramaticale ale pronumelui Unele pronume au categoriile gramatical
e de persoan, gen, numr i caz. Categoria de persoan este specific pronumelui i verbulu
i: persoana I, a II-a, aIII-a: I am / You are / He is. Categoriile de gen, numr i
caz se ntlnesc i la substantiv, dar la pronume ele prezint anumite particulariti. Spre
deosebire de substantiv, pronumele are: a) genul marcat doar la persoana a IIIa singular: masculin/feminin/neutru: he/she/it. b) numrul marcat prin supletivism
(cuvinte diferite): I/we, he/they. c) contrastul ntre cazul nominativ i acuzativ/
dativ: I/me, he/him, who/whom. Persoana i numrul. Pronumele personale, reflexive i
posesive au forme distincte pentru persoan i numr: Persoana I singular: I myself mi
ne plural: we ourselves ours Persoana a II-a singular: you yourself plural: you
yourselves yours yours

Persoana a III-a singular: plural they


he she it themself
himself herself itself theirs
his hers Genul. Pronumele personale, reflexive i posesive sunt marcate formal pentru gen l
a persoana a III-a singular: Masculin: He/him himself his Feminin: she/her herse
lf hers Neutru: it itself pag: 131 La pronumele relative exist o distincie ntre pro
numele pentru nume de persoana (who, whom) i pentru nume de obiecte sau animale (
which). Cazul. Substantivele i majoritatea pronumelor n limba englez au dou cazuri m
arcate formal: cazul comun (nominativ, acuzativ/dativ) i cazul genitiv: Cazul com
un: The postman is at the door. Somebody is at the door. I can see the postman a
t the door. I can see somebody at the door. Cazul genitiv: The postmans bag Someb
odys bag Pronumele personal i pronumele who au trei cazuri marcate formal: nominat
ivul, dativ/acuzativ i genitivul: Nominativ: I we he she they who Dativ/acuzativ:
me us him her them who(m) Genitiv: my our his her their whose Conform tradiiei g
ramaticale, pronumele personal la cazul genitiv este cunoscut sub numele de adje
ctiv posesiv. 5.4. Clasificarea pronumelui
Pronumele formeaz o clas eterogen, deoarece nu toate pronumele au forme flexionare
pentru aceleai categorii gramaticale. Pronumele personale, reflexive i posesive su
nt considerate centrale clasei de pronume, ele avnd forme distincte pentru persoa
n, gen, numr i caz. Clasificarea pronumelor*) Pronumele centrale -personal -reflexi
v -posesiv Pronumele relativ Pronumele interogativ Pronumele demonstrativ

Pronumele nehotrt pozitiv universal afirmativ


neafirmativ negativ
-each -all -seria every -many, much -few, little -several, enough -one -seria so
me -seria any -either -seria no -neither
pag: 132 5.5. Funciile sintactice ale pronumelor De regul pronumele nlocuiesc subst
antivele. Uneori ele ns determin substantivele. Cnd pronumele nlocuiete un substantiv,
se vorbete de valoarea substantival (sau pronominal) a pronumelui, iar cnd acesta d
etermin un substantiv, se vorbete despre valoarea determinant (sau adjectival) a pr
onumelui. Din punct de vedere al valorii substantivale sau de determinant, pronu
mele n limba englez pot avea: a) numai valoare substantival: I, you, he; mine, your
s; somebody, something etc. b) numai valoare de determinant: every, my, no, etc.
c) valoare substantival i de determinant: this/that, these/those, some/any etc. V
aloarea substantival i cea determinativ consiioneaz funciile sintactice ale pronumelui
. pronumele folosite ca determinani nu pot ndeplini dect funcia sintactic de atribut:
My book is new. This book is new. Every book is new. pe cnd pronumele folosite c
u valoare substantival (pronumele propriu-zise) pot ndeplini diverse funcii sintact
ice: subiect: I am a member of the committee. nume predicativ: He is always hims
elf. complement indirect: Show me your stamp collection, please. complement dire
ct: he taught us a lesson. complement prepoziional: He will talk about himself. e
tc. Pronumele relative i interogative ndeplinesc i funcia de marc a unor raporturi si
ntactice, introducnd propoziii secundare n fraz: The man who is speaking is our teac
her. I wondered what he meant. 5.6. Pronumele personal (The Personal Pronoun) Pr
onumele personal desemneaz persoanele ce pot aprea ntr-un dialog (vorbitorul, inter
locutorul) sau nlocuiete obiectul despre care se vorbete, are categoriile gramatica
le de persoan, gen, numr i caz i poate ndeplini funciile sintactice de subiect, nume p
redicativ, atribut, apoziie i complement. Pronumele personal are forme supletive p
entru categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz. Aceste categorii gramati
cale nu apar ns la toate formele pronumelui personal.

5.6.1. Categoria persoanei la pronumele personal. n limba englez pronumele i verbul


sunt singurele pri de vorbire care au categoria gramatical a persoanei: I am a tea
cher. Eu sunt profesor. He is a chemist. El este chimist. Deoarece verbul este m
arcat de regul pentru persoan numai la persoana a III-a singular, pronumele rmne sin
gurul indicator al celorlalte persoane. pag: 133 De aceea pronumele personal est
e de obicei menionat la comunicare n limba englez, spre deosebire de limba romn: I sp
eak English. (Eu) vorbesc englezete. Not: n limba englez, pronumele I se scrie ntotde
auna cu liter mare: He speaks English better than I do. Conform definiiei tradiiona
le, persoana I desemneaz persoana care vorbete, persoana a II-a , persoana cu care
se vorbete, iar persona a III-a indic pe cel despre care se vorbete. Not: Aceast def
iniie este incomplet. Pronumele I desemneaz pe cel care vorbete i care face actul de
vorbire posibil. Pronumele de persoana a II-a you este persoana care recepteaz di
scursul. Pronumele de persoana a III-a he/they reprezint membrul nemarcat al core
laiei. Acest pronume nu face posibil nceperea actului de vorbire, ci desfurarea lui l
ogic. He/they ndeplinete o funcie anaforic n discurs, cea de referire la elemente deja
introduse n discurs: Peter was very tired as he had worked hard all day. n acest
fel, pronumele he/they nu se refer la o persoan n acelai mod ca i pronumele I i you. P
ronumele personale n limba englez sunt folosite i cu valoare generic (generic person
) . Pronumele he/she este folosit cu valoare generic n propoziii care exprim un adevr
universal: He who laughs last laughs best. Cine rde la urm rde mai bine. n asemenea
contexte, valoarea lui he este cea a unui determinant demonstrativ: That one wh
o... Pronumele you este folosit i cu sensul nedefinit de one: You can never tell.
Nu se tie niciodat. iar they, cu sensul de oameni n general: They make bicycles in t
his factory. 5.6.2. Categoria genului la pronumele personale. Pronumele personal
are categoria gramatical a genului numai la persoana a III-a singular: He este f
olosit pentru a nlocui nume de persoane de sex brbtesc: Tom Brown / He is the centr
e forward. She este ntrebuinat pentru nume de persoane de sex femeiesc: Barbara /
She is my sister. It nlocuiete nume de obiecte sau de animale: The dog / It barked
when the quests came. Not: He/she sunt folosite pentru a nlocui i unele substantiv
e animate sau inanimate, care sunt de obicei neutre: The ship/She has already ar
rived. n limba englez, pronumele pentru persoana a III-a plural they nu are forme
distincte pentru gen, ca n limba romn: The girls are here. Fetele sunt aici. They a
re here. Ele sunt aici. The boys havent come yet.

Bieii nu au venit nc. They havent come yet. Ei nu au venit nc. These birds are very pr
tty. Aceste psri sunt foarte frumoase. They are very pretty. Ele sunt foarte frumo
ase. pag: 134 5.6.3. Categoria numrului la pronumele personal Pronumele pentru pe
rsoana I plural we nu reprezint mai muli de I ci I + he: Can we come at eight ? Ca
n he and I come at eight ? Aceast ntrebuinare a lui we este cunoscut sub denumirea d
e exclusive we. O alt funcie a pronumelui we este de a include i pe asculttor (inclusi
ve we = I + you): Well, how are we feeling today ? Ei, cum ne mai simim astzi ? Not:
We poate fi folosit astfel de ctre un doctor, o profesoar sau o sor medical care se
adreseaz unui copil, pentru a crea un sentiment de solidaritate ntre vorbitor i asc
ulttor. Forma you este folosit att pentru persoana a II-a singular, ct i pentru perso
ana a II-a plural: I told you to sit down. V-am / i-am spus s stai jos. Pluralul p
ersoanei a II-a este de asemenea un plural inclusiv ca i la persoana I: vorbitoru
l reprezentat prin I sau interlocutorul, reprezentat prin you i asociaz celelalte p
ersoane ale dialogului: we = I + he (+ you) you = you + (+ you). Doar pluralul p
ersoanei a III-a reprezint un plural propriu-zis: they = he + he + he. Not: n limba
englez nu exist pronume de politee ca n limba romn. You poate nsemna att tu, voi ct
neata, dumneavoastr, n funcie de context. La fel he, she pot nsemna el, ea sau dumne
alui, dumneaei. 5.6.4. Categoria cazului la pronumele personal. Pronumele person
al are forme pentru cazul nominativ i pentru dativ/acuzativ (cu excepia lui you i i
t): Nominativ: Dativ/Acuzativ Persoana I singular: I Persoana I plural: we Perso
ana a II-a singular/plural: you Persoana a III-a singular: he she it Persoana a
III-a plural: they me us you him her it them
5.6.5. Funciile sintactice ale pronumelui personal. Pronumele personal este folos
it ntotdeauna cu valoare substantival. pronumele personal ndeplinete mai multe funcii
sintactice, dup cazul n care se afl: a) nominativ: - subiect - He is a student. nume predicativ - It is he who did it.

b) dativ: complement indirect - Can you tell me a story ? c) acuzativ: - complem


ent direct - I like her. - complement prepoziional - Look at them ! pag: 135 5.7.
Pronume reflexiv (The Reflexive Pronoun) Pronumele reflexiv nlocuiete obiectul as
upra cruia se execit aciunea verbului i care este identic cu subiectul verbului; are
categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz i ndeplinete funcia de complement
nume predicativ sau apoziie. 5.7.1. Categoriile gramaticale ale pronumelui refle
xiv. Pronumele reflexiv prezint urmtoarele particulariti n ceea ce privete categoriile
gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz: a) are persoana I, a II-a, aIII-a, ca i pr
onumele personal i cel posesiv; b) are forme distincte de gen numai la persoana a
III-a singular: masculin: himself feminin: herself neutru: itself c) are termin
aia -self la singular i -selves la plural. Persoana Persoana I Persoana a II-a Per
soana aIII-a: masculin feminin neutru Singular myself yourself himself herself i
tself Plural ourself yourself themselves
5.7.2. ntrebuinarea pronumelui reflexiv. Pronumele reflexiv este folosit mai ales n
propoziii n care complementul direct sau prepoziional este identic cu subiectul. A
) Astfel, pronumele reflexiv ndeplinete n principal funcia de complement direct al u
nor verbe tranzitive. Din punct de vedere al reflexivitii, verbele n limba englez se
mpart n: a) verbe urmate n mod obligatoriu de pronume reflexive ca: absent oneself
(from), avail oneself (of), behave oneself, busy oneself (with), pride oneself
(on): He busied himself with his papers. I pride myself on my cooking. Behave yo
urself ! b) verbe care pot fi urmate sau nu de un pronume reflexiv, ntre cele dou n
trebuinri existnd diferene de sens: apply (oneself), avail (oneself) conduct (onesel
f), depart (oneself): He applied himself to the task. A depus toate eforturile p
entru ndeplinirea sarcinii. He applied for a job. A fcut o cerere de serviciu. c)
verbe dup care pronumele reflexiv se poate omute fr a produce modificri fr sens: adjus
t, comb, dress, qualify, shave, wash: She went into the bathroom and washed hers
elf. She went into the bathroom and washed. pag: 136

B) Pronumele reflexiv este folosit ca parte a unui complement prepoziional, cnd co


mplementul prepoziinal este aceeai persoan cu substnativul: Look after yourself, wi
ll you. Take care of yourself. She looked at herself in the mirror. I dont know w
hat to do with myself. Atenie! 1. n construciile prepoziionale care exprim relaii spai
le ntre elemnte concrete, se folosete pronumele personal n cazul acuzativ, chiar da
c complementul prepoziional este aceeai persoan cu subiectul: I have no books on me.
We have the whole week before us. She looked about her. 2. Pronumele reflexiv e
ste folosit n asemenea cazuri doar cu valoare emoional: She was beside herself with
rage. 3. Exist i situaii n care uzajul oscileaz ntre pronumele reflexiv i cel persona
: He closed the door behind him(self). She gathered the children around her(self
). Pronumele reflexiv are numai valoare substantival. El poate ndeplini urmtoarele
funcii sintactice: - complement direct: She helped herself to another pieces of c
ake. - complement indirect: He allowed himself a break. - complement prepoziional
: I looked at myself in the mirror. - nume predicativ: She is always herself. 5.
7.3. Pronumele de ntrire (The Emphatic Pronoun). Pronumele reflexive se folosesc:
a) ca pronume reflexive (non-emphatic use): Help yourself ! Servete-te. b) ca pro
nume de ntrire (emphatic use): Help her yourself. Ajut-o tu nsui. Pronumele de ntrire
subliniaz participarea la aciune a vorbitorului, a interlocutorului sau a obiectul
ui despre care se vorbete, are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz i n
deplinete funcia sintactic de apoziie. Pronumele de ntrire se subordoneaz direct unui
ronume personal sau unui substantiv: He himself answered the pupils uestions. Th
e scientist himself answered the pupils uestions. Poziia nemarcat a pronumelor de n
trire este imediat dup pro(numele) pe care-l subliniaz: The pupils themselves worke
d in the school garden. Cnd (pro)numele nsoit de pronume de ntrire este subiectul pre
poziiei, pronumele de ntrire se poate aeza: - la nceputul propoziiei: The boy himself
drew the map. - la sfritul propoziiei: The boy drew the map himself. Pronumele de ntr
ire este accentuat n vorbire. Faptul c pronumele de ntrire depinde ntotdeauna de un s
ubstantiv sau pronume i confer acestuia valoare adjectival. Pronumele de ntrire ndepli
nete funcia sintactic de apoziie: The headmaster himself helped the pupils. Cnd este
precedat de prepoziia by, of sau for, pronumele de ntrire are sensul de singur, sin
gur, singuri, singure: I made the dress by myself. The glass cracked of itself. I
want to see for myself. pag: 137 5.8. Pronumele posesiv (The Possessive Pronoun
) Pronumele posesiv nlocuiete att numele obiectului posedat ct i al posesorului, are
categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz i poate ndeplini funciile sintacti
ce de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut, apoziie, complement.

Formele pronumelui posesiv sunt: Persoana I Persoana aII-a Persoana aIII-a singu
lar mine plural ours singular/plural yours masculin singular his plural theirs f
emininsingular hers plural theirs
Is this your pencil ? No, its no mine. Ask Mary if is hers. Is it yours, Mary ? A
tenie! Pronumele posesive (vezi exemplele de mai sus) nu determin substantive ca a
djectivele posesive, ci le nlocuiesc. Observai mai jos diferena dintre adjectivul i
pronumele posesiv i pronumele personal n cazul dativ/acuzativ Adjective posesive I
t's my car It's your car It's his car It's her car It's its car It's our car It'
s your car It's their car Pronume posesive It's mine It's yours It's his It's he
rs -It's ours It's yours It's theirs Pronume personal It belongs to me It belong
s to you It belongs to him It belongs to her It belongs to it It belongs to us I
t belongs to you It belongs to them
5.9. Pronumele interogativ (The Interrogative Pronoun) Pronumele interogativ ine
locul, n propoziii interogative, cuvintelor ateptate ca rspuns la ntrebare, poate ave
a categoria gramatical de caz i ndeplinete funcia sintactic de subiect, complement sau
funcia de marc, introducnd propoziii subordonate n fraz. Pronumele interogative pot f
i folosite: a) numai ca pronume: Who is he ? b) numai ca determinani: What kind o
f man is he ? c) ca pronume sau ca determinani: What do you want ? What books do
you want ? Pronumele interogative sunt specializate: who este folosit pentru fii
ne, what pentru lucruri which pentru fiine i lucruri, how much pentru cantiti, how ma
ny pentru numr, what kind of pentru caliti etc. pag: 138 Din punct de vedere al fle
xiunii, who are forme deosebite pentru fiecare caz. Celelalte pronume interogati
ve sunt invariabile. WHO are urmtoarele forme: N.: Who ? cine; D: (to) whom = cui
? Who se refer numai la persoan: Who did you meet ? Forma whose se poate referi i
la lucruri i animale: A: Whose food is this ?

B: Its the dogs food. Whom este folosit mai ales dup prepoziii: By whom was the poem
written ? n vorbirea curent, who este folosit n locul lui whom, iar prepoziia se az l
a sfritul propoziiei: Who was the poem written by ? Not: Atunci cnd who ndeplinete fun
a de subiect, el este urmat de un verb la singular: Who is speaking? dar atunci
cnd ndeplinete funcia de complement acordul cu verbul se face n numr: Who is waiting f
or? Who are they waiting for? WHAT ca pronume interogativ se refer la substantive
sau nlocuitori ai acestora de orice gen, precum i la propoziii ntregi: What is she
? What is the meaning of this word ? What did he tell you ? Not: Atunci cnd what nd
eplinete funcia sintactic de subiect, verbul este la singular: What is happening he
re? (Ce se ntmpl aici?) dar cnd ndeplinete funcia de complement, acordul cu verbul se
ace n numr: What are they doing? (Ce face ei?) What se traduce n limba romn prin: a)
CE, atunci cnd se presupune un rspuns prin care se arat profesiunea sau funcia: What
is your father ? What are you ? b) CARE: What are the days of the week ? What i
s your favourite game ? c) CT: What time is it ? What implic o selecie dintr-un numr
nedefinit de obiecte: What books do you like best? WHICH ca pronume interogativ
este un nominativ: Which is shorter, Betty or Jane ? sau un acuzativ: Which of
these books do you prefer ? Which implic selecia dintr-un numr limitat de obiecte:
Which of the two dresses will you take ? Which of the girls do you like ? Cnd pro
numele sau adjectivul interogativ este nsoit de o prepoziie aceasta l precede n limba
scris: From what country does she come ? n vorbirea curent, prepoziia se aeaz la sfr
l propoziiei: What country does she come from ? 5.10. Pronumele relativ (The Rela
tive Pronoun) 5.10.1. Pronumele relativ se refer la un substantiv sau nlocuitor al
acestuia care a fost deja menionat i el face legtura ntre propoziia n care se afl i
pe care o nsoeate: I know people who dont like this writer. I know people that dont
like this writer. pag: 139 Pronumele relative sunt: who, which i that. Who, D/Ac.
who(m), G. whose se refer la un substantiv sau nlocuitor de gen masculin sau femi
nin: The girl who sang is my cousin. A carpenter is a man who makes chairs and t
ables. He is a writer whose works are very well-known. Which, whose se refer la s
ubstantive de genul neutru: Tom is wearing a coat which is too large for him. Th
e trees, whose leaves are yellow and red... Copacii, ale cror frunze sunt galbene
i roii... That se refer la substantive, indiferent de gen i caz:

The dog that ran across the street is mine. The dog which ran across the street
is mine. The man that showed you the way is very old. The man who showed you the
way is very old. Not: Pronumele relative i pronumele interogative who, which i wha
t se pot asocia cu adverbele ever i soever pentru a forma pronume relative, respe
ctiv pronume interogative compuse: whoever pe oricine. Whoever comes must wait h
ere. Oricine vine trebuie s atepte aici. whichever- pe oricare. He will take which
ever is his. O/l va lua pe oricare este a/al lui. 5.10.2. ntrebuinarea pronumelui r
elativ. Who, whom, whose introduc ndeosebi propoziii relative descriptive (propozii
i care aduc informaii suplimentare, neeseniale, despre antecedent): My wife, to wh
om you were speaking just now, wants you to come to dinner. Soia mea, creia i vorbe
ai acum, dorete s vii la noi la mas. Aceste pronume relative pot introduce i propozii
i relative restrictive (propoziii care aduc informaii absolut necesare pentru clar
ificarea sensului): The boy who threw the stone will be punished. Which introduc
e att propoziii relative descriptive (a) ct i restrictive (b): a) Swimming, which is
an enjoyable sport, makes people strong and healthy. b) The glass which you are
drinking out of has just been washed. That se folosete numai n propoziii restricti
ve: The chair that was broken yesterday has been mended. Pronumele relative who,
which, th se omit n propoziiile restrictive cnd se gsesc n cazul acuzativ: The girl
(who(m)) you have just met is my niece. The magazine (that) you lent me is very
interesting. 5.10.3. Locul pronumelui relativ. Pronumele relativ trebuie aezat, p
e ct posibil, lng antecedentul su. Nerespectarea acestei reguli poate da natere la co
nfuzii: He met the girl in the street that you know. A ntlnit fata pe strada pe ca
re o cunoti. In the street, he met the girl that you know. A ntlnit fata pe care o
cunoti pe strad. Cnd pronumele relativ n acuzativ este nsoit de o prepoziie, aceasta e
te aezat naintea pronumelui relativ n limba scris. n exprimarea familiar, pronumele re
ativ se omite de obiecei, iar prepoziia se aeaz dup verb sau complementul direct: Th
is is the man to whom I gave the parcel (scris). This is the man (whom) I gave t
he parcel to (familiar). pag: 140 5.11. Pronumele nehotrt (The Indefinite Pronoun)
5.11.1. Pronumele nehotrt desemneaz global (all) sau parial (each, either) obiecte
sau fenomene. Pronumele nehotrte sunt folosite: a) numai ca pronume: There is some
body here. There is something here. None of them was in time. b) ca determinani s
au pronume: Ive got some. Ive got some English books. The teacher talked with each
parent. The teacher talked with each of them. (N)either boy can do it. (N)eithe
r of you can do it. All children are here. All of them are here.

5.11.2. ntrebuinarea pronumelor nehotrte. Some = ceva, nite, puin, puin, unii, unele,
, cteva, vreun, vreo, se ntrebuineaz n propoziii aformative i indic existena unui nu
trs de lucruri, fiine, a unei cantiti restrnse. Este folosit cu substantive numrabile
la plural i cu substantive nenumrabile la singular: There are some on his desk. Sh
e bought some. Some poate fi folosit n propoziii interogative: a) cnd swe pune acce
ntul pe o parte din obiectul sau obiectele menionate: Did you read some of the bo
oks the teacher recommended ? b) n proppoziiile n care se ofer ceva: Will you have s
ome ? c) cnd ntrebarea nu se refer la some: Did you ask father to give me some ? An
y = vreun, vreo, nici un(ul), nici o, nici una se ntrebuineaz: a) n propoziii afirmat
ive cu sensul: oricare, orice: Any of you could answer this question. b) n propoz
iii interogative i negative: Have you got any ? I havent got any. Compuii lui some,
any i no (no este folosit doar ca determinant sunt pronume nehotrte: somebody/someo
ne - anybody/anyone - nobody/no one none something - anything - nothing Acestea
sunt folosite numai ca pronume. Nu pot fi folosite i ca determinani: I saw somebod
y in your room. I saw something in your room. I saw nobody in your room. I saw n
othing in your room. Pentru ntrebuinarea compuilor lui some, any, no, n propoziii afi
rmative, interogative i negative. Each se refer la membrii unui grup luai individua
l: Each of them wanted to try. Fiecare (dintre ei) dorea s ncerce. pag: 141 Either
(forma negativ neither) = fiecare (nici unul) din doi este folosit mai ale n prop
oziii interogative i negative: Have you seen either of them ? L-ai vzut pe vreunul
dintre ei (doi) ? n propoziii afirmative, either are sensul de oricine, oricare: E
ither of you can do it. Oricare dintre voi (doi) poate face acest lucru. Every e
ste folosit doar ca determinant: Every pupil must do his homework. Compuii lui ev
ery ns sunt folosii doar ca pronume nehotrte: Everybody is present. Toi sunt prezeni.
have everything I need. Am tot ce-mi trebuie. All = tot, toat, toi, toate, exprim
totalitatea lucrurilor sau fiinelor i nlocuiete substantivele numrabile la plural: Ive
read them all. Le-am citit pe toate. sau substantive nenumrabile la singular: Ive
read all about this subject. Am citit tot nb legtur cu acest subiect. All poate fi
folosit i ca predeterminant: Give me all the books I need. n vorbirea curent, all
este nlocuit de obicei de everybody sau everything, n funcie de sens: All are here
= Everybody is here. Tell me all about it = Tell me everything about it. One = u
n, unul, una cineva, are o singur form, indiferent de gen, numr i caz: There were tw
o women in the room: one was young and one was old. One cu valoare impersonal se n
trebuineaz n sens foarte general: One should always perform his duty. Trebuie ntotde
auna s-i faci datoria. One se acord cu he, she, it i cu formele corespunztoare: his,
him, her etc.: One of the boys said he would stay at home. 5.12. Pronumele negat
iv (Negative Pronouns) Pronumele nehotrte cu sens negativ sunt considerate de unii
autori o clas aparte de pronume pronumele negative.

Pronumele negative desemneaz lipsa obiectelor sau a fenomenelor. Folosirea lor ex


clude existena altor negaii n propoziie. Pronumele negative sunt: nobody, no one (ni
meni), none (nici unul), neither (nici unul din doi), nothing (nimic): Neither o
f the is right. Nici unul dintre ei (doi) nu are dreptate. What have you bought
? Nothing. Ce-ai cumprat ? Nimic. EXERCISES I. Completai punctele cu adjectivul sa
u pronumele posesiv necesar: 1. Betty cant eat.....birthday cake alone. 2. This i
s not my book; its.....3. Peter,.....room is on the left,...... is on the right.
4. Jane, you must go and wash...face. 5. classroom is sunny; we like it. 6. Jack
is very bright for age. 7. He may take the ball, its 8. These records belong to
them. They are 9. That is my book, but this is not 10. I needed an umbrella and I
asked Alice if I could borrow pag: 142 II. Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri. Folosii pro
umele I ca subiect, nlocuii substnativele cu pronumele: Model: Who lent the book t
o that student ? I lent it to him. 1. Who told the story to the children? 2. Who
wrote the letter to Mrs White? 3. Who sent the present to Bob? 4. Who bought th
e books for Jane ? 5. Who gave the apples to the boy? 6. Who explained the lesso
n to the new student? 7. Who showed the town to the touristes? III. Folosii forma
corect a pronumelui: 1. Look, theres george. Who invited.....? 2. The Wilsons and
I decided to ask him.....thought he would enjoy it. 3. Im looking for my trouser
s. Have you seen....? 4. Does your boy friend speak English?.....should study it
if he doesnt. 5. The weather is getting colder. wont improve for the next two or
three days 6. Have you read this book? is very interesting. 7. She is a nice gir
l. Do you know ? 8. We offered Ann some flowers. 9. She invited to her birthday p
arty. IV. Completai spaiile punctate cu pronume relative acolo unde este cazul: 1.
The girl.... is sitting at the desk is our typist. 2. The book..... she is read
ing has been published recently. 3. That is the man...... helped the child cross
the street. 4. Is this the woman.... sold you the English dictionary? 5. I dont
remember the joke he told us. 6. That is a studentalways gets excellent marks. 7.
He is the football playerscored three goals. 8. Is this the house was built by you
r brother? V. Traducei n limba englez: Biric i Polina rmaser. i luar secerile pe um
r amndoi spre locurile lui Tudor Blosu. Pe drum, Polina i spuse din nou c nu se poate
ajunge la o nelegere cu tatl ei dac au s stea i s-l

atepte pe el s se mpace. Ea l cunoate mai bine. Pmntul trebuie luat cu fora. Biric
e c orice lucru se poate lua cu fora cum ar fi s zicem un cal, o cru, o vit; l iai cu
ra i l duci cu tine. Dar pmntul n-ai cum s-l iai. Pentru pmnt trebuie forme la notari
numai atunci poi s zici c e al tu. Spunndu-I acest lucru, Biric ii atrase luarea amin
e ct e ea de proast cnd i nchipuie c nu s-a gndit la toate felurile la situaia lor.
a rspunse c tie ea de forme, chiar mai mult dect crede el. i anume c dac te foloseti
un lucru mai muli ani i aduci martori c atia ani lucrul acela a fost al tu, poi s-I f
forme c e al tu, chiar dac la nu vrea. Biric i descrei fruntea i spuse cu mult mir
miraie c zu, a dracului naie de muiere mai este ea. Polina se fcu roie auzindu-l cum o
laud i i rspunse c cu alde tat-su ea i-a luat gndul de la omenie. Nu trebuie s mai
e omenia pe ei. Ct a fost fat mare nu i-a cumprat nici o a, nici un petic, a umblat d
escul la hor; el, Biric, cunoate i el bine povestea asta.. Ar trebui s neleag c al
mai e de fcu. Merser mult n tcere i el nu-i rspunse dect trziu. i atrase luarea amin
atl ei l poate da n judecat. l d n judecat i iese ru. Polina l ntrerupse spunnd
drzneasc el s-o fac. Ea s-a mritat i are dreptul la pmntul pe care l-a muncit. i dac
ei are s fac proces are s aib ea grij s-i scoat procesul pe nas. (Marin Preda - Morome
) pag: 143 6. Adjectivul (The Adjective) 6.1. Definiie Adjectivul este partea de
vorbire care: a) exprim o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting lecture, on old
man); b) are categoria gramatical a comparaiei: He is taller than his brother. c) n
deplinete funciile sintactice de atribut, apoziie, nume predicativ, element predica
tiv suplimentar. 6.2. Comparaia adjectivelor (The Comrarison of Adjectives) Spre
deosebire de limba romn, unde adjectivul are flexiune de gen, numr i caz i comparaie,
adjectivul din limba englez nu se schimb dup gen, numr i caz. Singurul mod de marcare
formal este comparaia: un elev inteligent-a clever schoolboy o elev inteligent - a c
lever schoolgirl elevi inteligeni - clever schoolchildren Lecia a doua este mai gr
ea dect prima lecie. - Lesson 2 is more difficult than Lesson 1. Coninul categoriei
gramaticale a comparaiei const n faptul c la obiectele din lumea nconjurtoare caliti
pot aprea n msur egal: The Maths teacher is as old as the Psysics teacher. sau n msur
egal: The maths teacher is older than the Pasysics teacher. Categoria gramatical a
comparaiei este concretizaqt n limba englez ca i n limba romn, n trei grade de comp
Gradul pozitiv nemarcat arat prezena normal a unei caliti a obiectelor, fr a se face
reo comparaie: He is tall. She is beautiful. Gradul comparativ compar dou obiecte,
indicnd prezena calitii la obiectele comparate n msur egal (comparativul de egalitate
e is as tall as his sister) sau n msur inegal (I am younger than her) sau de inferio
ritate: This lesson is less interesting than the previous one).

La gradul comparativ, termenul comparaiei poate fi exprimat: He is more punctual


than the others. sau neexprimat: He is more punctual. Gradul superlativ arat c un
membru al unui grup posed calitatea comparat n cel mai nalt grad, prin intermediul u
nei comparaii directe (comparativul relativ: She is the cleverest of all) sau fr co
mparaie direct (superlativul absolut : She is very clever). Atenie! Atunci cnd se co
mpar numai dou noiuni se folosete gradul comparativ precedat de articolul the n locul
superlativului: She is the younger and the more beautiful of the two sisters. p
ag: 144 6.3. Formarea comparativului i a superlativului 6.3.1. Comparaia sintetic.
A) Adjectivele monosilabice formeaz comparativul i superlativul n mod sintetic. Ele
primesc -(e)r la comparativ i the -(e)st la superlativ: small - smaller - the sm
allest short - shorter - the shortest Ortografie: 1) Adjectivele terminate ntr-o
consoan precedat de o vocal scurt dubleaz consoan: big - bigger - the biggest hot - ho
tter - the hottest fat - fatter - the fattest thin - thinner - the thinnest 2) A
djectivele terminate n -y precedat de o consoan transform pe y n i: dry - drier - th
e driest 3) Adjectivele terminate n -e sau -ee, pierd pe -e final naintea lui -er
sau -est: nice - nicer - the nicest; free - freer - the freest; B) n mod sintetic
se compar i adjectivele bisilabice terminate n -y, -le, -er, -ow i -some: happy - h
appier - the happiest; clever - cleverer - the cleverest narrow - narrower - the
narrowest Excepii: eager, proper, fertile, hostile, fragile se compar numai cu mo
re i the most. Unele adjective pot avea mabele forme de comparativ i superlativ: cu preferin pentru forme sintetice: a) adjective monosilabice: calm, fot, huge, j
ust, keen calm - calmer - the calmest b) adjective bisilabice terminate n -y sau
-ly: angry, clumsy, sleepy, musty; angry - angrier - the angriest - cu preferin pe
ntru formele analitice: a) adjective bisilabice cu accentul pe prima silab: activ
e, civil, common, fertile, hostile, constant, prudent, pleasant, stupid, sudden;
active - more active - the most active; b) adjective bisilabice cu accentul pe
ultima silab: concise, remote, precise, severe, profound, polite. Excepie: adjecti
ve bisilabice terminate n dou consoane: correct, distinct, exact, intact etc. form
eaz comparativul i superlativul numai cu more i the most: a more distinct pronuncia
tion = o pronunie mai clar; c) adjectivele formate din trei silabe cu un prefix ne
gativ: unhappy, unlucky, unpleasant, insecure; unpleasant - more unpleasant - th
e most unpleasant. Folosirea formei sintactice sau analitice sau toate aceste ad
jective depinde deseori de ritmul propoziiei, de nevoia de expresivitate. n limba
vorbit sunt preferate formele sintetice, n timp ce n scris se folosesc mai ales for
mele analitice. pag: 145

6.3.2. Comparaia analitic. A) Adjectivele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe form
eaz comparativul i superlativul analitic cu ajutorul lui more i the most: careful more careful - the most careful difficul - more difficult - the most difficult
B) Adjectvele compuse formeaz gradele de comparaie n felul urmtor: a) cnd primul elem
ent este un adjectiv care i pstreaz sensul, acesta se schimb la comparativ i superlati
v: well-known - better=known - the best-known ill-paid - worse-paid - tyhe worst
-paid intelligent-looking, - more intelligent-looking - the most intelligent-loo
king b) cnd cele dou elemente formeaz un tot din punct de vedere al sensului compar
aia se realizeaz cu ajutorul lui more i the most: heart-broken - more heart-broken
- the heart-broken far-fetched - more far-fetched - the most far-fetched 6.3.3.
Formarea comparativului de egalitate i inferioaritate. Comparativul de egalitate
se exprim prin adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat i urmat de conjuncia as: My ro
om is as large as hers. Camera mea este la fel de mare ca a ei. Comparativul de
inferioritate se exprim prin adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat de not so/as i
urmat de as sau prin less...than: My homework is not as easy as yours. Tema mea
nu e la fel de uoar ca a ta. This lecture is less interesting than the previous on
e. Acest curs e mai puin interesant dect cursul anterior. 6.3.4. Formarea superlat
ivului absolut. Superlativul absolut se construiete cu ajutorul adverbelor very,
too, highly, extremely, utterly: The story he told us was very amusing. It is ex
tremelly difficult to reach the top. 6.4. Comparaia neregulat a adjectivelor
Unele adjective formeaz comparativul i superlativul n mod neregulat: good = bun - b
etter - the best Eight is a good mark. Nine is better than eight. Ten is the bes
t mark. bad = ru worse - the worst ill = bolnav worse - the worst They are both b
ad boys, but Peter is worse than Tom. Of all the bad boys I know Peter is the wo
rst. much = mult more - the most many = muli more - the most pag: 146 We havent mu
ch butter left. I need more help. This plate has the most meat on it late = trziu
- later = mai trziu = the lastest = cel mai trziu recent mai recent cel mai recen
t - the latter = cel de-al doilea (dintre dou elemente) acesta din urm

(opus lui the former) - the last = ultimul (dintre mai multe elemente) (opus lui
the first) The late edition of this paper appears at 3 p.m. There is a later on
e at 5 p.m. John and Tom are tall boys: the former is the catain of the basketba
ll team and the later is a good footballer. Whats the lastest news ? Care sunt ul
timile tiri ? His last novel is still unpublished. Ultimul su roman este nc nepublic
at. (nu a mai scris alte romane). old = btrn x vechi - older = mai btrn mai vechi elder = mai n vrst (despre membrii aceleai familii folosit atributiv) (opus lui youn
ger) - the oldest = cel mai btrn; cel mai vechi - the eldest = cel mai n vrst (despre
membrii acelelai familii, folosit atributiv) My brother is older than me. Fratel
e meu este mai mare dect mine. My elder brother is a doctor. Fratele meu mai mare
este doctor. She is my eldest sister. Ea este sora mea cea mai mare. Not: 1. For
mele elder i the eldest se folosesc uneori i pentru persoane din afara familiei: T
he elder girls in our school sing in the chorus. An elder officer 2. Elder poate
fi folosit i ca substantiv nenumrabil la plural: She followed the advice of her e
lders. near = aproape - nearer = mai apropiat (n spaiu, rudenie) - the nearest = c
el mai apropiat (n spaiu, rudenie) - the next = urmtorul (n timp, ordine) Peter is a
near relation of mine. Peter este o rud apropiat de-a mea. Can you show me the ne
arest tabacoconists ? mi putei arta tutungeria cea mai apropiat ? Mrs Green was the n
ext person to arrive. Doamna Green a fost urmtoarea persoan care a sosit. little =
puin less - the least I have little time. My friend has less time than I have. T
om has the least of all. far = deprtat farther = mai deprtat (distan) - the farthest
further = mai deprtat (distan) suplimentar, adiional, n plus - the furthest 6.5. ntri
ea comparaiei adjectivelor Adverbele much i far aezate naintea comparativului i by fa
r aezat dup comparativ ntresc ideea exprimat de adjectivul respectiv: This book is mu
ch more interesting/far more interesting by far than the other books he has weri
tten. Cartea aceasta este mult mai interesant dect celelalte cri pe care le-a scris.
pag: 147

Construcia cu ct ... + comparativ ... cu att... + comparativ se red prin dou comparat
ive precedate de the: The longer the days, the shorter the nights. Cu ct sunt zil
ele mai lungi cu att sunt nopile mai scurte. Construca din ce n ce mai ... tot mai..
. se red n limba englez vorbit prin repetarea comparativului i intercalarea conjunciei
and: It is colder and colder. Este din ce n ce mai frig, The old man felt worse
and worse. Btrnul se simea din ce n ce mai ru. Dac adjectivul este plurisilabic, se re
pet adverbul more/less i se intercaleaz conjuncia and: His lectures are more and mor
e interesting. Your stories are less and less credible. Acelai sens se red n stilul
oficial i n scris prin folosirea adverbului ever n faa comparativului: The publishe
d in this country are ever more interesting. 6.6. Funciile sintactice ale adjecti
vului Din punct de vedere sintactic, adjectivele pot fi: a) atributive, ndeplinin
d funcia de atribut sau apoziie n propoziie: Tom has a new bike. b) predicative, ndep
linind funcia de nume predicativ n propoziie: Toms bike is new. Atenie! Verbele copul
ative: be, stand, seem, appear, look, become, grow, get, turn, keep, remain, con
tinue sunt urmate de adjective (i nu de adverbe) cu valoare de nume predicative:
He is clever. She is getting old. They are keeping silent. Verbele exprimnd perce
pia senzorial: look, smell, sound, taste, feel sunt de asemenea urmate de adjectiv
e: You look beautiful. The soup tastes good. Din punct de vedere al folosirii at
ributive sau predicative, adjectivele n limba englez se mpart n trei mari grupe: a)
adjective care pot fi ntrebuinate att atributiv ct i predicativ: The old man has come
again. He is very old. b) adjective care nu poit fi folosite dect atributiv. n ac
east grup intr: - adjective terminate n -en, provenite de la substantive concrete: S
he has a woollen dress. - adjective indicnd punctele cardinale: Romania lies in E
astern Europe. - adjectivele derivate din substantive: a medical school; atomic
energy; a criminal attack. - unele adjective din care pot fi derivate adverbe: m
y former friend; her late husband; un utter fool. c) adjective care sunt ntrebuina
te numai predicativ: - adjectivele: ill, well, drunk: He is ill. - adjectivele d
erivate cu prefixul a-: ablaze = aprins, n flcri afraid = speriat alone = singur as
hamed = ruinat pag: 148 aghast = nfricoat alert = atent, vigilent alike = la fel, i
dentic alive = viu, n via asleep = adormit averse = potrivnic, opus awake = treaz a
ware = contient

The little boy was still unsleep, but his mother is awake. Not: 1. Unele din aces
te adjective pot fi folosite atributiv cnd sunt precedate de un adverb: a fully a
wake person; a very ashamed child; the half asleep girl 2. Cteva adjective predic
ative au un sinonim cu valoare atributiv: afraid - frightened; alike - similar; a
live - living; alone - lonely The child was afraid to ask for help/ The frighten
ed child didn't ask for help. These two dresses are very much alike/ These are s
imilar dresses. 6.7. Locul adjectivelor n propoziie a) Adjectivul folosit atributi
v preced substantivul pe care l determin; a high mountain; a difficult problem. b) n
cteva cazuri adjectivul, atributiv este n mod obligatoriu aezat dup substantiv: - n
grupuri de cuvinte: Ambassador Extraordinary, secretary general, postmaster gene
ral, attorney general, court martial, heir apparent, knight errant, poet laureat
e, from time immemorial; - pronumele nehotrte care se termin n -body; -one; -thing s
unt de obicei urmate de adjective: She bought something nice. He said nothing in
teresting. c) Cnd mai multe adjective determin un substnativ, adjectivul al crui nele
s este cel mai legat de substantiv se aeaz n imediata lui apropiare, iar celelalte l
preced n ordinea gradului de apropiere al nelesului lor de cel al substantivului. N
u exist reguli stricte privind ordinea adjectivelor, ele se succed n ordinea urmtoa
re: nsuire, dimensiune, form, vrst culoare, naionalitate, origine, adjectiv verbal: Sh
e bought a few large red apples. I met three tall young French girl stundents. T
he small round ancient Chinese box was in the table. d) Cnd un substantiv este de
terminat de dou adjective la comparativ, unul mai scurt i cellalt mai lung, cel scu
rt l precede pe cel lung: She was taller and more beautiful. e) Adjectivul cu det
erminare urmeaz substantivul: It was a house ugly with decay. Era o cas urt din cauz
a degradrii. f) Adjectivul folosit predicativ urmeaz verbul copulativ: He is ill.
She seems tired. You look pale. EXERCISES I. Punei adjectivele din parantez la for
ma corect: 1. Summer is (good) season of the year. 2. In summer the days are (lon
g) and the nights are (short) than in spring. 3. The 22nd of June is (long) day
of the year. 4. In July the days become (warm) and (warm). 5. (Many) people play
football in summer. 6. Football is (popular) game in Romania. 7. I think autumn
is as (beautiful) as summer. 8. Thew weather isn't as (warm) as in summer, but
the trees are (beautiful) than in summer. 9. Winter is (bad) season of the year.
It is cold and wet. 10. Some people think it is (interesting) season of the yea
r, because they can sky, skate or play with snow II. Alegei forma corect a adjecti
velor din parantez: 1. From these two dresses the cheaper is (the best, the bette
r). 2. Since she has retired, (less and less, fewer and fewer) friends have visi
ted her. 3. Mike and Bob are students. The former studies medicine, (the second,
the latter) studies architecture. 4. Her (older, elder) sister did nt come to t
he party. 5. The doctor asked (the nearest, the next) person to come in.

III. Traducei n limba englez: 1. Ai citit ultimul roman al lui Marin Preda? 2. i s-a
prut mai interesant dect celelalte romane ale lui? 3. A fost pe departe cea mai p
lcut vacan pe care am petrecut-o vreodat pe mare. 4. Ei studiaz din ce n ce mai mult
bin rezultate din ce n ce mai bune. 5. Cu ct era mai atent cu att mai puine greeli fce
. 6. l cunoti pe fratele ei mai mare? 7. Rochia ta este mai modern dect a mea. 8. Ca
re este planeta cea mai ndeprtat? 7. Adverbul (The Adverb) 7.1. Definiie Adverbul es
te partea de vorbire care: a) arat o caracteristic a unei aciuni, a unei stri sau a
unei caliti; b) poate avea categoria gramatical a comparaiei; c) ndeplinete funcia sin
actic de complement circumstanial. Not: 1. Adverbul mai poate aprea pe lng un substant
iv (de obicei precedat de articolul nehotrt): He is quite a man now. It was only a
cat, sau un pronume: Is this book really mine? 2. Unele adverbe pot forma singu
re propoziii: Really? Down! Faster! Gladly. Almost. Yes. No. Maybe. Now. Never. 7
.2. Locuiuni i construcii adverbiale 7.2.1. Locuiunile (perifrazele) adverbiale sunt
expresii fixe cu valoare de adverbe: at present = n prezent; as a rule = de obic
ei; by the way = apropo; as a matter-of-fact = de fapt; at once = imediat; once
in while, now and then = din cnd n cnd; to-and fro = ncoace i ncolo etc. 7.2.2. Constr
uciile adverbiale sunt construcii prepoziionale care pot fi folosite ca adverbe: He
watches TV in the evening. She went out the room. pag: 150 Unele construcii adve
rbiale se folosesc: a) cnd nu se pot forma adverbe de la adjectiv: She spoke with
difficulty. b) cnd construcia adverbial este mai fireasc dect adverbul: She addresse
d the doctor in a broken voice. c) cnd adugarea sufixului-ly ar schimba nelesul: She
spoke in a high voice. (She spoke highly of him. 7.3. Forma adverbelor Cnd mai m
ulte adverbe de mod se formeaz prin adugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului:
He is a slow walker. He walks slowly. La fel se formeaz i unele adverbe de timp, s
ufixul -ly fiind adugat unui substantiv: This magazine is published every week. T
his magazine is published weekly. Atenie! Nu toate cuvintele terminate n -ly sunt
adverbe. Unele sunt numai adjective: friendly, lovely, likely, timely, i sunt fol
osite ca pri ale unor construcii adverbiale: He came at a timely moment. She spoke
to us in a friendly way.

Adverbele de timp terminate n ly pot fi folosite att ca adjective, ct i ca adverbe:


This is a daily papaer. It comes out daily. Ortografie: n general, adugarea sufixu
lui -ly nu modific forma iniial a cuvntului: He is a careless driver. He drives care
lessly. Dac adjectivul se termin n -e, acesta se pstreaz naintea sufixului -ly: entire
- entirely; extreme extremely. Excepii: true - truly; due - duly; whole - wholly
. Dac adjectivul se termin n -l, adverbul va avea -ll, prin adugarea terminaiei -ly:
beatiful + ly = beautifully. 7.4. Modificri de ortografie - Adjectivele terminate
n -y l transform n -i naintea sufixului -ly happy - happily; day - daily. - Adjectiv
ele terminate n -ll pierd un -l: full - fully; - Adjectivele terminate n -le silab
ic pierd -e i adaug -y: simple - simply; probable - probably; - Adjectivele termin
ate n -ic adaug un -ally pentru a deveni adverbe: enthusiastic - enthusiastically;
Dar public - publicly; - Adjectivul good devine adverbul well: She is a good pu
pil. She speaks English well. - Unele adverbe au forme speciale (only, often, ev
er etc.), pe cnd altele sunt omonime cu alte pri de vorbire, n special cu adjective:
She arrived early/fast/late today. pag: 151 n alte cazuri adverbele pot avea dou
forme cu diferenieri de sens: Form fr -ly She came close and looked at me. He dug de
ep in the ground. They went direct home. Sens aproape adnc, n adncime - direct, dre
pt, de-a dreptul + go, come, send - fr intermediar personal Form cu -ly I followed
the instructions closely. He was deeply concerned. The car was coming directly t
owards me. She was directly affected. They came directly after lunch. I got up d
irectly the bell rang. I solved the problem easily. Sens ndeaproape foarte tare,
profund - direct, drept - n mod direct - ndat (imediat) - de ndat ce
Take it easy! expresii n engleza Just go easy! vorbit: uor, calm, Easy come, easy nc
et; go!
cu uurin, uor

play fair fight fair All members are admitted free. work/study/drink/ rain hard
n colocaii: cinstit;
Thye plane flew high in the air. She has just arrived. She arrived late. He alwa
ys travels light. She works most. They near. live quite
It is pretty late.
Come as quick as you can. She is here right now. Go right to the end drept, dire
ct of the street.
anumite He was treated corect, fairly. His paper is fairly good. gratuit They cr
iticized him freely. foarte mult, din I could hardly greu, tare understand her.
He recovered hardly what he had lost before. sus He was highly appreciated. tocm
ai He was justly forgiven. trziu I havent seen them lately. fr bagaje He treats ever
ything lightly. cel mai mult The village is mostly of wooden houses. aproape, lng
He worked nearly ten hours. They were nearly home. destul de She dresses prettti
ly. n engleza familiar: He spoke quickly repede and confidently. chiar He judged r
ightly. She is rightly considered the brightest pupil in the class. He rightly g
uessed her age. He has travelled widely. They are widely different. The words we
re wrongly spelled. He was wrongly informed.
- drept, corect, cum se cuvine - destul de liber, neconstrns de-abia, cu greu, cu
greutate, din greu
foarte, extrem de pe drept n ultima vreme superficial, cu uurin - n cea mai mare part
e; n general aproape (de)
drgu n engleza ngrijit: repede bine, corect pe drept
He guessed the bine, ntocmai answer right. The door was wide de tot, n ntregime ope
n. They are wide awake. answer/guess/judge greit, ru, prost /note wrong. go/treat
wrong. pag: 152
bine corect - mult, pe o suprafa mare ntr-o mare msur, foarte n mod greit

La aceste adverbe, forma n -ly are de obicei un sens mai abstract sau figurat. Al
te adverbe cu dou forme sunt: cheap - cheaply; dear - dearly. n alte cazuri se poa
te folosi fie forma adjectival, fie cea adverbial, fr nici o schimbare de sens: She
talked loud and clear/loudly and clearly. Pentru o mai mare fluen n exprimare, form
a adverbial identic cu cea a adjectivului este adesea ntrebuinat n comparaia adverbelo
, chgiar dac la pozitiv apare forma n -ly: He runs quiker / slower than me. He sho
uted loudest. 7.5. Clasificarea adverbelor Dup sensul lor lexical, adverbele se mp
art n patru mari categorii: adverbe de mod, adverbe de loc, adverbe de timp i part
icule adverbiale. 7.5.1. Adverbele de mod (Adverbs of manner). Adverbele de mod
indic modalitatea propriu-zis: well, badly, quickly, slowly etc. Ele mai pot fi ad
verbe: - de ntrire: acctually, certainly, obviously, really; - de amplificare: abs
olutely, completely, greatly, barely, hardly; - de afirmaie sau negaie: yes, no, o
f course, not at all; - de probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, probally. 7.5.2. Adver
bele de loc (Adverbs of Place) Unele adverbe de loc indic locul propriu-zis: here
, there, somewhere. Altele indic direcia: aside, foward(s), backward(s), righ, lef
t. Majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a exprima att locul ct i di
recia: Loc: He doesnt live far (Nu locuiete departe). Direcie: He didnt go far (Nu sa dus departe). 7.5.3. Adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time). Adverbele de timp in
dic: - momentul aciunii: now, nowadays, today, then; - succesiunea n timp: afterwar
ds, before, eventually, formerly, previosly, soon; - durata: lately, recently, s
ince, still, yet; - frecvena: definit: weekly, three times a day; nedefinit: often,
usually, seldom, once in a while. pag: 153 7.6. Comparaia adverbelor (Comparison
of Adverbs) Comparaia adverbelor apare numai la unele adverbe de mod, loc i timp.
Ea are acelelai caracteristici ca i comparaia adjectivului. Comparativul este folo
sit pentru compararea a dou persoane sau obiecte, iar superlativul pentru compara
rea mai multor persoane sau obiecte. 7.6.1. Gradul comparativ. Comparativul de s
uperioritate se formeaz cu ajutorul sufixului -er n cazul; adverbelor monosilabice
i a adverbului early: fast - faster; early - earlier i cu ajutorul cuvntului more n
cazul adverbelor bi- i plurisilabice: quickly - more quickly; carefully - more c
arefully.

n engleza familiar, forma de comparativ a adjectivelor este uneori folosit n loc de


cea a adverbelor: She laugherd louder than anyone else. Ea rdea mai tare dect toi c
eilali. Comparativul de egalitate se formeaz cu ajutorul lui as...as: She speaks E
nglish as fluently as her brother, iar comparativul de inferioritate, cu ajutoru
l lui not so / as...as: She doesnt learn as fast as her classmates, sau less... t
han: He drives less carefully than his wife. Comparativul adverbelor se realizea
z n doi termeni, ca i la adjectiv: Paul works as rapidly as the others (do). Of the
two boys, Dan works the more thoroughly. 7.6.2. Gradul superlativ. Superlativul
absolut se formeaz cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very, quite, most care preced adv
erbukl respectiv: She sings very beautifully. She sings most beautifully. Ahe si
ngs quite beautifully. Spre deosebire de gradulk comparativ, superlativul absolu
t se realizeaz ntr-un singur termen: Our teacher explains things most clearly. Sup
erlativul relativ este de dou feluri: a) Superlativul relativ de superioritate, e
xprimat prin (the)...-est n cazul adverbelor monosilabice i a adverbului early: He
runs (the) fasted (of all). i prin (the) most + adverb n cazul adverbelor bi- i pl
urisilabice: He answers (the) most intelligently (of all). b) Superlativul relat
iv de inferioritate, exprimat prin (the) least + adverb: She spells words (the)
least correctly (of all). Articolul the din forma superlativului poate fi omis,
mai ales n limba vorbit: He runs fasted of all. pag: 154 n cazul superlativului rel
ativ, al doilea termen poate fi menionat sau omis: (of the three children, Mary p
lays the piano the best. Adverbele care au forme identice cu adjectivele se supu
n acelorai reguli fonetice i ortografice la gradele de comparaie: early - earlier earliest; late - later - latest. 7.6.3. Comparaia neregulat a adverbelor. Unele a
dverbe formeaz gradele de comparaie n mod neregulat: Gradul pozitiv well (bine) bad
ly (ru) much (mult) Gradul comparativ better (mai bine) worse (mai ru) more (mai m
ult) Gradul superlativ (the) best (cel mai bine) (the) worst (cel mai ru) (the) m
ost (cel mai mult)
7.7. Cteva adverbe speciale (Some Special Adverbs) Enough (destul de) se aeaz dup ad
jective i adverbe: The pupils didnt work HARD enough. He is OLD enough to understa
nd this.

Not: Cnd enough este folosit adjectival, determinnd un substantiv, el poate fi aezat
nainte sau dup acesta: You have enough time to write your composition. You have t
ime enough to write your composition. Ai destul timp s scrii compoziia. Ai timp de
stul s scrii compoziia. Far (departe) se folosete de obicei n propoziii negative sau
interogative. n propoziii afirmative, el este fie nsoit de alte adverbe sau prepoziii
, fie nlocuit de a...way: He didnt go far. He went only a short way. He lives far
away / not far from here. First (nti): at first (la nceput). At first e folosit cu
sensul de at the beginning / to begin with i este adesea urmat de but. n alte situ
aii se folosete first: First I went for a walk and then I went to bed. At first I
didnt like the town, but then I began to love it. Hardly, barely, scarcely Aceste
trei adverbe au un sens aproape negativ. Hardly se folosete de obicei npreun cu an
y, ever sau cu verbul can, cu sensul: - cu greu, de-abia: He can hardly speak. s
au: - foarte rar, aproape niciodat: He hardly ever comes to see me. Barely nseamn a
bia, doar, numai i este des folosit cu adjective ca enough sau sufficient: He had
barely enough time to catch the train. He is barely eighteen. Are numai 18 ani.
Scarcely combin sensurile lui hardly i barely: - cu greu, abia: I scarcely heard w
hat he said. - aproape de loc: He scarcely ate anything. In here (aici); out the
re (acolo). pag: 155 Adverbele here i there apar adesea nsoite de cuvinte ca: in, o
ut, up, down, over: Its hot in here. Dont stay down there. Its cooler up here. Can
you see the cat running out there ? The teacher is tanding over there. Just now.
Adverbul just now are dou sensuri: - chiar acum, tocmai, n acest moment: Pupils a
re going on holiday just now. - adineauri: He came in just noe. Long. Adverbul l
ong este nlocuit n propoziii afirmative de a long time: Did you stay there long ? Y
es. I stayed there a long time. Ai stat mult acolo ? Da, am stat mult (timp) aco
lo. Much (mult), very much (foarte mult). Much apare singur n propoziii negative i
interogative. n propoziii afirmative, el este precedat de very: Do you like swimmi
ng much ? Yes. I like it very much. Much poate fi folosit i naintea comparativului
: It is much better to come in time. Este mult mai bine s vii la timp. Only (numa
i, doar) se poate aeza: - naintea cuvntului pe care l determin: Only HE came to see m
e. He came to see me only YESTERDAY.

- naintea verbului (n limba vorbit): He only CAME to see me yesterday. n acest caz c
uvntul la care se refer only va fi accentuat: He only came to see me yesterday. Pr
esently (n prezent, n curnd). Folosit ca un verb la prezent, adverbul presently est
e sinonim cu at present, mai ales n engleza american: She is presently staying wit
h us. Presently este sinonim cu soon cnd este folosit cu un verb la viitor: Ill pr
esently be with you: Still, yet. Adverbul still (nc) exprim durata, continuarea. St
ill este folosit n proporii afirmative i interogative: Is Mary still at the seaside
? Yes, she is still there. Still poate aprea i n propoziii negative pentru a sublin
ia continuarea unei aciuni negative: I still dont understand what this is about. T
ot / nc nu neleg despre ce este vorba. Yet (nc, pn acum, pn atunci) se refer la un
se ntrebuineaz n propoziii negative i interogative: Has it stopped raining yet ? He ha
snt yet arrived. Cnd adverbul yet are sensul deja, el ocup poziia final: Have they see
that film yet ? Au vzut deja filmul ? Aezate la nceputul propoziiei, ori dup conjunci
ile but, and, adverbele still i yet sunt sinonime cu all the same (totui, cu toate
acestea) i au valoare de conjucii: Still I dont understand him. Yet I dont understa
nd him. All the same I dont understand him. pag: 156 Cu toate acestea nu-l neleg. V
ery (foarte) poate modifica: - adjective: She is very TALL. - participii trecute
ntrebuinate atributiv: She had a very SURPRISED look. - adverbe: He spoke very LO
UDLY. Dac adjectivul este la gradul comparativ, sau dac participiul trecut este fo
losit predicativ, very trebuie nsoit sau nlocuit de much sau de alte adverbe de amp
lificare: greatly, highly, by far etc.: She was by far / much TALLER than him. S
he was very much SURPRISED at his behaviour. EXERCISES I. Exprimai-v acordul cu af
irmaiile de mai jos, folosind adverbe de mod. Exemplu: A. Mary is an efficient wo
rker. B. Yes, she works efficiently. A. Alice is a good singer B. Yes, she sings
well. 1. Peter is a slow worker. 2. Ann is a good dancer. 3. Our teacher is a f
luent English speaker. 4. He is a bad actor. 5. Doris is a hard worker. 6. Nick
is a fast swimmer. 7. Mother is a careful typist. 8. Father is a careless driver
. 9. He is an intelligent teacher. 10. He is an optimistic speaker. 11. He is a
noisy eater. 12. Paul is an attentive listener. 13. He is a sensible speaker. 14
. Diana is a quick runner. II. Traducei n limba englez:

1. Ea muncete foarte mult la coal. 2. A spat adnc n pmnt. 3. Era pe drept considerat
mai bun elev din clas. 4. Cu greu pot s-i vd faa n ntuneric. 5. Trenul a sosit cu nt
re. 6. A fost adnc micat de buntatea ei. 7. A gsit rspunsul corect. 8. Psrile zboar l
e. 9. Nu l-am vzut n ultima vreme. 10 Este foarte apreciat pentru munca sa. 11. Se
nrudete de aproape cu mine. 12. Ia-o ncetior! 13. n general suntem plecai duminica. 1
4. E aproape miezul nopii. 15. Ce te deranjeaz cel mai tare? 16. El e chiar n vrf. 1
7. Deschide mare gura. 8. Prepoziia (The Preposition) 8.1. Definiie. Prepoziia este
partea de vorbire neflexibil care: a) exprim raporturi sintactice de dependen ntre pr
le unei propoziii. Ea leag pri de vorbire diferite: substantive, adjective, verbe sa
u adverbe de substantive sau substitute ale acestora: I was pleased at the thoug
ht of going yto the theatre. Am fost ncntat de ideea de a merge la teatru. pag: 15
7 b) este neflexibil din punct de vedere morfologic; c) prepoziia nu ndeplinete o fu
ncie sintactic n propoziie ci marcheaz funcii sintactice: I gave the book to Mary (com
plement indirect). The roof of the house (atribut) is red. 8.2. Caracteristici a
le prepoziiilor englezeti 8.2.1. Prepoziiile englezeti cer cazul acuzativ: Look AT h
im. I am BEFORE her. Prepoziiile of, to i for prezint o situaie special. Construcia cu
prepoziia of este folosit ca echivalent al unei construcii genitivale: The boys coa
t is new. The coat of the boy is new. iar prepoziia to i for marcheaz cazul dativ:
I gave it to him. I bought it for her. 8.2.2. Majoritatea prepoziiilor englezeti s
unt urmate de substantive articulate, spre deosebire de limba romn: The children a
re playing IN the garden. Copiii se joac N grdin.
8.2.3. Cteva prepoziii apar n construcii n care substantivul nu este articulat: at ho
me; at breakfast/lunch/dinner; at play; at war; at sea; at/in/to school, college
, church. by car, bus, train, plane, boat; in/to bed, class, town; Folosirea art
icolului cu unul dintre aceste substantive aduce schimbri de sens, de ex.: referi
rea la o anumit cas, coal etc.: He is AT home. (El) este acas. She is AT the home of
her firiends. (Ea) este n casa prietenilor ei. sau He is AT sea (on a ship). (El)
este pe mare (pe un vapor).

8.2.4. Verbe precedate de prepoziii iau forma n -ing (Gerund): I am good AT rememb
ering peoples names. mi amintesc cu uurin numele oamenilor. Excepii: But i except sunt
urmate de infinitivul scurt: They did nothing BUT laugh. N-au fcut nimic (altceva
) dect s rd. 8.2.5. Unele cuvinte sunt urmate n mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziii:
a) Substantive: - interest, progress, satisfaction + in; - cause, chance, opport
unity + of; - exception, invitation, kindness + to; b) Adjective: - anxious, ent
husiastic + about; - alarmed, amazed, astonished, clever, good + at; - bound, ea
ger, famous, fit, sorry + for; - disappointed, rich, successful + in; - afraid,
ashamed, aware, characteristic, fond, full, jealous, proud, sure, tired, typical
, worthy + of; - affectionate, appropiate, attentive, contrary, cruel, deaf, ind
ifferent, kind, parallel, polite, rude, thankful + to; - angry, busy, charmed, c
onsistent, delighted, dizzy, faint, identical, pale, satisfied, stiff, wet + wit
h; pag: 158 c) Verbe: - aim, arrive, fire, gaze, glance, look + at; - account, a
sk, blame, care, leave long + for; - conceal, die, differ, escape, hide, prevent
, protect + from; - abound, believe, end, fail, originate, succeed (+-ing), + in
; - accuse, boast, cure, deprive, die, remind take care + of; - agree, comment,
concentrate, congratulate, mediate + on; - adapt, adjust, apply, attribute, belo
ng, cling, conform, consent, link, listen, prefer, reduce, refer, report, sell,
sail, subscribe, turn + to; - complete, flush, glow, shake, shiver, side, subscr
ibe, supply, threaten, tremble + with. Atenie ! agree with smb. on a thing; to a
proposal; complain to smb. about smth; complain of an illness; consist of = a co
nsta din; in = a consta n; lie to smb. about smth.; part from smb.; with smth. su
ffer for a cause; from/with a disease, injury; think of smth.; about (=mediate);
translate from a language into another language; wait for smb/smth.; on smb (se
rve);

warn of (the danger); against (the enemy); bite, kick, point, throw + to (scopul
aciunii este atins); get on / off a bus, boat; get in(to) / out of a car, plane.
Not: smb=somebody; smth=something. 8.3. Poziie Prepoziia apoare n general naintea cu
vntului la care se refer: The pupils are IN the classroom. Elevii sunt n clas. Ea es
te folosit dup acesta: a) n ntrebri speciale (Wh-questions): What is he writing ABOUT
? (About what is he writting ? = formal): Despre ce scrie ? b) n propoziii relati
ve: The flat I live IN is on the 10th floor (The flat in which I live is on the
10th floor = formal). Apartamentul n care locuiesc este la etajul 10. pag: 159 c)
n exclamaii: What photos they are looking AT ! (At what photos they are looking !
= formal) La ce fotografii se uit ! d) n construcii pasive: The children were look
ed AFTER by their grandmorher. Bunica avea grij de copii. e) n construcii infinitiv
ale: This is a good firm to work WITH. Aceasta este o firm bun cu care s lucrezi. 8
.4. Relaii exprimate de prepoziii n combinaie cu alte pri de vorbire, prepoziiile expr
m relaii variate: LOC: at, in, within. In (n) indic spaiul n general sau n interiorul
uia are loc aciunea: in a continent - country - town village; in a square - stree
t - room; in a forest - wood - field; At (n la) indic un punct anumit din spaiu sau
un loc mai mic: at a small village - address - certain point; at home; at work;
at play; Within (n, ntre) (formal) indic poziia ntr-un spaiu limitat sau distana limi
(la distan de , n): Many important documents are kept within the walls of this muse
um. Multe documente importante sunt pstrate ntre pereii acestui muzeu. There is nob
ody within these four walls / within hearing / within a mile. Atenie ! at a buidi
ng (=instituia); in a building (cldirea): He is at school. E elev. He is in school
. E n coal. He lives in New York (ora mare). They stopped at Brussels on their way t
o Ney York (punct pe hart, traseu). By, beside, next to, near, close to, against
By (lng, la) indic vecintatea imediat: Mary is standing by the window.

Beside, next to (lng, la, alturi/aproape de) indic apropierea imediat: There is a nig
ht table beside my bed. The post office is beside / next to the hotel. Near, clo
se to (lng, aproape de) indic apropierea n general: He lives near / close to his off
ice. Against (lipit / rezemat de) exprim ideea de contact i sprijin. The bookcase
is against the wall. Tom leant against the bookcase. Over, above, on, top of; un
der, beneath, below, underneath Over (deasupra) i under (sub, dedesubp) indic o di
recie vertical sau apropierea: Theres a picture over the fireplace. The dog is unde
r the chair. Above (deasupra) i below (sub, dedesubt) arat doar c un obiect se afl m
ai sus sau mai jos dect altul: Their flat is above ours. Some part of Holland is
below sea level. On top of (pe) i underneath (sub) arat c un obiect l atinge pe cella
lt: The TV serial is on top of the house. The book you need is underneath those
papers. Beneath (sub, pe sub) arat o distan mai mic dect below sau este un echivalent
formal al lui under: The Dmbovia river passes beneath several bridges. In front o
f, before; behind, after In front of (n faa) este folosit n engleza vorbit, cu refer
ire la obiecte: There is a tree in front of our house. (Dar: They were outside t
he cinema). Before (n faa, naintea) exprim ordinea aezrii persoanelor, n limba literar
He was before me. pag: 160 Behind (n spatele, napoia) indic poziia: The cat was behi
nd the tree. After (dup, n spatele) indic ordinea, n spaiu sau n timp: He walked down
the stairs after his wife. Between, amoung Between (ntre) = un obiect se afl ntre a
ltele dou sau ntre mai multe dac numrul acestora este definit: Our school is between
the hotel and the hospital. France lies between the hotel and the hospital. Fra
nce lies between Belgium, West Germany, Switzerland and Spain. Amoung (ntre, prin
tre) = un obiect se afl ntre mai multe obiecte: Theres a dictionary amoung these bo
oks. DIRECIE: to, into, onto, towards. Aceste propoziii sunt folosite cu verbe de
micare, pentru a indica direcia: To (la) - micarea pn la un punct: He came to school
early. Into (n) - ptrunderea: They went into the house. Onto (pe) - micarea pe o su
prafa: The actor walked onto the stage. Towards (ctre, spre) - direcia ctree un punct
, dar nu i atingerea destinaiei (ca to): They slowly towards the river. Atenie ! a)
n vorbire in i on sunt adesea folosite n loc de into i onto, dup verbe ca put, place
, lay etc.: She put her money in her bag/on the table. b) Verbul arrive este urm
at de prepoziia at: They arrived at home early. Through, across, over

Through (prin indic traversarea i ptrunderea: Dont walk through the park, walk aroun
d it. Across/over (peste) indic numai traversarea: The train went over/across the
bridge. They sailed across the ocean. Up, down, along Up and down (n susul i n jos
ul) exprim o micare pe vertical: The children ran up and down the stairs / hill. sa
u pe orizontal (de-a lungul): They walked up and down the street/platform. (sinon
im cu along) Past, by Past (pe lng) indic micarea pe lng i dincolo de: Walk past the h
tel, turn righ and youll get to thepost-office. By (pe lng) indic o micare fr oprire s
u cu o ntrerupere scurt: They drove by the lake without stopping. About, around Ar
ound (n jurul) indic o poziie sai micare circular: He has a muffler around his neck.
About/around. (n jurul, n preajm, prin) indic o poziie/micare nedefinit: There arent
y cinemas about/around here. They walked about/around town all day. Off, out of,
from Off (de pe, de la, din) exprim separarea, desprinderea de o suprafa: The vase
fell off the table. Out of (din) exprim ieirea, scoaterea dintr-un volum: She cam
e out of the house. From (de, de la) indic desprirea, distana, locul de unde a porni
t aciunea: She came straight home from school. TIMP: At, on, in At a time: at the
/that time, at 8 oclock, at noon, at night, at dinner (time), at the weekend. pag
: 161 On a day: on Sunday, on Monday morning, on New Years day, on the 1st of Mar
ch, on the following day. In a period: in the (late) afternoon, in July, in summ
er, 1990, in the following months, in the 20th century. By, before, after By = n
u mai trziu de: You will have my answer by the end of the week. Before = nainte de
: I talked to him before noon. After = mai trziu de, dup: Ring me up after the mee
ting. From... to, till/until To poate exprima relaii de timp sau direcie, till/unt
il numai de timp. From (din, de la) indic momentul nceperii aciunii, to/till (pn n, pn
a) sfritul ei: She stayed with us from January to/till April last year. Till/until
(i nu to) trebuie folosit dac lipsete from: He waited for you until 9 oclock. Until
indic sfritul unei aciuni pozitive sau nceputul unei aciuni negative: We worked until
noon (anmmd stopped then). We didnt work until noon (We began then).

DURATA: During, for, (all) through/throughout, over During (n timpul), exprim peri
oad n timpul creia a avut loc o aciune (n mod intermitent): We were in Bucharest duri
ng summer. We visit the Art Galleries during our stay in Bucharest. For (de, tim
p de), indic durata unei aciuni nentrerupte: We stayed in Bucharest for three weeks
. (All) through/throughout (to, tot timpul) = de la nceput pn la sfritul perioadei: W
e worked hard all through the year. It rained throughout the summer. Over (de, l
a) - indic o perioad limitat (srbtori, vacan) : We went to the mountains over the week
nd. Atenie! Prepoziiile de timp/durat se omit: a) n expresii cu last - next, this that, some -every I saw a film last night.(asear) He came this morning(n aceast dim
inea). I go to school every day (n fiecare zi) b) n expresii ncepnd cu all: He stayed
there all day/week (nu for all day/week) MOD, INSTRUMENT, CANTITATE: With (cu),
without (fr), in... manner/way (n modul) exprim modul n care are loc aciunea: She spok
e with confidence / without hesitation / in the usual way. Like (ca) folosit ca
prepoziie este urmat de un substantiv, pronume sau Gerund. Like exprim modul: o as
emnare / comparaie ntre doi termeni: She walks like a dancer. He is very much like
his mother. By (cu, prin, de) i on (pe, la) indic mijlocul cu care e svrit aciunea: Sh
entered by the back door. This dress is made by hand. He goes to work by bus /
on foot. I listen to the news on the radio. He watches the news on television. W
ith (cu) precede instrumentul: The little child has learned to write with a pen.
She opened the door with a key. In (cu) exprim modul sau materialul folosit: She
wrote the letter in ink. By (la, cu) exprim cantitatea: Cloth is sold by the yar
d. Eggs are sold by the dozen. pag: 162 REFERIN: As to, as for, regarding, in rega
rd to, concerning (formal) = cu privire la, (ct) despre: As to our grandmother, e
verybody loves her. Some interesting documents concerning our ancient history ha
ve just been found. About, on (despre): About este folosit cu verbe ca: chat, qu
arrel, talk: They talked about their school days. On este folosit pentru activiti
organizate, dup verbe ca lecture, write speak: He lectured on Scottish literature
. CAUZ: Because of, on account of (formal), from, out of, for, through (din cauz d
e): We put off our trip because of the weather. She was late on account of the h
eavy trafffic. He coundnt speak for shame. He did it from pity / out of curiosity
. She lost her gloves through her carelessness. SCOP: for (pentru) I went to the
chemists for some aspirin. SURS/ORIGINE: from (din) He comes from France. AGENT:
by (de, de ctre): She was examined by a specialist.

CONCESIE: in spite, despite (formal), for all, with all (familiar) = n ciuda, cu
toat / toate: They enjoyed the trip, in spite of the bad weather. Despite her ill
;ness, she still goes skiing. He was a good man, for all his defects. Excepie: ex
cept for, but (cu excepia): Everybody left but the headmaster. 8.5. Diferena ntre p
ropoziii n limba romn i n limba englez ntre folosirea prepoziiilor n limba englez
mn exist numeroase diferene, care prezint dificulti pentru elevii romni. Unele dintre
estea sunt: in the street (Engl. americ. - on the stret) - pe strad in the playgr
ound - pe terenul de sport in the sky - pe cer in the sun - la soare in the open
air - la aer curat on the way to - n drum spre on the 1st floor - la etajul 1 ro
und the corner - dup col at present - n prezent at the some time - n acelai timp at t
his moment - n acest moment at last - n sfrit in a years time - peste un an in my o
pinion - dup prerea mea beyond control - independent de voina... in all probability
- dup toate probabilitile by my watch - dup ceasul meu by heart - pe dinafar by mist
ake - din greeal to go on a trip/ on holiday - a merge n cltorie n vacan to go (out)
a walk - a merge la plimare lo look out of the window - a privi pe fereastr to g
et in through the window - a intra pe fereastr hes the tallest in the class - e
cel mai nalt din clas outside the cinema - n faa cinematografului pag: 163 8.6. Dife
rene ntre prepoziii n limba engleza britanic i prepoziii n engleza american Exist u
ferene i n folosirea prepoziiilor n varianta britanic i american a limbii engleze: En
za britanic towards in the street at the back of... at the weekend its ten minutes
past six its a urter to one Engleza american toward on the street in back of...
on the weekend its ten minutes after six its a uarter before one

Ill see you on Sunday


Ill see you Sunday

8.7. Particule adverbiale (Adverbial Particles) Particulele adverbiale sunt asemnt


oare ca form cu unele prepoziii sau adverbe. Ele se deosebesc ns de acestea prin fun
cia lor. Particulele adverbiale modific sensul verbelor pe care le nsoesc, transformn
du-le n verbe cu particule adverbiale: They have put off the meeting again = They
have postponed the meeting again. Au amnat din nou edina. Particulele adverbiale c
el mai frecvent folosite sunt: about, across, along, around, away, back, by, dow
n, in, of, on, out, over, past, roud, through, up. Not: Multe dintre aceste parti
cule adverbiale pot fi folosite i ca adverbe propriu-zise: He is in. Este nuntru. /
Este n cas. sau ca prepoziii: He is in the kitchen. Este n buctrie. 8.7.1. ntrebuina
particulelor adverbiale a) n majoritatea cazurilor, particulele adverbiale modif
ic total sensul verbelor la care sunt ataate: He came round after the accident. i-a
recptat cunotina / i-a revenit dup accident. b) n alte cazuri, sensul verbului cu par
icul adverbial poate fi dedus din analiza elementelor componente: go in, come, bri
ng back, take away. c) Folosirea unor particule adverbiale pe lng anumite verbe ntret
e doar ideea exprimat de acestea: drink up (bea tot/pn la fund), stand up, lie down
. 8.7.2. Locul particulelor adverbiale n propoziie. Particulele adverbiale se aeaz i
mediat dup un verb intranzitiv: He turned round and looked at me. S-a ntors i s-a u
itat la mine. Dac verbul este tranzitiv i este urmat de un complement direct expri
mat printr-un pronume sau alt determinant, particula adverbial este aezat dup comple
mentul direct: We saw THEM off to the station. I-am condus la gar. Pick THESE up,
please. Ridic astea, te rog. Not: Prin aceast caracteristic, verbele cu particole a
dverbiale se deosebesc de verbele urmate de prepoziii obligatorii, deoarece prepo
ziiile nu pot fi separate de verb. Comparai: Please look ME up when you come to Bu
charest. (up=particola adverbial) She was looking at HIM (at = prepoziie) pag: 164
Dac complementul direct este exprimat printr-un substantiv, particula adverbial p
oate fi aezat nainte sau dup acesta (mai ales n vorbirea familiar): He gave back THE B
OOK. He gave THE BOOK back. A napoiat cartea. Dac complementul direct este lung, s
au este exprimat prinytr-o propoziie subordonat, particula adverbial este aezat imedi
at dup verb: He gave back the book he had borrowed. A napoiat cartea pe care o mpru
mutase. EXERCISES I. Completai spaiile libere cu prepoziii de loc sau direcie: 1. I
live..... 53, Franklin street. My flat is.... the 10th floor. 2. The tallest bui
lding.... the world is.... New York. 3. Father drove.... the corner slowly, whil
e I went.... the shop. 4. Well leave..... Braov tomorrow.

5. They'll stop...Paris...their way...London. 6. They ran... school...the bus st


op. 7. We went...Oradea... a business trip last week. 8. Peter isn't...home. He
must be ... school. 9. They arrived ... cinema early. 10. My uncle drove ... me
... his car, but he didn't see me. 11. The coins fell... his pocket. 12. She car
ried the box...the stairs...her room. 13. Let's sit... the sun. 14. He leant...
the wall. 15. Don't go ... the street on a red light. II. Completai spaiile libere
cu prepoziii de timp sau durat: 1. Ill be in the country.... July..... September.
2. They travelled.......the day and slept......night. 3. Eminescu was born......
.. January 15, 1850. 4. He came....10 oclock....the same time with his friend. 5.
It is very hot here ... summer. 6. I phoned all my friends... New Years Day. 7
. We go to school ... the morning. 8. I hope Ill have finished my homework...9
oclock. 9. We stayed at home...the weekends. 10. Ive been living in Bucharest.
.. ten years. 11. Theyll be here...ten minutes. 12. The manager wont be back..
.later this afternoon. 13. School begins... September and ends... July. 14. I di
dnt understand him...first. III. Traducei n limba englez: 1. La ce te uii? 2. El se
uit pe fereastr. 3. Pe cine atepi? 4. Ct e ora dup ceasul tu? 5. Hai s mergem la pli
re. 6. E n spital de dou sptmni. 7. De ce i-e team? El e ntotdeauna amabil cu pacien
. i sunt recunosctor pentru serviciul pe care mil-a fcut. 9. L-am felicitat pentru
succesul su. 10. Tremura de frig. 11. Nu m mini! 12. Dimineaa s-au plimbat prin ora,
dup-amiaza au stat acas. 13. Cursul a durat o lun ntreag. 14. Au pornit-o spre ru. 15.
edina a nceput la ora 11 dimineaa i a durat pn la ora 2 dup-amiaz. 16. A fost pleca
mpul vacanei. 17. Au cltorit ca de obicei. 18. ine o conferin despre arta contemporan.
19. Tabloul a fost pictat n ulei, nu n acuarel. 20. E un program bun la televizor d
isear.

pag: 165 9. Conjuncia (The Conjunction) 9.1. Definiie a) exprim raporturi de coordo
nare sau de subordonare ntre dou propoziii, raporturi de coordonare ntre dou pri de pr
poziie sau ntre o parte de propoziie i o propoziie; b) este neflexibil din punct de ve
dere morfologic; c) nu ndeplinete nici o funcie sintactic n propoziie dar marcheaz rap
rturile de coordonare i subordonare n cadrul propoziiei i al frazei. 9.2. Conjunciile
coordonatoare (Co-ordinating Conjunctions) Conjunciile coordonatoare leag pri de pr
opoziie cu aceeai funcie sintacic sau propoziii de acelai fel: I visited the Village M
seum and the Art Galleries yesterday. It started to rain but the game continued.
9.2.1. Clasificare. Dup relaiile pe care le stabilesc, conjunciile coordonatoare p
ot fi: a) copulative: and - i; as well as - precum; both... and - att... ct i; not o
nly... but also - nu numai... dar i;

b) disjunctive: or - sau; ori; either...or - sau... sau; neither...nor - nici...


nici; c) adversative: but - dar, ci; 9.2.2. ntrebuinarea conjunciilor coordonatoare
. Either... or indic dou alternative din care numai una este posibil, n propoziii poz
itive sau interogative: We can either have a snack now, or we can have lunch at
noon. Can you drink either milk or tea ? Pentru a exprima o negaie se folosete eit
her... or + verb negativ sau neither...nor + verb pozitiv: I cant travel either b
y air or by sea. I can travel neither by air nor by sea. 9.2.3. Poziie. Conjunciil
e coordonatoare se aeaz ntre unitile sintactice pe care le unesc: He opened the door
AS WELL AS the window. Conjunciile coordonatoare nuj pot fi aezate la nceputul fraz
ei: Dan finished his homework and went out for a walk. Dan i-a terminat leciile i a
ieit la plimbare. 9.3. Conjunciile subordonatoare (Subordinating Conjunctions) Co
njunciile suordonatoare leag propoziiile secundare din fraz de elementele lor regent
e: I went to the post office, WHERE I bought a dozen postcards. M-am dus la pot, u
nde am cumprat dousprezece vederi. pag: 166 9.3.1. Clasificare. Dup felul propoziiil
or pe care le introduc, conjunciile subordonatoare pot fi: 1) universale: that c; if, whether - dac; care pot introduce mai multe feluri de propoziii dubordonate:
WHETHER he will be punctual remains to be seen. (propoziie subiectiv). The best w
ay is IF you go there yourself. (propoziie predicativ) Remember THAT we must get t
here in time. (completiv direct). 2) specializate: a) de loc: where - unde; wherev
er - oriunde; b) de timp: when - cnd; since - de cnd; till/until - pn cnd; while/as n timp ce; before - nainte ca; after - dup ce; c) de mod: (exactly) as; (just) as
- (aa) cum; (exact) cum; d) de cauz: as, since, because - deaorece, fiindc; e) de s
cop: so that, in order that/so (that) (mai formal) - (pentru) ca, cu scopul ca.
Scopul negativ este exprimat de: for fear (that) - de team s; in case; lest (forma
l) - ca s nu; f) condiionale: if - dac; provided (that) / on condition (that) as lo
ng as/so longs as - cu condiia; unless - afar dac, numai dac nu; g) consecutive: so
that - nct; so (familiar) - nct; so/such... (that) - aa/astfel... nct; h) concesive: t
ough, although (mai formal), while, whereas (formal), even if.though - dei, cu to
ate c, chiar dac; i) comparative: as...as - mai (mult)... dect; as if/as though - c
a i cum, de parc. 9.3.2. ntrebuinarea conjunciilor subordonatoare. When, as (temporal
e) When indic simultaneitatea a dou aciuni: When I am tired I go for a walk. Cnd sun
t obosit fac o plimbare. (accentul este pe momentul aciunii) sau succesiunea lor
imediat n timp: When she rang the bell, he came to the door. Cnd ea a sunat la sone
rie, el a venit la u. As este folosit pentru aciuni paralele: She wept as she spoke
. Plngea n timp ce vorbea. (accentul este pe aciunea nsi);

sau ca sinonim al lui while: As I was crossing the street, I heard somebody call
my name. n timp ce / Pe cnd traversam strada, am auzit pe cineva strigndu-mi numel
e. As, since, because (cauzale) As exprim cauza, motivul pentru aciunea din propoz
iia regent: As liked the dress, she bought it. Fiindc i-a plcut rochia, a cumprat-o.
Since presupune un argument admis de interlocutor: Since you need this book, Ill
get for you. Deoarece ai nevoie de carte, am s i-o iau. If not, unless (condiionale
) If not este opusul lui if (dac nu): If you get sick, youll need a doctor. If you
dont get sick, you wont need a doctor. Unless este opusul lui provided / providin
g that (doar dac, cu condiia ca), iar cnd este folosit unless verbul din propoziia c
ondiional este la forma pozitiv: You may see the doctor provided you have an appoin
tment. Poi s intri la doctor cu condiia s fii programat. You cant see the doctor unle
ss you have an appointment. Nu poi s intri la doctor dect dac eti programat. pag: 167
Unless nu este folosit pentru a introduce propoziii condiionale ireale: He couldnt
have seen the doctor if he hadnt had an appointment. N-ar fi putut s intre la doc
tor dac n-ar fi fost programat. 9.3.3. Poziie. Conjunciile subordonatoare se aeaz la n
ceputul propoziiei secundare, care poate precede sau urma propoziia regent: AS the
wether was bad, we stayed home all day. ALTHOUGH she spoke very slowly, I couldnt
understand her. I cant help you with your homework BECAUSE Im busy right now. Lyd
ia liked the book SO much THAT she read it three times. Spre deosebire de conjun
ciile coordonatoare, conjunciile subordonatoare pot fi precedate de alte conjuncii:
He left early because he wasnt feeling very well AND because the party was borin
g. A plecat devreme pentru c nu se simea foarte bine i pentru c petrecerea era plict
icoas.

EXERCISES I. Formai fraze din propoziiile urmtoare cu ajutorul conjunciilor din para
nteze: 1. Alice had too much to eat. Cathy didnt. (but). 2. I havent finished the
book. I cant return it to the library yet. (so) 3. I shall buy that watch. It is
not expensive. (if). 4. You wont understand. You listen carefully. (unless). 5. M
ary bought a new dress. She didnt really need one (although). 6. Peter got good
marks in his term papaers. He worked very hard. (because). 7. Father has bought
a violin. Alan can learn how to play (so that). 8. You must do. You are told (e
xactly as). Im studying. I like to listen to radio. (while). 10. Bob is having
an exam tomorrow. He cant come to our party. (since). 11. He had studied Englis
h for seven years. He couldt speak is fluently. (even though). 12. Paul is keen
on tennis. He plays every day (so...that). 13. It was a very difficult exercise.
Mary couldnt do it. (such...that) II. Completai spaiile libere cu conjunciile pot
rivite ca sens din paranteze: 1. Paul was not.....bright....his brothers were. (
although, as....as, provided that). 2. But he had always worked harder..... they
ever had. (than, whereas, before) 3. He would get a scholarship..... he passed
the exam today (so, provided, until). 4. In a way he did not really care... he w
on the scholarship or not (whether, if, unless). 5. But he wanted to do his exam
... he wasn't feeling very well. (in case, lest, though). 7. He listened to the
invigilator carefully...he might fail to catch all the instructions. (supposing
, for fear, whether). 8. The invigilator pronounced all the name slowly... each
of them might hear his name clearly. (so that, such...that, provided that) pag:
168 III. Traducei n limba englez: Au ajuns sara la hanul lui Domnu Vasiliu. Vitoria
tia c acolo are s gseasc ceva. ntr-adevr, a gsit. n sat la Suha, se strnise oareca
n. Spuneau unii i alii c ar fi nevoie s vie vreun judector de la trg, s cerceteze cum
fost cu vnzarea oilor. S vad dac se afl hrtia lor de cumprtur de la Dorna, i dac g
din Suha au chitan de paralele pe care le-au dat lui Lipan. Nu spune nimenee c ase
menea gospodari cu vaz ar fi n stare a svri o fapt rea - dar e bine s-i arate ndrept
Afar de asta a mai spus nu tiu cine c numai dect cinstiii gospodari trebuie s arate ma
rtorul ori artorii care s-au gsit fa la vnzare sau la numrtoarea banilor. E la nelege
oriicui c numai asemenea strin sau strini, care s-au aflat de fa, au putut s urmreas
Lipan, i s-i rpeasc banii oilor. S-ar putea ca aceti martori s fie cu totul necunoscu
. Nici Calistrat, nici Ilie Cuui nu i-au vzut pn atunci, nici de atunci. Chiar dac ar
fi aa, s arate ce nfiare aveau, ce cai i ce straie. Din puin, se pot afla multe i f
es la iveal. (Mihail Sadoveanu - Baltagul) 10. Interjecia (The Interjection) 10.1.
Definiie

a) Prin interjecie se exteriorizeaz senzaii, sentimente, manifestri de voin sau se rep


roduc sunete i zgomote din natur; b) interjecia este o parte de vorbire neflexibil,
nefiind marcat de categorii gramaticale; c) interjecia poate constitui fie un elem
ent de ntrire pe lng o propoziie, fie o propoziie independent sau o parte de propozii
10.2. Clasificare Cu ajutorul interjeciilor se exteriorizeaz: 1) senzaii i sentiment
e: a) bucurie: Ah ! Ooh ! Jippee ! Hurray ! (a, ah, ura!). b) surpriz: Oh ! Wow !
(a, ah, oh!). Oh, what a nice dress ! c) mirare: Oh, dear ! Dear me ! Indeed !
(vai drag, vai de mine, ntr-adevr) Oh, dear, Icant find my purse. Dear me ! What are
you doing over there ? d) admiraie: Whew !(ah, doamne): Whew, how beautiful she
is ! e) nelegere: Aha ! (a, aha!): Aha, these gloves are exactly what I was lookin
g for. f) dispre: Fie ! Pshaw ! What a shame! (Ptiu, pah, ce ruine!): Fie upon you
! You ought to be ashamed at what you have done. g) dezgust: Ugh! (h!): Ugh, how
dirty your hands are ! h) aprobare: Well done ! Congratulations ! (Foarte bine!
Felicitri!) Well done, Peter ! Youve passed all your exams brilliantly. i) dezapr
obare: Nonsense! What a nuisance! (Prostii ! Ce pacoste!): What a nuisance! Now
Ill have to do it all over again! j) regret: Ah! Oh! What a pity! (a!, oh! ce pcat
!): What a pity you couldnt come! It was a good play. k) durere: Ouch! Ow! (vai,
ah, aoleu!): ouch, it hurst! 2) manifestri de voin: a) o rugminte, un ndemn: Oh! Help
! (oh! Ajutor!); Ssh! Hush! Silance! (Sst, linite!): Hush! The babys sleeping! b)
o ncurajare: Cheer up! Come on! (Curaj! Haide!): Come on, dont be afraid! Youll man
age. c) o avertizare: Look Out! Fire! (Atenie! Foc!): Fire ! The house is on fire
! 3) se reproduc sunete i zgomote din mediul nconjurtor: Bow - wow ! Miaow! Baa! Bu
zz! (Ham - ham ! Miau! Beh! Bzz!): Bang! Click! Crash! 10.3. ntrebuinarea interjeci
ilor Una i aceeai interjecie poate avea semnificaii diferite, n funcie de context: Ah,
here you are at last ! (bucurie), dar i: Ah, its painful ! (durere). Unele interj
ecii sunt folosite cu precdere de brbai: No fear ! Good lord ! Jolly good ! pe cnd al
tele sunt specifice limbajului feminin: Wow! Oh, dear! Oh, my ! Dear me! My good
ness! EXERCISES I. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba romn:

1. Ouch, my leg! 2. Ooh, this icecreams delicious! 3. Jippee, weve won the match!
4. Wow, isnt she clever? 5. Well dome, Peter. 6. Ssh! Grandma is sleeping. 7. My
goodness! What dreadful weather! 8. Grr! Isnt it cold! 9. Lookout! A car is comin
g. 10. Mm! This cream cake's very good. 11. "Well, I must be going". "Oh, I see"
. 12. "Well, good luck!" "Oh, thank you". 13. "Ah, there you are!" 14. Dear me!
You do look ill!. 15. What a pity we didn't go on a picnic yesterday. Now it's r
aining. 16. Tut, tut! You are naughty boy! 17. Welcome hoe, my dear! II. Complet
ai spaiile libere cu interjecii potrivite ca sens: 1. ...! Were having a holiday tom
orrow! Were going on a trip! 2. ..... That was a wonderful show! I hadnt thought I
would enjoy it so much! 3. .... Ive spilt my tea! 4. ..... What a mess! 5. ... i
ts paintful! 6. ... thats exactly what I needed. 7. ... how wonderfully she si
ngs! 8. ... Father is working. 9. ...Theres a bus coming! 10. ...you do look pa
le! 11. ... Peter has broken that window again! 12. ...! You can come with us ev
en if you are tired. Youll have a good rest there.
pag: 170 Partea a II-a SINTAXA PROPOZIIEI (The Simple Sentence) II.0. Generaliti II
.0.1. Definiie Propoziia este unitatea de baz a sintaxei. Ea reprezint cea mai mic un
itate a sintaxei care poate aprea de sine stttoare i care comunic o judecat logic sau
idee cu caracter afectiv sau voliional. II.0.2. Clasificare 1) Din punct de vede
re al scopului comunicrii, propoziiile se mpart n: a) propoziii enuniative, care trans
mit o informaie: Columbus discovered America in 1492. Columb a descoperit America
n 1492. He didnt notice her. Nu a observat-o. b) propoziii interogative, prin care
se solicit o informaie: Would you like to come to our party ? Vrei s vii la petrec
erea noastr ? c) propoziii imperative, care exprim o porunc, o rugminte, ndemn: Open t
he book! Deschide cartea. Switch on the radio, please. Deschide radioul, te rog.
d) propoziii exclamative, care exprim o stare afectiv (surprindere, nemulumire, sat
isfacie etc.): Oh, how attractive she is ! Oh, ce frumoas este! 2. Din punct de ve
dere al structurii, propoziiile se mpart n: a) propoziii simple (Unextended Simple S
entences), alctuite numai din subiect i predicat: The children are sleeping. Copii
dorm. Dogs bark. Cinii latr.

b) propoziii dezvoltate (Extended Simple Sentences), care cuprind, pe lng subiect i


predicat, i alte pri de propoziie: Yesterday he went to school by bicycle. Ieri s-a
dus la coal cu bicicleta. c) propoziii eliptice (Elliptical Simple Sentences), din
care lipsesc anumite pri de propoziie, ele putnd fi completate cu uurin: (Ive) never
rd about him. Who is missing ? John (is missing). pag: 171 II.0.3. Tipuri de pro
poziii Structura propoziiilor simple i dezvoltate poate fi detaliat n funcie de prile
propoziie care urmeaz n mod obligatoriu anumite verbe. Verbele se mpart n trei clase
mari: copulative, intranzitive i tranzitive, din punct de vedere al complinirii
verbale, al prilor de propoziie care pot fi folosite dup ele. a) Verbul copulativ pr
in excelen este verbul be. Acesta nu poate fi urmat dect de un nume predicativ sau
de un complement circumstanial de loc: They are workers. They are in the factory.
b) Verbele intranzitive nu pot fi urmate de complemente directe. c) Verbele tra
nzitive sunt verbele urmate de complemente directe. II.0.4. Lund n considerare poz
ibilitile de complinire verbal, se obin urmtoarele subtipuri de propoziii: Propoziia s
mpl: a) subiect + verb intranzitiv: He swims. El noat. b) subiect + verb copulativ
+ nume predicativ: He is a treacher. El este profesor. He is competent. El este
competent. Propoziia dezvoltat: a) subiect + verb intranzitiv + complement circums
tanial: He swims in the sea. El noat n mare. b) subiect + verb copulativ + complemen
t circumstanial: The teacher is here/in classroom. Profesorul este aici /n clas c)
subiect + verb tranzitiv + complement direct: She has found the book. (Ea) a gsit
cartea. d) subiect + verb tranzitiv + complement direct + complement direct: Th
e man asked the boy several questions. Omul i-a pus biatului mai multe ntrebri. e)
subiect + verb tranzitiv + complement direct + complement indirect: Father gave
the toy to the little boy. Tatl i-a dat jucria biatului. f) subiect + verb tranziti
v + complement direct + element predicativ suplimentar: They appointed him chair
man. L-au numit preedinte. g) subiect + verb tranzitiv + complement direct + comp
lement prepoziional: I helped him with homework. L-am ajutat s-i fac temele. II.0.5.
Prile de propoziie (The Parts of the Sentence) Prile de propoziie se clasific n:

1) pri principale de propoziie: subiectul i predicatul; 2) pri secundare de propoziie;


complementul direct, indirect, prepoziional, elementul predicativ suplimentar, co
mplemente circumstaniale (de timp, loc, mod, cauz etc.) i atributul. n limba englez,
aceste pri de propoziie pot fi identificate cu ajutorul urmtoarelor caracteristici:
a) prin ce pri de vorbire sunt exprimate; pag: 172 b) locul pe care-l ocup n propozii
e; c) trsturi specifice: acord, trecerea la diateza pasiv etc.; Subiectul (The Subj
ect): a) este exprimat printr-un grup nominal (printr-un substantiv sau substitu
t al acestuia, nsoit sau nu de determinani) sau printr-o propoziie subordonat cu funci
e de subiect; b) se aeaz naintea predicatului n propoziiile enuniative i dup verbul a
liar / modal n propoziiile interogative; c) se acord n numr i persoan cu predicatul. P
edicatul (The Predicate): a) este exprimat printr-un verb tranzitiv sau intranzi
tiv la un mod personal sau printr-un verb copulativ cu o complinire nominal; b) s
e aeaz de regul dup subiect; c) are acord determinat de subiect. Complementul direct
(The Direct Object): a) este exprimat, ca i subiectul, printr-un grup nominal sa
u printr-o propoziie subordonat cu funcie nominal; b) urmeaz de regul grupul subiect predicat; c) devine subiectul propoziiei n transformarea pasiv. Complementul indir
ect (The Indirect Object): a) este exprimat printr-un grup nominal; b) urmeaz com
plementul direct i are prepoziia exprimat (to sau for); I gave the book to Mary. c)
nu poate fi folosit fr un complement direct. Numele predicativ (The Predicative P
art of a Nominal Predicate). a) este exprimat printr-un grup nominal, un adjecti
v sau printr-o propoziie subordonat cu funcie nominal; b) urmeaz verbul copulativ be
sau alte copulative: become, turn etc.: c) nu devine subiect al propoziiei n trans
formarea pasiv. Elementul predicativ suplimentar (The Predicative Adjunct): a) es
te exprimat printr-un grup nominal, un adjectiv sau printr-o propoziie subordonat
cu funcie nominal; b) urmeaz grupul subiect - predicat: The boat swept close They a
ppinted him chairman. I left the meeting a little perturbed. c) nu devine subiec
t al propoziiei n transformarea pasiv: He was appointed chairman. Complementul circ
umstanial (The Adverbial):

a) este exprimat printr-un adverb, construcie adverbial sau propoziie subordonat cir
cumstanial, printr-un grup nominal sau o construcie prepoziional; b) este de obiecei
mobil, adic poate ocupa mai multe locuri n propoziie; c) este de obicei opional, adi
c poate fi adugat sau eliminat dintr-o propoziie fr ca ea s devin negramatical. pag:
11. Subiectul (The Subject) 11.1. Definiie Subiectul este partea principal de pro
poziie despre care se spune ceva cu ajutorul predicatului. 11.2. Exprimarea subie
ctului n limba englez, subiectul este de obicei exprimat, chiar atunci cnd este imp
ersonal sau generic, verbul englez avnd puine desinene care s marcheze formal persoa
na i numrul (spre deosebire de limba romn): I read the paper every morning. Citesc z
iarul n fiecare diminea. Its raining. Plou. You must do your duty. Trebuie s-i faci da
oria. Subiectul poate fi exprimat: a) printr-un grup nominal coninnd un substantiv
, cu sau fr determinant, sau un substitut al acestuia: Sutdents work hard to pass
their exams. Studenii se pregtesc serios ca s promoveze examenele. Everybody was pr
esent. Toi erau prezeni. Three are mising. Trei lipsesc. The woinded were taken to
hopital. Rniii au fost dui la spital. b) printr-o construcie cu infinitivul, partic
upiul (prezent sau trecut) sau forma Gerund, construcie folosit de obiecei pentru
reducerea unei propoziii subordonate subiective i numit subiect complex: De exemplu
: - nominativul cu infinitiv: She is said to be a good doctor. Se spune c ea este
o doctori bun. - infinitivul cu for-to: It is unusual for her to be a quiet. Este
neobinuit ca ea s fie att de tcut. - o construcie gerundial: Johns / His coming late
ried us. ntrzierea lui John ne-a ngrijorat. c) printr-o propoziie subordonat subiecti
v: That nothing came out of it irritated him. Faptul c nu a ieit nimic din asta l en
erva. d) printr-un element care nu are sens de sine stttor - aa numitul subiect int
roductiv ir sau there - care anticipeaz subiecftul real, logic al propoziiei: It i
a easy to do this exercise. Acest exerciiu este uor de fcut. There are three pupils
in the classroom. Sunt trei elevi n clas. 11.3. Situaii speciale 11.3.1 Subiectul
generic poate fi exprimat prin pronumele one, you, he, they, sau prin substantiv
ul people. Pronumele one, you, he, they i substantivul people se folosesc ca subi
ecte pentru a desemna o persoan n general sau un grup nedefinit de persoane: You c
ant do two different things at a time. Nu se pot face dou lucruri diferite n acelai
timp. One can find this phone number in the telephone diectory. Acest numr de tel
efon se poate gsi n cartea de telefon. People drink a lot of coffee in this countr
y. n ara noastr se bea mult cafea. pag: 174

11.3.2. Pronumele it este subiect impersonal: a) al verbelor impersonale: It oft


en rains in autumn. Deseori plou toamna. It snows a lot in the mountains. Ninge m
ult la munte. b) al propoziiilor prin care se exprim timpul, vremea, distana: Its ne
arly six oclock. Este aproape ora ase. Its cold. Este frig. Its uite far from here.
Este destul de departe de aici. 11.3.3. Subiectul introductiv Unele propoziii co
nin un subiect gramatical (formal) i unul logic (real), adevratul subiect al propoz
iiei. De obiecei subiectul real este anticipat prin pronumele it sau elementul th
ere (care nu este identic cu adverbul there). 1) It introductiv este folosit cnd
subiectul propoziiei este: a) un infinitiv: It is necessary to start at once. Est
e necesar s porneti imediat. It takes me half an hour to get to my office. mi trebu
ie o jumtate de or s ajung la serviciu. b) un gerund: It was no use your crying. Ai
plns degeaba. c) o propoziie subiectiv: It is strange that she hasnt accepted our i
nvitation. Este ciudat c ea nu a acceptat invitaia noastr. It seems he is right. Se
pare c are dreptate. 2) Subiectul introductiv there este folosit n propoziiile n ca
re subiectul real nu este definit: There are some books on the table. Sunt cteva
cri pe mas. n stilul literar, there este urmat i de alte verbe, mai ales happen i occu
r: There happened that an old man remembered something about her. S-a ntmplat ca u
n btrn s-i aminteasc ceva despre ea. O propoziie introdus prin there este urmat de ob
i de alta prin care se fac precizri: There is a man at the door. He wants to spea
k to you. Este un om la u. Vrea s vorbeasc cu tine. 11.4. Locul subiectului n propozii
e Subiectul este aezat: a) naintea verbului n propoziiile enuniative (afirmative i neg
ative): Mary is a good swimmer. She doesnt swim every day. b) dup verbul auxiliar
sau modal, n propoziiile integorative: Can you swim ? Does she want to read this b
ook ? c) dup verb, cnd el este anticipat de un it sau there introductiv: There is
a teacher in the room. It seems she has left. pag: 175 12. Predicatul (The Predi
cate) 12.1. Definiie Predicatul este partea principal de propoziie care atribuie su
biectului o aciune, o stare sau o nsuire. 12.2. Clasificare Funcia de predicat poate
fi ndeplinit de verbe tranzitive i intranzitive la un mod personal, precum i de ver
be copulative, atunci cnd au compliniri nominale.

12.2.1. Verbele tranzitive i cele intranzitive formeaz predicatul verbal clasic: B


irds fly. Psrile zboar. He wrote an interesting essay. A scris o compoziie interesan
t. 12.2.2. Predicatul nominal (the Nominal Predicate) este alctuit din: A) un verb
copulativ + B) un nume predicativ. A) Verbele copulative sunt verbe care i-au pi
erdut total sau parial sensul lexical i ndeplinesc funcia gramatical de marc a raportu
lui predicativ dintre dou nume, n cadrul predicatului nominal. Gramatica tradiional
distinge mai multe clase de verbe copulative: 1) verbul be (Verb of Being), tota
l golit de sesn loxical: He is clever. El este detept. Not: Cnd verbul be este folo
sit cu sensul "a exista, a se afla, a se gsi, a avea loc", etc. el formeaz singur
predicatul propoziiei: Where is my pen? The school festival is on Saturday 2) Ver
be parial golite de sens lexical: a) verbe ale devenirii: become, get, grow, turn
: Her hair has turned grey. A ncrunit. She is getting old. mbtrnete. b) Verbe ale cont
nurii n aceeai stare : continue, keep, remain, hold, stay. He kept silent. Tcea. c)
verbe ale aparenei: appear, look, seem: She seemed ill. Prea bolnav, He looks pale.
Este palid. Dintre verbele copulative, verbul be prezint cele mai multe pozibili
ti combinatorii (cu oricare parte de vorbire care poate ndeplini o funcie nominal), d
atorit golirii sale totale de sens lexical: He is a teacher. He is very competent
. He is admired by his friends. pag: 176 Celelalte verbe copulative se mbin doar c
u cteva pri de vorbire: - toate cu adjective: The child fell ill. The child felt il
l. The child got ill. The child looked ill. - unele i cu participii trecute: He s
eemed impresseed. He appeared impressed. He looked impressed. - iar altele i cu s
ubstantive: She may turn an excellent teacher. She may become an excellent teach
er.

B) Numele predicativ formeaz mpreun cu verbul copulativ predicatul propoziiei. Numel


e predicativ este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia:
My nephew has become a doctor. b) printr-un adjectiv, singur sau cu o complinire
: She was happy. She was eager to come. c) printr-un participiu trecut: The vill
age seemed deserted. Locul numelui predicativ n propoziie este dup verbul copulativ
: Those boys are students. 12.3. Locul predicatului n propoziie De obicei predicat
ul este aezat dup subiect i naintea complementului: The sun was shining brightly. So
arele strlucea puternic. n unele cazuri aceast ordine este inversat: a) n propoziiile
interogative: Is Mary in the library ? b) n propoziii condiionale n care conjuncia if
este omis, iar predicatul conine un verb auxiliar sau modal: Had I time, I should
take a walk. Dac a avea timp m-a plimba. c) pentru a acccentua o anumit parte din p
ropoziie: NEVER shall I forget what he did for me. N-am s uit niciodat ce a fcut pen
tru mine. 13. Acordul subiectului cu predicatul (Subject - Verb Concord) n limba
englez, ca i n limba romn, verbul predicat se acord cu subiectul n persoan i numr.
7 13.1. Acordul n persoan a) Cnd subiectul propoziiei este un pronume personal, verb
ul predicat sau verbul auxiliar se acord cu pronumele personal la persoana respec
tiv: I AM Romanian. She IS my best friend. He DOESNT remember a word. b) n propoziii
le relative, verbul se acord n persoan cu substantivul sau cu pronumele personal la
care se face referirea: It is he who DESERVES all the praise. I say it, who AM
his sister. c) Dac ns subiectul este exprimat printr-un alt pronume sau printr-un s
ubstantiv, verbul predicativ este la persoana a III-a singular i plural: Who IS t
hat man ? These lessons ARE difficult. d) Cnd subiectul propoziiei este exprimat p
rintr-un substantiv sau pronume personal, coordonat cu un alt pronume personal p
rin intermediul conjunciei and, verbul se pune la persoana a III-a plural chiar d
ac ultimul pronume, conform regulilor de politee, este I: You and I ARE going to t
he theatre tonight. You and I ARE going to the theatre tonight. You and I ARE go
ing to the theatre tonight. e) Cnd subiectul coordonat prin either - or reprezint
persoane diferite, verbul se acord cu pronumele personal cel mai apropiat: Either
my mother or I AM at home in the evening. Not: n vorbirea curent, construciile ca c
ea de sus sunt evitate, prin folosirea unui verb auxiliar sau modal care este in
varaiabil pentru persoan: Either my mother or I WILL be at home in the evening. s
au prin folosirea a dou prepoziii coordonate: My mother IS at home in the evening
and so am I. 13.2. Acordul n numr

Acordul n numr se face: 1) dup form (acordul gramatical); 2) dup neles; 3) prin atrac
13.2.1. Acordul gramatical (Gramatical Concord) A. Acordul substantivelor varia
bile Regula general a acordului n numr ntre subiect i predicat n limba englez este urm
area: un subiect la numrul singular se acord cu un verb la numrul singular, iar un
subiect la numrul plural se acord cu un verb la numrul plural. Acesta este numit n g
ramatic acordul dup form sau acordul gramatical i se aplic la substantivele numrabile
din limba englez, care sunt variabile ca form, avnd att numrul singular ct i numrul p
al: The novel Im reading IS very interesting. Romanul pe care-l citesc este foart
e interesant. These dictionaries ARE very useful. Aceste dicionare sunt foarte fo
lositoare. pag: 178 B. Acordul substantivelor invariabile la singular n cazul sub
stantivelor invariabile, predicatul este fie numai la singular, dup substantive i
nvariabile la singular, fie numai la plural, dup substantive invariabile la plura
l, cu cteva situaii speciale n ambele cazuri. Substantivele invariabile la singular
se acord cu verbul predicat la singular. Din aceast clas de substantive fac parte:
1) substantive nenumrabile concrete: Butter CONTAINS animal fat. Untul conine grsi
me animal. 2) substantive nenumrabile abstracte: His knowledge of English IS good.
Cunotinele lui de englez sunt bune. My homework for today IS difficult. Temele pen
tru azi sunt grele. 3) substantivul news: The news IS good. Vetile sunt bune. 4)
numele de boli: Mumps IS infectious. Oreionul este o boal infecioas. 5) nume de tiine
i obiecte de studiu: Mathematics IS more difficult than Geography. Matematica es
te mai grea dect geografia. 6) nume de jocuri: Billiards IS a game for adults. Bi
liardul este un joc pentru aduli. 7) unele substantive proprii: Athens is the cap
ital of Greece. Atena este capitala Greciei. 8) adjective i participii abstracte
substantivizate: In most fairy-stories the good FIGHTS against the evil. n majori
tatea basmelor, binele lupt mpotriva rului. Excepii. Unele dintre substantivele inva
riabile la singular se acord cu verbul la plural n anumite situaii: 1) substantive
numrabile concrete se acord cu verbul la plural cnd denumesc varieti: Romanian wines
ARE famous. Vinurile romneti sunt vestite. 2) Unele nume de boli ca mumps se acord
cu verbul la singular sau la plural, fr deosebire de sens: Mumps IS/ARE infectious
. 3) Numele de tiine se acord cu verbul la plural cnd se refer la anumite proprieti sa
la o situaie anume: The acoustics of the Palace Hall ARE very good. Calitatea ac
ustic a / Acustica slii Palatului este foarte bun. C. Acordul substantivelor invari
abile la plural

Substantivele invariabile la plural se acord cu verbul predicat la plural. Din ac


east clas de substantive fac parte: 1) substantive care denumesc obiecte formate d
in dou pri egale - unelte sau articole de mbrcminte - (summation plurals): Where ARE m
y glasses ? Unde-mi sunt ochelarii ? These tights ARE too long. Aceti ciorapi pan
talon sunt prea lungi. 2) alte substantive folosite numai la plural, terminate d
e regul n -s:(pluralia tantum) All the valuables HAVE been locked in the safe. Toa
te obiectele de valoare au fost ncuiate n seif. pag: 179 3) substantive nemarcate
la plural: The cattle ARE grazing. Vitele pasc. People walk in this park on Sund
ays. Lumea se plimb n acest parc duminica. 4) adjectivele sau participiile persona
le substantivizate: The handicapped ATTEND special schools. Handicapaii frecvente
az coli speciale. 5) unele substantive proprii: The Alps ARE the highest mountains
in Europe. Alpii sunt cei mai nali muni din Europa. Excepii. Substantivul propriu t
he United States se acord cu verbul la singular cnd este privit ca o unitate: The
United States lies in North America. D. Acordul subiectelor precedate de cuantif
icatori Subiectul exprimat printr-un substantiv determinat de many a se acord cu
verbul predicat la singular: Many a young girl DREAMS to become a teacher. Subie
ctul exprimat prin substantiv determinat de a great (a good) deal, se acord cu ve
rbul la singular, deoarece nsoete un substantiv nenumrabil: A great (a good) deal of
the flour WAS of the best quality. A great (good) many se refer la un substantiv
numrabil la plural i se acord cu pluralul: A great many of the students WERE prese
nt. Substantivele determinate de a lot, plenty se acord cu singularul cnd sunt urm
ate de substantive nenumrabile i cu pluralul cnd sunt urmate de substantive numrabil
e: There IS a lot of / plenty of bread on the table. There ARE a lot of / plenty
of children in the schoolyard. E. Alte situaii All determin acordul la singular cn
d folosete un substantiv nenumrabil: All the butter IS on the table. i acordul la p
lural cnd determin un substantiv numrabil: All the pupils HAVE left. Acordul gramat
ical se face cu pronumele personale i demonstrative: He IS very good at maths. Th
ey ARE listening to the radio. These ARE his children. Cu pronumele nehotrt one, c
ompuii lui every, some, any i no, each one, (n)either, much i little, acordul se fa
ce la singular: Somebody HAS told me about his arrival. Little IS knoun about Sh
akespeares life. Every one HAS his hobby. One DOESNt like have ones word doubted. N
either of them IS right. Not: 1. Pronumele none se poate acorda i cu un verb la pl
ural n engleza contemporana cnd se refera la un substantiv cu sens de plural: None
of the pupils HAVE done their homework for today. 2. Dei pronumele nehotrte coninnd
body sau one sunt urmate de verbe la singular, pronumele personale, reflexive sa
u posesive care se refer la ele sunt adesea la numrul plural: Everybody was writin
g as fast as they could. No one had failed in their duty. 13.2.2. Acordul dup neles
(Notional concord)

Acordul dup neles este acordul ntre subiect i predicat n conformitate cu ideea de numr
exprimat de subiect, care uneori este diferit de numrul marcat format: All his fami
ly ARE at home. (Substantivul family are form de singular n aceast propoziie, dar se
ns de plural: Toi membrii familiei sunt acas). Acordul dup neles are loc la urmtoarele
clase de substantive: - substantive numrabile care primesc desinena zero la plura
l: deer, Chinese, works; - substantivele colective: audience, committee, crew, c
rowd, family etc.; - substantivele care exprim cantitatea sau felul: variety, num
ber, sort. kind; - subiectele compuse; - unele pronume. pag: 180 A. Acordul subs
tantivelor numrabile cu pluralul zero Unele gramatici consider c substantivele numra
bile cu desinena zero la plural: sheep, Chinese, species etc., se acord cu verbul
predicat dup neles i nu dup form, deoarece nu pot fi identificate ca fiind la numrul s
ngular sau plural dect cu ajutorul contextului: This sheep is very old. Oaia acea
sta e foarte btrn. These sheep give very good wool. Aceste oi sau ln foarte bun. Not:
lte gramatici menioneaz aceste substantive n cadrul acordului gramatical, ele fiind
urmate de verbe la singular sau plural la fel ca i celelalte substantive numrabil
e: There IS a German in the manager's office. There IS a Japanese in the manager
's office. There ARE some Germans in the manager's office. There ARE some Japane
se in the manager's office. La substantive numrabile care au forma de plural iden
tic cu singularul (plural zero): sheep, Japanese, species etc., numrul substantivu
lui se recunoate dup forma verbului predicat. Acesta este la singular cnd substanti
vul este folosit cu sens de singular: There IS a deer at the zoo. E un cerb la g
rdina zoologic. i la plural cnd substantivul este folosit cu sens plural: There ARE
some deer at the zoo. Sunt civa cerbi la grdina zoologic. (Pentru substantivele care
fac parte din aceast clas, vezi: &2.3.2.). B. Acordul substantivelor colective Su
bstantivele colective - cu form de singular - se acord cu verbul la plural cnd refe
rirea este la membrii colectivitii: All the crew ARE on deck. Tot echipajul este /
Toi membrii echipajului sunt pe punte. The committee HAVE finally agreed on the
agenda of the next meeting. Membrii comitetului au czut n sfrit de acord asupra ordi
nii de zi a urmtoarei edine. Substantivele colective iau ns form de singular sau de pl
ural i se acord cu verbul predicat la singular i la plural respectiv, cnd sint folos
ite ca substantive numrabile, denumind colectivitatea ca un ntreg: The committee I
S made up of twenty people. Comitetul este format din douzeci de persoane. C. Aco
rdul substantivelor exprimnd cantitatea sau varietatea Substantive ca: variety, n
umber, kind, sort se acord cu verbul la singular sau la plural n funcie de sens: Th
e number of foreign tourists visiting Romania INCREASES every year. A great numb
er of foreign

touristis HAVE visited this country this year. The variety of goods in display a
t the National Exhibition IS impressive. A great variety of goods ARE on sale at
the Exhibition. Not: Substantivele kind i sort se acord cu verbul la plural n engle
ya familiar: These kind of tools ARE very useful. pag: 181 D. Acordul subiectelor
compuse Subiectele alctuite din dou sau mai multe elemente care formeaz o unitate
se numesc de obicei subiecte compuse i se acord cu verbul predicat la numrul singul
ar. Ele pot fi exprimate prin: 1) dou substantive legate prin and: The poet and m
usician WAS invited to talk about his work. Poetul muzician a fost invitat s vorb
easc despre creaia sa. 2) un substantiv precedat de dou adjective coodonate: A blue
and white cloth WAS for sale. Vindeau un material alb cu albastru. 3) dou sau ma
i multe infinitive coordonate prin and: To take care of the children, to do the
shopping and cook the meals IS very exhausting. S ai grij de copii, s faci cumprturil
e i s gteti mncarea este foarte obositor. 4) expresii numerice: Three and three MAKES
six. Two kilos of apples IS all I need. Forty pupils MEANS a lage class. Five k
ilometres IS a short distance. Not: n unele calcule aritmetice se poate folosi i pl
uralului: Theree and three IS six. Four times five MAKE twenty. Theree and three
ARE six. Four times five MAKES twenty. 5) propoziii subiective: That they are le
aving so early ANNOYS me. E. Acordul pronumelor interogative Pronumele which i wh
at sunt urmate de verbul predicativ la singular sau plural n funcie de numrul subst
antivului pe care l nlocuiesc: What MAKES him behave like that ? Ce-l face s se com
porte astfel ? Which ARE yours ? Care sunt ale tale ? Pronumele interogativ who
este construit de obicei cu singularul: Who IS coming to dinner ? Cine vine la c
in ? n limba vorbit, se ntlnete uneori i un verb la plural dup who: Who ARE at the ta
? Cine este la mas ? 13.2.3. Acordul prin atracie (Concord by Attraction) Conform
acordului prin atracie, verbul predicat se acord cu substantivul sau pronumele ce
l mai apropiat. n limba englez exist mai multe situaii de acord prin atracie: A. Acor
dul subiectelor coordonate Conform regulii de acord gramatical, dou sau mai multe
subiecte n raport de coordonare (subiect coodonat) se acord cu un verb predicat l
a plural: Father and Mother ARE going to the theatre tonight. Romanian and Czech
beer ARE lighter than British beer. Reading and writing ARE taught in the first
form. Both her kindness and her competence HAVE been appreciated. La subiectele
coordonate prin either - or, not only - but also, acordul cu predicatul se face
ns prin atracie: Either your friends or your neighbour IS at the door. Either your
neghbour or your friends ARE at the door. Not only Paul but also his parents AR
E sending you their best regards.

La fel se ntmpl cu subiectele coordonate prin neither - nor: Neither he nor his sis
ter HAS phoned. dei n vorbirea curent exist tendina de acord cu verbul la plural, n mo
d similar cu subiectele coordonate prin both - and: Neither he nor his sister HA
VE phoned. Atenie! Cnd subiectele sunt legate cu ajutorul unor cuvinte ca with, to
gether with, as well as, no less than, like, but, except, acordul se face cu pri
mul element. pag: 182 My sister, as well as my brother, HAS learned to drive. My
friends, togeter with their teacher, ARE going fishing. B. Alte situaii Acordul n
tre subiect i predicat se face prin atracie i n urmtoarele cazuri: 1) n propoziiile cu
subiect introductiv there: THERE IS a pen, a rubler and some pencils in the penc
il-case. 2) n propoziii introduse de here: HERE ARE your books and bag. Not: Cnd sub
stantivele din enumeraie formeaz ns un ansamblu, verbul este de obicei la plural, ch
iar dac primul substantiv este la singular: Here ARE your coat and gloves. There
ARE a table, four chairs and a sofa in this room. 3) n propoziii interogative: Whe
re IS my coat and hat ? 4) acordul prin atracie are loc i dup: more than one, one o
r two: More than one pupil HAS expressed his satisfaction with the new teacher.
One or two children ARE still playing in the park. EXERCISES I. Gsii subiectele pr
opoziiilor de mai jos i spunei prin ce sunt exprimate: 1. She started looking for h
er glasses. 2. Tom, Huck and Joe decided to run away at daybreak. 3. The beginni
ng of the story is not interesting. 4. Everybody says he is innocent. 5. Who ask
ed you that question? 6. To lose all ypour books looks like carelessness. 7. The
future of Africa is in the hands of its own peoples. 8. There are no sandwiches
left. 9. Whether she knew about it or not was what troubled him. 10. She is kno
wn to be a great opera singer. 11. It is essential for us to get better results
in our work. II. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii. Remarcai modul de exprimare al subie
ctului impersonal sau generic: 1. Se spune c vom avea o toamn lung. 2. Trebuie s fii
foarte atent cnd conduci pe o strad aa de aglomerat. 3. n aceast ar se bea mult ber
Nu se tie niciodat. 5. Este mai uor s mergi cu bicicleta cnd vntul bate din spate. 6.
Nu lua n seam ce zice lumea. 7. Se crede c recolta de anul acesta va fi foarte bun
a. III. Alegei forma corect a verbelor din parantez, innd seama de acordul dintre sub
iect i predicat: 1. The local police (has/have) helped the firemen to put out the
fire. 2. (Was/Were) the news good? 3. (Is/Are) mathematics your favourite subje
ct? 4. Fortunately all the crew (was/were) saved. 4.

Fortunately all the crew (was/were)saved. 5. I want to know if this speciess (ha
s/have) survived. 6. The poultry (is/are) fed three times a day. 7. Several Chin
ese (have/has) contributed new data to an important piece of research. 8. The ro
manian army (have/has) always fought for the country's independence. 9. The mone
y (is/are) on the table. 10. A great number of pupils (have/has) spent their hol
idays in pioneers' camp. 11. The variety of fruit on display (attract/attracts)
the customers. pag: 183 IV. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez. fiind ateni
la acordul subiectelor exprimate prin substantive colective sau substantive inva
riabile la singular sau plural: 1. Familia mea const din tata, mama, fratele meu i
mine. 2. Elevii din clas au fost nedumerii de ntrebrile profesorului. 3. Informaiile
primite sunt favorabile. 4. Economiile ei au fost puse la banc. 5. Prul ei este d
e culoare castanie. 6. Statele Unite se nvecineaz cu Mexic i Canada. 7. Oamenii sun
t ntotdeauna curioi. 8. Se d de mncare la psri acum. 9. Sunt multe familii tinere n ac
st bloc. 10. Sau cheltuit o mulime de bani pentru utilarea acestui laborator. 11.
Gimnastica este ndrgit n Romnia. 12. Olanda se afl n Europa de Vest. V. Completai sp
e libere cu forma potrivit a verbului be: 1. Latin grammar...very diffivult. 2. S
hakespeare's plays ...performed all over the world. 3. Who...those girls? 4. ...
everybodypresent? 5. Neither of them...eager to begin. 6. Either you or I ... wr
ong. 7. There... a lot of food still left. 8. There... a lot of people on the pl
atform. VI. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez, fiind ateni la acordul subie
ctelor exprimate prin pronume sau precedate de all cu verbul predicativ din prop
oziie: 1. Cineva mi-a luat umbrela din greeal. 2. Toi elevii sunt n clas. 3. Nici unul
dintre cei doi nu mai este tnr. 4. Toat mncarea este n frigider. 5. Toat lumea a sosi
t i toat lumea se simte bine. 6. Sau ei sau el a fcut asta. 7. Nici unul din ei nu
are drepate. 8. Cine a fcut acest lucru? 9. Care cri sunt ale tale? 10. El este de
vin, nu ea. VII. Completai spaiile libere cu forma corect a verbelor din paranteze:
1. The cat, together with kittens, (be) playing in the sun. 2. My father, as a w
ell as my mother, (be0 eager to know you. 3. John, along with his friend, never
( miss) a basketball match. 4. The priciples on which he worked, as well as the
way he acts, (be appreciated) by his fellow students. Either my parents or my el
der brother (accompany) my younger sister to school. 6. Either Jane or her siste
rs (wash) the dishes after lunch. 7. Crime and Punishment (rank) among the best
novels of world literature. 8. To treat them this way (be) unfair. 9. Where (be)
the scissors?. 10. These sort of mushrooms (be) not goos to eat. VIII. Traducei
urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez, fiind ateni la acordul dintre subiect i predicat:
1. 50 de minute e un timp scurt pentru o tez. 2. Majoritatea articolelor sale su
nt de critic literar. 3. Numrul turitilor romni care i petrec concediul la mare crete
iecare an. 4. De blndee i nelegere este nevoie acum. 5. Cine este? E tata i mama. 6. P
oftim scrisoarea i ochelarii, bunicule. 7. Duminica, Dl Brown i soia merg de obicei
la ar. 8. Dl. Brown, mpreun cu familia i petrec vacana la mare. 9. n Subcarpai se a
ne, fier i petrol. 10. Ei sunt cei care aranjeaz totul. 11. Patru ori zece fac pat
ruzeci. 13. Vinul alb i cel rou din Romnia este vestit. pag: 184

14. COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT (The Direct Object) 14.1. Definiie Complementul direct es
te partea secundar de propoziie care determin un verb tranzitiv cu funcia de predica
t n propoziie. 14.2. Indicii formali ai complementului direct Indicii formali ai c
omplementului direct sunt: a) cazul acuzativ cnd complementul direct este exprima
t printr-un pronume personal (cu excepia lui it) sau prin pronumele interogativ-r
elativ who: I havent seen him for a long time. Nu l-am vzut de mult. Tell me whom
you met there. Spune-mi pe cine ai ntlnit acolo. b) locul n propoziie, dup predicatul
exprimat printr-un verb tranzitiv: I drink milk every day. Beau lapte n fiecare
zi. c) transformarea la diateza pasiv, n care complementul direct devine subiectul
formal al propoziiei: The old woman recognized the driver. Btrna l-a recunoscut pe
ofer. The driver was recognized by the old woman. oferul a fost recunoscut de btrn.
14.3. Exprimarea complementului direct Complementul direct poate fi exprimat pri
n: a) un substantiv sau un echivalent al acestuia: He is writing a letter. El sc
rie o scrisoare. I saw them yesterday. I-am vzut ieri. Of all the books they show
ed us we bought three. Dintre toate crile pe care ni le-a artat am cumprat trei. b)
o contrucie complex - acuzativul cu infinitivul sau cu participiul prezent, care e
ste de obicei utilizat pentru reducerea unei propoziii subordonate completive dire
cte: We know him to be our best tennis player - We know that he is our best tenn
is player. tim c el este cel mai bun juctor de tenis al nostru. I saw him crossing
the street = I saw that he was crossing the street. L-am vzut traversnd strada. c)
o propoziie subordonat completiv direct: I suggest that you should. phone him at on
ce. Eu zic s-i telefonezi imediat. 14.3.1. Complementul direct exprimat prin pron
ume personal. Exprimarea complementului direct prin pronumele personal it, prin
pronumele reflexiv i prin pronumele reciproic prezint unele particulariti. Cnd este e
xprimat prin pronumele personal it, complementul direct poate fi: 1) anticipativ
; 2) nesemnificativ. pag: 185 1) It este folosit anticipativ, pentru a introduce
o propoziie completiv direct, o construcie cu infinitivul sau forma Gerund dup verbe
ca think, consider, find, believe; I consider IT important that you should tell
them the truth. Consider important ca tu s le spui adevrul. I found IT difficult
to break the news. Mi-a fost greu s le spun vetile. I think IT most dangerous your
climbing the mountain alone. Cred c este foarte periculos s urci muntele singur.
2) It nesemnificativ. Anumite verbe intranzitive au dezvoltat un it, care st pe l
ocul unui complement direct, fiind un complement direct, fiind un complement dir
ect formal: to lord it = a o face pe stpnul; to carry it = a nvinge; to catch it =
a o pi; a o ncasa; to fool it = a merge pe jos; to rough it = a face fa, a se descurc
a.

The exploresrs had to rough it when they got into the jungle. Exploratorii au tr
ebuit s se descurce cnd au ajuns n jungl. 14.3.2. Complementul direct exprimat prin
pronume reflexiv. Din punct de vedere al felului n care verbele tranzitive n limba
englez pot fi urmate sau nu de un complement direct exprimat prin pronume reflex
iv, ele se mpart n: a) verbe urmate n mod obligatoriu de pronume reflexive; behave
oneself, calm oneself, enjoy oneself, excuse oneself, help oneself: We enjoyed o
urselves at the cinema. Ne-am distrat la cinematograf. Help yourself ! Servete-te
. b) verbe urmate de pronume reflexive sau personale n funcie de persoana asupra cr
eia se rsfrnge aciunea verbului: She washed herself. (Ea) s-a splat (pe sine). She w
ashed him. (Ea) l-a splat (pe el). He hurt her. (El) a lovit-o. He hurt himself.
(El) s-a lovit. Alte verbe de acelai fel sunt: dress, comb, shave, hide. Not: n lim
ba vorbit se tinde spre omiterea pronumelui reflexiv: She washed and dressed in a
hurry. S-a splat i mbrcat n grab. c) verbe care pot fi urmate sau nu de pronume refle
xive, cu difereniere de sens: He applied himself to the task. S-a apucat de treab.
He applied for a job. A fcut cerere de serviciu. 14.3.3. Complementul direct exp
rimat prin pronume reciproce Complementul direct este exprimat: a) prin pronumel
e reciproce each other = unul pe altul / cellalt, cnd este vorba de dou persoane: T
he two boys helped each other to do the translation. Cei doi biei s-au ajutat (unu
l pe altul) s fac traducerea. b) prin: one another = unul pe altul / cellalt, cnd es
te vorba de mai multe persoane: The children helped one another in cleaning the
classroom. Copii s-au ajutat unul pe altul s fac curenie acas. 14.4. ntrebuinarea comp
ementelor directe Complementele directe sunt ntrebuinate dup urmtoarele clase de ver
be: a) Verbe tranzitive urmate de un complement direct: seat, drink, love, meet,
need, read, seek, write: I need your advice. Am nevoie de sfatul tu. pag: 186 b)
Verbe tranzitive urmate de dou complemente directe: ask, envy, save, strike, tea
ch: He taugh the children arithmetic. Le-a predat copiilor aritmetica. We asked
him several questions. I-am pus mai multe ntrebri. c) Verbe tranzitive urmate de u
n complement direct i un complement indirect: bring, give, hand, lend, offer, rea
d etc.: He gave sweets to the children. Le-a dat copiilor dulciuri. He handed he
r the letter. I-a nmnat scrisoarea. d) Verbe tranzitive urmate de un complement di
rect i un complement prepoziional: accuse of, compare with, congratulate on, preve
nt from: We congratulated him on his promotion. L-am felicitat pentru promovare.
Complementul direct intern (The Cognate Object) Exist i unele verbe intanziive ca
re pot avea un complement direct. Acesta este exprimat printr-un substantiv care
provine din aceeai rdcin cu verbul determinat sau este nrudit semnatic cu el: smile
a smile, sing a song, laugh a laugh, fight a fight / a battle, dance a dance.

n acest caz, verbul se comport ca un verb tranzitiv: He lived a long and happy lif
e. A trit o via lung i fericit. Last night I dreamt a strange dream. Noaptea trecut am
visat un vis ciudat. Not: Construciile cu complemente interne sunt caracteristice
limbii literare i dup cum se vede i din exemplele de mai sus, complementele sunt de
obicei nsoite de atribute. 14.5. Verbe tranzitive cu un complement direct Aceste
verbe reprezint majoritatea verbelor tranzitive din limba englez. Exemplele sunt n
umeroase: drink, eat, love, meet, need\, read etc. Locul acestor complemente dir
ecte n propoziie este imediat dup verbul tranzitiv, naintea complementelor circumsta
niale: She speaks English well. Vorbete bine englezete. I need the book tomorrow. A
m nevoie de carte mine. Transformarea pasiv. Cnd o propoziie coninnd un predicat expri
mat printr-un verb tranzitiv i un complement direct este transformat la diateza pa
siv, complementul direct devine subiectul diatezei pasive, iar subiectul se trans
form n complementul de agent: The pupils loved their teacher. The teacher was love
d by his pupils. Profesorul era iubit de elevii lui. 14.6. Verbele tranzitive cu
dou complemente directe Aceste verbe sunt puine la numr: ask, envy, save, strike,
teach: Did she ask you any questions ? i-a pus vreo ntrebare ? Dintre cele dou comp
lemente directe, primul desemneaz o persoan iar al doilea un obiect: He taught THE
CHILDREN a new lesson. Le-a predat elevilor o nou lecie. They envied US our succe
ss. Ne invidiau pentru succesul nostru. Not: n limba romn, complementul persoanei es
te de regul indirect. (Vezi traducerile exemplelor de mai sus) pag: 187 Transform
area pasiv. Construciile cu dou complemente directe au dou transformri pasive: He tau
ght us a lesson. devine: 1) We were talught a lesson. sau: 2) A lesson was taugh
t to us. Varianta frecvent este (1) cu complementul personal folosit ca subiect n
construcia pasiv, complementul obiectului fiind reinut. n varianta (2), complementul
obiectului devine subiectul propoziiei, iar complementul persoanei este introdus
de prepoziia to. 14.7. Verbele tranzitive cu un complement direct i un complement
indirect Aceste verbe sunt urmate de cele dou complemente n ordinea complement di
rect - complement indirect: I bought the blouse for mother. Am cumprat bluza pent
ru mama. I gave the notebook to Mary. I-am dat caietul de notie Mariei. Not: 1. Or
dinea complement direct - complement indirect este folosit deseori pentru accentu
are: You must pay the money to her (not to him). Trebuie s-i plteti ei banii (nu lu
i). 2. n alte cazuri aceast ordine este obligatorie:

a) cnd complementul indirect este urmat de o propoziie subordonat: He gave a book t


o his friend who is visiting him. I-a dat o carte prietenului pe care l vizita. b
) cnd cele dou complemente sunt exprimate prin pronume personale: I gave it to her
. I-am dat-o ei. c) dup verbele ca: address, announce, comunicate etc.: I communi
cated the result of the experiment to everybody concerned. Am comunicat rezultat
ul experimentului tuturor celor interesai. Ordinea celor dou complemente poate fi i
: verb tranzitiv + complement indirect+complement direct. n acest caz, prepoziia t
o sau for este omis: I bought mother a blouse. I gave Mary the notebook. Transfor
marea pasiv. Cnd propoziia cu un complement direct i unul indirect este transformat l
a diateza pasiv, ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte: Activ: They showed us th
e house. a) Pasiv: WE were shown the US. Complementul direct devine subiect, iar
cel indirect i pstreaz funcia, este complementul indirect reinut (retained indirect o
bject). b) The house was shown to US. Complementul direct devine subiect, iar ce
l indirect i pstreaz funcia, este complement indirect reinut (retained indirect object
). Direcia dintre cele dou variante const n faptul c prima accentueaz persoana iar cea
de a doua obiectul, mai frecvent n vorbirea curent fiind prima. pag: 188 14.8. Ver
bele tranzitive urmate de un complement direct i unul prepoziional Din aceast clas f
ac parte verbe ca: blame smb. for smth. = a da vina pe cineva pentru ceva, charg
e smb. with smth.= a acuza pe cineva de ceva; cure smb. of smth. = a vindeca pe
cineva de ceva, deprive smb.of smth.= a lipsi de cineva de ceva, help smb.with s
mth. = a ajuta pe cineva cu ceva, etc.: Did the doctor manage to cure the child
of the child that disease ? A reuit doctorul s vindece copilul de boala aceea ? Th
ey charged him with an important mission. I s-a dat o misiune important. Ordinea
acestor complemente n propoziie este: verb tranzitiv + complement direct + complem
ent prepoziional: I helped him with his homework. Cnd complementul direct are o co
mplinire sau este exprimat printr-o propoziie subordonat, complementul prepoziional
este aezat imediat dup verb: They accepted with great pleasure the invitation sen
t by our foreign trade company. Au acceptat cu mare plcere invitaia trimis de ntrepr
inderea noastr de comer exterior. n transformarea pasiv a unui verb tranzitiv urmat
de un complement direct i unul prepoziional, complementul direct devine subiectul
formal al propoziiei, iar cel prepoziional este reinut: We congratulated him on his
success. He was congratulated on his success. 15. COMPLEMENTUL INDIRECT (The In
direct Object) 15.1. Definiie Complementul indirect este partea secundar de propoz
iie care indic persoana (rareori lucrul) asupra creia se resfrnge n mod indirect aciun
ea verbului. 15.2. Indicii formali ai complementului indirect Indicii formali ai
complementului indirect sunt:

a) cazul dativ, cnd complementul indirect este exprimat printr-un pronume persona
l (cu excepia lui it) sau prin pronumele interogativ-relativ who, precedat de pre
poziia to sau for: Please, send a postcard to me. Te rog trimite-mi o ilustrat. To
whom did you lend the tape recorder ? Cui i-ai mprumutat magnetofonul ? b) locul
n propoziie: - dup complementul direct + prepoziia to sau for: He sold his car to h
is neighbour. i-a vndut maina vecinului. She bought a new shirt for her brother. A
cumprat o cma nou pentru fratele ei.naintea complementului direct, fr prepoziie: Tom
us his car. She bought her brother a new shirt. pag: 189 c) transformarea la di
ateza pasiv, n care complementul indirect al persoanei: - poate deveni subiectul f
ormal al propoziiei: Peter promised the tickets to us. We were promised the ticke
ts (by Peter). - poate fi complement indirect reinut: They showed the town to us.
The town was shown to us. 15.3. Exprimarea complementului indirect Complementul
indirect este exprimat de regul printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia,
precedat de prepoziia to sau for: We offered flowers to our teacher. We offered
flowers to her. She bought books for her children. She bought books for them. Pr
epoziia to sau for se omite: a) cnd complementul indirect se afl imediat dup verb: M
other gave the children some sandwiches. Mama le-a dat copiilor nite sandviuri. We
sent her a message. I-am trimis un mesaj. b) dup verbe ca: afford, allow, forgiv
e, refuse, spare: Can you spare me a few minutes ? mi putei acorda cteva minute ? A
llow me to ask a question. Permitei-mi s pun o ntrebare. 15.4. ntrebuinarea complemen
tului indirect Complementul indirect este ntrebuinat: a) dup verbe tranzitive urmat
e de un complement direct i unul indirect, a cror ordine poate fi schimbat, mpreun cu
omiterea prepoziiei for: buy, choose, do, leave, make, order, reserve, save: She
ORDERED a new dress for herself. She ORDERED herself a new dress. i-a comandat o
rochie nou. b) dup verbe tranzitive urmate de un complement direct i unul indirect
, a cror ordine poate fi schimbat, mpreun cu omiterea prepoziiei to: bring, give, han
d, offer, owe, promise, red, show etc. He showed the stamp book. to the visitors
. He showed the visitors the stamp book. Le-a artat vizitatorilor clasorul. c) du
p verbe tranzitive urmate de un complement direct i de un complement indirect + pr
epoziia to n aceast ordine: address, announce, communicate, describe, explain, intr
oduce, mention, relate, repeat, say, translate, etc.: The boy explained everythi
ng to his father. Biatul a explicat totul tatlui su. pag: 190 15.5. Locul complemen
tului indirect

Complementul indirect n propoziie este aezat de regul: a) dup complementul direct (+p
repoziia to sau for): He said goodbye to them. Le-a spus la revedere. She made co
ffee for all of us. A fcut cafea pentru toi. b) naintea complementului direct. cnd c
omplementul direct este mai lung sau urmat de o propoziie subordonat, prepoziia to
sau for fiind omis: I bought Hellen all the English books I saw in the bookshop.
I-am cumprat Elenei toate crile englezeti pe care le-am vzut n librrie. Not: Compleme
le indirecte dup verbele urmate obligatoriu dup prepoziia to nu pot fi aezate de reg
ul naintea complementelor directe, iar prepoziia to nu poate fi omis: She introduced
her husband to the people present. i-a prezentat soul celor de fa. Dar i: She explai
ned to him the new regulations / how she had the information. I-a explicat noul
regulament / cum a obinut informaia. c) la nceputul propoziiei, pentru subliniere: T
o her, I gave the dictionary, not to him. Ei i-am dat dicionarul i nu lui. For her
children she does her best. Pentru copiii ei ea face totul. 15.6. Transformarea
pasiv Verbele tranzitive urmate de complemente directe i indirecte se mpart n dou ma
ri grupe, dup felul n care se transform la diateza pasiv: a) Unele verbe au o singur
transformare, n care complementul direct devine subiectul propoziiei pasive, iar c
el indirect este reinut. Asemenea verbe sunt cele de la punctul (c) cap.15.4. urm
ate obligatoriu de prepoziia to: He conveyed the message to them. The message was
conveyed to them. i de la punctul a) urmate de prepoziia for: Have you left anyfo
od for the others? Has anyfood been left for the others? b) alte verbe ca: give,
tell, show, promise au dou transformri pasive. Transformarea mai frecvent este cea
n care complementul indirect al persoanei devine subiect, iar complementul direc
t este reinut: Activ: The teacher gave the prize to Mary. Pasiv: Mary was given t
he prize. Este posibil i transformarea: The prize was given to Mary, n care complem
entul direct devine subiect, iar complementul indirect este reinut. Aceast transfo
rmare este folosit mai rar. 16. Complementul prepoziional (The Prepositional Objec
t) 16.1. Definiie. Complementul prepoziional este partea secundar de propoziie care
determin predicatul propoziiei exprimat printr-un verb tranzitiv sau intranzitiv. p
ag: 191 16.2. Indicii formali ai complementului prepoziional. Indicii formali ai
complementului prepoziional sunt: a) cazul acuzativ, cnd complementul prepoziional
este exprimat prin prepoziie plus pronume personal (cu excepia lui it), pronume re
flexiv sau pronume interogativ relativ who: She looked at him. S-a uitat la el.
She looked at herself in the mirror. S-a privit n oglind.

b) locul n propoziie: - dup predicat cnd acesta este exprimat printr-un verb intranz
itiv: He was talking with his friends. Vorbea cu prietenii lui. - dup complementu
l direct cnd predicatul este exprimat printr-un verb tranzitiv: Has anyone compar
ed the translation with the original? A comparat cineva traducerea cu originalul
? c) transformarea la diatez pasiv n care unele verbe intranzitive cu prepoziie obl
igatorie se comport ca verbe tranzitive, prepoziia rmnnd ataat de verb, iar elementul
ominal din complementul prepoziional devenind subiectul formal al propoziiei: Gran
dmother looked AFTER the children. The children were looked AFTER by their grand
mother. 16.3. Exprimarea complementului prepoziional. Complementul prepoziional es
te exprimat prin: a) un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia precedat de o prep
oziie: He is looking for his tie. i caut cravata. I ran after them. Am fugit dup ei.
b) o condtrucie infinitival sau gerundial, precedat de o prepoziie: Would they agree
to start at once? Ar fi de acord s ncepem imediat? He boasts of being the best foo
tball player in the school. Se laud c este cel mai bun juctor de fotbal din coal. c)
o propoziie subordonat: He boasts that he is the best football player in the schoo
l. 16.4. ntrebuinarea complementului prepoziional Complementul prepoziional este ntre
buinat dup: a) verbe intranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie: care for, complain of,
depend on, hint at, insist on, long for, look at, pass for, warn of, wonder at,
worry about: The success of the picnic will DEPEND on the weather. Succesul picn
icului va depinde de vreme. Would you CARE for one of these paintings ? iar place
unul sintre aceste tablouri? She COMPLAINED of the heat. Se plngea de cldur. b) ve
rbe intranzitive cu dou prepoziii: agree with smb about smth, argue with smb about
smth. c) verbe tranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie: acquaint smb with smth, advi
se smb. about smth, assure smb of smth, blame smb for smth, bother smb. with smt
h, convince smb, of smth, entrust smb with smth, mistake smb. for smth, warn smb
about smth: pag: 192 I warned him about the danger. L-am avertizat de pericol.
d) adjective sau participii care ndeplinesc funcia de nume predicatic ntr-un predic
at nominal, urmate de o prepoziie obligatorie: about: He was REASONABLE about her
decision. at: She is GOOD at chemistry. in: He is INTERESTED in astronomy. of:
Romanias foreign trade is BASED on co-operation and e ual rights. with: He is ANG
RY with your behaviour. Alte adjective i participii urmate de aceste prepoziii sun
t: - angry, glad, happy, mad, annoyed, pleased worried + ABOUT; - angry, bad, cl
ever, hopeless, terrible, alarmed, amused, annoyed, delighted, pleased + AT; - e
fficient, fortunate, lucky, persistent, (un)successful + IN; - afraid, certain,
conscious, fond, glad, convinced, scared + OF; - dependent, insistent, keen, len
t, set + ON;

- busy, (un)comfortable, (in)compatible, content, furious, (un)happy, impatient,


sick, uneasy, annoyed, bored, concerned, delighted, disaplointed, excited, exha
usted, horrified, obsessed, occupied, overcome, pleased, satisfied, upset + WITH
. 16.5. Locul complementului prepoziional n propoziie Locul complementului prepoziio
nal n propoziie este de obiecei: a) dup numele predicativ exprimat printr-un adject
iv sau participiu: She was convinced of his loyalty. Era convins de loialitatea l
ui. b) dup complementul direct, n cazul unui verb tranzitiv: Nobody prevents your
friend from asking that question. Nimeni nu-l mpiedic pe prietenul tu s pun aceast ntr
barea. 16.6. Transformarea pasiv Unele verbe intranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie
: agree about / on/to, aim, at, argue about, arrange for, ask for, believe in, c
all for, call on, conceive of, laugh at, look at, look for, look afeter, look in
to, run over, sleep in, speek of / about, talk of, think of, write about etc., s
e comport ca verbe tranzitive n transformarea pasiv. Elementul nominal din compleme
ntul prepoziional devine subiectul propoziiei pasive, iar prepoziia rmne dup verb: A b
us ran OVER the neighbours a dog. Tyhe neighbours dog was run OVER by a bus. n tran
sformarea pasiv a verbelor tranzitive urmate de un complement direct i de unul pre
poziional, complementul direct devine subiectul propoziiei pasive, iar cel prepozii
onal este reinut: They bothered HIM with silly questions. HE was bethered with si
lly questions. pag: 193 17. Elementul predicativ suplimentar (The Predicative Ad
junct) 17.1. Definiie Elementul predicativ suplimentar este partea secundar de pro
poziie care determin att predicatul, exprimat printr-un verb tranzitiv, ct i un subst
antiv sau nlocuitor al acestuia care are funcia de complement direct al predicatul
ui: She BOILED the egg hard = She BOILED the egg. The egg was hard. 17.2. Exprim
area elementului predicativ suplimentar Elementul predicativ suplimentar este ex
primat de regul prin: a) substantiv, dup verbe ca appoint, choose, elect, proclaim
, call, name: The elect Mr Brown (as) chairman. L-au ales pe dl.Brown preedinte.
They nominated him President . L-au desemnat preedinte. They have named the babyD
an. L-au numit pe copil Dan. b) un adjectiv (care exprim starea sau condiia ca rez
ultat al aciunii verbului), dup verbe ca: boil (hard), bake (hard), open (wide), d
rive (crazy, mad), break (open), wash (clean), push (open, shut), paint (white,
green), etc.: Can you push the gate open ? Poi s deschizi poarta ? Theyve painted t
he fence white. Au vopsit gardul alb. 17.3. Locul elementului predicativ suplime
ntar

Locul elementului predicativ suplimentar este dup complementul direct exprimat pr


intr-un substantiv sau pronume n acuzativ) care urmeaz predicatul (exprimat printr
-un verb tranzitiv): They elected him president. Push the door open. 18. Constru
ciile complexe (Complex Constructions) 18.1. Definiie Termenul de construcii comple
xe se refer la constuciile infinitivale, participiale i gerundiale, care sunt folos
ite de obicei pentru reducerea unor propoziii subordonate la pri secundare de propo
ziie. Aceste construcii sunt: pag: 194 Acuzativ cu - infinitiv - participiu prezen
t - participiu trecut Nominativ cu - infinitiv - participiu prezent Infinitiv cu
for - to Nominativul absolut cu -infiniti - participiu prezent - participiu tre
cut Construciile gerundiale 18.2. Caracteristicile construciilor complexe 18.2.1.
Construciile complexe au caracter predicativ, deoarece ntre cei doi membri ai cons
truciei: elementul nominal (reprezentat de regul printr-un acuzativ sau nominativ)
i elementul verbal (reprezentat printr-un infinitiv, form n -ing sau participiu tr
ecut), exist un raport predicativ implicit. Forma nepersonal a verbului funcioneaz c
a predicat al elementului nominal, dar aceast funcie este considerat implicit i nu ex
primat, deoarece formele nepersonale nu sunt marcate formal pentru redarea catego
riei de persoan. Caracterul predicativ al raportului dintre cele dou elemente reie
se din funcia acestor construcii, de nlocuire sau reducere a unor propoziii subordon
ate, deci a unor elemente sintactice coninnd predicat: We know her to be a gifted
actress = We know that she is a gifted actress. tim c ea este o actri foarte bun. 18.
2.2. nfinitivul, participiul prezent i participiul trecut formeaz mpreun cu elementul
nominal construcii similare:
cu acuzativul Acuzativ cu infinitiv: They warned me not to be late. Acuzativ cu
participiu prezent: She could feel her heart beating. Acuzativ cu participiu tre
cut: I want this work finished quickly. Construcii complexe cu nominativul Nomina
tiv cu infinitiv: I was warned not to be late. Nominativ cu participiu prezent:
He was noticed standing near the door. nominativul absolut Nominativ absolut cu
infinitiv: He sent the books first, the stationery to come later. Nominativ abso
lut cu participiu prezent: The value of x being known, the value of y can be found.
Nominativ absolut cu participiu trecut: His task performed, he left the office.

18.2.3. Deosebirile dintre cele trei feluri de construcii reies din modul n care e
ste privit aciunea: pag: 195 a) n construciile infinitivale ne intereseaz aciunea n si
e, faptul petrecut, care este vzut ca ncheiat: We saw him come (=that he came). Am
vzut c-a venit. b) n construciile cu participiul n -ing, aciunea este vzut n desfu
e saw him coming (=that he was coming). L-am vzut venind. c) n construciile cu part
icipiul trecut, aciunea este privit ca un rezultat: We found the log cabin deserte
d. Am gsit cabana prsit. 18.2.4. Funciile sintactice ale acestor construcii sunt urmto
rele: 1) complementul direct complex (construciile cu acuzativul): I saw the ambu
lance coming. Am vzut sosind maina salvrii. We had our house repaired and painted.
Ne-au reparat i vopsit casa. 2) subiect complex (construciile cu nominativul): Thi
s part of the land is believed to have been under the sea. Se crede c acest col de
pmnt a fost sub ap. He happened to give the best solution. S-a ntmplat ca el s dea ce
a mai bun soluie. He was seen passing the shop. A fost vzut trecnd prin faa magazinul
ui. 3) complement circunstanial (nominativul absolut): Everybody being present, t
he lesson can begin. Toat lumea fiind prezent, lecia poate ncepe. The shopping done,
they returned home. Dup ce i-au fcut cumprturile, s-au ntors acas. 18.3. Construciil
u acuzativul Construciile cu acuzativul sunt formate dintr-un substantiv sau pron
ume n cazul acuzativ i un verb la infinitiv sau participiu: care se afl fa de primul
element ntr-un raport predicativ: I noticed them shake hands. Am observat c i-au da
t mna. 18.3.1. Acuzativul cu infinitiv Verbele trnazitive urmate de obicei de un
acuzativ cu un infinitiv sunt cele care exprim: a) percepia senzorial: see, hear, w
atch, feel, notice: Did anyone see Mary leave the house ? A vzut-o cineva pe Mary
plecnd de acas ? b) activiti mintale: think, know, consider, expect, suppose, belie
ve, imagine: They knew the man to have been very ill. tiau c omul a fost foarte bo
lnav. A lot of people supposed her to be right. Mult lume credea c ea are dreptate
. c) dorina sau intenia: want, wish, desire, mean: She wanted me to explain the ru
le. A vrut ca eu s explic regula. Did she mean me to go there in her place ? A in
tenionat ca eu s merg n locul ei ? d) sentimente: like, dislike, love, hate, prefer
: I should like them to keep their promise. A vrea ca ei s-i respecte promisiunea.
I hate you to be troubled. Nu-mi place s fii deranjat. pag: 196 e) un ordin sau o
permisiune: command, order, request, allow: Our form teacher allowed us to go t
o the conference. Diriginta ne-a permis s mergem la conferin. The officer ordered h
is soldiers to advance. Ofierul le-a ordonat soldailor s nainteze.

f) verbe cauzative: cause, make, have, get, induce, let: What makes you think so
? Ce te face s gndeti astfel ? Get them come as early as possible. Determin-i s vine
ct mai devreme posibil. g) verbe declarative: declare, pronounce, report, de obi
cei cnd subiectul este animat: Everyone reported him to be good for this job. Toi
au spus c el este bun pentru aceast treab. They declared the chief engineer to be a
member of their committee. L-au delcarat pe inginerul ef membru al comitetului.
h) unele verbe prepoziionale: count on, depend on, wait for, hape for etc.: We ca
nnot wait for the weather to change. Nu putem atepta s se schimbe vremea. Not: 1. V
erbele de percepie (cu excepia lui perceive), verbele let i make i verbul cauzativ h
ave sunt urmate de infinitivul fr to: He made me lough. M-a fcut s rd. 2. Verbul help
este urmat de obicei de infinitivul cu to n varianta britanic, i de infinitivul fr t
o n varianta american a limbii engleze: I helped her (to) lay the table. Am ajutat
-o s pun masa. 3. Unele verbe (cu excepia lui want de la pct. c) pot fi urmate i de
propoziii subordonate introduse de that, ntre folosirea acestora i a construciei inf
initivale existnd anumite deosebiri: a) He requested us to come in time (us - un
substantiv animat) He requested that the meeting should begin on time. (meeting
- substantiv inanimat) b) I wish you to be careful (n general) I wish you would b
e careful (dar nu cred c ai s fii) c) We think him to be very loyal (n engleza lite
rar) We think that he is very loyal. (n vorbirea curent) d) I hear him come (acum)
I hear that they are away. (durat) 4. Acuzativul cu infinitiv este folosit dup ver
bele care exprim o activitate mintal mai ales n limba literar, iar infinitivul este
cel al verbului be. I believe him to be honest. Cred c este cinstit. I suppose it
to have been a mistake. Presupun c a fost o greeal. n vorbirea curent, aceste verbe
sunt de obicei urmate de o propoziie completiv direct introdus de that: I believe (t
hat) he is honest. I suppose (that) it was a mistake. 18.3.2. Infinitivul cu for
- to (The For - To Infinitive) Construcia Acuzativul cu infinitiv este folosit dup a
numite clase de verbe. Un acuzativ cu infinitv poate aprea i dup un adjectiv sau su
bstantiv, situaie n care el este precedat de prepoziia for: It was UNUSUAL for him
to write such a long letter. De obicei el nu scria o scrisoare aa de lung. It was
MADNESS for them to leave in such weather. Era o nebunie ca ei s plece pe o aseme
nea vreme. Not: Exist i cteva verbe urmate de prepoziia for, care pot fi folosite cu
infinitivul cu for - to. Printre ele se numr: arrange, ask, hope, long, plan, pray
, provide, ring, send, telephone, wait, etc. They arranged for her to come. They
planned for her to come. They sent for her to come. pag: 197 Infinitivul cu for
- to format din prepoziia for, urmat de un substantiv sau pronume n acuzativ i de
un infinitiv cu to, care se afl ntr-un raport predicativ fa de (pro)nume: It was dif
ficult for him to believe such a thing. i venea greu s cread un asemenea lucru: Ace
ast construcie este ntlnit: a) dup adjective: (it is/was) necessary, advisable, impera
tive, impossible, easy, difficult etc. b) dup substantive: problem, subject, idea
etc.

c) dup unele verbe intranzitive. Infinitivul cu for - to este utilizat pentru red
ucerea unor propoziii subordonate la pri principale sau secundare de propoziie: 1) s
ubiect real introdus de it anticipativ: It is advisable for him to learn foreign
languages. Este recomandabil ca el s nvee limbi strine. It is difficult for them to
come. Este dificil ca ei s vin. 2) nume predicativ: The best thing is for him tio
agree with me. Cel mai bun lucru este ca el s fie de acord cu mine. 3) complemen
t direct: He wished for the parcel to be sent at once. A dorit ca pachetul s fie
trimis imediat. 4) complement prepoziional: I would be delighted for you to meet
her. A fi ncntat s o cunoti. 5) complement circumstanial de scop: Ive brought some mag
zines for you to read on the train. Am adus cteva reviste s le citeti n tren. 6) com
plement circumstanial consecutiv: This book is too difficult for me to read. Acea
st carte este prea grea ca s-o citesc. 18.3.3. Acuzativul cu participiul prezent
(The Accusative with the Present Participle) Aceasta este o construcie asemntoare c
u acuzativul cu infinitiv, diferena fiind de aspect al aciunii verbale: folosirea
infinitivului red aciunea ca ncheiat, sau menioneaz doar aciunea, pe cnd participiul
zent prezint aciunea n desfurare: I heard them come. (= That means they have arrived)
. I-am auzit venind (Au venit). I heard them coming. (= I heard them making nois
e while they were coming). I-am auzit venind (n timp ce veneau). Acuzativul cu pa
rticipiul prezent se folosete dup: a) verbe care exprim percepia senzorial: see, hear
, feel, watch, notice. I heard the children talking about their holidays. I-am a
uzit pe copii vorbind despre vacan. We watched the sun rising from behind the hill
s. Am privit soarele rsrind de dup dealuri. b) find, leave, set, catch, send: I fou
nd him mending the radio. L-am gsit reparnd radioul. 18.3.4. Acuzativul cu partici
piul trecut (The Acusative with the Past Participle) Aceast construcie este ntrebui
nat dup: a) verbe care exprim percepia senzorial: He heard his name mentioned. i-a auz
t numele menionat. b) verbe care exprim un ordin: He ordered if finished. A ordona
t s fie terminat. c) verbe cauzative have i get: I must have these shoes repaired.
Trebuie s-mi dau pantofii la reparat. pag: 198 18.4. Construciile cu nominativul
Construciile cu nominativul sunt alctuite dintr-un substantiv sau pronume n cazul n
ominativ i un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent ntre care se afl un verb la
o form personal: He happened to be a hard-working pupil. She was seen crossing the
street. 18.4.1. Nominativul cu infinitiv se folosete dup urmtoarele verbe: 1) dup v
erbe intranzitive: seem, appear, happen, change; prove, turn, out care sunt pere
chi sinonimice: He appeared to be pleased with the arrangement. He seemed to be
pleased with the arrangement.

El prea s fie mulumit de aranjament. Her brother chanced to be there. Her brother h
appened to be there. S-a ntmplat ca fratele ei s fie acolo. 2) dup verbe declarative
la diateza pasiv: say, declare, report, annmounce: The old man was reported to h
ave disappeared. S-a anunat c btrnul a disprut. 3) dup verbul copulativ be i unul dint
e adjectivele: likely, unlikely, sure, certain: He is sure to think of every pos
sible advantage. Cu siguran c se va gndi la toate avantajele posibile. The train is
likely to be late. Este posibil ca trenul s ntrzie. Not: 1. Prin trecerea predicatul
ui de la diateza activ la cea pasiv (pasivizare = passivization), unele construcii
cu acuzativul se transform n construcii cu nominativul. Astfel, nominativul cu infi
nitiv apare dup verbe tranzitive care pot fi urmate de acuzativ cu infinitiv la d
iateza activ cu excepia verbelor exprimnd dorina sau intenia i care exprim: a) percep
senzorial: see, hear, feel etc. : She was seen to leave the office. A fost vzut ple
cnd din birou. (Nominativ+infinitiv lung) b) activiti mintale: think, know, conside
r, expect, understand, believe, suppose etc. Space flights are considered to pro
vide important scientific data. Se consider c zborurile cosmice aduc importante da
te tiinifice. c) un ordin sau o permisiune: command, order, allow, let, etc.: The
boy was allowed to go out. Biatului i s-a permis s ias afar. d) determinarea : cause
, make, have, force, compel, etc.: He was compelled to start all over again. El
a fost obligat s ia totul de la nceput. 2. Construcia Nominativul cu infinitiv dup v
erbe de activitate mintal nu este limitat la engleza literar (cum este Acuzativul c
u infinitiv), ea putnd fi ntlnit n vorbirea curent (i cu alte verbe dect be): Are we
posed to do this? Trebuie s facem asta. 18.4.2. Nominativul cu participiul prezen
t (The Nominative with the Present Participle) Aceast construcie este similar cu No
minativul cu infinitiv, cu aceeai diferen de aspect (sublinierea ideei de durat, de
desfurare a aciunii); The old man was seen leaving the house. Btrnul a fost vzut plecn
de acas. Aceast construcie se folosete dup verbele urmate la diateza activ cu acuzati
vul cu participiul prezent (see, hear, leave, catch, find); The baby was heard c
rying. Copilul a fost auzit plngnd. pag: 199 18.5. Nominativul absolut (The Absolu
te Nominative Construction) Nominativul absolut este ntrebuinat cnd subiectul const
ruciei predicative cu infinitiv sau participiu (prezent sau trecut) este diferit
de cel al propoziiei care conine un verb predicativ. Construcia cu nominativul abso
lut conine n structura sa un substantiv la nominativ i un infinitiv, participiu pre
zent sau trecut care se afl n raport predicativ fa de substantiv: They forwarded the
heavy equipment by sea, the perishables to be sent by air. Au expediat echipame
ntul greu cu vaporul, urmnd ca mrfurile perisabile s fie trimise cu avionul. The or
iginal text being too difficult, he asked for a translation. Textul original fii
nd prea greu, a cerut o traducere. His hopes attained, he was perfectly happy. S
peranele lui fiind mplinite, era foarte fericit. Not: Subiectul construciei Nominati
vul absolut cu participiul prezentpoate fi anticipat de it sau there: There bein
g nothing to say, they sat looking at each other. Neavnd nimic de spus, stteau i se
uitau unul la altul.

Construciile cu nominativul absolut sunt folosite pe plan sintactic pentru reduce


rea unor propoziii subordonate circumstaniale la complemente circumstaniale: a) de
timp: Dinner being ready, the family sat down round the big, oval dinner table.
(= When dinner was ready...); b) de cauz: He felt exhausted, his self-control hav
ing been strained to breaking point. (=as his selfcontrol had been strained...);
c) de condiie: Weather permitting, we shall go to the beach tomorrow. (= If the
weather permits...). Not: Construciile cu nominativul absolut se ntlnesc rar n vorbir
ea curent. Ele sunt caracteristice englezei scrise, literare. 18.6. Alte contrucii
complexe Construcii gerundiale. (Gerund Constructions). La fel i infinitivul i par
ticipiul, forma Gerund intr n competena unor construcii complexe n care Gerund-ul se
afl ntr-un raport predicativ fa de substantiv sau pronume: Your refusing to see him
surprised everybody. Refuzul tu de a-l vedea a surprins pe toat lumea. Substantivu
l poaate fi: a) la cazul genitiv sintetic (construcia cu genitiv e folosit pentru
substnative nume de persoane): He seemed surprised at Marys expresing ni interest
in the subject. A prut surprins de faptul c Mary nu a artat nici un interes pentru
aceast problem. b) la cazul acuzativ: Did you mind him/Tom Speaking so loud ? Tea deranjat faptul c el / Toma a vorbit aa de tare ? Acuzativul este folosit: 1) cnd
substantivul este animat sau inanimat: I coild sense the smell spreading. Simeam
cum se rspndea mirosul. 2) cnd substantivul este urmat de o complinire atributiv: I
remember a friend of mine going on such a trip. mi amintesc de un prieten al meu
care a mers ntr-o astfel de excursie. 3) n vorbire, pentru substantive nume de pe
rsoane, substantive animate sau inanimate. Dac partea animat a construciei este exp
rimat printr-un pronume acesta poate fi un pronume posesiv, sau, n vorbire, un pro
nume n acuzativ: I couldnt understand his acting like that. I couldnt understand hi
m acting like that. Nu puteam s neleg de ce proceda aa. I remember their / them sayi
ng that. mi amintesc c au spus asta. Construcia gerundial este folosit dup aceleai cuv
nte ca i forma Gerund simpl. Construcia gerundial are rolul de a nlocui: a) propozii s
ubordonate subiective: Your trying to convince him was quite obvious = That you
tried to convince him was quite obvious. b) circumstaniale: She being absent, not
hing could be done = As she was absent, nothing could be done.
pag: 200
19. Complementele circumstaniale (Adverbials)

19.1.Definiie Complementul circumstanial este partea de propoziie care determin sau


modific un verb, un adverb, un adjectiv sau o ntreag propoziie. Ca determinant al ve
rbului, complementul circumstanial indic mprejurarea n care se petrece o aciune (locu
l, timpul, scopul, cauza etc.): A taxi appeared at the corner of the street. (lo
c) They arrived half an hour later. (timp) Atunci cnd determin un adverb, adjectiv
sau echivaleni ai acestora, complementul circumstanial arat cum se prezint o nsuire:
It was nearly dark. Era aproape ntuneric. They are nearly there. Aproape au ajuns
. 19.2. Clasificare Complementele circumstaniale n limba englez se mpart, ca n limba
romn n: complemente circumstaniale de loc, de timp, de mod, de cauz, de condiie, de sc
op, concesive, consecutive etc. 19.3. Complementul circumstanial de loc (The Adve
rbial of Place) 19.3.1. Definiie. Complementul circumstanial de loc indic locul, pu
nctul de plecare, direcia sau limita unei aciuni sau stri. Not: Unele complemente ci
rcumstaniale de loc exprimate prin adverbe de loc, indic locul propriu-zis: here,
there, somewhere. Altele indic direcia: aside, forward, right, left. Majoritatea a
dverbelor de loc ns pot fi folosite pentru a exprima att locul, ct i direcia: Loc: He
doesn't live far. Nu locuiete departe. Direcie. He didn't go far. Nu s-a dus depar
te. pag: 201 19.3.2. Complementul circumstanial de loc este exprimat prin: a) un
adverb sau o perifraz advebial de loc: She is here. He was walking to and fro. b)
un substantiv cu sau fr prepoziie: Helen is in town for the moment. They went home.
c) un substantiv n cazul genitiv precedat de o prepoziie: We buy bread at the bak
ers. d) o propoziie circumstanial de loc: We do our shopping where everybody else do
es. 19.3.3. Locul Complementului circumstanial de loc este de obicei dup predicat
(+ complement direct) (+compl. circ. de loc): She has been working (hard) IN THE
LIBRARY all day. She was been reading (a book) IN THE LIBRARY all day. Excepii:
Complementul circumstanial de loc poate fi aezat ntre verb i complementul su direct d
ac complementul direct este prea lung sau este exprimat printr-o propoziie subordo
nat: They took into the reading room all the dictionaries they needed. They found
in the reading room all the dictionaries they needed. Complementul circumstanial
indicnd locul propriu-zis poate aprea i la nceputul propoziiei, mai ales cnd este exp
rimat printr-o construcie prepoziional: Somewhere near the river the children were
playing football. Complementul circumstanial care indic direcia se aeaz uneori direct
dup verb (naintea adverbului de mod), dac verbul exprim micarea spre un loc: He went
to school by bus. Cteva complemente circumstaniale exprimnd direcia pot aprea n pozii
iniial:

a) n limbajul literar, pentru a da for dramatic exprimrii, cu verbe la prezent sau Pa


st Tense simplu: In they come ! Away they went! b) n exprimarea familiar, cu verbe
ca go, come, get la prezent sau imperativ (+you): Here she comes. There they go
. In (bed) you get. Not: Here i there apar n cteva expresii cu verbul be: Here/there
you are. Poftim...(Asta-i pentru tine). There she is. Uite-o! A ajuns. Here we
are. Am ajuns n sfrit (unde trebuia). There you are. Vezi c am dreptate (Asta ntrete c
-am spus). Atenie! Dac subiectul n aceste expresii este exprimat printr-un substant
iv i nu printr-un pronume, are loc inversiune ntre subiect i predicat. There he is!
There is your father! Here they are! Here are your glasses! 19.4. Complementul
circumstanial de timp (The Adverbial of Time) 19.4.1. Definiie. Complementul circu
mstanial de timp indic: a) momentul aciunii: now, nowadays, today, then; b) succesi
unea de timp: afterwards, before, eventually, formerly, previously, soon. pag: 2
02 c) durata: lately, recently, since, still, yet; d) frecvena: - definit: weekly,
three times a day; - nedefinit: often, usually, seldom, once in a while. 19.4.2.
Complementul circumstanial de timp este exprimat prin: a) un adverb de timp: She
arrived yesterday. b) o perifraz adverbial de timp: They visit their grandparents
from time to time. c) o construcie adverbial (substantiv/numeral cu prepoziie etc.
): Tom was born in 1965. 2) o contrucie complex, utilizat pentru reducerea unei pro
poziii circumstaniale de timp la un complement circumstanial de timp; a) nominativu
l absolut cu participiul trecut: His homework written the boy went out to play.
b) un participiu prezent sau trecut, precedat de o conjuncie temporal: He doesnt fe
el uite well when travelling by plane. c) un Gerund precedat de o prepoziie: On
leaving the house, she asked me to look after the child. d) un substantiv cu sau
fr prepoziie introdus ntr-o conjuncie temporal: While in Australia he learned English
. I played this game when a boy. 3) o propoziie circumstanial de timp: He is always
air sick when he travels by plane. 19.4.3. Locul Complementului circumstanial de
timp n propoziie A) Majoritatea complementelor circumstaniale indicnd momentul aciun
ii sunt aezate la sfritul propoziiei: He went to the cinema yesterday / last night.
Nowadays i presently ocup de obicei poziia iniial: Nowadays all children of school-ag
e attend school in Romania. Dac ntr-o propoziie apar mai multe complemente circumst
aniale indicnd momentul aciunii, acestea sunt aezate succesiv, de la perioada de tim
p mai scurt la cea mai lung: He was born on Monday, the 19th of February 1970. Ill
see you at ten oclock in Sunday.

sau: On Sunday Ill see you at ten oclock. B) Complementele circumstaniale indicnd su
ccesiunea aciunilor ocup de obicei poziie iniial sau medial n propoziie: First he ran
he bell. Next he knocked on the door. He then rang again. And finnaly he started
banging on the door. C) Locul complementelor circumstaniale de timp exprimate pr
in adverbe de frecven (definit i nedefinit): Adverbe care exprim frecvena unei aciuni
od definit: daily (zilnic), once (odat), again (din nou), twice (de dou ori) etc.,
sunt de obicei aezate la sfritul propoziiei: The school board meets weekly/three ti
mes a week. Ordinea mai multor adverbe de frecven definit este de la unitatea mai m
ic la cea mai mare: She phoned him hourly each day. sau: Each day she phoned him
hourly. Adverbele de frecven nedefinit: ussualy (de obicei) always (ntotdeauna), som
etimes (uneori, cteodat), occasionally (uneori, cteodat), often (adesea), never (nic
iodat), seldom (rar), sunt de obicei aezate ntre subiect i predicat: I often go to t
he theatre. pag: 203 Dac predicatul conine un verb auxiliar sau un verd modal, adv
erbul de frecven este aezat dup acesta: I have never seen her. You must always do yo
ur duty. Adverbele de frecven nedefinit se aeaz dup verbul be, naintea numeralului pre
icativ: He is often late. Dac verbul este folosit la diateza pasiv, adverbul de fr
ecven nedefinit este aezat dup primul auxiliar: He has never been seen like this. Not:
Sometimes poate fi aezat i la nceputul propoziiei: I sometimes go for a walk in the
woods. sau : Sometimes I go for a walk in the woods. Unele adverbe nedefinite d
e frecven pot aprea la nceputul propoziiei: - dac aceasta este negativ: Generally / No
mally / Usually he doesnt drink coffee. - pentru ntrire: Usually I meet her at conf
erences, but yesterday I ran into her in a department store.
Locul adverbelor de frecven n propoziie Situaia Subiect Verb Adv.de aux./modal frecve
n Verb noional Alte pri sau nume propoziie predicativ (dup be) believe them. de
Forma verbal simpl
I
He Verb auxiliar verb They + have
never/alw ays/usuall y/rarely/s eldom/so metimes idem ca has mai sus never/alw s
een ays/usuall y/someti
time enough for his friends. her.

noional I Verb modal She + Verb noional Verbul be + He nume predicativ She would c
an is has
mes/rarel y/seldom idem ca eat mai sus idem ca forget mai sus idem ca ill. mai s
us idem ca been ill. mai sus
this. such incidents.

D) Ordinea mai multor complemente circumstaniale de timp n propoziie este urmtoarea:


durat frecven - moment: I went to the country for a month every year during my chi
ldhood. E) Ordinea mai multor complemente circumstaniale diferite n propoziie este:
MOD - loc - timp. They played very well in the match yesterday. Aceast ordine po
ate fi schimbat: a) pentru a scoate n eviden un anume circumstanial: Each day she pho
ned him hourly. b) construciile adverbiale (mai lungi) sunt aezate de obicei dup ad
verbe (mai scurte): I was walking earlier in the Botanical Gardens. c) o propozii
e subordonat circumstanial se aeaz dup un complement circumstanial: We walked for hour
where the Exhibition bad been. pag: 204 19.5. Complementul circumstanial de mod
(The Adverbial of Manner) 19.5.1. Definiie. Complementul circumstanial de mod indi
c modul n care se ndeplinete o aciune sau apare o nsuire. 19.5.2. Clasificare. Complem
ntele circumstaniale de mod se mpart n: 1) Complementul circumstanial de mod propriu
-zis; 2) Complementul circumstanial de mod comparativ. 19.5.3. Complementul circu
mstanial de mod propriu-zis indic felul, modalitatea n care decurge aciunea sau star
ea: well, badly, quikly, slowly. Ele mai pot reda i alte sensuri: - cantitatea: e
nough, much, a little; - ntrire: actually, certainly, really; - amplificare: absol
utely, completely, greatly, highly, barely, scarcely; - de afirmaie sau negaie: ye
s, no, of course, not at all; - probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, possibly. Complem
entul circumstanial de mod propriu-zise: a) modific o parte de propoziie; b) in locu
l unei propoziii ntregi. a) Complementul circumstanial de mod propriu-zise modific:
- un verb: He DRIVES carefully.

- un adjectiv: He is a little TIRED. - un adverb: You speak too FAST. I cant foll
ow you. b) Cuvintele care exprim probabilitatea, afirmaia sau negaia in de obicei lo
cul unei propoziii ntregi: A: Can you ski ? B: Yes, I can. sau se refer la o propoz
iie ntreag: Surely you arent ill. Sigur nu eti bolnav. Not: Neavnd o legtur strns
it parte de prepoziie, unele gramatici (printre care i cea de fa) nu analizeaz aceste
complemente n cadrul capitolului despre complemente circumstaniale, ci n cel despre
Elemente independente n propoziie. 19.5.4. Complementul circumstanial de mod propr
iu-zis poate fi exprimat prin: a) un adverb sau perifraz adverbial de mod: He drov
e slowly along the mannow road. b) un substantiv sau numeral ntrodus printro prop
oziie: He did this by mistake. This problem can be solved in three ways. c) o con
strucie gerundial introdus prin propoziiile by sau without: He should have finished
by thanking his parents for their help. d) o propoziie circumstanial de mod: He dro
ve the car as they had toild him to. 19.5.5. Locul Complementului circumstanial d
e mod n propoziie A) Complementul circumstanial de mod propriu-zis se aeaz de obicei
dup verb: She drove slowly to the station yesterday. Dac verbul este tranzitiv i ur
mat de complementul su direct, adverbul de mod este aezat: - dup complementul direc
t: She drove her car slowly to the station sau: - naintea verbului (rar): She slo
wly drove car to the station. pag: 205 Complementul circumstanial de mod este aeza
t dup verbul be cnd acesta este folosit la diateza pasiv: The car was slowly driven
into the garage. B) Circumstanialele de mod intrind ideea exprimat de verb sau de
alt parte de vorbire (acctually, certainly, obviously, really, surely, honestly,
simply, just) preced de regul partea de vorbire la care se refer: I simply dont und
erstand her behaviour. You must believe me simply on my word. He speaks uite ra
pidly. She is uite ill. Indeed poate aprea i n poziie final: Thank you very much ind
eed. It was very kind indeed of you to come. C) Circumstanialele de mod exprimnd c
antitatea, preced sau urmeaz prile de vorbire la care se refer, n felul urmtor: - (Ver
y) much precede de obicei un participiu folosit predicativ: He was very much imp
ressed. Dar urmeaz un verb principal (+complementul lui direct): I like English v
ery much. - Enough se aeaz dup un adjectiv sau verb: This lesson is EASY enough. Da
c ns enough este folosit ca atribut pe lng un substantiv, el apare fie nainte fie dup
cesta: He has TIME enough. He has enough TIME. D) Circumstanialele de mod care am
plific ideea exprimat de verb (completely, fully, quite, perfectly, badly) pot apre
a naintea verbului principal sau n poziie final: I badly need your advice. I can per
fectly understand her behaviour. We like her very much. Do you agree with us ent
erely ?

Adverbele barely, little, scarcely, apar naintea verbului, a numelui predicativ s


au ntre dou auxiliare: He barely HAD time to catch the bus. She is barely EIGHTEEN
. She COULD hardly BE described as beautiful. 19.5.6. Complementul circumstanial
de mod comparativ este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau pronume precedat de
prepoziia like: If fits you like a glove. b) printr-un substantiv cu prepoziie, u
n adjectiv, un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent/trecut introduse prin as
if, as though: She cried as if in a terrible danger. He behaved as if deprived
of all his rights. c) un substantiv, un adjectiv, pronume sau numeral, o constru
cie infinitival sau gerundial introduse prin conjunciile as, not so/as, than: She is
as old as my sister. John isnt as good at maths as my older brother. It is warme
r here than downstairs. d) o propoziie circumstanial de mod comparativ: She cried as
if she were in a terrible danger. It is warmer here than it is downstairs. 19.5
.7. Loc. Complementul circumstanial de mod comparativ se aeaz de obicei: a) dup verb
ul intranzitiv: He swims like a fish. b) dup complementul direct care urmeaz unui
verb tranzitiv: He speaks English an Englishman. pag: 206 19.6. Alte complemente
circumstaniale Felul complementului circumstanial - de mprejurri nsoitoare - de cauz
de scop - condiional - consecutiv - concesiv - de excepie - de relaie Exemplu He t
ook farewell tired with waiting. She was punished because of you. The man starte
d crying for help. He came here to talk to you. I couldnt have done it without hi
s support. She is too young to speak. Though not a mechanic, he can repair all k
inds of things. They listened to all the witnesses but one. My friend has read e
verything about the history of the Olympic games.
20. Atributul (The Atribute) 20.1. Definiie Atributul modific sau determin un subst
nativ sau pronume care ndeplinete n propoziie funcia de: 1) subiect: The tall boy is
my brother. 2) o parte secundar de prepoziie:

a) complement direct sau indirect: They made an astonishing discovery. b) comple


ment circumstanial (de loc, timp etc.): They often go out quiet evenings. 20.2. E
xprimarea atributului Atributul poate fi exprimat printr-un adjectiv sau printro alt parte de vorbire folosit ca adjectiv: a) un adjectiv propriu-zis: Thats an ex
traordinary solution. Este o soluie extraordinar. b) un substantiv cu valoare adje
ctival: He attended evening classes. El frecventa cursul seral. pag: 207 c) un su
bstantiv n cazul genitiv: You should follow your friends advice. Ar trebui s asculi
sfatul prietenului tu. d) un numeral: Twenty persons were waiting for him. l atepta
u douzeci de persoane. e) un infinitiv: There is only one thing to do. Este un si
ngur lucru de fcut. f) un participiu prezent sau trecut: They watched the rising
tide. Urmreau cum crete fluxul. They sell frozen foods here. Aici se vnd alimente c
ongelate. g) un adverb: Birds are chirping in the trees outside. Psrile cnt n pomii d
e far. h) o perifraz prepoziional sau adverbial: The house on the right was built onl
y a few years ago. Casa din dreapta a fost construit numai cu civa ani n urm. i) un g
rup de cuvinte: He was a small and not-over-particulary-taken-care-of boy. Era u
n biat mic i nu prea ngrijit. j) o propoziie subordonat atributiv: The student who wil
l guese the right answer will be rewarded. Elevul care va gsi rspunsul corect va f
i evideniat. 20.3. Locul atributului n propoziie Atributul precede de regul cuvntul p
e care l nsoeate (atributul prepus). n unele cazuri ns, atributul poate aprea dup re
l lui (atributul postpus). 20.3.1. Atributul prepus. Atributul precede subiectul
atunci cnd este exprimat prin pri de vorbire folosite adjectival: a) un adjectiv p
ropriu-zis: My youngest brother became a pioneer a week ago. Fratele meu cel mai
mic a fost fcut pioner sptmna trecut. b) un demonstrativ: This exercise is less diff
icult than the last one. Exerciiul acesta este mai puin dificil dect ultimul. c) un
substantiv: The silver coins are kept here. Monedele de argint sunt pstrate aici
. d) un substantiv n cazul genitiv: An elephants trunk is so strong it can hold a
log of wood. Trompa unui elefant este aa de puternic nct poate s ridice o buturug. e)
un numeral: Two men spoke at the conference. Dou persoane au vorbit la conferin. Cnd
subiectul este precedat de dou adjective de acelai fel, cel scurt este aezat nainte
a celui lung: a long tiresome voyage - o cltorie lung, obositoare; the shortest and
most accurate answer - cel mai scurt i exact rspuns. Atributele exprimate prin pri
de vorbire diferite se aeaz n ordinea: predeterminant: one, half, both + determinan
t: the, this, my + postdeterminant: the first three + adjectiv: Ive read all the
three historical novels he has published. Am citit toate cele trei romane istori
ce pe care le-a publicat.

20.3.2. Atributul postpus. Atributul este aezat dup subiect sau alt element nomina
l din propoziie, cnd este exprimat: a) prin adjectivele: present, proper, extant:
The story proper is much longer. Povestea propriu-zis este mult mai lung. pag: 208
b) prin adjective folosite predicativ: The firemen got into the house ablase. P
ompierii au ptruns n casa n flcri. c) n construcii fixe tradiionale: sum total, time
emorial, ambassador extraordinary. d) dup pronume nehotrte terminate n - body, - one
, -thing: Did you find anything new ? Ai gsit ceva nou ? e) prin construcii prepoz
iionale: I like this story about flying saucers. mi place povestea aceasta despre
farfuriile zburtoare. f) prin construcii infinitivale: He had the intention to hel
p you. Inteniona s te ajute. 20.3.3. Unele atribute se pot aeza fie naintea substant
ivelor, fie dup ele: a) apoziia dezvoltat: G. Chaucer, the author of Canterbury Tal
es, lived in the 14-th century. G. Chaucer, autorul Povestirilor din Canterbury
a trit n secolul XIV. b) atributele exprimate prin adjective derivate din verbe, a
djectivele exprimate prin participii trecute sau cele terminate n -able, -ible: v
isible stars, stars visible, navigable rivers, rivers navigable. 20.4. Apoziia (T
he Aposition) 20.4.1. Definiie. Apoziia este un atribut exprimat printr-un substna
tiv care explic sau definete substantivul de lng care st. Ea este de dou feluri: apozi
a simpl i apoziia dezvoltat. 20.4.2. Apoziia simpl este exprimat printr-un substantiv
are specific titluri, profesiuni, numiri geografice, etc.: Professor Smith, The S
traits of Dover. Fiind n strns legtur cu substantivul pe lng care st, apoziia simpl
desparte prin virgul de acesta: Mount Everest. 20.4.3. Locul apoziiei simple. Apoz
iia simpl poate s precead sau s urmeze substantivul: Doctor Jojnson, The Danube Delta
, the town of Dublin, he river Thames. 20.4.4. Apoziia dezvoltat este mai puin lega
t de substantivul la care se refer. n exprimarea oral, ea se citete cu o intonaie prop
rie, iar n limba scris se separ prin virgul de substantiv: Mr. Smith, a friend of he
rs, visited us last week. Dl. Smith, un prieten de al ei, ne-a vizitat sptmna trecu
t. Apoziia dezvoltat poate fi uneori nsoit de un adverb care subliniaz relaia dintre
ziie i substantiv: Dan and Mary enjoyed watching the animals at the zoo, particula
rly the monkeys. Lui Dan i Mariei le-a plcut s se uite la animalele de la grdina zoo
logic, mai ales la maimue. 20.4.5. Apoziia dezvoltat este aezat dup substantivul sau e
hivalentul acestuia pe lng care st: There have been great English writers, for exam
ple Shakespeare. Au existat mari scriitori englezi, de exemplu Shakespeare. Apoz
iia dezvoltat poate aprea i naintea substantivului: A man of fifty, Mr. Brown was sti
ll very energetic. Un om de cincizeci de ani, dl. Brown era totui foarte energic.
pag: 209

21. Elementele independente (Independent Elements) 21.1. Definiie Elementele inde


pendente sunt cuvinte, grupuri de cuvinte sau propoziii subordonate care nu au le
gtur gramatical cu celelalte pri ale propoziiei. 21.2. Clasificare Elementele independ
ente sunt: a) interjeciile; b) substantivele sau pronumele n cazul vocativ, identi
c ca form cu nominativul; c) cuvintele i locuiunile parentetice. 21.3. Interjeciile
Interjeciile nu au relaii gramaticale cu celelalte cuvinte din propoziie, funcia lor
fiind de a da o anumit coloratur comunicrii. Ele pot exprima: a) surpriza: Oh! b)
satisfacia, recunoaterea: Ah! c) surpriza deosebit: Wow! d) durerea: Ouch! Ow! etc.
Oh, what a nice present! Oh, ce cadou grgu! Ah, thats just what I was looking for!
O! este exact ceea ce cutam. 21.4. Adresarea direct (Vocative) Numele unor persoa
ne sau titlurile, denumirile, profesiunile, etc., rostite la nceputul sau sfritul c
omunicrii, fr legtur gramatical cu celelalte cuvinte din propoziie, au rolul de a atra
e atenia persoanei respective: Bob, hurry up ! We are late. Bob, grbete-te, am ntrzia
t ! Have you got a minute, Mr. Brown ? mi acordai un moment, Dl. Brown ? Not: Vocat
ivul poate fi folosit i pentru a exprima relaia dintre vorbitor i asculttor: - Sir i
Madam denot respectul fa de persoana creia i se face adresarea. Titluri i nume de pro
fesiuni: My Lord, Your Honour, Your Excellency, Prime Minister, Doctor sunt folo
site ca forme de adresare n stilul oficial. - Dintre vocativele folosite n vorbire
a familiar menionm: dad(dy), mum (my), my dear, darling. pag: 210 21.5. Cuvintele i
locuiunile parentetice Acestea pot fi: a) de afirmaie sau negaie: certainly, surely
, really, to be sure, indeed, by no means: We are very happy indeed. They really
have enjoyed themselves. To be sure, we have heard such promises before. b) pro
babilitate: perhaps, maybe, as a matter-of-fact, in fact: Perhaps he has left th
e town. c) de legtur cu comunicarea anterioar: however, morever, therefore, neverth
eless, to begin with, to conclude; In the end, however, they came to an understa
nding. Pn la urm totui, au ajuns la o nelegere.

d) cuvinte sau grupuri de cuvinte cu caracter explicativ: in my opinion, persona


lly, after all, to tell the truth: Personally, I dont believe that. Eu personal,
nu cred aceasta. In my opinion, youve made a mistake. Dup prerea mea, ai greit. 21.6
. Locul elementelor independente n propoziie Elemente independente pot ocupa n prop
oziie: a) poziia iniial: As a matter of fact, I was happy I had met him. De fapt, am
fost fericit c l-am cunoscut. b) poziia final: Come on, boys! (hai(de) biei! c) pozii
a medial: I really liked the show. 22. Ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie (Word Order)
22.0. Generaliti Ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie a fost tratat n capitolele anterioare
(cap 11 - 21) n analiza fcut la fiecare parte de propoziie. n capitolul urmtor se anal
izeaz din nou ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie, n funcie de scopul comunicrii: propoziii
enuniative, interogative, imperative i exclamative. n capitolul de fa, ne intereseaz p
rincipiile generale care guverneaz aezarea cuvintelor n propoziie i unele situaii spec
iale. 22.0.1. Studierea ordinii cuvintelor n propoziie n limba englez prezint o impor
tan deosebit. Limba englez este o limb sintetic, avnd foarte puine forme flexionare.
aceea locul pe care-l ocup cuvintele n propoziie are un rol important n identificare
a funciilor lor sintactice. pag: 211 n propoziiile urmtoare, de exemplu, substantivu
l man are aceeai structur morfologic, funcia sa de subiect i respectiv de complement
direct n propoziie fiind identificat doar cu ajutorul poziiei i al transformrii posive
. a) Activ: THE MAN killed the tiger. Pasiv: The tiger was killed BY THE MAN. Su
bstantivul man este subiectul propoziiei active, n care ocup poziie iniial, i subiectu
logic al propoziiei pasive, n care are funcia formal de complement circunstanial de
agent. b) Activ: THE TIGER killed the man. Pasiv: The man was killed BY THE TIGR
ER. Substantivul man este comoplementul direct al propoziiei active, fiind aezat i
mediat dup verbul tranzitiv i devenind subiectul formal al transformrii pasive. 22.
0.2. Studierea ordinii cuvintelor n propoziia n limba englez este important i datorit
iferenelor dintre cele dou limbi. n limba romn poziia prilor de propoziie difer de
uvintelor englezeti n dou privine: a) limba romn are mai multe forme flexionare dect l
mba englez i deci locul cuvintelor n propoziie nu este att de important, iar subiectu
l nu este de obicei exprimat, verbul romnesc fiind marcat formal penru persoan i nu
mr:

I NEVER see him there. Niciodat nu-l vd acolo. (Eu) nu-l vd niciodat acolo. (Eu) Nul vd acolo niciodat. b) unele pri de propoziie n limba romn ocup de obicei alte locu
ct prile de propoziie corespunztoare din limba englez: EVERYBODY went to see the film.
(subiect + predicat + complemente) Au mers toi s vad filmul. (predicat + subiect +
complemente) He speaks ENGLISH well. (subiect + predicat + compl.direct + circ.
de timp) El vorbete bine ENGLEZETE. (subiect + predicat + circ.de mod + compl. di
rect) I saw him AT THE CINEMA last night. (subiect + predicat + circ.de loc + ci
rc.de timp) L-am vzut asear LA CINEMA. (subiect + predicat + circ.de timp + circ.
de loc) 22.0.3. Ordinea cuvintelor din limba englez prezint urmtoarele caracteristi
ci generale: a) Ordinea prilor principale de propoziie este: - subiect - predicat, n
propoziiile enuniative i exclamative: PETER likes algebra. THEY are not ready yet.
How beatiful SHE is! - predicat - subiect, n propoziiile interogative: Is HE an a
rchitect ? b) Ordinea obinuit a complementelor n propoziie este: verb tranzitiv + co
mplement direct } + complemente circumstaniale (de mod) verb tranzitiv (de loc) (
de timp) I read the news quickly in the dining-room after dinner. I walk quickly
across the park every morning. pag: 212 c) Atributul precede de obicei partea d
e vorbire nominal pe care o nsoete: Old Dacian implements were found under the ruins
. d) Schimbarea ordinii normale a cuvintelor n propoziie are dou cauze mari: - part
e de propoziie mai scurt tinde s fie aezat naintea celei mai lungi (din motive de ritm
, echilibru al propoziiei): The hostess offered CAKES to all the quests in the ro
om. - partea de propoziie asupra creia vorbitorul dorete s ne atrag atenia este aezat
nceputul propoziiei, producnd de obicei inversiune ntre subiect i predicat NOWHERE wa
s be better received than in his native town. e) Inversiunea ntre subiect i predic
at este: - total, cnd predicatul este exprimat doar prin verbul noional (o form verb
al simpl): Rarely had HE time to wach TV. - parial, cnd predicatul este alctuit din ma
i multe cuvinte: verb auxiliar / modal + verb noional (o form verbal compus). n al do
ilea caz, subiectul se aeaz de regul dup primul cuvnt din forma verbului auxiliar / m
odal: Hardly had THEY finished their dinner when somebody rang at the door. Nowh
ere could YOU find a better job.

f) Aezarea n poziia iniial (poziia 0) a prilor de propoziie care nu ocup de obicei


oc, cu scopul de a le sublinia, nu produce ntotdeauna inversiune ntre subiect i pre
dicat. Ordinea subiect predicat este meninut: - dac subiectul este exprimat printrun pronume: Here HE comes. Everything HE says is right. - dac elementul subliniat
se refer la ceva menionat anterior: Telephone numbers I can never remember. On Su
nday the exhibition had been open for a week. 22.0.4. Poziia diferitelor elemente
sintactice n cadrul propoziiei n limba englez poate fi prezentat schematic astfel:
Poziie Partea de propozii e 0 (Comple ment circumst anial de timp/Alt parte de vorb
ire pentru sublinier e (After dinner) 1 Subict (+ atribute) 2 Predicat 3 Comple
ment direct 4 Comple ment indirect/ Comple ment prepozi ional/El ement predicat i
v suplime ntar to them 5 Comple ment circumst anial de mod 6 Comple ment circums
tanial de loc 7 (Compl ement circums tanial de timp)
Exemplu
She
said
goodnight
quickly
in the hall
(after dinner)
22.1. Reguli privitoare la ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie 1) Subiectul (+ atribute
le sale) ocup locul 1 n propoziiile enuniative, precednd predicatul: The man has left
. Omul a plecat. 2) Subiectul sau alt element nominal din propoziie (alt nume) po
ate fi precedat sau urmat de unul sau de mai multe atribute. 3) Subiectul este p
recedat de atribute exprimate prin pri de vorbire folosite adjectival: pag: 213 a)
un adjectiv propriu-zis, un substabtiv, un demonstrativ, un numeral, un partici
piu etc.: The tall man left. These books are interesting. This evening dress is
very beautiful. Three hundred people were present at the ceremony. b) printr-un
substantiv n cazul genitiv: The profesors lectures are very interesting. n cadrul u
nui atribut care precede subiectul sau alt parte nominal de propoziie, se pot crea
urmtoarele situaii, dac atributul este exprimat prin dou sau mai multe adjective: a)
Dou adjective de acelai fel se aeaz n ordinea adjectiv mai scurt - adjectiv mai lung
: a QUIET intelligent boy; a LONG boring chapter; the TALLEST and most talkative
girl. b) Dou adjective sunt adesea legate prin and pentru subliniere: a dark and
gloomy house, a new and useful experiment. c) Dou adjective diferite ca sens lex
ical se aeaz naintea substantivului n ordinea general/subiectiv specific/obiectiv: a
NICE new vase, a FINE old carpet, a PRETTY red flower. d) Se aeaz imediat naintea
substantivului adjectivele indicnd: culoarea: a delicate pink vase stilul: a beat
iful gothic building naionalitatea: a cup of delicious China tea materialul: a us
eful platic bag.

f) Ordinea atributelor exprimate prin pri de vorbire diferite este: predeterminant


: all, half, both + determinant; the, this, my + postdeterminant: ordinal: the f
irst, the second + cardinal/cuantificator: two, several + adjectiv + substantiv:
All the three tall men were teachers. Poziia determinanilor n cadrul grupului nomi
nal: Grup Nominal Predeterm Determina Postdeter inant nt minant Ordinal Half my
first The last Cardinal Cuantifica tor two Calific working summer Substantiv day
months was gone. were very hot. Grup Verbal
4) Subiectul (sau alt element nominal din propoziie) este urmat de atribute expri
mate: a) prin adjectivele: present, proper, extant: They drove from the suburbs
to the city proper. The people present listened to him attentively. b) n construci
ile fixe trandiionale: sum total, time immemorial c) prin adjective folosite pred
icativ: the house ablaze d) dup pronume nehotrte terminate n -body, -one, -think: Th
eres nithing unusual in what he says. e) prin construcii prepoziionale (substantiv
+ PREPOZIIE) : Ill show you a picture of my son. f) prin construcii infinitivale: T
his is the question to be settled. 5) Unele atribute pot aprea fie nainte, fie dup
substantiv: a) apoziia dezvoltat: Henri Coand, a scientist of world renown, was a g
reat lover of nature. A scientist of world renown. Henri Coand was a great lover
of nature. pag: 214 b) Atributele exprimate prin adjective derivate din verbe sa
u legate de acestea, ca de exemplu adjectivele exprimate prin participii sau adj
ectivele terminate n -able, -ible precede numele cnd se accentueaz caracterul lor a
djectival (exprimarea unei caliti) i urmeaz numele cnd se accentueaz caracterul lor ve
rbal: Caracterul adjectival: She is an adopted child. Caracter verbal: The class
ification adopted is very simple. (wich has been adopted) Caracterul adjectival:
All the available copies were put at our disposal. Caracter verbal: All the cop
ies avilable were put at our disposal. c) Dac un substantiv este nsoit de mai multe
adjective , unele dintre ele l preced, iar altele l urmeaz, pentru realizarea ritm
ului propoziiei: Before him stretched the vast forest, dark, dense and mysterious
. 6) Pe locul 0 n propoziie, naintea subiectului (+ atributele sale) se pot afla: a
) complementul circumstanial de timp care exprim o perioad definit de timp: last yea
r, in summer, on Monday, yesterday. Poziia iniial a circumstanialului de timp este m
ai rar folosit dect poziia final, de obicei n propoziii lungi, cu multe complemente: Y
esterday she unexpectedly left for Suceava by the morning plane. sau cnd se face
referire la ceva menionat anterior: At eight she had been waiting for you half an
hour.

b) i alte pri de propoziie pot ocupa poziia 0, pentru subliniere: Slowly and carefull
y he wrote his name. 7) n anumite situaii subiectul ocup locul 2 n propoziie, prin in
versiune total cu predicatul (exprimat prin verbul be sau have la Present sau Pas
t Tense: Is HE at home ? Have YOU a dog ? sau prin inversiune parial cu verbul aux
iliar sau modal care intr n alctuirea predicatului: Have YOU met him ? What can I d
o ? Subiectul ocup locul 2 n propoziie: a) n propoziii interogative: Could you get me
some fruit ? b) cnd subiectul logic este precedat de un subiect introductiv (it
sau there): IT is unusual for him to be so silent. There are beautiful pictures
in this book. c) cnd o parte de propoziie, n special complementul circumstanial expr
imat prin adverbe negative sau restrictive singure: scarcely, hardly, seldom, ra
rely, little, even less, nor, neither, at no time, never, etc., sau precedate de
ONLY: only by chance, only yesterday, only then, only with difficulty, only by
luck este aezat pe locul 0 pentru subliniere: Little does he realize how foolish h
e looks. Only by chance did I hear that they had returned from their trip. 8) Pr
edicatul ocup de obicei locul 2 n propoziie, dup subiect: He came later. Predicatul
sau o parte a predicatului poate ocupa locul 1 n propoziie, prin inversiune total s
au parial cu subiectul, n situaiile enumerate la punctul 7. 9) Predicatul poate fi p
recedat de anumite complemente circumstaniale (never, often, hardly) i este urmat
dac este tranzitiv, de compldementul direct, iar dac este intranzitiv, de compleme
nte circumstaniale. n ordinea: mod, loc, timp: We often swim in the sea. We had gr
eat fun at the party last night. pag: 215 10) Predicatul este de obicei precedat
de complemente circumstaniale exprimate prin: - adverbe de frecven nedefinit: often
, always, usually, never, rarely, seldom, sometimes. - adverbe restrictive: hard
ly, scarcely, only. Aceste adverbe preced predicatul exprimat printr-o form verba
l simpl: They rarely have visitors. sau verbul noional care intr n alctuirea predicatu
lui mpreun cu un verb auxiliar sau modal: He has OFTEN lent me his pen. You can HA
RDLY excuse yourself for this reason. Verbul be este urmat de aceste adverbe la
formele simple (Present, Past): He is OFTEN ill. i precedat de ele la formele com
puse: He has OFTEN been ill. Pentru subliniere, aceste adverbe pot fi aezate la nc
eputul sau sfritul propoziiei, cu sau fr inversiune ntre subiect i predicat: Often di
hey go for long walks when they were young. They to go for long walks; often the
y walks as far as five miles every day. They visit their friends very often. 11)
Verbul tranzitiv este urmat de grupul complementelor (direct, indirect, prepozii
onal), n modul urmtor: a) Un singur complement direct se aeaz imediat dup verb: Ive le
ft my notebook at home. Atenie ! Dac verbul tranzitiv este exprimat printr-un verb
cu particul adverbial, complementul direct se aeaz: 1) dup particula adverbila, dac e
este exprimat printr-un substantiv singur sau cu o complinire adverbial, dac el e
ste exprimat printr-un substantiv singur sau cu o complinire, sau printr-un pron
ume mai lung: Put on your gloves. Put on the gloves I bought you yesterday. Pack
up everything. 2) ntre verb i particula adverbial: poziie obligatorie dac complement
ul direct este exprimat printr-un pronume: Put it on, sau variant la 1) dac comple
mentul direct este exprimat printr-un substantiv: Put your gloves on. b) Dou comp
lemente directe se aeaz dup verb n ordinea: complement direct al persoanei, compleme
nt direct al obiectului: He teaches THE CHILDREN mathematics.

c) Un complement direct i unul indirect se aeaz n ordinea: 1) complement direct + in


direct, aceast ordine fiind uneori folosit pentru sublinierea complementului indir
ect: I gave THE NOTE to your deskmate. Atenie ! Aceast ordine este recomandat: - cnd
ambele complemente sunt exprimate prin pronume: I gave it to him. - dup verbe ur
mate obligatoriu de prepoziia to: I explained the lesson to them. - cnd complement
ul indirect este mai lung dect cel direct: I gave the note to your deskmate. 2) O
alt posibilitate este: verb tranzitiv + complement indirect fr to sau for + comple
ment direct, care este ordinea normal, neutr: I gave him YOUR NOTE. d) Un compleme
nt direct i unul prepoziional se aeaz n ordine: They compared THE FILM with the novel
. pag: 216 e) Complementul direct este de asemenea urmat de elementul predicativ
suplimentar: They found THE PLACE a prosperous village. 12. Un verb intranzitiv
este urmat de complemente circumstaniale n ordinea: mod, loc, timp: He waited qui
etly in the for an hour. 13) Complemente circumstaniale de mod sunt aezat imediat
dup verbul intranzitiv sau dup verbul tranzitiv i complementele sale: He smiled pro
udly. he covered the tube carefully. Excepii: a) Circumstanialul de loc se poate u
neori aeaza naintea celui de mod, dup un verb intranzitiv exprndu-i calea, pentru a-i
completa sensul: She walked to school in a hurry yesterday. Ill go to the cinema
by bus. b) Circumstantialul de loc se poate aeza naintea complementului direct, d
up un verb tranzitiv, cnd complementul direct este urmat de o constrcuie prepoziiona
l sau o propoziie subordonat: I met there a boy who pretended to be a friend of you
rs. c) Complementul circumstanial de loc se poate aeza la nceputul propoziiei fie pe
ntru subliniere, fie pentru echilibrul propoziiei. Aceast aezare produce inversiune
ntre subiect i predicat, dac subiectul este exprimat printr-un substantiv: Off goe
s your train! Lower and lower bend the old man over the sick child. Ordinea subi
ect predicat rmne neschimbat dac subiectul este exprimat printr-un pronume: Off he g
oes ! Lower and lowe he bend. Dou sau mai multe complemente circumstaniale de loc
se aeaz de la cel mai specific la cel mai general: He lives et 55, Franklin Street
Bucharest. I met my friends in a little vilage on the Black Sea Coast. Dac n prop
oziie apar dou adverbe: unul de loc i altul de direcie adverbul de loc se aeaz dup cel
de direcie: the hourse jumped over the fence (direcie) in the garden (loc) sau la n
ceputul propoziiei: In the garden the hourse jumped over the fence. pag: 217 15)
Complementele circumstaniale de timp care ocup poziia final n propoziie sunt cele care
indic: - momentul aciunii: yesterday, at 5 oclock, two days ago; - durata acestuia
: three weeks, four ages; - frecvena definit: once in a while, from time to time;
Excepii:

a) un complement circumstanial de timp scurt se aeaz uneori naintea predicatului sau


a verbului noional din structura sa: you ( can) now see that you were wrong. Ill
soon find out the truth. b) un complement circumstanial de timp se poate aeza naint
ea unui circumstanial de loc, dac este mai scurt dect acesta: I saw them yarlier in
front of the school. Sau dac exprim durata: I stayed for two weeks at the seaside
. Mai multe complemente circumstaniale de timp exprimnd momentul aciunii se aeaz de l
a momentul mai precis de determinat la cel mai general: He was borne at 3.12 in
the afternoon on August 29th, 1968. Mai multe complemente circumstaniale de timp
diferite se aeaz n ordinea: durat - frecven moment: I went to the seaside for two week
s every summer during my childhood. EXERCISES I. Schimbai ordinea complementelor.
Folosii prepoziia to sau for naintea complementului indirect. Exemplu: Show us the
album. Show the album to us. 1. Please, pass me the sal. 2. She bought her son
some toys. 3. Tell the children this funny story. 4. He didnt forget to buy his s
ister a ticket. 5. Mother gave us some grapes. 6. Please, send your parents my r
egards. 7. Fetch me a glass of water. 8. He offered everyone flowers. II. nlocuii
complementele indirecte din coloana nr.1 cu complemente indirecte potrivite ca s
ens din coloana nr.2 .Facei schimbrile necesare. 12 1. I promised them a dictionar
y. The elderly lady. 2. William handed her some pictures. all who had come. 3. T
hey told us the news. the woman sitting next to him. 4. She showed Miss Denter t
he album everybody in the ball. 5. I have written John a letter. her, not to him
6. Andrew owes Betty some monay. him, not to her. III. Traducei urmtoarele propoz
iii n limba englez: 1. Descrie-ne peisajul. 2. Te rog dictez-mi traducerea cuvintelo
r noi. 3. Comunic-le vestea grozav. 4. I-am cumprat soului meu o cravat foarte drgu.
Medalia de aur a fost acordat sportivei romne pentru performana ei extraordinar. 6.
Nu este nevoie s-mi napoiezi cartea. i-o fac cadou. IV. Completai spaiile libere cu p
repoziiile care lipsesc pentru a forma complemente prepoziionale: 1. She never spe
aks... this subject. 2. She waited.... you for half an hour. 3. He still depends
.... his parents. 4. Do you agree.... me? 5. The boy insisted ... doing it himse
lf. 6. Please, look...the book I've bought. V. Transformai propoziiile urmtoare pen
tru a folosi verbele din parantez, verbe urmate de elemete predicative suplimenta
re: Exemplu: The best speaker was their representative. (make) They made the bes
t speaker their representative.

1. The wisest man was their president. (choose) 2. The boy was given the name of
William. (call) 3. Mr White was their director. (appoint) 4. She was the winner
. (proclaim). 5. He was the commander of the army (declare). 6. Richard was thei
r secretary. (elect) VI. Folosii prepoziia to naintea infintivului acolo unde este
cazul, n construciile Acuzativ cu infinitiv sau Nominativ cu infinitiv: 1. He is s
aid (be) the best football player of the national team. 2. Did you see her (play
) this part? 3. They expected us (come) on Sunday. 4. I noticed him (leave) the
house. 5. I considered her (be) my best friend. 6. We have often heard him (spea
k) like this. 7. The teacher wanted the pupils (listen) to his explanation. 8. I
felt him (move) in the room. 9. We saw him (leave) the building. 10. He is cons
idered (be) a great scienticist. VII. Transferai construciile Acuzativ cu infiniti
v n construcii Nominativ cu infinitiv. Exemplu: They knew him to be a good doctor.
He was known to be a good doctor. 1. We expected her to speak first. 2. They th
ought him to be gifted in painting. 3. I heard him whistle. 4. We advised him to
take it easy. 5. They told us to wait. 6. The teacher asked him to explain the
rule. 7. We saw him leave the room. 8. We consider his methods to be very intere
sting. VIII. Punei complementele circumstaniale din paranteze la locul potrivit n p
ropoziie: 1. I am working on my graduation project (now). 2. He has had his dinne
r (already). 3. These flowers grow (rapidly, in dark places.). 4. The last lesso
n was difficult (unusually); this one is easy (enough). 5. I have believed them
(never). 6. His behaviour cannot be explained (entirely). 7. Our teacher speaks
English (very well). He speaks English (in the classroom, always). 8. That autho
r doesnt write true stories (actually). 9. You can excuse yourself for that reaso
n (hardly). 10. He comes (sometimes, on Saturday, to my place). 11. He goes to t
he the seaside (usually, in July). 12. Look at those sentences (tonight). IX. Pu
nei atributele din parantez la locul potrivit n propoziie: 1. We had a long talk wit
h somebody (intelligent). 2 That child is my son (fair-haired). 3. I can't belie
ve that story (long, of your friend). 4. There are plenty of sights in town (his
torical of Braov). 5. He is a man (handssome, with strong features.). 6. Have you
seen the inscription (oldest, extant)? 7. We bought some wine (dry, red, inexpe
nsive). 8. She was looking at Valley (wide, beautiful, green) pag: 219 X. Sublin
iai apoziiile: 1. You look tired, Aunt Mary. 2. Have you read Chavy Chase, the old
est historical English ballad?. 3. Professor Jones will lecture on modern art. 4
. Yesterday I met the Smithe, the friends of my youth. 5. Do you know the old sa
ying "First come, first served"?. 6. We admired the exhibits, especiallythe nati
onal costumes7. London is crossed by the river Thames. 8. There was only one car
riage in the village and that was old Tom's the baker. XI. Traducei n limba englez:

Rou Gheorghe este soldatul cel mai mic, nu numai din grupa sau din plutonul lui,
ci din ntreaga companie. Era att de mic, nct abia reuise la recrutare s nu fie reforma
t. De fapt la nceput l i reformaser, dup ce mai nti fusese amnat de dou ori n doi a
satul lui acest lucru n-ar fi fost socotit drept o daovad definitiv de infirmitat
e, Rou Gheorghe ar fi putut s ia imediat trenul de la centrul de recrutare i s plece
n aceeiai zi acas. n aceeai zi ns, tot satul ar fi tiut c nu e bun de armat, i n
fetele.. Era originar de prin Banat. Aa se face c, dndu-se jos de pe cntarul medical
, Rou Gheorghe nu ieise din sal, ci se retrsese mai ncolo, tcut i trist, ntrziind c
e de mult n timpul mbrcatului. Cu ochiul lui pnditor de bnean linitit observase ns
nu era tent la el. i atunci se amestecase cu ceilali care veneau la rnd, se deybrca
se i se prezentae iar n faa comisiei. (Marin Preda - Soldatul ce mititel) 23. Feluri
le propoziiilor (Kinds of Sentence) 23.0. Clasificare Din punct de vedere al scop
ului comunicrii, propoziiile pot fi mprite n patru clase mari: enuniative, interogativ
, imperative i exclamative. Fiecare clas prezint anumite caracteristici n ceea ce pri
vete intonaia, punctuaia, topica etc., necesare pentru exprimarea coninutului ei spe
cific. 23.1. Propoziia enuniativ (Declarative Sentence, Statement) Propoziia enuniati
v este utilizat pentru transmiterea unei informaii. Aceasta poate fi: a) afirmativ:
He speaks English well. (El) Vorbete bine englezete. b) negativ: He doesnt speak Eng
lish well. El nu vorbete bine englezete. Intonaia propoziiilor enuniative este descen
dent: I went to two yesterday. M-am dus n ora ieri. pag: 220 Ordinea propoziiilor n p
ropoziia enuniativ n propoziiile enuniative, subiecte este de obicei exprimat i preced
predicatul. Ordinea cuvintelor este astfel: (atribut +) subiect + predicat (+ c
omplement direct) (+ complemente circumstaniale de mod, loc, timp): Little Tommy
learned a poem at school yesterday. 23.2. Propoziia negativ (The Negative Sentence
) 23.2.1. Exprimarea negaiei n limba englez prezint unele deosebiri fa de limba romn,
cesitnd un studiu atent. Exprimarea negaiei n limba englez se face de regul cu ajutor
ul unui singur cuvnt de negare, spre deosebire de limba romn: I didnt say anything t
o anybody. Nu am spus nimic la nimeni. 23.2.2. O propoziie poate conine dou negaii d
oar dac acestea se refer la dou pri diferite ale propoziei: I didnt tell him not to ph
ne. Nu i-am spus s nu telefoneze.

Not: Propoziii ca: He ain't got nothing. El nu are nimic, care se pot ntlni n unele o
pere literare, cntece sau filme sunt forme incorecte din punct de vedere gramatic
al, caracteristice vorbirii necultivate sau cntecelor populare. 23.2.3. Exprimare
a sensului negativ al unei propoziii se poate face prin: A) negarea verbului; B)
negarea altei pri de propoziie. A) Negarea verbului: a) Verbele be i have ca verbe n
oionale, verbele modale defective i verbele noionale la timpuri compuse formeaz nega
tivul prin adugarea negaiei not dup primul auxiliar / modal: He is NOT an engineer.
I have NOT a new bucycle. He canNOT swim. I have NOT spoken English today. He s
hould NOT have done this. Not: Dac un verb este urmat de un substantiv, se poate f
olosi no, echivalentul lui not any: I have no time. Nu am timp. There are no chi
ldren in playground. Nu e nici un copil pe terenul de joc. n vorbire, negaia not e
ste contras n nt care se scrie ntr-un cuvnt cu verbul: He isnt an engineer. I havent b
cycle. Exprimarea constras a negaiei se mai poate face i prin contragerea verbului
auxiliar, acolo unde este posibil: He isnt here = Hes not here. They arent working
= Theyre not working. They havent read the book = Theyve not read the book. He wont
come = Hell not come. She wouldnt speak = Shed not speak. b) Pentru formarea negati
vului la timpurile Present Simple i Past Simple (care nu conin auxiliare n forma lo
r), se folosete verbul auxiliar do pentru prezent i forma de Past Tense, did, pent
ru Past Tense. Auxiliarul do/did + negaia not se aeaz ntre subiect i verb, care este
la infinitivul scurt: I do not know him. I did not see them. La persoana a III-a
singular prezent, auxiliarul primete -es, lund forma does: He does not like grape
fruit. Atenie ! 1. Verbul auxiliar do este necesar pentru formarea negativului la
prezent i Past Tense i n cazul verbului noional do = a face: He didnt do anything ye
sterday. N-a fcut nimic ieri. pag: 221 2. Verbul have poate forma negativul i cu a
jutorul lui do: I dont have enough money. He didnt have any friends in this town. n
vorbire, negaia not este de obicei contras: I dont know him. I didnt see them. He d
oesnt like grapefruit. Forma negativ a verbelor Verb Subiect 1 be, have la Present
, Past Tense 2 I He Ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie Verb aux./ not 3 am was has 4 N
OT a bicycle. Verb noional/ (+alte pri de prop.) 5 a teacher.
modal Nume Predicativ

Verb noional la aspectul continuu Verb noional la diateza pasiv Verb noional la timp
uri perfecte
We He You They He They They
had are were will be is was are were have had has had will would do does
reading. NOT reading. understood. NOT being followed. been show the museum. come
. finished by then. have arrived yet. have done this. like milk.
NOT
Verb noional la Present, Past Tense Simpledid Verb noional + verb modal pag: 222
Mary I He
NOT
They You
must NOT should
swim. have done this.
B) Caracterul negativ al unei propoziii poate fi exprimat i prin negarea altor pri d
e propoziie: - subiectul: Nobody came here yesterday. - numele predicativ: He is
nothing to me. - complementul (direct, indirect, prepoziional): I saw nothing the
re. I spoke to nobody about this. - complementul circumstanial: He is nowhere to
be found. Pentru negarea acestor pri de propoziii se pot utiliza pronume, adjective
sau adverbe negative ca: ni (one), none, neitherm nothing, nowhere, never etc.:
None of them knew the answer. Nici unul dintre ei (mai muli de doi) nu tia rspunsu
l. Neither of them knew the answer. Niciunul (din cei doi) nu tia rspunsul. Unele
dintre aceste mijloace de exprimare a negaiei au cte un corespondent: any (one) ei
ther, anything, anywhere, ever etc. care este folosit cnd verbul este la forma ne
gativ: I didnt know anything = I knew nothing. Ele pot fi folosite ca orice parte
de propoziie, n afar de subiect sau parte din subiect: I couldnt see anything in the
dark. dar: Nothing could be seen in the dark. n majoritatea cazurilor cuvintele
negative au echivalente n propoziiile afirmative: Afirmativ I met SOME frinds of m
ine. Am ntlnit nite prieteni de-ai mei. Ive read about this SOMEWHERE. Am citit unde
va despre asta. Negativ I didnt meet ANY friends of mine. N-am ntlnit nici un priet
en de-al meu. I havent read about this any where

Alteori ns se folosesc cuvinte diferite: Afirmativ Theyve eaten already. Au mncat de


ja. He is still sleeping. Doarme nc. He sometimes phones me. mi telefoneaz uneori. T
hey read too many books. Ei citesc prea multe cri. Mary is coming , too. Vine i Mar
ia. Negativ They havent eaten yet. N-au mncat nc. He isnt sleeping any longer. Nu mai
doarme. He never/seldom phones me. Nu-mi telefoneaz niciodac/Rar telefoneaz. They
dont read very many books. Ei nu citesc prea multe cri. Mary isnt coming euther. Nu
vine nici Maria.
mi

Adjectivele little i few i adverbele only, seldom, rarely, hardly, scarcely, barel
y ocup un loc special. Ele sunt cuvinte cu sens negativ, dei forma lor nu arat acea
sta. n consecin, propoziiile care nu conin asemenea cuvinte nu pot avea un predicat n
egativ i se construiesc cu any i compuii si: He seldom speaks to anyone. Arareori vo
rbete cu cineva. Few people know anything about him. Puini oameni tiu ceva despre e
l. pah: 223 23.2.4. Sublinierea caracterului negativ al unei pri de propoziie se fa
ce prin aezarea ei n poziie iniial. Cu verbele be, have, aceasta atrage dup sine inver
siunea total subiect-predicat: NEVER has he in time. Niciodat nu era punctual. Cu
verbele noionale are loc inversiunea parial subiect - verb auxiliar/modal: HARDLY c
ould he talk about that subject. Cu greu vorbea despre acel subiect. Dac verbul e
ste la Present sau Past Simple, se adaug auxiliarul do/does respectiv forma Past
Tense did: NEVER does he listen to anyone. Niciodat nu ascult de nimeni. NOT A GOA
L did their goalkeeper miss. Nu i-a scpat nici o minge portarului lor. 23.2.5. Ne
garea unei propoziii ntregi se realizeaz cu ajutorul adverbului no sa not: Do you l
ike him ? No. Adverbul negativ no este de obicei nsoit de un subiect exprimat prin
pronume , de auxiliarul verbului din prima propoziie i negaia contras -nt: Have you
seen Tom ? No, I havent. Adverbul not este folosit dup cteva verbe principale (thin
k, hope, expect) la timpul Present sau Past Simple, pentru a nega o propoziie ntre
ag: Do you think it will rain ? I hope not. / I think not. Crezi c o s plou ? Cred c
nu / Sper c nu. Not: 1. Acordul unei persoane cu o propoziie negativ se exprim n limba
englez cu ajutorul adverbnului negativ no i a unui rspuns scurt (spre deosebire de
limba romn unde se folosete da.) This is not a suitable dress for you. No it isn't
. Nu este o rochie potrivit pentru tine. Da nu este. 2. Folosirea lui yes n limba
englez nseamn dimpotriv exprimarea unui dezacord: This is not a suitable dress for y
ou. Yes, it is. Nu este o rochie potrivit pentru tine. Ba da, este. 3. Tot pentru
exprimarea acordului cu o propoziie negativ se pot folosi i conjunciile neither/nor
n poziie iniial, urmate de un verb afirmativ+subiect sau either/or n poziie final, pr
cedate de un verb

negativ: I'm not good at gardening. Neither(Nor) am I/ I'm not neither -- Nu m pr


icep la grdinrit. Nici eu. 4. Acordul vorbitorului cu un enun afirmativ se face cu
ajutorul adverbului too aezat la sfritul propoziiei, sau so, n poziie iniial (+invers
e) I like English. I do, too. (So do I). mi place engleza. i mie. 23.3. Propoziia i
nterogativ (The Interrogative Sentence) Propoziia interogativ este folosit pentru a
cere o informaie de la interlocutor. Coninutul interogativ al propoziiei este expri
mat de regul prin forma interogativ a verbului. pag: 224 23.3.1. Interogativul ver
belor se formeaz: a) prin inversiune subiect-predicat n cazul verbelor be i have fo
losite ca verbe noionale, la Present sau Past Tense: Was he at home ? Era acas ? H
as she a new uniform ? Are o uniform nou ? b) prin inversiune subiect-verb auxilia
r/modal n cazul verbelor modale defective i al timpurilor verbale compuse: WILL TH
EY have arived by now ? Vor fi sosit deja ? CAN HE come at five ? Poate veni la
ora cinci ? c) prin inversiune subiect - verb auxiliar do / did la timpul Presen
t Simple, respectiv Past Simple al verbelor principale: DO YOU understand me now
? M nelegi acum ? DID THEY understand me yesterday ? M-au neles ei ieri ? La persona
a III-a singular prezent, auxiliarul do adaug -es: DOES the postman come every d
ay ? Vine potaul n fiecare zi ? Forma interogativ a verbelor Ordinea cuvintelor n pro
poziie Verb Subiect Verb noional auxiliar/modal 1 2 3 4 be, have, la Are you Prese
nt Past Were Tense Have you Had Verb noional la aspectul continuu : Present Are t
hey reading? Continuous Past Were they reading? Continuous Present Perfect Have
they been living Continuous Future Perfect Will they have been Continuous playin
g Verb noional Verb Alte pri de propoziie 5 in the classroom? a dictionary?
now? at this time yesterday? in Deva for a long time? all day?

la diateza pasiv: Present Is Are Past Was Were Present Perfect Past Perfect Futur
e Perfect Perfect Conditional 1 Verb noional la timpuri perfecte Present Perfect
Past Perfect Future Perfect Perfect Conditional Verb noional la: Present Simple P
ast Simple Verb noional + Verb modal pag: 225 Have Had Will Would 2
everything the clothes America the classrooms the visitors the school the baby t
his 3
prepared? being washed discovered being cleaned
by Columbus? when you came? been shown the new exhibits? been built by 1970? hav
e been by then? washed have been done if they had had the money for it? 4 5
Have Had Will Would Do Does Did Can Should
they they they they you this everybody she she
finished written have arrived have done like belong come speak have come
already? to you? yet? this? this? to you? in time? English? too?

23.3.2. Se pot formula ntrebri i despre situaii negative, ceea ce rezult n propoziii i
terogativ negative. n acest loc inversiunea are loc ntre subiect - verb auxiliar /
modal, iar negaia not se aeaz dup subiect: WILL TOM not do it ? Cnd se folosete forma
contras -nt, ea face corp comun cu auxiliarul: Wont Tom do it ? N-a s fac Tom asta ?
23.3.3. n propoziiile interogative se folosesc n general aceleai pronume adjective
sau adverbe ca i n propoziiile negative. Atenie ! 1. Any i compuii lui pot fi folosii
propoziii afirmative cu sensul de oricine, orice, oriunde: You can take any book
you like. Poi s iei orice carte vrei. Anyone can do this. Oricine poate s fac acest
lucru. Take anything you like. Ia tot/orice doreti. You can get it anywhere. Se
gsete peste tot / oriunde.

2. Some i compuii lui se transform n any i compuii lui n propoziii condiionale pentr
eda sentimentul negativ al vorbitorului: If you see any children in the playgrou
nd, come and tell me. Dac vezi vreun copil pe terenul de sport, vino i spune-mi. 3
. Some este folosit n contexte n care se folosete de obicei any, pentru a reda sent
imentul pozitiv al vorbitorului. If you see some children in the playground, com
e and tell me. Dac vezi nite copii pe terenul de sport, vino i spune-mi. Folosirea
formelor afirmative n ntrebri: Was there someone there ? Would you like some tea ?
indic orietarea pozitiv a ntrebrii, vorbitorul ateptnd un rspuns afirmativ, o confirma
e a ntrebrii sale: E adevrat c a fost cineva acolo ? Dorii nite ceai ? Prin propoziiil
interogative se pot formula mai multe feluri de ntrebri: generale, speciale, alte
rnative i disjunctive. pag: 226 23.3.4. ntrebrile generale se refer la predicat i atea
pt un rspuns scurt afirmativ sau negativ, exprimat de regul prin Yes / No + pronume
+ verb auxiliar / modal: Can you ski ? Yes I can. tii s schiezi ? Da, tiu. Have yo
u written to him ? No, I havent. I-ai scris ? Nu, nu i-am scris. Intonaia acestor n
treb1ri este ascendent: Did you talk to him last night ? Yes, I did. iar ordinea
cuvintelor este: auxiliarul/modal + subiect + verb noional (+ complemente): Will
you be seeing them tommorrow ? i ntlneti mine. ntrebrile generale pstreaz uneori for
opoziiilor enuniative, coninutul lor interogativ fiind indicat doar de semnul ntrebri
i i intonaia ascendent You saw him? Yes, I did. Aceast form este caracteristic exprim
familiare, fiind folosit sau cnd vorbitorul ateapt un rspuns afirmativ: You live her
e ? (Tu locuieti aici ?) sau pentru exprimarea surprinderii: You paid a fine ? Ai
pltit (ntr-adevr) amend ? Folosirea lui some, any, no i a compuilor lor n propoziiil
firmative, negative i interogative Propoziia Propoziia negativ Propoziia afirmativ int
erogativ Verb afirmativ + Verb afirm. +no + Verb negativ + any Verb interogativ +
some (compuii) (compuii) + (compuii) any + (compuii) Ive got some Ive got no books. I
havent got any Have you got any books. Nu am nici o carte. books. books? Am nite
cri. Nu am nici o carte. Ai vreo carte? Ive got something. Ive got nothing. I havent
got Has he got Am ceva. Nu am nimic. anything. anything? Nu am nimic. Are (el) c
eva? I see I see no I dont see Can you see someone/somebody one/nobody. anyone/an
ybody. anyone/anybody? Vd pe cineva. Nu vd pe nimeni. Nu vd pe nimeni. Vezi pe cine
va? It must be He is nowhere to be He isnt anywhere Can this be found somewhere.
found. to be found. anywhere? Trebuie s fie Nu e nicieri de Nu e nicieri de Se gsete
asta undeva. gsit. gsit. undeva? 23.3.5. ntrebrile speciale formuleaz ntrebri despre o
anumit parte de propoziie i ateapt un rspuns definit referitor la aceasta: When did th
ey arrive ? Last night. Cnd au sosit ? Asear. ntrebrile speciale sunt introduse, de
pronume, adjective sau adverbe interogative: - Who pentru fiine: Who is coming ?
Cine vine ? Whose is the book ? A cui este cartea ?

- What pentru obiecte: What subject do you like best ? Ce obiect de studiu i place
cel mai mult ? - Which pentru a indica alegerea sau preferina dintre dou sau mai
multe persoane sau obiecte: Which of these books do you want ? Pe care dintre ac
este cri o vrei ? - How pentru indicarea modului: How did you get this ? Cum ai obi
nut asta ? - How many pentru indicarea numrului: How many quests did you have las
t night ? Ci musafiri ai avut asear ? - How much pentru indicarea cantitii: How much
rice did you buy ? Ct orez au cumprat ? How much did it cost ? Ct a costat ? pag: 2
27 - How old pentru indicarea vrstei: How old are you ? Ci ani ai ? - How far pentr
u indicarea distanei: How far did he run ? Ct de departe a alergat ? - Where pentr
u indicarea locului: Where did you find this ? Unde ai gsit asta ? - When / what
time pentru indicarea momentului: When did they arive ? Cnd au sosit? What time d
id you get up ? La ce or te-ai sculat ? - How long pentru indicarea duratei: How
long did you stay there ? Ct (timp) ai stat acolo ? - Why pentru indicarea cauzei
: Why are you late ? De ce ai ntrziat ? Intonaia ntrebrilor speciale este descendent:
What are you doing now ? Im reading. Ordinea cuvintelor n ntrebrile speciale Cuvinte
le interogative ocup poziie iniial n ntrebrile speciale, iar predicatul sau o parte a
ui precede de obicei subiectul, ordinea cuvintelor fiind: a) cuvnt interogativ (+
compliniri) + be/have (Present/Past simple) + subiect (+complemente): WHAT has h
e in his hand ? Ce are n mn ? WHERE were they last night ? Unde au fost asear ? b) c
uvnt interogativ (+compliniri) + auxiliar/modal + subiect _ verb noional (+complem
ente): HOW MANY postcards have you written today ? Cte vederi ai scris azi ? c) c
uvnt interogativ (+compliniri) + predicat (+complemente) cnd cuvntul interogativ es
te subiectul propoziiei interogative. n aceast situaie nu mai are loc inversiunea su
biect - predicat sau subiect auxiliar, iar la timpurile Present Simple i Past Sim
ple nu se mai folosete auxiliarul do: HOW MANY PUPILS have written to you ? Ci elev
i i-au scris ? WHAT happened ? Ce s-a ntmplat ? WHO rings you up every day ? Cine i t
elefoneaz n fiecare zi ? n toate cele trei cazuri cuvntul interogativ ocup poziie inii
l. O excepie o constituie situaiile n care cuvntul interogativ este precedat de o pre
poziie: At whom are you looking ? La cine te uii ? construcie caracteristic englezei
literare. n vorbire, prepoziia se aeaz la sfritul ntrebrii: Who are you looking at ?
.3.6. ntrebrile alternative se refer la una dintre dou sau mai multe alternative, le
gate prin conjuncia or: Did you see a film or a play last night ? Ai vzut un film
sau o pies de teatru asear ? Prima sau primele alternative au o intonaie ascendent,
iar ultima descendent: Did you talk to Peter, John or Mary about it ? ntrebrile alt
ernative au structura fie a unor ntrebri generale: Did you go there by bus or by t
ram ? fie a unor ntrebri speciale: How did you get there: by bus or by tram ? n con
secin ordinea cuvintelor n ntrebrile alternative este aceeai ca n ntrebrile generale
speciale.

23.3.7. ntrebrile disjunctive cer rspuns sau confirmare la un enun pozitiv sau negat
iv, prin reluarea, n final a verbului auxiliar/modal i a subiectului exprimat prin
pronume, la forma interogativ sau interogativ - negativ, dup cum urmeaz: a) Enun poz
itiv + form interogativ - negativ contras: Tom can answer now, cant he? Toma poate s
rpund acum, nu-i aa ? Father has lost his keys, hasnt he ? Tata i-a pierdut cheile, n
u-i aa ? pag: 228 ntrebri speciale Situaie Cuvntul interogativ= subiectul propoziiei C
uvnt interogativ +complinire Verb Subiect auxiliar/mod al Who Verb Prepoziie aciona
l + complinire came yasterday? is going on there? are present? have been chosen?
see?
What How many Which books you
Cuvntul Who interogativ= alt parte de propoziie dect subiectul What What/Wher e When
How
did
is do will are
your name? children/you they you they he the material? you? they this you he
like/live? be brought? going to do it? like him? chosen?
Why do Which book has What colour is How old How long How much How far What are
have does can is
Cuvntul interogativ= pronume interogativ
studied English? cost? run? speaking
about?

+ prepoziie What Who Who What What What What were does did has will is does they
he you the man the scientist the weather he looking take send shown interest wor
k look at? after? for? in? on? like? like?

b) Enun negativ + forma interogativ: You dont watch TV every night, do you ? Nu te
uii la televizor n fiecare sear, nu-i aa ? They havent come yet, have they ? N-au sos
it nc, nu-i aa ? c) Enun pozitiv + forma interogativ : He comes here every day, does
he ? Cine vine pe-aici n fiecare zi ? Intonaia ntrebrilor disjunctive este: - descen
dent, dac vorbitorul nu ateapt un rspuns real, ci doar o confirmare formal a enunului
: The weather is lovely today, isnt it ? Yes, it is. Ce vreme frumoas e azi, nu-i
aa ? Aa e. pag: 229 - ascendent dac el solicit un rspuns, o confirmare sau negare real
a celor spunse: It is cold outside, isnt it? E frig afar nu-i aa ? printr-un rspuns a
firmativ sau negativ: Yes it is / No, it isnt. Da, este./ Nu, nu este. Particular
iti ale ntrebrilor disjunctive ntrebarea disjunctiv care conine forma I am se termin
arent: I am efficient, arent ? Sunt eficient, nu-i aa ? Dac subiectul din prima part
e a ntrebrii disjunctive este un pronume sau adjectiv nehotrt, pronumele din partea
a doua este he, she, we sau they dup sens: Each participant has to fill in a form
, doesnt he ? Fiecare participant trebuie s completeze un formular, nu-i aa ? Every
body will be delighted, wont they ? Toi vor fi ncntai, nu-i aa ? Observai ntrebrile
nctive coninnd verbe modale: You have to be there at nine, dont you ? Trebuie s fii
acolo la ora 9, nu-i aa ? He used to go finishing in summer, didnt he ? Obinuia s me
arg la pescuit vara, nu-i aa ? Youd beter stay, hadnt you ? Mai bine ai rmne, nu-i aa
Youd rather go, wouldnt you ? Ai prefera s pleci nu-i aa ? 23.4. Propoziia imperativ
Propoziia imperativ exprim un ordin, o rugminte, un ndemn, o interdicie etc. 23.4.1. F
orma verbal caracteristic propoziiilor imperative este modul imperativ, aspectul si
mplu, diateza activ. Imperativul are o singur form, care coincide cu infinitivul sc
urt al verbelor, utilizat pentru persoana a II-a singular i plural: Read the lesso
n ! Citete / Citii lecia ! La persoana I i a III-a singular i plural, ideea de impera
tiv este exprimat prin construcia let + substantiv/pronume personal n acuzativ + in
finitiv scurt al verbului noional: Let me try. S ncerc i eu. Let Mary do it. S fac Mar
ia asta. Let them come in. S intre.

La persoana I plural, pronumele personal n acuzativ este de obicei contras n vorbi


re: Let us stop now = Lets stop now. S ne oprim acum. Forma negativ a imperativului
se construiete cu verbul auxiliar do + negaia not: Do not read the Lesson ! Nu ci
ti(i) lecia ! Dont read the Lesson ! Nu citi(i) lecia ! Do not let Mary do it ! S nu f
ac Maria asta ! Dont let Mary do it ! S nu fac Maria asta ! La persoana I plural sun
t posibile dou forme: a) cu auxiliarul do, caracteristic exprimrii familiare: Dont l
ets stop! b) cu auxiliarul do: Lets not stop! S nu ne oprim! pag: 230 Formele imper
ativului Persoana a II-a singular i plural Write! Dont write! Persoana I plural Le
t us/Lets write! Lets not write! Celelalte persoane: I singular, a III-a Let me/hi
m/her/them write! Dont let singular i plural me/him/her/them write!

23.4.2. Intonaia propoziiilor imperative depinde de sensul lor. Intonaia ascendent e


ste ntrebuinat pentru exprimarea unei invitaii sau a unei rugmini: Sit down. Stai jos.
Give me that book. D-mi cartea aceea. Intonaia descendent este folosit pentru expri
marea unui ordin: Close your book. nchide cartea! Dont look at your deskmate! Nu t
e uita la vecinul de banc! 23.4.3. Din punct de vedere al structurii, propoziiile
imperative pot fi mprite n: a) propoziii fr subiect; b) propoziii imperative cu subie
c) propoziii imperative cu let; d) alte construcii cu valoare de imperativ. a) pr
opoziii imperative fr subiect se construiesc cu modul imperativ, forma afirmativ sau
negativ, i se refer la persoana a II-a singular sau plural. Aceast form este utiliza
t n special pentru exprimarea unor ordine sau interdicii: Dont park here! Nu parcai a
ici. Park over there! Parcai acolo. b) propoziii imperative cu subiect se construi
esc de asemenea cu imperativul, subiectul fiind ns menionbat. La persoana a II-a si
ngular, subiectul este you accentuat, prezena sa indicnd: - iritarea vorbitorului:
You mind your own business. Vezi-i de treaba ta, - o difereniere: You bring the p
lates, Mary and you bring the glasses, Peter. Maria, tu adu farfuriile, i tu Petr
e adu paharele. La persoana a III-a, subiectul poate fi: - un substantiv, utiliz
at pentru nominalizare: Bob and Cathy come here. Bob i Cati s vin aici. - un pronum
e nehotrt, cnd imperativul este adresat oricrei persoane dintr-un grup: Somebody cle
an the blackboard. Cineva s tearg tabla. Everybody write their names. Toi s-i scrie nu
mele. Forma negativ a propoziiilor imperative de tipul a) i b) se construiete cu aju
torul lui do not (dont): Dont open the window. Nu deschide fereastra. Dont you lift
that case. Tu s nu ridici geamantanul (acela)!

c) Propoziiile imperative la persoana I i a III-a singular i plural se construiesc


cu ajutorul verbului let, urmat de un substantiv sau pronume n acuzativ i de infin
itivul scurt al verbului de conjugat: Let me do it. Fac eu asta. Let them come n
ow. S vin acum. La persoana I plural, aceast construcie exprim de obicei un ndemn: Let
us go for a walk. (Hai ) s mergem la plimbare. Lets go for a walk. (Hai ) s mergem
la plimbare. Not: O alt posibilitate de exprimare a unu i ndemn este prin ntreabrea
how/what about + gerund What about going for a walk? d) Alte construcii cu valoa
re de imperativ sunt: 1) construcii impersonale: No parking! Parcarea interzis. No
(unauthorized) entry! Intrarea interzis (persoanelor neautorizate). Wet paint !
Proaspt vopsit. 2) propoziii eliptice: The sal, please. Sarea, v rog. Out with it!
D-i drumul! 3) propoziii coninnd verbe modale, folosite pentru a exprima: - un ordin
: You are to be back at seven. Trebuie s ve ntoarcei la ora apte. - un sfat / o nece
sitate imediat: You must see that film! Trebuie s vezi / vedei filmul acesta! You m
ust go and see her. Trebuie s te duci s-o vezi. 23.4.4 Exist mai multe mijloace de
ntrire i de formulare politicoas a propoziiilor imperative. Pentru intrire, insisten
e aeaz verbul do naintea imperativului: Do speak more quietly. Te rog vorbete mai nce
t. Pentru formulare politicoas, de la un grad mai redus la un grad mai nalt de pol
itee, se ntrebuineaz: - cuvntul please, aezat la nceputul sau mai frecvent la sfritu
poziiei imperative: Switch on the lights, please. Aprinde lumina, te rog. - const
ruciile shall me ? i will you ? n poziie final, care da propoziiilor imperative aspect
ul unor ntrebri disjunctive: Lets watch the TV programme shall we ? Haide s urmrim pr
ogramul la televizor. Turn the volume up, will you ? Vrei s dai volumul mai tare
? - will you / would you n poziie final + please la final, care dau propoziiilor imp
erative aspectul unor ntrebri generale: Will you answer the door, please ? Vrei s rs
punzi la u, te rog. Would you answer the door, please ? Vrei s rspunzi la u, te rog. verbe ca mind, wonder i adjective sau adverbe: kind, kindly etc. n construcii inte
rogative sau afirmative: Do you mind changing seats ? Te superi dac schimbm locuri
le ? Would you mind changing seats ? Te superi dac schimbm locurile ? Will you be
so kind as to have a look at these papers ? Vrei s fii aa de drgu s te uii la aceste l
ucrri ? I wonder if you would kindly read this application, etc. 23.5. Propoziia e
xclamativ Propoziia exclamativ exprim o gam larg de stri afective: surprinderea, satis
acia, nemulumirea, dispreul etc., n: a) construcii specific exclamative; b) n alte for
me nespecifice. pag: 232 23.5.1. Intonaia propoziiilor exclamative este descendent:
How interesting this book is ! Ce interesant este aceast carte !

23.5.2. Propoziiile exclamative propriu-zise sunt cele introduse de what (+adject


iv) + substantiv sau de how + adjectiv / adverb: What (interesting) stories he k
nows ! Ce povestiri (interesante) tie! How well he remembers everything! Ce bine i
amintete totul! Aceste propoziii au form afirmativ. Ordinea cuvintelor este: subiect
+ predicat + etc., precedate de parte de propoziie despre care se exprim exclamaia
. (Aceasta ocup totdeauna poziie iniial). What wonderful people they met in their tr
ip! Ce oameni minunai au ntlnit n excursie! (What... / how... + subiect + predicat (
+complemente). Uneori propoziiile exclamative sunt eliptice, predicatul i subiectu
l fiind neexprimate: What a wonderful voice (she has)! Ce voce minunat! How true
(this is)! Ct de adevrat! 23.5.3. Propoziii exclamative cu form nespecific sunt excla
maii exprimate prin: a) propoziii enuniative: Her acting was perfect! Interpretarea
ei a fost perfect! You are a liar! Eti un mincinos! Not: O categorie aparte o form
ez propoziiile introduse de here, there, away, off, n care are loc inversiunea subi
ect-predicat dac subiectul este exprimat printr-un substantiv: Here you are/Here
it is (Poftim) dar: There goes the last bus. S-a dus i ultimul autobuz! b) propoz
iii interogativ - negative n care vorbitorul ateapt acordul interlocutorului cu cele
spuse de el: Hanst she improved! Nu-i aa c a fcut progrese! Isnt he clever! Nu-i aa c
i detept! c) interjecii: Hush! ! Dear me! Vai de mine! EXERCISES I. Trecei urmtoarele
ropoziii la forma negativ: 1. This is a Dacia car. 2. They were playing tennis. 3.
She needs help. 4. I do my homework in the evening. 5. They came early. 6. He h
as a sister. 7. The meeting began at five oclock sharp.8. 9. He can swim. 10. She
has lost her pencil. 11. I listene to the radio in the morning. 12. They will a
rrive tomorrow. 13. He told me something. 14. He teaches English in this school.
15. There are many pictures in this book. 16. This report was typed yesterday.
17. He got up late yesterday. 18. He goes to work by bus. 19. I write to her eve
ry week. 20. They are going to visit the Zoo. II. Formulai ntrebri la care prile de p
ropoziie scrise cursiv s fie rspunsuri. Exemplu: They played football [in the park.
] A: Where did they play football? B: In the park. 1. They are waiting [in the o
ther room.] 2. He did his work [carefully.] 3. The secretary will type the repor
t [tomorrow.] 4. He is [ten years old.] 5. [The students in this class] work ver
y hard. 6. The last lesson was [very difficult.] 7. [Two] pupils are absent toda
y. 8. The jurnalist spoke [about peace and disarmament]. 9. He is working [ on h
is thesis now]. 10 . The teacher will talk [to our parents] tomorrow. 11. [Fathe
r's car] broke down yesterday. 12. The pupils met [their teacher] in front of th
e school. 13. They postponed their trip [because of the weather]. 14. They have
been here a [week]. 15. He wants the [red] pencil. 16. His car is [blue]. III. C
ompletai urmtoarele ntrebri disjunctive:

1. That man is our teacher, .... ? 2. You havent finished yet,....? 3. Peter read
s in the library,.... ? 4. Mary sent the letter yesterday,.....? 5. You will exp
lain that tomorrow,....? 6. They didnt have a good time at the party...? 7. You
can do this translation....?8. John doesnt know the truth....? 9. He shouldnt
behave like this, ...? 10. You have a new dress, ...? 11. Everybody in this cla
ss plays football well,....? 12. He never used to wear a hat, ...? 13. Wed bett
er wait for her...? 14. Youd rather not say anything....? IV. Trecei urmtoarele p
ropoziii la interogativ i negativ sub form de dialog: Model. They are still eating.
A: Are they still eating? B: No, they aren't. They aren't. eating any longer. 1
. Tom whispered something to his brother. 2. They shoul have left earlier. 3. Sh
e has a new pen. 4. He did too many exercises yesterday. 5. He lives a long way
from his friends. 6. They sometimes see each other. 7. They've already seen that
film. 8. There are some people in the street. 9. They'll find him. 10. Anyone c
an do this translation. V. Exprimai urmtoarele comenzi ntr-un mod mai politicos. Fo
losii mai multe variante: 1. Open the door. 2. Dont sing in this room. 3. Keep ui
et. 4. Be careful. 5. Drive more slowly. 6. Dont waste your time. 7. Dont make so
much noise. 8. Take the dog for a walk. VI. Comentai asupra jocurilor olimpice fo
losind propoziii exclamative: Exemplu: The Olympic Games are an important event.
What an important event the Olympic Games are! How important the Olympic Games a
re! 1. Many top athlets compete in the Games. 2. They works very hard. 3. Thee i
s an atmosphere of goodwill and co-operation during the Games. 4. The Games are
very well-organized.. 5. The Olympic Stadium is huge. 6. There are a lot of part
icipants in the Olympic Games. 7. They come from long distances. 8. Millions of
people watch the Games on televisoan. 9. The Romanian representatives are well-t
rained. 10. They obtain good results at the Games. VII. Traducei n limba englez: 1.
Nici unuia dintre ei nu i-a plcut spectacolul. 2. Nici unul din cei doi n-a neles
despre ce vorbeai. 3. De la cine ai primit pachetul? 4. Se duc la meci, nu-i aa?
5. N-ai fost niciodat la galeriile de art, nu-i aa? 6. S las radioul aprins sau s-l s
ting? 7. Hai s ne ntoarcem. 8. Vrei s fii aa de drgu s cni un cntec? 9. Trebuie s
zi. 10. E mult vreme de cnd nu l-am vzut. 11. N-a fost plecat mult vreme. 12. Nu-mi
place acest actor i nici prietenului meu nu-i place. 13. Ei nu mai sunt aici. 14.
Cu greu putea s vad ceva n camera ntunecoas. VIII Antrenorul tia c nu exist nimic ma
un cnd vrei s-l nvei pe om ceva dect s-l ambiionezi, s-l pui s se ntreac cu alii
. Iat de ce, de la o vreme, ncepuse s promit mici premii celor mai buni executani ai
exerciiilor necesare antrenamentului. Luca simi dup un timp, aa cum simte nvtorul car
a ctigat ncrederea elevilor si, c se terminase cu indisciplina. Chiar "Le tie" alt dat
att de refractar, se arta interesat de aceste jocuri. Premiile nu erau mare lucru
, dar nimeni nu putea suferi ca altul s i-o ia nainte, aa cum se ntmpl de obicei cu to
oamenii. (Eugen Barbu -- Unsprezece)

pag: 235 Partea a III-a SINTAXA FRAZEI (The compound and complex sentence) III.0
. Generaliti III.0.1. Unitatea de baz a sintaxei este propoziia. Propoziia poate fi d
e sine stttoare: She is a teacher, sau poate fi n anumite relaii cu anumite propoziii
, intrnd n alctuirea unei fraze: She became a teacher when she was twenty three. Fr
aza este unitatea sintactic superioar propoziiei, fiind constituit din dou sau mai mu
lte propoziii; ea este ntotdeauna de sine stttoare. Atenie! n limba englez nu exist u
uvnt special pentru fraz. Sentence poate nsemna att fraz ct i propoziie independent
nu face parte dintro fraz). Pentru propoziiile din cadrul unei fraze se folosete t
ermenul clause. III.0.2. Sintaxa propoziiei studiaz propoziia privit independent de
legtura cu alte propoziii. Sintaxa frazei studiaz felul cum se unesc propoziiile pen
tru a alctui fraze, raporturile care se stabilesc ntre aceste propoziii n cadrul fra
zei. III.0.3. Raporturile sintactice dintre propoziiile unei fraze sunt aceleai ca
i dintre prile unei propoziii: - raporturi de coordonare ntre propoziiile de acelai f
l; - raporturi de subordonare ntre propoziii dependente unele de altele. Frazele p
rin coodonare, alctuite din dou sau mai multe propoziii principale, se numesc compo
und sentences n limba englez, iar frazele prin subordonare, formate din una sau ma
i multe propoziii principale i una sau mai multe propoziii secundare, se numesc com
plex sentences. Identitatea raporturilor existente n cadrul propoziiei i al frazei
face ca n studierea celor dou uniti sintactice s se ntlneasc categorii similare: subi
ului din propoziie i corespunde n fraz propoziia subiectiv, complementului direct, pro
poziia completiv direct etc. III.0.4. Propoziiile dintr-o fraz sunt legate ntre ele: asindetic: fr ajutorul unui cuvnt de legtur; - cu ajutorul unor conjuncii (coordonato
are sau subordonatoare), pronume sau adjective relative sau interogative, adverb
e relative sau adverbe cu valoare de conjuncie. pag: 236

24. Fraza prin coordonare (The Compound Sentence) 24.1. Coordonarea Coordonarea
este raportul dintre dou sau mai multe uniti sintactice care stau pe acelai plan. n c
adrul frazei, propoziiile aflate n raport de coordonare sunt pe acelai plan, n sensu
l c sunt fie toate principale fie toate subordonate aceluiai element regent. 24.2.
Felul coordonrii Dup natura raportului dintre elementele pe care le leag, coordona
rea n fraz, ca i n propoziie, poate fi: copulativ, disjunctiv i adversativ. Coordona
e poate realiza att asindetic, prin simpla alturare a propoziiilor coordonate, ct i p
rin conjuncii coordonatoare specifice. 24.3. Coordonarea copulativ (Copulative Coo
rdination) Propoziiile coordonate prezentate de vorbitor ca asociate se numesc co
pulative. Conjunciile copulative sunt: a) and, b) both... and, c) not only... but
also, iar pentru propoziii negative: d) (and) neither/nor e) neither... nor. Con
junciile copulative se aeaz ntotdeauna la nceputul propoziiilor pe care le introduc i
u pot fi precedate de alte conjuncii: I liked tea and my sister likes milk. (Comp
arai cu o conjuncie subordonatoare, care poate fi precedat de alt conjuncie: He went
home because he was tired AND because it was late). a) And poate lega dou sau mai
multe propoziii. n al doilea caz, conjuncia apare de regul o singur dat, naintea ulti
ei propoziii: Phone him at once, invite him to the conference and ask him to be p
unctual. De dou sau mai multe propoziii coordonate prin and au acelai subiect, subi
ectul din a doua (a treia etc.) propoziie este de obicei omis: He went into the s
hop, (he) bought a tie and (he) paid for it at the cash desk. Dac predicatele din
propoziiile coordonatoare conin acelai verb auxiliar, el se omite mpreun cu subiectu
l: Ive been wainting and (Ive been) wondering where you are. b) Both... and sunt f
olosite pentru coordonarea a dou propoziii avnd acelai subiect, sau pentru coordonar
ea a dou subiecte avnd acelai predicat: He both speaks and writes two foreign langu
ages. Both Peter and Ann have won prizes. pag: 237 c) not only... but also. Pent
ru ntrire, not only poate fi aezat n poziie iniial, producnd inversiune ntre subiect
dicat: Not only did he read the whole poem, but he also translated part of it. d
) Nor/neither este folosit cnd prima propoziie este negativ. Nor/neither cere inver
siune ntre subiect i predicat / verb auxiliar i poate fi precedat de and: He did no
t come to the symposium, (and) neither / nor did he send in his paper.

e) Neither... nor sunt folosite i mpreun pentru a nega dou propoziii legate prin and.
Folosirea lui neither... nor subliniaz caracterul negativ al ambelor propoziii. C
omparai: She didnt eat and she didnt drink. dar: She neither ate nor drank anything
. 24.4. Coordonarea disjunctiv (Disjunctive Coordonation) Raportul de coordonare
disjunctiv se stabilete ntre propoziii coordonate care sunt prezentate de vorbitor c
a excluzndu-se una pe alta ntr-o msur mai mare sau mai mic. Conjunciile disjunctive su
nt: or i either...or, iar n propoziiile n care se exclud ambele alternative, cu un v
erb la forma afirmativ, neither...nor. Coordonarea disjunctiv se stabilete de obice
i ntre dou alternative, dintre care una este preferat ntr-un anumit moment. Alternat
iva preferat este de obicei menionat nti: Shall we go for a walk or shall we watch TV
? Adugarea lui either naintea primei alternative indic de regul excluderea ambelor
alternative. Exist ns i situaii n care coordonarea disjunctiv leag trei sau mai multe
opoziii, raportul de excludere reciproc fiind mai puin evident: You may either read
a book, watch TV or listen to the radio. Raportul disjunctiv se apropie de cel
copulativ i n cazul a dou propoziii, dac nu este necesar a se opta pentru o singur alt
ernativ. 24.5. Coordonarea adversativ (Adversative Coordination) Propoziiile coordo
nate care se opun una alteia fr a se exclude se numesc adversative. Acestea sunt l
egate de obicei prin conjuncia adversativ but: They would like to come but they ar
e too busy. pag: 238 La coodonarea adversativ, interdependena dintre cele dou propo
ziii este mai mare dect la coordonarea copulativ i cea disjunctiv, propoziiile adversa
tive neputndu-i schimba locul ntre ele fr a se modifica sensul: He is elderly but (he
) (is) energetic. Este n vrst dar plin de energie, dar (este) n vrst. 24.6. Folosirea
timpurilor n frazele prin coordonare n frazele prin coordonare se pot utiliza oric
e timpuri verbale, n funcie de intenia vorbitorului: I went to the seaside last yes
r AND Ill go there again next year. Excepie: enumerrile de aciuni n stilul narativ se
pun la acelai timp gramatical: prezent, Past Tense sau viitor, n funcie de momentu
l naraiunii, spre deosebire de limba romn, unde timpurile pot alterna:

Everybody was home. Welcome. Noises of welcome. Mother kissed him. Father asked
him what marks he had got. Noises... The noise of curtain rings being pulled asi
de. His bed was hot and his face and body were hot. The nurse asked him: Are you
all right ? He didnt know, and the nurse said: Get back into bed. (j. Joyce - Th
e Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man) Toi erau acas. Bine-ai venit. Zgomote de
bun venit. Mama l srut. Tata l ntreab ce note a obinut. Zgomote... Zgomotul inelelor d
perdea trase de-a parte. Patul lui dogorete i faa i trupul i dogoresc. Sora l ntreab
Nu i-e bine? Nu tia; i sora zise: - Bag-te napoi n pat. (J. Joyce - Portretul artistu
lui n tineree) 25. Fraza prin subordonare (The complex Sentence) Subordonarea este
raportul sintactic existent ntre doi termeni dintre care unul l determin pe cellalt
, depinde de el din punct de vedere gramatical. Raporturile ntr-o fraz de subordon
are (Complex Sentence) se stabilesc ntre propoziiile secundare sau subordonare (Su
bordinate Clauses) i propoziiile lor regente (main Clauses), care la rndul lor, pot
fi propoziii principale n fraz sau subordonate propoziiei principale n fraz. Fraza: H
e asked me where I bought the dress I was wearing. este alctuit din: 1. He asked m
e (propoziia principal) 2. where I had bought the dress (propoziie secundar fa de 1 da
r regenta lui 3) 3. I was wearing (propoziie subordonat fa de 2). 25.1. Propoziiile s
ubordonate sunt legate de propoziiile lor regente prin: a) conjuncii subordonatoar
e circumstaniale; b) un element wh-; c) that d) inversiune. pag: 239 a) Conjunciil
e subordonatoare circumstaniale sunt cel mai important mijloc de indicare a subor
donrii n fraz. Ele se clasific n funcie de propoziiile pe care le introduc. Unele conj
ncii subordonatoare sunt alctuite din dou elemente: o conjuncie care apare de regul n
propoziia subordonat i un adverb care apare n propoziia regent (correlative subordinat
ors): He was so ill that they took him to hospital. No sooner had they reached h
ome than is stoped raining. Conjunciile subordonatoare se aeaz de regul la nceputul p
ropoziiei secundare. Aceasta poate precede sau urma propoziia regent. Propoziiile su
bordonate temporale, cauzale (introduse de as/since), condiionale i concesive apar
de obicei n poziie iniial: As the weather was bad, we stayed home all day. Although
she spoke very spoke very slowly, I couldnt understand her. Propoziiile introduse
de because i propoziiile consecutive ocup de regul o poziie final n fraz: I cant he
u with your homework because Im busy right now. Lydia liked the book so much that
she read it three times.

Conjunciile subordonatoare pot fi precedate de alte conjuncii, spre deosebire de c


onjunciile coordonatoare: He left early because he wasnt feeling very well AND bec
ause the party was boring. Dac o propoziie subordonat are acelai subiect (i verb auxi
liar) ca i propoziia sa regent, acesta trebuie menionat: Though he has never been to
this twn, he has often written about it. b) Elementele wh - reprezint: - pronume
interogative sau relative: who, whom/whose, which, what; - adverbe relative: wh
ere, when, how, why; - compuii acestora: whoever, whichever, whatever, wherever,
whenever, however. Elementele wh- sunt folosite ca marc a subordonrii n: - propoziii
interogative indirecte: I dont know who was there. - n propoziii relative: This is
the place where I first saw her. c) Conjuncia that este folosit pentru introducer
ea mai multor tipuri de propoziii subordonate. n vorbire, conjuncia that este adese
a omis: I knew she was right. Im sure she was right. That nu poate fi omis cnd prop
oziia este subiectiv: THAT he was so ill alarmed her. 25.2. Clasificarea propoziiil
or subordonate O clasificare funcional a propoziiilor subordonate este n: A) propozii
i subordonate introduse de that, care ndeplinesc funciile unui grup nominal, putnd
avea funcia de: - subiect: That he answered so well surprised everybody. - comple
ment direct: I knew that she was right. - nume predicativ: The belief is that th
ings will improve. pag: 240 - apoziie: Your opinion, that things will improve, is
well founded. - complement prepoziional: Im sure that they were right. B) Propozii
ile relative, care se comport funcional ca nite adjective atributive: The man who w
aved to us was my uncle. C) propoziiile circumstaniale, care ndeplinesc funcia unor
complemente circumstaniale de timp, loc, condiie, cauz fa de elemetele lor regente: Y
oull hear all about it when he comes. Youll hear all about it where you go. Youll h
ear all about it if you want to. 25.3. Reducerea propoziiilor subordonate Propozii
ile subordonate pot fi reduse de obicei la construcii cu verbe la forme nepersona
le: a) construcii infinitivale; b) construcii participiale. a) Construciile infinit
ivale (to - Infinitive Nominal Clauses) pot ndeplini funcia de:

subiect: For him to come so late is unbelievable. complement direct: I like ever
yone to be punctual. nume predicativ: To be a doctor is to be very hard working.
apoziie: His desire to become a veterynary doctor was finally fulfilled. complem
ent prepoziional: Im glad to be of help.

b) Construciile participiale (ing-Nominal Clauses) pot ndeplini funcia de: - subiec


t: Helping people in need is the main duty of the Red Cross. - complement direct
: I dont like lying to people. - compement prepoziional: Im proud of being her pupi
l. - nume predicativ: His hobby is collecting Romanian stamps. - apoziie: His pre
sent job, being secretary of the sports club, requires a great deal of work. A.
Propoziiile subordonate introduse de that (That Clauses) Propoziiile subordonate i
ntroduse de taht pot ndeplini mai multe funcii pe lng elementele lor regente. n conse
cin, ele se mpart n propoziii subordonate completive directe, subiective, predicative
, apoziionale etc. 25.4. Propoziia completiv direct (The Direct Object Clause) 25.4.
1. Propoziia completiv direct ndeplinete rolul de complement direct al predicatului d
in propoziia regent: Remember that we have to leave by 11:00 a.m. S nu uii c trebuie
s plecm n jurul orei 11. 25.4.2. Propoziiile enuniative i interogative trecute la vorb
irea indirect sunt de asemenea completive direecte: We asked him whether he had u
nderstood the instructions. L-am ntrebat dac a neles intruciunile. He told us he had
understood everything. Ne-a spus c a neles tot. pag: 241 25.4.3. Conjuncia that este
deseori omis n engleza familiar dup verbe ca: think, believe, imagine, suppose; see
, hear, know, remember, understand say: I think he will come in time. Cred c o s v
in la timp. I suppose he will come in time. Cred c o s vin la timp. Conjuncia that tr
ebuie pstrat cnd propoziiile sunt lungi i au multe complemente circumstaniale: I dont
uppose that he indends to return until tomorrow. Nu cred c intenioneaz s se ntoarc pn
e. Atenie! Nu folosete conjuncia that dup: I wish, Id rather, Id sooner: I wish you co
uld find out the truth. A dori s poi afla adevrul. 25.4.4. Corespondena timpurilor Fo
losirea timpurilor verbale n propoziia completiv direct este mai strict n limba englez
dect n limba romn.

Raportul logic stabilit ntre timpul predicatului din propoziia principal/regent i tim
pul predicatului din propoziia subordonat este exprimat pe plan sintactic printr-o
anumit concordan sau coresponden a timpurilor verbale folosite n cele dou propoziii,
mit n limba englez Sequence of Tenses (Corespondena Timpurilor). Exist cteva reguli ge
nerale de coresponden a timpurilor care se aplic n principal la propoziia completiv di
rect: Regula I. Dac verbul propoziiei principale este la un timp prezent (present,
Present Perfect), n propoziia completiv se poate folosi orice timp cerut de logica
enunului: I know she has sent the letter. I know they came yesterday. I know he w
ill conduct the concert tonight. tiu c ea a expediat scrisoarea. tiu c ei au venit i
eri. tiu c el va dirija concertul de disear. Regula II. Dac verbul propoziiei princip
ale este la viitor, n propoziia completiv se poate folosi orice timp afar de viitor:
I shall inform him that i need his report tomorrow. l voi informa c am nevoie de
raportul lui mine. Regula III. Cnd verbul din propoziia principal este la prezent, s
au Present Perfect, n propoziia completiv se poate folosi viitorul (spre deosebire
de celelalte propoziii subordonate): I know that he will come tomorrow. tiu c va ve
ni mine. Regula IV. Dac verbul propoziiei principale este la un timp trecut, verbul
propoziiei subordonate trebuie de asemenea s fie la un timp trecut: We knew (that
) she had sent the letter. We knew (that) they were away. We knew (that) she wou
ld help us. He had menioned (that) she had sent the letter. He had menioned (tha
t) they were away. He had menioned (that) she would help us. Noi tiam / El meniona
se c ea a trimis / trimisese scrisoarea. Noi tiam / El menionase c ei sunt / erau pl
ecai din ora. Noi tiam / El menionase c ea ne va ajuta. pag: 242 Atenie! la traducerea
n limba romn! Past Perfect (pentru exprimarea anterioritii) se poate traduce prin ma
i-mult-caperfectul, perfectul compus este mia frecvent: tiam c ea a trimis scrisoa
rea, iar Past Pense (aciuni simultane) se traduce de obicei prin prezent: tiam c ei
sunt plecai din ora.

Corespondena ntre timpurile din propoziia principal i din completiva direct (Sequence
of Tenses): Raportul aciunii din Timpul predicatului propoziia din principal subord
onat fa de aciunea din principal 1. anterioritate Present/Present Perfect/ Future Pas
t Tense/Past Perfect 2. simultaneitate Present/Present Perfect/Future Past Tense
/Past Perfect 3. posterioritate Present/Present Perfect Future Past Tense/Past P
erfect Timpul predicatului din subordonat
Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Tense Past Tense Future Present Future-in-t
he-Past
Se poate observa paralelismul ntre timpurile prezente ale indicativului (Present,
Present Perfect) utilizate pentru exprimarea unor aciuni prezente i timpurile tre
cute (Past Tense, Past Perfect) ntrebuinate pentru redarea unor aciuni trecute. Un
paralelism similar exist ntre viitor i viitor - n - trecut: 1. I think I have met he
r before. Cred c am ntlnit-o. I thought I had met her before. Am crezut c o mai ntlnis
em. 2. I think he is right. Cred c are dreptate. I thought he was right. Am crezu
t c are dreptate. 3. I think they will come later. Cred c vor veni mai trziu. I tho
ught they would come later. Am crezut c vor veni mai trziu. Excepii la regula IV: F
ac excepie de la corespondena timpurilor trecute completivele directe care exprim:
a) fapte cu valabilitate general, adevruri (considerate) absolute: We were told th
at Shakespeare is the greatest English writer. Ni s-a spus c Shakespeare este cel
mai mare scriitor englez. pag: 243

b) completivele directe dup verbe ca know, realize, believe, think, hope, regret
care presupun adevrul complementului direct, acesta fiind adevrat i n momentul vorbi
rii: I realized he is a South American. Mi-am dat seama c este din America de Sud
. Regula V. Folosirea subjonctivului n propoziia completiv direct: a) Dup verbe ca as
k, demand, require, order, urge, suggest, propose. arrange, verbul din subordona
ta completiv se pune la subjonctivul prezent analitic should + infintiv: The capt
ain orders that the crew should abandon ship. Cpitanul ordon / a ordonat ca echipa
jul s prseasc vasul. b) Subjonctivul prezent sintetic este folosit n varianta america
n a limbii engleze i uneori n limba englez scris: The captain ordered that the crew a
bandon ship. Regula VI. Folosirea timpurilor dup verbul wish: Verbul wish este ur
mat de: a) Past Tense, pentru a exprima regretul fa de o aciune nerealizat n prezent:
I wish(ed) she were/was here with us. A dori/A fi dorit/ca ea s fie aici cu noi. s
au fa de o situaie de mai lung durat: He wishes/wished he lived in the country. Ar do
ri/Ar fi dorit s locuiasc la ar. b) Past Perfect, pentru a exprima regretul fa de o ac
une nerealizat n trecut: We wish(ed) she had joined us. Am fi dorit ca ea s fi veni
t cu noi. c) Would + infinitiv pentru a exprima o dorin pentru o aciune viitoare (c
are nu are anse de a se realiza): I wish he would come in time (but I dont think h
e will). A dori ca el s vin la timp dar nu cred c o va face. sau o rugminte politicoa
s: I wish you would speak louder. A dori/v-a ruga s vorbii mai tare. Atenie! Verbul wi
sh este urmat de verbe la indicativ (prezent, viitor) cnd are sensul de a spera:
I wish he will come in time = I hope he will come in time. Sper c va veni la timp
. Regula VI se aplic i la Id rather, Id sooner: Id rather he worked harder. Id rather
he had made more efforts to improve. Id rather he would come tomorrow. Id sooner h
e worked harder. Id sooner he had made more efforts to improve. Id sooner he would
come tomorrow. A prefera ca el s munceasc mai mult. A prefera ca el s fi fcut mai mul
te eforturi pentru a se perfeciona. A prefera ca el s vin mine. Atenie! Wish urmat de
o completiv direct se traduce n limba romn prin condiional + subjonctiv: I wish she we
re here = A dori ca ea s fie aici. I wished she had been with us = A fi dorit ca ea
s fi fost cu noi.

La fel: Id rather he worked harder = A prefera ca el s munceasc mai mult. etc. pag:
244 25.4.5. Reducerea propoziiei completive directe Propoziia completiv direct poate
fi nlocuit de o construcie infinitival cnd subiectul ei identic cu subiectul din pro
poziia regent: I want to talk to him. Vreau s vorbesc cu el. sau cu complementul di
rect, n care caz se folosete construcia Acuzativ + infinitiv: I want her to talk to
the child. Vreau ca ea s vorbeasc cu copilul. Dup unele verbe se poate folosi o co
nstrucie gerundial n locul celei infinitivale, pentru a sublinia legtura dintre cele
dou aciuni (i nu dintre subiecte): I dont like his ringing us up so often. (accentu
l cade pe aciunea de telefoane). Nu-mi place c ne telefoneaz aa de des. Dar: I dont l
ike him to ring us to often. (accentul este pe subiectul completive). Nu-mi plac
e ca el s ne telefoneze aa de des. 25.5. Propoziia completiv prepoziional 25.5.1. Acea
st propoziie este introdus de elemente wh- nsoite sau nu de prepoziii: Look at what sh
e has bought. Privete la ce-a cumprat. Look at who has come. Privete la cine a veni
t. Look where he is going. Privete unde se duce. 25.5.2. n propoziia completiv prepo
ziional, prepoziia se omite: a) cnd prepoziia completiv este introdus prin that: At th
last moment, she reminded me that she couldnt go. At the last moment, she persua
ded me that she couldnt go. At the last moment, she was delighted that she couldnt
go. n ultimul moment, ea mi-a amintit c nu putea s mearg. n ultimul moment, ea m-a c
onvins c nu putea s mearg. n ultimul moment, ea a fost ncntat c nu putea s mearg. b
umite verbe i adjective: I wonder which of these ties he wants to buy. She hasnt d
ecided which of these ties he wants to buy. Im not sure which of these ties he wa
nts to buy. M ntreb care cravat vrea s-o cumpere. Nu s-a hotrt care cravat vrea s-o cu
mpere. Nu sunt sigur care cravat vrea s-o cumpere. 25.5.3. Dup anumite verbe, prep
oziia completiv prepoziional poate fi anticipat de pronumele it, care ndeplinete rolul
de complement prepoziional formal n propoziia regent: You may rely upon it that he w
ill keep his promise. Poi s fii sigur c i va ine promisiunea.

pag: 245 25.5.4. n propoziiile completive prepoziionale se aplic corespondena timpuri


lor: We agreed upon it that it had been a misunderstanding. We agreed upon it th
at he was right. We agreed upon it that she would apologize. Am czut de acord c a
fost o nenelegere. Am czut de acord c el are dreptate. Am czut de acord c ea i va cer
cuze. Dup construciile la un timp prezent exprimnd sentimente: be sorry, be surpris
ed / astonished / amazed, be disappointed, verbele din propoziia completiv pot fi
puse: a) la prezentul indicativ sau subjonctivul should + infintiv pentru exprim
area unor aciuni simultane: Im amazed that they bring the children here for the su
mmer. Im amazed that they should bring the children here for the summer. Sunt uim
it c-i aduc aici copiii vara. b) la Present Perfect / Past Tense sau should + infi
nitiv perfect pentru exprimarea unei aciuni anterioare celei din principal: Im surp
rised that he has accepted their offer. Im surprised that he should have accepted
their offer. M surprinde faptul c a acceptat ofetta lor. Dac verbul din principal e
ste la un timp trecut, se aplic corespondena timpurilor trecute: a) simultaneitate
a: Past Tense sau should + infinitiv: I was disappointed they were so late. I wa
s disappoited they should be so late. Am fost dezamgit c au venit aa de trziu. b) an
terioritate: Past Perfect sau should + infinitiv perfect: I was sorry they had s
old their car. I was sorry they should have sold their car. Mi-a prut ru c i-a vndut
maina. n toate cazurile folosirea subjonctivului accentueaz ideea: Mi-a prut ru c iau
utut vinde maina. Pe cnd infinitivul scoate n relief aciunea care a avut loc : Mi-a
prut ru c i-a vndut maina. 25.6. Propoziia subiectiv (The Subject Clause) 25.6.1. Pro
iia subiectiv apare dup sau naintea: a) verbelor seem, change, appear, turn out: I s
eemed that he was wrong. b) unor adjective ca: likely, certain, possible, clear,
true, important, alarming, etc.: Its possible that the tourists have arrived. c)
a unor verbe tranzitive exprimnd stri sufleteti: alarm, amaze, attract, confuze, d
iscourage, embrarrass, relieve, scare, trouble etc.:

That she hasnt written yet amazes me. pag: 246 25.6.2. Locul propoziiei subiective
n fraz Poziia normal a propoziiei subiective este dup propoziia regent, propoziia s
tiv fiind anticipat de pronumele introductiv-anticipativ it cu funcie de subiect fo
rmal al regentei: It is important that you should do your homework carefully. Es
te important s-i faci temele cu grij. n engleza literar, propoziia subiectiv ocup une
poziie iniial: That he has refused our offer amazes me. M surprinde c a refuzat ofer
ta noastr. 25.6.3. Folosirea timpurilor n propoziia subiectiv n propoziia subiectiv se
poate folosi: a) modul indicativ; b) modul subjonctiv. Folosirea indicativului a
rat c aciunea din propoziia subiectiv este vzut ca un fapt real, svrit: It is stran
they arrived before us. E ciudat c au ajuns naintea noastr. Folosirea subjonctivul
ui arat c aciunea este vzut ca o idee, presupunere: It is strange that should arrive
before us. Este ciudat ca ei s ajung naintea noastr. Folosorea timpurilor n propoziia
subiectiv depinde i de timpul verbului din propoziia regent. A) Modul indicativ: a)
Un timp prezent n regent poate fi urmat de orice timp n propoziie subiectiv: It is un
likely that they have talked/will talk about this. Este puin probabil c ei au vorb
it / vor vorbi despre asta. b) Un timp trecut este urmat tot de un timp trecut,
conform corespondenei timpurilor trecute: It was a surprise that he had phoned. I
t was a surprise that he behaved like that. It was a surprise that he would come
. Modul indicativ sau subjonctiv: a) Dup construcii exprimnd sentimente sau mirarea
: it is strange, alarming, surprising, annoying, gratifying, splendid, verbul di
n propoziia subiectiv se pune, pentru a exprima: 1) simultaneitatea = la prezent s
au subjonctiv should + infinitiv: It is splendid that the children go to bed ear
ly. It is splendid that the children should go to bed early. 2) anterioritatea la Present Perfect / Past Tense sau should + infinitiv perfect: It is gratifyin
g that he waited until the train arrived. It is gratifying that he should have w
aited until the train arrived. b) Dac construciile de mai sus sunt la Past Tense, n
propoziia subiectiv se ntrebuineaz: pag: 247

1) pentru simultaneitate - Past Tense sau should + infinitiv: It was alarming th


at Mary studied until midnight. It was alarming that Mary should study until mid
night. 2) pentru anterioritate: Past Perfect sau should + infinitiv perfect: It
was strange that they had arrived before us. It was strange that they should hav
e arrived before us. Folosirea subjonctivului n toate aceste propoziii exprim aciune
a ca o idee, presupunere, pe cnd indicativul exprim aciunea ca un fapt real, svrit. In
dicativ: Era ciudat c ei au ajuns naintea noastr. Subjonctiv: Era cioudat ca ei s fi
ajuns naintea noastr. B) Modul subjonctiv: a) n propoziiile subiective introduse de
is is/ was advisable, desirable, essential, imperative, important, inevitable,
necessary, right, vital se folosete subjonctivul prezent analitic cu should: It i
s / was necessary that he should find a solution immediately. Este / Era necesar
ca el s gseasc imediat o soluie. Not: n engleza american, este preferat subjonctivul
rezent sintetic la forma afirmativ: It is/was necessary that he find a solution i
mmediately. b) Dup it is possible, it is probable, se ntrebuineaz subjonctivul preze
nt analitic cu may / might: It is possible that she may phone me tonight. Este p
osibil ca ea s-mi telefoneze disear. La forma interogativ ns, se folosete should + inf
initiv: Is it possible that I should see you this evening ? Este posibil s te vd d
isear ? 25.6.4. Reducerea propoziiei subiective. 1) Propoziia subiectiv poate fi red
us la o construcie infinitival dac: a) propoziia principal conine un substantiv sau pr
nume care poate fi subiect al infinitivului: It was kind of you to help us. A fo
st drgu din partea ta s ne ajui. It is my intention to do it. Este intenia mea s fac a
cest lucru. b) subiectul generic sau nedefinit al propoziiei subiective este subnel
es: It is good to be careful. Este bine s fii atent. Construcia infinitival poate f
i i infinitivul cu for - to. For + pronume se omite dac nelesul reiese din context:
It is easy for us to say no. (Ne) este uor s spunem nu. 2) Adeseori construcia infi
nitival este nlocuit de o construcie gerundial: To live near school is an advantage f
or him. Living near school is an advantage for him. Faptul c locuiete lng coal este un
avantaj pentru el. Ambele construcii pot fi anticipate de pronumele it: Its not e
asy to try to persuade her. Its not easy trying to persuade her. Nu este uor s ncerc
i s o convingi.

3) Propoziia subiectiv mai poate fi nlocuit i de nominativul absolut + participiul pr


ezent: Everything going wrong alarmed them. Faptul c totul mergea prost i-a alarm
at. pag: 248 25.7. Propoziia predicativ (The Predicative Clause) 25.7.1. Propoziia
predicativ este folosit dup verbul capulativ be. 25.7.2. Folosirea timpurilor: a) O
rice timp poate urma unui prezent n regul: The important fact is that he was born
in this town. The important fact is that he has written about it. The important
fact is that the book will be soon published. Faptul important este c s-a nscut n a
cest ora. Faptul important este c a scris despre el. Faptul important este c volumu
l va fi publicat n curnd. b) Dup un verb trecut, se aplic corespondena timpurilor n tr
ecut: The problem was that they had phoned. The problem was that they were in to
wn. The problem was that tthey would come the next day. Problema era c telefonase
r. Problema era c erau n ora. Problema era c vor veni a doua zi. 25.7.3. Propoziia pre
dicativ poate fi redus la o construcie gerundial: That is learning by doing. Arta nse
amn a nva fcnd. 25.8. Propoziiile relative (Relative Clauses) 25.8.1. Propoziiile rel
ve se mpart n: A) propoziii relative restrictive, limitnd nelesul unui nume de regent;
B) propoziii relative descriptive, care aduc explicaii suplimentare despre un elem
ent nominal de regent; C) propoziii apoziionale, cu funcia de apoziie a unui nume din
regent. 25.8.2. Propoziiile relative sunt introduse de pronumele relative who, wh
at, which i that (numai relativa restrictiv), adjectivele relative which, what, wh
ose i adverbele relative where, when, why. 25.8.3. Propoziia relativ restrictiv este
esenial pentru nelesul propoziiei regente i nu se se desparte prin virgul de aceasta.
The bus that

goes to the station stops at this corner. Autobuzul care merge la gar oprete la co
l. Propoziia relativ restrictiv este introdus prin pronume relative: who, which, that
i prin adverbe relative: where, when etc. pag: 249 Pronumele relativ that, care
introduce numai propoziii relative restrictive, poate fi folosit ca subiect att pe
ntru persoane, ct i pentru obiecte (who este ns preferat dup substantivul people i pro
numele those): The students that are waiting outside are tourists. The people wh
o are waiting outside are tourists. Studenii care ateapt afar sunt turiti. Oamenii ca
re ateapt afar sunt turiti. Which este uneori folosit ca subiect pentru obiecte, dar
that este mult mai frecvent: The icecream which has chocolate in it costs more.
The icecream that has chocolate in it costs more. ngheata care are ciocolat n ea co
st mai mult. Adverbele relative where i when sunt deseori ntrebuinate pentru introdu
cerea propoziiilor relative n loc de prepoziie + pronume relativ: The store in whic
h I buy groceries is across the street. The store where I buy groceries is acros
s the street. Magazinul n care cumpr coloniale este vizavi. Magazinul unde cumpr co
loniale este vizavi. Pronumele relativ este de obicei omis cnd substantivul pe ca
re-l determin propoziia relativ poate fi complement direct al predicatului din rela
tiv: I liked THE FILM we saw yesterday. Mi-a plcut filmul pe care l-am vzut ieri. D
ac complementul este prepoziional, that se omite, iar propoziia se aeaz la sfritul pro
oziiei relative: The sport I am fond OF is football. Sportul care mi place este fo
tbalul. 25.8.4. Propoziia relativ descriptiv. Propoziia relativ descriptiv nu este ese
nial pentru nelesul propoziiei regente. Adugnd informaii suplimentare i putnd fi om
ensul s fie afectat, relativa descriptiv se desparte prin virgul de propoziia regent:
Your deskmate, whose name I can never remember, has just phoned. Tocmai a telef
onat colegul tu de banc, al crui nume nu mi-l amintesc niciodat. 25.8.5. Folosirea t
impurilor n propoziiile relative n propoziiile relative se poate folosi orice timp, n
funcie de intenia vorbitorului, independent de verbul din principal: I showed him
the dress Ill wear at the school festival tomorrow. I-am artat rochia pe care o vo
i purta mine la serbarea colar. Our new TV set, which we bought two month ago, is

very good. Televizorul nostru cel nou, pe care l-am cumprat acum dou luni, este fo
arte bun. 25.8.6. Propoziia relativ poate fi redus la: a) o apoziie, care poate fi u
n substantiv, adjectiv sau participiu singur sau cu o complinire. (Subiectul pro
poziiei reduse este de obicei un pronume sau substantiv din propoziia regent): The
teams playing in the Olympics wear special uniforms. The teams selected the Olym
pics wear special uniforms. Echipele care joac la olimpiad poart uniforme speciale.
Echipele selectate pentru olimpiad poart uniforme speciale. pag: 250 b) la o cons
trucie infinitival activ cu un sens pasiv: This is not a thing to play with. Acesta
nu este un lucru cu care s te joci. c) dac subiectul contruciei infinitivale nu es
te exprimat n propoziia regent, sau este subneles, fiind general sau nehotrt, el este
rezent sub forma acuzativ n construcia infinitivul cu for-to. The best thing for y
ou to do is to follow his advice. Cel mai bun lucru pe care-l ai de fcut este s-i
urmezi sfatul. 25.8.7. Propoziia apoziional este de obicei introdus de: when, where,
why, how, that, whether. propoziiile apoziionale ndeplinesc funcia de apoziii pe lng
ubstantive din regent ca opinion, reason, idea, problem, impression, doubt, excus
e, question, fact i se construiesc cu indicativul: I dont know the REASON why he l
eft in such a hurry. Nu tiu motivul pentru care a plecat aa de grbit. 25.8.8. n prop
oziiile atributive apozitive pe lng substantive ca wish, suggestion, recommendation
, request se folosete subjonctivul analitic exprimat prin should + infinitiv: The
chairmans REQUEST that he afternoon session should be postponed was accepted. Ce
rerea preedintelui ca edina de dup-amiaz s fie amnat a fost acceptat. 25.8.9. Propoz
oziional poate fi redus: a) la o construcie infinitival sau gerundial , cnd subiectul
i este generic sau nedefinit sau cnd el este prezent n propoziia regent: The questio
n of how to send the goods has to be settled. Trebuie rezolvat problema privitoar
e la modul cum va fi expediat marfa. His idea, to do everything by himself, frigh
tens me. Ideea lui, de a face totul singur, m nspimnt. b) dac propoziia principal nu
ne un asemenea cuvnt, el va fi exprimat printr-un acuzativ n propoziia apoziional n co
nstrucia Infinitivul cu for-to: Our hope for him to return soon is faint. E slab s
perana ca el s se ntoarc n curnd. sau printr-un posesiv (acuzativ + gerund): My impres
sion, of Peters enjoying himself, was wrong.

c) Propoziia apoziional poate fi redus i la un nominativ absolut : This is our way, m


other giving intructions and we following them propoziiile circumstaniale (Adverbi
al Clauses) Propoziiile subordonate circumstaniale sunt de mai multe feluri: 25.9.
Propoziia circumstanial de timp (The Adverbial Clause of Time) 25.9.1. Propoziia ci
rcumstanial de timp este introdus de conjunciile: when, as, while, until/till, befor
e, after, as soon as, whenever, since etc. Not: Adverbele hardly, scarcely, no so
oner (de-abia) pot i ele introduce propoziii temporale. Hardly i scarcely sunt urma
te de conjunciile when, iar no sooner de than: He has hardly finished eating a ca
ke when he begins another. Nici n-apuc s termine de mncat o prjitur c i ncepe alta. T
had no sooner got on the train than it left. Nici n-au apucat s se urce n tren c a
i plecat. Dac adverbele de mai sus ocup primul loc n propoziie, pentru ntrire, are lo
inversiune ntre subiect i verbul auxiliar. Hardly has he finished eating a cake w
hen he begins another. No sooner had they got on the train than it left. 25.9.2.
Folosirea timpurilor n propoziia circumstanial de timp Un timp prezent n regent este
urmat de un timp prezent n circumstasniala de timp: When I have some days off, I g
o to the mountains. Cnd am cteva zile libere, merg la munte. Unui viitor n regent i c
orespunde un prezent n temporal, pentru a exprima simultaneitatea aciunilor: While
you are getting ready, Ill make a telephone call. n timp ce te pregteti, am s dau un
telefon. Ill be waiting right here when you come out the examination room. Te voi
atepta chiar aici cnd vei iei din sala de examen. i un prezent sau Present Perfect
pentru anterioritate: After the film is over, well go for a walk. Dup ce se va ter
mina filmul, vom face o plimbare. Ill help you as soon as I have finished my home
work. Te voi ajuta de ndat ce mi voi fi terminat leciile. Atenie! la diferena dintre r
omn i englez. Te voi ajuta ndat ce mi voi (fi) termina(t) leciile. / Am s te ajut c
mi termin leciile. Un predicat la un timp trecut n propoziia principal cere Past Ten
se n propoziia temporal, pentru exprimarea simultaneitii: When I left for school this
morning, it was raining heavily. Cnd am plecat la coal azi de diminea, ploua cu gleat
a. i Past Perfect pentru exprimarea unei aciuni anterioare celei din principal: The
y left the clasroom as soon as they had finished their papers. Au ieit din clas de
ndat ce / imediat dup ce i-au terminat lucrrile. Aceleai reguli sunt valabile i cnd
dicatul propoziiei regente este la viitor n trecut: I told you I would call on you
as soon as had finished the book. I told you I would call on you when I had som
e spare time.

Atenie! la traducerea acestor propoziii! n limba romn se folosete viitorul n temporal


e cnd n limba englez numai Past Tense sau Past Perfect: i-am spus c voi trece pe la t
ine de ndat ce voi fi terminat cartea. i-am spus c voi trece pe la tine cnd voi avea
puin timp liber. Cnd verbul din propziia regent este la modul condiional, verbul din
circumstaniala de timp este la Past Tense: I would try to call on you before you
went away. A ncerca s trec pe la tine nainte s pleci n ora. Not: Datorit sensului, a
poate fi urmat de Past Tense sau de Past Perfect, pentru a exprima anterioritate
a aciunii din circumstaniala de timp fa de aciunea din propoziia principal: He rang up
all his friends after he returned from the trip. He rang up all his friends afte
r he had returned from the trip. n mod similar, untill / till pot fi urmate de Pa
st Tense sau de Past Perfect n subordonata de timp: He didnt leave until he receiv
ed a definite answer. He didnt leave until he had received a definite answer. pag
: 252 Nu a plecat pn nu a primit un rspuns precis. Before permite folosrea lui Past
Tense sau a lui Past Perfect n propoziia principal nsoit de o subordonat temporal la
st Tense: She gave him your message before you arrived. She had given him your m
essage before you arrived. Ea i-a transmis / i transmisese masajul tu nainte s soseti
tu. n toate cele trei cazuri, folosirea lui Past Perfect subliniaz anterioritatea
aciunii. Spre deosebire de conjunciile de mai sus, when este urmat de Past Tense
pentru a indica: a) simultaneitatea aciunilor din cele dou propoziii: We paid for t
he materials when the company delivered them. (when = at that moment) Am pltit pe
ntru materiale cnd le-a livrat ntreprinderea. b) succesiunea imediat a celor dou aciu
ni: When Peter returned from school, his mother cooked dinner. (when = as soon a
s) Cnd Petre s-a ntors de la coal, mama sa a pregtit masa. When este urmat de Past Pe
rfect pentru a arta c aciunea din subordonata de timp o precede pe cea din principa
l: We paid for the materials when the company had delivered them. (them = after)
Am pltit pentru materiale dup ce le-a livrat ntreprinderea. Conjuncia since cere fol
osirea lui Present Perfect n propoziia principal pentru a indica perioada de timp pn
la (sau eventual i n) momentul prezent. Cu verbe care indic durata (ex.: live, stay
, be, own) since poate fi urmat de acest timp i n propoziia temporal: Since we came
to this town we have visited the Art Galleries several times. Since weve been liv
ing here we have visited the Art Galleries several times. De cnd am venit n acest
ora, am vizitat Galeriile de Art de mai multe ori. De cnd locuim aici, am vizitat G
aleriile de Art de mai multe ori.

25.9.3. Reducerea propoziiei circumstaniale de timp Propoziia circumstanial de timp p


oate fi redus la o contrucie format dintr-o conjuncie de timp i un substantiv, adject
iv sau participiu, al crui subiect este subiectul din propoziia regent: He always s
ings while shaving. Totdeauna cnt cnd se brbierete. Conjuncia poate fi omis naintea c
truciei participiale, care poate fi prezent sau perfect: Walking to school, I met m
y English teacher. Mergnd spre coal lam ntlnit pe profesorul de englez. Having done my
homework, I went to the cinema. Terminndu-mi leciile / Dup ce mi-am fcut leciile, mam dus la cinema. Dup conjunciile care pot fi folosite i ca prepoziii, se folosesc c
onstrucii gerundiale: I swiched off all the lights before going to bed. Am stins
toate luminile nainte s merg la culcare. Construcia gerundial introdus de on, after s
au berfore poate avea i un subiect diferit de cel din propoziia regent, exprimat pr
intr-un pronume sau substantiv n cazul genitiv sau acuzativ: pag: 253 After his p
assing all his exams, his friends came to celebrate. After him passing all his e
xams, his friends came to celebrate. Afeter Tom passing all his exams, his frien
ds came to celebrate. After Toms passing all his exams, his friends came to celeb
rate. Dup ce Tom / el i-a luat toate examenele, prietenii au venit s-l srbtoreasc. Pro
poziia temporal poate fi nlocuit i de o construcie prepoziional: After Dacias defeat
he Romans, it become a Roman province. Dup nfrngerea Daciei de ctre romani, ara a dev
enit o provincie roman. 25.10. Propoziia circumstanial de loc (The Adverbila Clause
of Place) 25.10.1. Propoziia circumstanial de loc este introdus de adverbele where,
wherever i se construiete cu orice timp: Would you please put those books back whe
re they belong. Ai vrea v rog s punei crile napoi / unde le este locul. Wherever we we
t, we met hopitable people. Oriunde mergeam, ntlneam oameni ospitalieri. 25.10.2.
Circumstaniala de loc este de obicei nlocuit de un adverb de loc sau de o contrucie
prepoziional: Would you please put those books in their right place? We met hospit
able people everywhere. 25.11. Propoziia circumstanial de mod propriu-zis (The Adver
bial Clause of Manner) Aceasta este introdus de (exactly) as, (just) as i se const
ruiete cu orice timp cerut de logica enunului din principal: He will do just as you
told him.

Va face exact cum i-ai spus. Propoziia circumstanial de mod propriu-zis poate fi red
us la: a) un participiu prezent sau trecut cnd subiectul participiului este subiec
tul sau complementul predicatului din propoziia regent: He came to us smiling. Se n
dreapt spre noi zmbind. He bought the house unrepaired and unpainted. A cumprat cas
a nereparat i nevruit. b) o construcie gerundial, dup o prepoziie: He resembles you i
pending jhis spare time reading. Seamn cu tine prin faptul c-i petrece timpuil liber
citind. c) prepoziie + substantiv: He differs from you in disposition. Se deoseb
ete de tine la dispoziie. 25.12. Propoziia circumstanial de mod comparativ (The Adverb
ial Clause of Comparison) 25.12.1. Propoziia circumstanial de mod comparativ este in
trodus de conjunciile as, than, as if, as though. Conjuncia as este precedat n regent
de un adjectiv la gradul pozitiv sau de un substantiv. Cuvintele as, so, such sa
u the same pot anticipa conjuncia as: The film is not as good as you thought. Fil
mul nu este att de bun ct ai crezut. They heard such a noise as they had never hea
rd before. Au auzit un asemenea zgomot, cum nu mai auziser niciodat. He left for s
chool the same time as I did. A plecat la coal la aceeai or la care am plecat i eu. p
ag: 254 Conjuncia than este precedat de un adjectiv la gradul comparativ care se a
fl n propoziia regent: He was older than we had expected. El era mai n vnrst dect cre
em. n propoziiile circumstaniale de mod comparative, verbul poate fi omis. n acest c
az, pronumele personale sunt n cazul acuzativ: I sang better than he did. Am cntat
mai bine dect a cntat el. I sang better than him. Am cntat mai bine dect el. Propoz
iia comparativ eliptic este mai frecvent dect cea n care verbul este exprimat. Verbul
nu poate fi omis dect dac este be sau dac att regenta ct i subordonata conin acelai v
: She Speaks English better than him (Than he speaks it). Ea vorbete englezete mai
bine dect el. dar: She speaks English better than she writes it. Ea vorbete limba
englez mai bine dect scrie. 25.12.2. Folosirea timpurilor n propoziiile comparative
Propoziiile comparative introduse de as, than se construiesc cu orice timp condii
onat logic de predicatul propoziiei principale: He was as busy as we had thought.
He was as busy as a man could be. He was as busy as him son is now.

He was as busy as you are going to be. n propoziia comparativ de tipul cu ct...cu att
, care se contruiete n limba englez cu ajutorul a dou adjective sau adverbe la compa
rativ (unul n propoziia regent, altul n propoziia comparativ), precedate de articolul
hotrt the, se folosesc de regul viitorul n principal i prezentul n comparativ: The ha
r you work, the better results you will get. Cu ct vei munci mai mult, cu att vei
obine rezultate mai bune. sau: Part Tense + Past Tense: The more frecvently they
met, the more they liked each other. Cu ct se ntlneau mai des, cu att se plceau mai m
ult. Propoziiile comparative introduse de as if, as though, (dup un verb prezent s
au trecut) se contruiesc cu indicativul preznet sau viitor pentru exprimarea une
i comparaii reale: It looks as if he has been here. (and he has). It looks as if
it is going to rain. (Its cloudy). i cu Past Tense (simultaneitate) sau Past Perfe
ct (anterioritate) pentru a exprima o comparaie imaginar, ireal: He talks / talked
as if he were a teacher (but he isnt / wasnt). He behaves / behaved as if he had b
een here (but je hasn t / hadnt). 25.12.3. Comparaiile reale se traduc n romn prin ind
icativ, cele ireale prin condiional: Se pare c a fost aici. dar: Se poart de parc ar
fi fost aici. Propoziia comparativ poate fi nlocuit de un adjectiv, un participiu s
au de o construcie prepoziional: She behaved as though angry. She behaved as if see
king encouragement. She behaved as though dazed. She behaved as if in search of
something. pag: 255 Se purta de parc ar fi fost suprat. Se purta de parc ar fi avut
nevoie de o ncurajare. Se purta de parc ar fi fost ameit. Se purta de parc ar fi cutat
ceva. Dac propoziia comparativ este introdus de than, ea poate fi nlocuit de un infin
itiv (cu sau fr to): He did nothing more than (to) sign his name. N-a fcut nimic al
tceva dect s-i semneze numele. 25.13. Propoziia circumstanial cauzal (The Adverbila Cl
use of Reason) 25.13.1. Propoziia circumstanial cauzal este introdus de conjunciile be
cause, as, since i se construiete cu orice timp condiionat logic de verbul din prin
cipal: Since Dan often forgets things, his wife gave him a list. Deoarece Dan est
e cam uituc, soia lui i-a dat o list. I got up at ten this morning because I hadnt
been able to sleep all night. I got up at ten this morning because today is Sund
ay.

Azi diminea m-am sculat la ora zece pentru c n-am putut dormi toat noaptea. Azi dimi
nea m-am sculat la ora zece pentru c azi e duminic. 25.13.2. Circumstaniala cauzal poa
te fi redus la un participiu, adjectiv, substantiv sau o construcie prepoziional: Fe
eling unwell, he went to bed early. Deoarece nu se simea bine, s-a dus la culcare
devreme. He was admired as a man of character. Era admirat fiind un om de carac
ter. Participiul poate face parte dintr-un nominativ absolut: The wather being u
nsettled, we postponed our trip. Vremea fiind instabil, ne-am amnat cltoria. care po
ate fi nlocuit de o construcie prepoziional: In such unsettled weather we had to pos
tpone our trip. Pe aa o vreme instabil, a trebuit s ne amnm cltoria. Dup o propoziie
poate folosi o construcie gerundial: The little boy was scolded for going out in t
he rain. Bieelul a fost certat pentru c a ieit afar n ploaie. Dac propoziia cauzal a
elai subiect cu propoziia regent, ea poate fi redus la un infinitiv: I was glad to s
ee them. M-am bucurat s-i vd. care se transform ntr-un infinitiv cu for-to cnd cele d
ou subiecte sunt diferite: I was ashamed for them to speak like that. Mi-a fost r
uine c au vorbit aa. 25.14. Propoziia circumstanial condiional (The Adverbial Clause
Condition) Frazele condiionale sunt formate din dou feluri de propoziii: propoziia s
ubordonat condiional (if Clause) referitoare la condiia care face posibil ndeplinirea
aciunii din principal, i propoziia principal sau regent (main Clause) care exprim rezu
tatul sau efectul condiiei. pag: 256 25.14.1. Exist trei tipuri de mari propoziii c
ondiionale: - tipul 1, o condiie real viitoare sau general, care exprim o situaie anti
cipat sau posibil: - ntr-un moment viitor: Well leave tomorrow if the weather is goo
d. Vom pleca mine dac va fi vreme bun. - n general: If I make a mistake, the teacher
always finds it. Dac fac vreo greeal, profesorul o gsete ntodeauna. - tipul 2, o cond
iie ireal prezent sau viitoare, care se refer la: - o situaie imaginar, contrar unei r
aliti prezente: If the weather were better (right now), we could go for a walk. Da
c vremea ar fi mai bun, am putea face o plimbare. - o situaie improbabil, ntr-un mome
nt viitor: If I had the day off tomorrow, I would go to the beach. Dac a avea zi l
iber mine, m-a duce la plaj. - tipul 3, o condiie ireal trecut, cu referire la o situa
imaginar sau contrar realitii ntr-un moment trecut: If the weather had been better,
I would have left last Monday. Dac vremea ar fi fost mai bun, a fi plecat lunea tre
cut.

25.14.2. Propoziia circumstanial condiional este introdus de conjunciile: if; provided


(that) / so long as / on condition that; in case, suppose / supposing (that). Co
ndiia negativ este introdus de unless. Conjunciile in case i provided sunt ntrebuinate
mai ales cu propoziii condiionale de tipul 1: In case I see him, Ill give him your
message. n caz c-l vd, am s-i transmit mesajul tu. Ill forgive you provided you tell t
he truth. Am s te iert cu condiia s-mi spui adevrul. Suppose se folosete mai ales cu
propoziii condiionale de tipul 2 i 3: Suppose you were a teacher, what would you do
? Presupunnd c ai fi profesor, ce-ai face ? Suppose she had been right, what would
you have done ? S presupunem c ea ar fi avut dreptate, ce ai fi fcut (atunci)? Unl
ess (condiie negativ) este mai frecvent n propoziiile condiionale de tipul 1, i este u
rmat de un verb la forma afirmativ. Folosirea lui unless ntrete negaia (if not este n
eutru). Comparai: I wont say anything if he doesnt bring up the matter himself. N-a
m s spun nimic dac n-aduce el vorba. I wont say anything unless he brings up the ma
tter himself. N-am s spun nimic dect dac aduce el vorba. Propoziia condiional poate fi
introdus i de alte cuvinte de legtur, situaii n care i pierde forma de propoziie co
al: Find the corect answer and theyll give you a prize. (= If you find the correct
answers, theyll give you a prize). Look at the map or else you will lose your wa
y. Look at the map otherwise you will lose your way. n engleza literar, apar uneor
i propoziii condiionale n care ordinea subiectverb auxiliar este inversat, iar conju
ncia if este omis. Aceasta se ntmpl de regul cnd propoziia condiional conine be, h
d sau should: Were I in your position, I should apologize. Dac a fi n locul tu, mi-a
cere scuze. Had he known about this matter, he might, have found a solution. Dac
a fi tiut despre aceast problem, poate ar fi gsit o soluie. n cazul verbelor noionale
folosete should / would + infinitivul: Should he come earlier, we could go to th
e theatre. Dac ar veni (cumva) mai devreme, am putea merge la teatru. pag: 257 25
.14.3. Ordinea propoziiilor. De obicei propoziia condiional urmeaz propoziia regent. D
c o preced, cele dou propoziii sunt desprite prin virgul: If you go out, post these le
ters for me, will you. Dac pleci n ora, pune te rog aceste scrisori la pot pentru min
e. 25.14.4. Timpurile folosite n frazele condiionale sunt urmtoarele: Tipul de prop
oziie Timpul n propoziia condiional principal 1 Viitor/Prezent/Impera tiv Ill go swimm
ng Timpul n propoziia condiional Prezent if the water is warm.

2 3
A teacher is always if his pupils work happy hard. Go and buy tickets if you wan
t to see the play. Condiional prezent Past Tense She would go on a if she were on
trip holiday. Condiional trecut Past Perfect I would have spoken if I had seen h
er to Ann yesterday.

25.14.5. Traducerea propoziiilor condiionale din limba romn n limba englez prezint de
bicei dificulti, deoarece folosirea timpurilor difer n cele dou limbi: n romn se folo
viitorul n propoziia condiional de tip 1 i modul condiional att n propoziia princip
condiional, pe cnd n englez, indicativul viitor i condiionalul prezent i trecut apar
ar n propoziiile principale: 1. M voi duce s not dac apa va fi cald. 2. Ea s-ar duce
xcursie dac ar fi n vacan. 3. A fi vorbit cu Ana dac a fi vzut-o ieri. Not: n limba
se poate folosi viitorul dup if doar cnd propoziia subordonat este completiv direct (n
u condiional): I don't know if he will come. Nu tiu daca va veni. 25.14.6. Atenie! A
) n frazele condiionale de tipul 1, care se refer la o condiie real, posibil, se mai p
ot folosi: - Past Tense + Past Tense, care exprim o condiie i un rezultat real n tre
cut: If he felt tired, he went for a walk. Dac se simea obosit, fcea o plimbare. Viitor / prezent / imperativ n propoziia principal + Present Perfect / Past Tense, n
propoziia condiional, pentru exprimarea unei condiii trecute i a unui rezultat preze
nt: If you havent understood the instructions, read them again. Dac n-ai neles instr
uciunile, citete-le din nou. If he wasnt here yesterday, tell him to come today. If
he wasnt here yesterday, hell come today. Dac n-a foat aici ieri, spune-i s vin astzi
. Dac n-a foat aici ieri, va veni astzi. pag. 258 25.14.7. B) Dac verbul din regent
e la viitorul n trecut, n condiional se folosete: - Past Tense pentru exprimarea simu
ltaneitii: He promised he would write to us if he had the time. A promis c ne va sc
rie dac va avea timp. - Past perfect pentru a exprima o aciune anterioar celei din
regent: He promised he would write to us if he had finished his work. A promis c n
e va scrie dac-i va fi terminat lucrul.

24.14.8. n limba englez poat aprea i combinaii ntre cele trei tipuri de fraze condiion
le: - tip 1 (condiia real) cu tip 2 (aciune ireal): If you have a few hours to spare
, I would invite you to the cinema. Dac au cteva ore libere, te-a invita la cinema.
- tip 2 (condiie contrar realitii prezente) cu tip 3 (aciune nerealizat n trecut): If
she were a better singer, she would have participated in the festival. Dac ar fi
o cntrea mai bun, ar fi participat la festival. - tip 3 (condiie ireal n trecut) cu t
2 (rezultatul condiiei n prezent): If he hadnt had an accident, he wouldnt be in hos
pital now. Dac n-ar fi avut un accident, n-ar fi n spital acum. 25.14.9. Should +
infinitivul poate fi folosit n propoziiile condiionale de tipul 1 i 2 iar were to +
infinitivul n propoziiile condiionale de tipul 2, pentru a exprima un grad mare de
incertitudine, o situaie puin probabil: If you should get any news from her, let me
know at once. Dac se ntmpl s primeti veti de la ea, anun-m imediat. If he were to
would be very happy. Dac ar veni cumva, a fi foarte fericit. n engleza literar, apa
re uneori inversiune ntre subiect i verbul auxiliar, iar if se omite: Should you g
et any news, let me know at once. Were he to come, I would be very happy. 25.14.
10. Will poate fi utilizat n condiionalele de tipul1, iar would n cele de tipul 2,
cu valoarea de verb modal a voi: If you will wait a moment, Ill bring you the book
you need. Dac vrei s ateptai un moment, v voi aduce cartea de care avei nevoie. We wou
d be delighted if you would accept our invitation. Am fi ncntai dac ai voi s acceptai
nvitaia noastr. Aceast construcie este folosit pentru a exprima o rugminte politicoas:
If you will / would go this for me, I shall be most grateful. Dac avei / ai avea am
abilitatea s facei aceasta pentru mine, v voi fi recunosctor. 25.14.11. Could / migh
t + infinitivul (prezent sau perfect) se folosete n frazele condiionale de tipul 2
sau 3 n locul auxiliarului should / would + infinitivul (prezent sau perfect) cnd
este implicat o nuan modal: If the weather were fine, we could go to the country ove
r the weekend. Dac ar fi vreme frumoas, am putea merge la ar la sfritul sptmnii. She
t have passed the exam if she had solved all the problems. Poate c ar fi luat exa
menul dac ar fi rezolvat toate problemele. 25.14.12. Circumstaniala condiional poate
fi redus la: a) un participiu sau adjectiv, cnd cele dou propoziii au acelai subiect
: Born in an earlier century, he would have been a great explorer. Dac s-ar fi nsc
ut n alt secol, ar fi fost un mare explorator. b) un participiu absolut, cnd subie
ctul este general sau nedefinit: Judging by appearances, she must be telling the
truth. Dac judecm dup aparene cred c spune adevrul. c) o construcie infinitival (sub
t indentic sau nedefinit): It would hurt her to talk like that. Ar mhni-o dac ai v
orbi aa. d) o construcie prepoziional:

But for them I would have lost my way. Fr ei m-a fi rtcit. Without them I would have
lost my way. Fr ei m-a fi rtcit. pag: 259 25.15. Propoziia circumstanial de scop (The
verbial Cloause of Purpose) 25.15.1. Propoziia circumstanial de scop este introdus d
e so that, un order that i that (formal). In case, for fear that i lest (nvechit, f
ormal) introduc propoziii de scop cu sens negativ (dar cu verbul la forma afirmat
iv). 25.15.2. A) Propoziia circumstanial de scop introdus de so that, caracteristic en
glezei familiare, se construiete cu: - will / can + infinitiv dup un verb la preze
nt, viitor sau imperativ: Ill send the letter airmail so that he will get it righ
t away. Send the letter airmail so that he can get it right away. (voi) trimite
scrisoarea par avion ca s-o primeasc imediat. - cu would / could + infinitiv dup u
n verb la un timp trecut: I gave her the key so that she could get in. I-am dat
cheia ca s poat intra. B) n engleza literar, se ntrebuineaz conjuncia so that i mai
in order that. Un prezent, viitor sau imperativ n regent este urmat de may sau mai
rar de shall + infinitiv n circumstaniala de scop: Open the window so that she ma
y get some fresh air. Deschide fereastra ca s poat respira / s respire puin aer cura
t. iar un timp trecut, de might / should + infintiv: I lent Dan the dictionary s
o that he might do the translation. I-am mprumutat dicionarul lui Dan ca s-i fac trad
ucerea. Propoziiile de scop negative sunt introduse de so that, in order that, ur
mate de will not + infinitiv (dup un verb la prezent, viitor sau imperativ): I mu
st give him a list so that he wont forget what to buy. Trebuie s-i dau o list ca s n
u uite ce s cumpere. sau would / should not + infinitiv, dup un verb la un timp tr
ecut: They left early so that they wouldnt be tired the next day. Au plecat devre
me ca s nu fie obosii a doua zi. Ideea de scop negativ poate fi exprimat i n propoziii
cu verbul la afirmativ. Acestea sunt introduse de conjunciile: - in case, urmat d
e Present / Past Tense sau should + infinitiv: Ill give him a list in case he for
gets what to buy. Ill give him a list in case he should forget what to buy. - for
fear (that) + should / would + infinitiv: They want(ed) to leave early for fear
they should be tired the next day. They want(ed) to leave early for fear they w
ould be tired the next day. -lest + should + infinitiv: He took a taxi lest he s
hopuld miss the train. A luat un taxi ca s nu piard trenul. pag: 260

Not: In case este folosit n engleza familiar, ca nlocuitor al lui lest,care a ieit di
n uz. 25.15.3. Propoziia circumstanial de scop poate fi redus la: a) o construcie inf
initival, cnd subiectul ei este identic cu cel din propoziia regent: He went to the
park to listen to the band concert. S-a dus n parc s asculte fanfara. b) infinitiv
ul cu for-to, cnd subiectele sunt diferite: He took his children to the park for
them to listen to the band concert. i-a dus copiii n parc s asculte fanfara. Adeseo
ri, infinitivul este precedat de so as, in order, sau on purpose pentru a sublin
ia ideea de scop: He went to the park so as to listen to the band concert. He we
nt to the park in order to listen to the band concert. S-a dus n parc pentru a as
culta fanfara. c) Construcia infinitival poate fi redus la o construcie prepoziional:
The Romanians fought in the 1877 - 1878 war to get their independence. The Roman
ians fought in the 1877 - 1878 war for independence. Romnii au luptat n rzboiul 187
7-1878 pentru (a dobndi) independen. 25.16. Propoziia circumstanial consecutiv (The Ad
erbial Clause of Result) 25.16.1. Aceste propoziii sunt introduse de conjuncia tha
t porecedat n regent de so, such: sau de conjuncia so (that). So este urmat, n regent
, de un adjectiv sau de adverb, pe cnd such este urmat de un (adjectiv +) substna
tiv. It was so hot that we opened all the windows. It was such a hot day that we
opened all the windows. It was hot so we opened all the windows. Era aa de cald n
ct am deschis toate ferestrele. Era o zi aa de fierbinte nct am deschis toate ferest
rele. Era cald, aa c am deschis toate ferestrele. Pentru subliniere, conjuncia so s
e aeaz uneori la nceputul circumstanialei consecutive. n acest caz, are loc inversiun
e ntre subiect i predicat: So difficult was the exercise, that nobody could do it.
Aa de greu a fost exerciiul, c nimeni n-a putut s-l fac. 25.16.2. Predicatul propozii
ei consecutive este la orive timp cerut de logica enunului: He did his job so wel
l that they promoted him. He did his job so well that Ill never forget him. i fcea aa
de bine serviciul nct l-au promovat. i fcea aa de bine serviciul nct nu-l voi uita n
odat. pag: 261

25.16.3. Cnd subiectul propoziiei regente este acelai cu cel al propoziiei consecuti
ve, aceasta poate fi redus la: a) as to + infinitiv cnd propoziia consecutiv este an
ticipat de such sau so: Behave in such a way as to be admired. Poart-te n aa fel nct s
fii admirat. b) so as to + infinitiv: Put on your coats so as to be ready. Puneiv hainele ca s fii gata. c) o construcie infinitival: He talked slowly enought to be
understood. A vorbit destul de rar ca s poat fi neles. Dac cele dou propoziii au subie
te diferite, circumstaniala consecutiv poate fi nlocuit de infinitivul cu for-to: Th
e coffee was too hot for me to frink. Cafeaua era prea fierbinte ca s-o pot bea.
25.17. Propoziia circumstanial concesiv (The Adverbial Clause of Concession) 25.17.
1. Propoziia circumstanial concesiv este introdus de: though, although (mai formal),
even if / though, however (+adjectiv / adverb), whoever, whaterver, no matter, w
hereas (formal). 25.17.2. Propoziia circumstanial concesiv poate avea i forma unei pr
opoziii, aparent principale, de fapt subordonat, exprimat prin: a) un imperativ: La
ugh as much as you like, Ill do it this way. Rzi ct ai vrea, eu am s fac aa. b) imper
ativ cu let: Let him be the laziest fellow in the world, I would still try to he
lp him. S fie i cel mai lene om din lume i tot a ncerca s-l ajut. c) subjonctiv sintet
c: Ill receive him, be he who may. Am s-l primesc oricine ar fi. 25.17.3. Timpuril
e verbale folosite n circumstaniale concesive sunt timpurile prezente i trecute ale
indicativului: Though he has never studied music, he plays the piano very well.
Although he is not a professional, he plays the piano very well. Even though he
did not study music in school, he plays the piano very well. Dei / Cu toate c n-a
studiat niciodat muzica, el cnt foarte bine la pian. Dei / Cu toate c nu este profes
ionist, el cnt foarte bine la pian. Dei / Cu toate c nu a studiat muzica la coal, el c
t foarte bine la pian. (Al)though he had been playing fotball all morning, he was
nt very tired. Dei jucase fotbal toat dimineaa, nu era obosit. (Al)though he was not
feeling very well, he continued his work. Dei nu se simea foarte bine, i-a continu
at lucrul. May / might + infinitivul este folosit n propoziiile concesive pentru a
exprima o presupunere: Whoever may / might come, show him in. n limba romn, indica
tivul din propoziia concesiv se traduce tot prin indicativ, pe cnd may/might + infi
ntiv se traduc prin condiional: Oricine ar veni, poftete-l nuntru. Propoziie concesiv
poate fi redus la:

a) un participiu, adjectiv sau substantiv: Though tired, she continued her work.
Dei obosit, i-a continuat munc. b) un participiu absolt, cnd subiectul este nedefini
t: Even admittin his explanation, his behaviour cannot be excused. Chiar dac admi
ted explicaia lui, comportarea lui nu poate fi scuzat. c) o construcia prepoziie, co
ninnd de obicei cuvnd all: He is a kind man for all his faults. Este un om bun cu t
oate / n ciuda defectelor lui. He is a kind man with all his faults. Este un om b
un cu toate / n ciuda defectelor lui. He is a kind man in spite of his faults. Es
te un om bun cu toate / n ciuda defectelor lui. Exerciii cap. 24-25 I. Transfomai pri
le de propoziie scrise cursiv n propoziii subordonate: Ce se afla intre paranteze d
repte sunt parile scrise cursiv 1. He lost his way [because of thick fog]. 2. We
went on the picnic [in spite of the heavy rain]. 3. [Following the dance], the h
ostess served refreshements. 4. The books [on my desk ] have to be returned to t
he library. 5. He went to the post offiice[ in order to buy some stamps]. 6. The
green dress costs [ as much as the red dress]. 7. [Her being late] amazes me. 8
. We were astinished [at his behaviour]. 9. You can rely [on his help]. 10. We s
aw interesting things everywhere.11. He speaks [like a native]. 12. [But for her
, I would have forgotten about the meeting. 13. This is the reason [for his earl
y arrival]. 14. [The weather being so cold], we made a fire. II. Punei verbele di
n parantez la forma potrivit: 1. I first met her twenty years ago when I (live) in
Paris. 2. I (have) a tiny apartment in the Latin Quarter and I (earn) barely en
ough money to keep body and soul together. 3. She had read a book of mine and (w
rite) to me about it. 4. I (answer), thanking her, and presently I (receive) fro
mher another letter saying that she (pass) through Paris and (like) to have a ch
at with me. 5. I (answer) that I (meet) her at Foyots on Thursday at half-past t
welve. 6. She (be) not so young as I (expect) and in appearance imposing rather
than attractive. 7. She (be) in fact a woman of forty - a charming age, but not
one that (excite) a sudden and devastating passion at first sight. 8. She also (
give) me the impression af having more teeth than (be) necessary for any practic
al purpose. 9. I (be) startled when the bill of fare ( be) brought for the price
s (be) a great deal higher than I (anticipate). 10. I (know) exactly how much mo
ney I (have) and if the bill (come) to more I (make up) my mind that I (put) my
hand in my pocket and with a dramatic cry start up and say it (be) picked. 11. O
f course it (be) awkward if she (have) not money enough either to pay the bill.
12. Then the only thing to do (be) to leave my watch and say I (come) back and p
ay later. III. Traducei n limba englez:

1. Muzica pe care am ascultat-o asear era de George Enescu. 2. Va veni de ndat ce-i
va termina treaba. 3. A fost aa de frig n ultima vreme nct au ngheat rurile. Mary a pl
cat n grab, de team s nu ntrzie. 5. Tom a vizitat expoziia ca s le poat povesti prie
or despre ea. 6. Dac el ar fi aici, ne-ar putea ajuta. 7. Ea va veni mine acas daca
i-a terminat examenele. 8. A fi trecut pe la ea dac mi-ar fi spus unde locuiete. 9.
I-am promis Paulei c o voi ajuta cnd am s m ntorc din vacan. 10. Dan a spus c-i plac
studieze gramatiica. 11. E ciudat c ncearc s telefoneze la aceast or trzie. 12. Tata p
opune s fim gata pe la oa 12. 13. Duminica trecut am stat acas pentru c a fost vreme
rea. 14. Ne-a asigurat asear c te va aatepta pn te vei ntoarce. 15. Tata a cumprat o
ain veche, dei prietenii lui l-au sftuit s nu o fac. 16. Azi diminea secretara a ajun
a birou mai devreme dect de obicei. 17. Oriunde ne duceam, ne opream i ceream info
rmaii. IV. A. Secretarul urcase scrile de fier i era apoape s nu-i observe. i cutase t
oat dimineaa, fr s aib aerul c o face. Mucal i spuse unde i-ar putea gsi, dar el mi
interesau. Ar fi trecut pe alturi dac nu ar fi auzit glasul gros al lui Sandu. (E
ugen Barbu - Unsprezece) B. Iubite Ghi. Sunt opt zile de cnd i-am trimis o scrisoare
prin care te rugam s-mi raspunzi dac persoana ce voia s cumpere tablouri de la min
e, despre care mi-ai scris mai de mult, mai persist n dorina sa i dac, prin urmare s-i
trimit ie tablouri n acest scop. Tabloul tu cu Ceahlul, despre care i scrisesem c e
ucru, acum e gata complet. Atept un rspuns al tu ca s tiu ce fac. Al tu cu toat dragos
ea, Octav Bncil. C. Iubite Ghi. E cam mult de cnd nu ma tiu nimica despre tine. tiu c
foarte ocupat ca ntotdeauna, totui cnd este chip, scrie-ne i nou cteva rndui i ne sp
cum te afli i ce mai faci. Eu sunt mai bine de cnd am fost la Teohari. Ceilali sun
t cu toii sntoi. Am terminat portretul d-rei Cireaa i sunt foarte mulumit. La nceput
iar tot timpul ct mi-a stat disperasem c nu voi putea-o face bine din cauza unei v
ioiciune ce o caracterizeaz. Apoi nu se prea inea dec uvnt. mi fgduia de exemplu, c vi
e mine i eu ateptam zadarnic, cci m trgea pe sfoar. Dar, n fine, a trecut tot necazul
ezultatul fiind pe deplin mulumitor, cel puin pentru mine ca executor, nu tiu ce vo
r zice criticii de toat mna.. Octav Bncil. D. Toat lumea tie c domnul Pantelimon i r
se vechea-i main "Topolino", care sttuse cinci ani pe butuci i c nu era duminic, dac e
hipa juca n alt ora s lipseasc. Se mprumuta de bani, daca n-avea, umplea rezervorul c
u benzin i fcea un tur la volan prin centru, ca s fie vzut. Mainua arunca gaze de-ai f
spus c deasupra oraului plutea un val de cea artificial. Trectorii ieii la plimbare
ora unsprezece scoteau batistele i le puneau la nas. Lng el, Vizante fcea semne cuno
scuilor cu mna. (E. Barbu-Unsprezece). E. Sunt vise ce parc le-am fi trit cndva i unde
va, precum sunt lucruri vieuite despre care ne ntrebm dac n-au fost vis. La asta m gnd
eam deunzi seara

cnd rvind printre hrtiile mele ca s vd ce se mai poate gsi de ars - hrtiile ncurc
peste o scrisoare care mi-a deteptat amintirea unei ntmplri ciudate, aa de ciudat c, d
n-ar fi dect apte ani de cnd s-a petrecut, m-a simi cuprins de ndoial, a cred c nt
am visat numai sau c am citit-o ori auzit-o demult. Era n 1907. Fusesem greu bolna
v n Bucureti i m ntorceam la Berlin. nsntoirea mea se fcea cu anevoin, cernd ng
plecare doctorul m-a sftuit s ma feresc pn i de cele mai uoare eforturi.. Bietul doct
or! Am dat din umeri , zmbind i i-am spus s fie pe pace. (Mateiu Caragiale - Rememb
er) pag: 264 26. Vorbirea direct i indirect (Direct and Indirect Speech) Exist dou po
sibiliti de redarea a spuselor cuiva: prin vorbire direct i indirect. 26.1. Vorbirea
direct (Direct Speech) 26.1.1. n vorbirea direct se reproduc ntocmai cuvintele perso
anei care le-a rostit. Acestea se introduc de obicei prin virgul i sunt ncadrate ntr
e ghilimele, spre deosebire de limba romn: He asked me, Where is Dan ? M-a ntrebat:
Unde este Dan? 26.1.2. Enunul reprodus ndeplinete funcia de propoziie completiv direct
a predicatului din propoziia principal. Propoziia principal poate aprea nainte, interc
alat sau dup completiva direct. Cu excepia poziiei iniiale, poate avea loc inversiune
tre subiect i predicat cnd subiectul este exprimat printr-un substantiv, iar verbu
l este la Present saau Past Tense Simple: Tom said, I can come with you, dar: I
can come with you said Tom. I can come with you Tom said. I can come with you he
said. 26.1.3. Folosirea timpurilor n vorbirea direct nu este afectat de timpul pre
dicatului din propoziia principal: He is saying -Ill see him tomorrow. - I met her
last night. - Ive just arrived. He has said -Ill see him tomorrow. - I met her las
t night. - Ive just arrived. He said -Ill see him tomorrow. - I met her last night
. - Ive just arrived.

26.2. Vorbirea indirect (Indirect / Reported Speech) n vorbirea indirect, o a treia


persoan red spusele cuiva, fr a reproduce totdeauna ntocmai cuvintele sale: John sai
d to Peter, Shall I meet you at the station tomorrow ? John suggested that he sh
ould meet Peter at the station the next day. John suggested meeting Peter at the
station the next day. Propoziia reprodus ndeplinete de asemenea funcia de completiv d
irect a predicatului din propoziia principal. pag: 265 26.3. Transformarea vorbirii
directe n vorbire indirect (Change form Direct to Indirect Speech) Cndva spusele c
uiva sunt trecute de la vorbirea direct la cea indirect, procedeul frecvent utiliz
at n coversaie, au loc anumite schimbri att n propoziia principal ct i n completiva
Modificrile sunt de dou feluri: A) generale, care afecteaz orice fel de enun reprod
us; B) specifice, caracteristice fiecrui tip de propoziie: enuniativ, interogativ, ex
clamativ, imperativ. 26.3.1. A. Modificrile generale se refer la: persoan, determinani
i timpuri verbale. Pronumele personal, reflexiv i posesiv se schimba dup neles: pers
oana I i II-a devin de obicei persoana a III-a: Tom said to Mary, You should have
asked me first. Tom told Mary that she should have asked him first. Pot aprea ns i
cazuri ca: You are right, Diana, said Paul. Diana: Paul said that I was right. P
ronumele rmne neschimbat cnd vorbitorul i reproduce propriile lui cuvinte: I think we
should leave immediately, I said. I said I thought we should leave immediately.
26.3.2. Pronumele / adjectivele demonstrative i adverbele de loc i timp ce indic a
propierea sunt nlocuite cu altele care exprim deprtarea. Astfel: this devine that t
his devine those here devine there today devine that day yesterday devine the da
y before tomorrow devine the next / following day next week devine the previous
week / the week before Schimbarea adverbelor de loc i timp nu are loc n mod automa
t. Contextul i momentul vorbirii indirecte indic schimbrile necesare: The teacher s
aid, Tom,

bring your paintings here the day after tomorrow. The teacher told Tom to bring
his paintings to school in two days time. 26.3.3. n ceea ce privete adverbele de t
imp, ele sunt nlocuite numai dac relaia dintre momentul vorbirii indirecte i momentu
l vorbirii directe nu mai este aceeai: 7 : 00 a.m. Radio-news report: British ste
el workers are planning a radeunion meeting tomorrow. Tom : They said on the rad
io yesterday that British steel workers are planning a trade-union meeting today
. Dac actul de vorbire are loc i este reprodus n acceai zi, schimbarea pronumelor i a
dverbelor determinative nu mai este necesare, deoarece nelesul lor este acelai fa de
momentul prezent: Dan: They said on the radio this morning that British steel wo
rkers are planning a trade-union meeting tomorrow. Folosirea timpurilor n vorbire
a indirect 26.3.4. Dac predicatul din propoziia principal este la prezent, Present P
erfect sau viitor, timpul din propoziia redat n vorbirea indirect (completiva direct)
rmn neschimbat. pag: 266 Alice is saying to Tom, Ill help you if I can. Alice has s
aid to Tom, Ill help you if I can. Vorbire indirect: Alice is telling Tom she will
help him if she can. Alice has told Tom she will help him if she can. Adjective
le / pronumele demonstrative sau adverbele din completiva direct rmn de asemenea ne
schimbate: Alice has said, Ill come here tomorrow. Alice has promised she will co
me here tomorrow. 26.3.5. Dac predicatul propoziiei principale este la un timp tre
cut: Past Tense, Past Perfect, Future -in-the-Past, timpurile verbale din enunul
reprodus devin i ele trecute. Aceast schimbare a timpurilor este denumit back-shift
n limba englez, deoarece ea are loc dinspre prezent spre trecut sau dinspre trecu
t spre un timp i mai trecut: Present devine Past Tense; Past Tense, Present Perfe
ct, Past Perfect devin Past Perfect; Future devine Future-in-the-Past. Schimbare
a timpurilor n completiva direct se aplic la propoziiile enuniative, exclamative i int
erogative. Mr Brown said to his wife Ive been very busy today. Mr Brown said to h
is wife How hungry I am. Mr Brown said to his wife will you give me something to
eat ? Mr Brown told his wife that he had been very busy that day. He exclaimed
that he was very hungry. He asked his wife is she would give him something to ea
t.

Propoziiile imperative, care devin infinitive n vorbirea indirect, nu se supun acest


ei reguli, deoarece nu conin un verb la o form personal: Mrs Brown said to her husb
and, Be careful! Dont drive so fast! Mrs Brown told her husband to be careful and
not to drive so fast. 26.3.6. Conform regulilor de coresponden a timpurilor, dup u
n verb la un timp trecut, Present simple devine de obicei Past Simple n vorbirea
indirect: Doris said, I have many friends. Doris said she had many friends. Excepi
i: a) cnd prezentul nedefinit exprim o aciune repetat, un obicei sau o caracteristic
a subiectului, timpul poate rmn neschimbat dac aciunea are acelai caracter i n moment
prezent (momentul vorbirii indirecte): George said I go to the seaside every sum
mer. George said that he went to the seaside every summer. George said that he g
oes to the seaside every summer. pag: 267 b) cnd vorbirea direct exprim un fapt uni
versal valabil, un adevr absolut, timpul nu se schimb: The teacher said, Water boi
ls at 100 Celsius. The teacher said that water boils at 100 Celsius. c) cnd coninutu
l enunului este valabil i n momentul vorbirii: George said I cant buy a pair of skis
now, I havent saved enough money. george said, he cant buy a pair of skis as he h
asnt saved enough money. Prezentul continuu se transform de obicei n Past Tense con
tinuu: Im reading. He said he was reading. 26.3.7. O aciune viitoare este exprimat n
vorbirea indirect n modul urmtor: will (+infinitiv) devin: would (+infinitiv) woul
d (+infinitiv) devin: would (+infinitiv) I, we shall (+infinitiv) devine: he, th
ey, would (+infintiv) am / is / are going to (+infinitiv) devin: was / were goin
g to (+infinitiv) Frank said, Im going to buy a new car next year. Frank said I s
hall buy a Dacia car. Frank said he was going to buy a new car the following yea
r and added he would buy a Dacia car. Excepie: Corespondena timpurilor nu se aplic n
cazul n care aciunea e viitoare i momentul vorbirii indirecte, nu numai n momentul
vorbirii directe: George said, Ill take up engineering after graduation. George s
aid hell take up engineering after graduation. 26.3.8. Past Simple devine Past Pe
rfect Simple n vorbirea indirect: Mother said, Tom hurt himself. Mother said that
Tom had hurt himself. Excepii:

Past Simple poate rmne neschimbat pentru: a) aciuni repetate n trecut: Harry said, I
invited all my friend to my birthday parties when I was young. Harry said he in
vited all his friends to his birthday parties when he was young. b) exprimarea u
nui fapt: The children asked, Were there any animals on the farm ? The children
asked if there were any animals on the farm. c) enunuri redate n vorbirea indirect
imediat dup rostirea lor (n aceeai zi): Paul said, I played football this morning.
Paul said he played football this morning. d) cnd ntre predicatele din principal i c
ompletiva direct nu exist un raport de anterioritate: He said, Sadoveanu was the g
reatest writer of his time. he said that Sadoveanu was the greatest writer of hi
s time. e) n vorbire, dac nu se produce confuzie cu privire la momentele celor dou
aciuni: My friend said to me, i saw good film last night. My friend told me he sa
w a good film last night. f) n propoziiile circumstaniale de timp. Propoziia regent c
ircumstanialei de timp poate fi de asemenea meninut la Past Tense sau deveni Past P
erfect: Our neighbour told us he met our father when he was living in Braov. Our
neighbour told us he had met our father when he was living in Braov. g) n propoziii
le condiionale de tipul 2: Harry said, I would go to the museum if it was open. H
arry said he would go to the museum if it was open. h) dup wish, would rather, it
is time: Its time you finished your papers, the teacher said. The teacher told t
he pupils it was time they finished their papers. pag: 268 26.3.9. Past Tense Co
ntinuous devine n principiu Past Perfect Continuous, dar n practic rmne adesea neschi
mbat. Schimbarea are loc doar cnd acest timp se refer la o aciune terminat: He said,
We were thinking of moving house but have changed our minds. He said that they
had been thinking of moving house but had changed their minds. 26.3.10. Verbele
modale se schimb n felul urmtor: may devine might, will devine would, can devine co
uld: The typist said, The mecanic can fix my typewriter but he wont. The typist c
omplained that the mechanic could fix her typewriter but he wouldnt. Dac verbele m
odale exprimate n vorbire direct nu au forme pentru trecut, ca de exemplu must, ne
ed, should, ought to, had better, sau sunt deja la trecut sau condiional, ca woul
d, could, might i used to (numai Past Tense), ele rmn neschimbate n vorbirea indirec
t: We must buy Mother a present for her birthday, the children said. The children
said they must buy mother a present for her birthday. You ought to help your pa
rents, Tom, the teacher said. The teacher told Tom he ought to help his parents.
Atenie! n general must se menine n vorbirea indirect. Cnd ns must exprim o obligai
oate deveni would have to sau had to, n funcie de sens: Harry said, I must go to s
chool now. Harry said he had to go to school

immediately. Father said, I must go to a conference tomorrow. Father said he wou


ld have to go a conference the next day. n mod similar, could este meninut n vorbir
ea indirect: George asked, Could I use your pen ? George asked me if he could use
my pen, sau meninut / schimbat n funcie de sens: He said Could you lend me your di
ctionary, please ? He said I could swim when it was fine. He said I couldnt go in
to the water alone when I was a child. He asked me to lend him my dictionary. He
asked me if I could lend him my dictionary. He said he could swim when it was f
ine. He said he had been able to swim when it was fine. He added he couldnt go in
to the water alone when he was a child. He added he had not been allowed to go i
nto the water alone when he was a child. 26.3.11. Frazele condiionale de tipul 2 i
3 nu se schimb n vorbirea indirect. Cele de tipul 1 devin identice ca form cu condii
onalele de tipul 2: He said, Youll hurt yourself if you are not careful. he told
me I would hurt myself if was not careful. B. Modificrile specifice se refer la ve
rbele care trebuie folosite n fiecare fel de propoziie reprodus (enuniativ, exclamati
v, interogativ, imperativ), la punctuaie, ordinea cuvintelor etc. 26.3.12. Propoziiil
e enuniative (Declarative Sentence) Verbul say este caracteristic vorbirii direct
e, cu sau fr complement indirect. Dac este urmat de un complement indirect, verbul
say urmeaz de obicei cuvintele reproduse: I dont understand the uestion, Cathy sa
id to her teacher. pag: 269 n vorbirea indirect, se pstreaz de regul say cnd complemen
tul indirect nu este menionat, iar verbul ocup poziia iniial: Cathy said she didnt und
erstand the lesson. n celelalte cazuri se ntrebuineaz tell + complement indirect: Ca
thy told the teacher she didnt understand the uestion. Semnele citrii sunt omise n
vorbirea indirect, iar enunul reprodus se introduce prin conjuncia that: Ive just a
rrived, Fred said. Fred said (that) he had just arrived. n unele situaii, spusele
cuiva nu pot fi reproduse n vorbirea indirect, ci trebuie parafrazate, n funcie de s
ens: Paula said, Im sorry Im late. Youd better stay in bed for a few days, Peter, t
he doctor said.

Yes i no sunt exprimate n vorbirea indirect cu ajutorul unui subiect i verb auxiliar
: Is this device safe ? Yes. The man asked if the device was safe and the mechan
ic replied that it was. sau prin nlocuirea cu verbe de afirmare sau negare: He sa
id, No. He refused. He said, No. He denied it. He said, No. He answered in the n
egative. He said, Yes. He agreed. He said, Yes. He accepted. He said, Yes. He an
swered in the affirmative. 26.3.13. Propoziiile interogative Dac Verbul din princi
pal este say, acesta trebuie nlocuit cu verbe ca: ask, wonder, want to know, inqui
re etc. Why is Tom angry ? Helen said to me. Helen asked (me) why Tom was angry.
Helen wondered why Tom was angry. Cnd propoziiile interogative sunt redate n vorbi
rea indirect, ele devin propoziii enuniative. n consecin forma interogativ a verbului
evine afirmativ sau negativ: subiectul precede predicatul, verbul auxiliar do este
omis, iar semnul ntrebrii se transform n punct: Peter is saying Isnt Bob coming ? Pe
ter is saying Where does he live ? Peter wants to know if Bob is not coming. Pet
er wants to know where he lives. Excepie: Cnd un cuvnd interogativ: who, what, how
much este subiectul propoziiei interogative, se menine ordinea cuvintelor din vorb
irea direct: Laura says, How many arrived last night ? Laura wants to know how ma
ny (people) arrived last night. pag: 270 De asemenea: I said, Whats the matter ?
I asked (him) what was the matter. Dac n vorbirea direct propoziia interogativ este o
ntrebare special , adic dac ea ncepe cu un pronume, adjectiv interogativ, acesta est
e pstrat n vorbirea indirect: How do you spell this word ? the teacher has asked. T
he teacher has asked how we spell this word. n cazul unor ntrebri generale, legtura n
tre propoziia principal i completiva direct se face cu ajutorul conjunciei if sau whe
ther: He is saying Have you been to Suceava? He is asking if we have been to Suc
eava. He is asking whether we have been to Suceava.

Whether este folosit n mod obligatoriu pentru redarea n vorbirea indirect a ntrebrilo
r alternative: Are you going to the theatre or to the cinema ? Tommy said to his
sister. Tommy asked his sister wheter she was going to the theatre or to the ci
nema. Tommy asked his sister wheter she was going to the theatre or not. ntrebrile
generale ncepnd cu will / would / could you se transform n vorbirea indirect n mod di
fereniat, n funcie de sensul ntrebrii. a) o ntrebare despre o aciune viitoare: Will yo
sing in the choir tomorrow ? He said . He asked me if I would sing in the choir
the next day. b) o rugminte, cerere: Could you serve the coffee ? Bob said. Bob
asked me to serve the coffee. Bob asked if I could serve the coffee. c) o invitai
e: Would you attend our meeting ? The children said to their teacher. The childr
en asked their teacher to their meeting. The children invited their teacher to t
heir meeting. d) un ordin, o comand: Copy the lesson, Mary. The teacher told Mary
to copy the lesson. n mod similar, ntrebrile ncepnd cu shall I / we se transform dife
reniat n vorbire indirect, devenind: a) o ntrebare despre o aciune viitoare: would +
infinitiv: Shall I see you tomorrow ? Bob said. Bob wanted to know if he would s
ee me the next day. b) cererea unui sfat: should + infinitiv: Shall I buy the lo
ng dress, mother? Alice said. Alice asked her mother if she should buy the long
dress. c) o ofert: offer + infinitiv lung: Shall I bring you your glasses ? Patri
cia said. Patricia offered to bring me my glasses. d) o sugestie: suggest + Geru
nd / should + infinitiv: Shall we have a snack? Denise said. Denise suggested ha
ving a snack. Denise suggested that they should have a snack. pag: 271 Schimbrile
de timp n propoziiile interogative au loc la fel ca i n cele enuniative: He said, Wh
ere have you been? He said, What is Tom doing ? He said, When will they leave? H
e wanted to know where we had been. He wanted to know what Tom was doing. He wan
ted to know when they would leave. 26.3.14. Propoziiile exclamative Propoziiile ex
clamative devin propoziii enuniative n vorbirea indirect. n consecin, semnul exclamri
in vorbirea direct nu mai este necesar: What a funny joke! he said. He exclaimed
that it was a funny joke. Sunt posibile mai multe transformri, n funcie de natura e
xclamaiei:

a) Exclamaii ncepnd cu what(a)..., how... se transform n completive directe Exclimed


that it was very kind of him to help! mother said. Mother exclaimed that it was
very kind of him to help them. b) Exclamaii ca Oh! Ah! Ugh! devin: He exclaimed w
ith surprise / disgust, etc. He gave an exclamation of surprise / disgust, etc. n
funcie de sens se ntrebuineaz diverse verbe (+ adverbe de mod) ca: exclaim, complai
n, shout, remark, observe, say admiringly, say scornfully, etc., pentru redarea
propoziiilor exclamative n vorbirea indirect: What a delicious cake! the quest said
. The qest said asmiringly that the cake was delicious. How tired I am! the old
woman said. The old woman complained that she was very tired. Observai de asemene
a: She said, Thank you. He said, Damn it! They said, Good morning! She said, A h
appy new year! He said, Well done! She said, Liar! She thanked me. He swore. The
y greeted me / wished me a good morning. She wished me a happy new year. He cong
ratulated me. She called me a liar. Predicatul propoziiei exclamative se supune c
orespondenei timpurilor fa de un predicat trecut n propoziia principal. He said, How b
eautifully she sang! He said, How pretty she is! He said, What a delightful trip
well have! He exclaimed that she had sung beautifully. He said admiringly that s
he had sung beautifully. He remarked that she had sung beautifully. He exclaimed
that she was pretty. He said admiringly that she was pretty. He remarked that s
he was pretty. He exclaimed that they would have a delightful trip. He said admi
ringly that they would have a delightful trip. He remarked that they would have
a delightful trip. Dac exclamaia n vorbirea direct nu conine un verb la un timp perso
nal, n vorbirea indirect se folosete verbul be: Helen said, What a lovely present!
Helen exclaimed that the present was lovely.

pag: 272 26.3.15. Propoziiile imperative n vorbirea indirect, propoziiile imperative


defin infinitive: a) afirmative: He said, Sit down, Peter. b) negative: He said
, Dont interrupt the speaker please. Verbul din propoziia principal (say, tell) se
nlocuiete cu un verb care exprim un ordin (tell, order, command), o rugminte (ask,
request, urge), un sfat (warn, advise, recommand), etc., n funcie de sens: Officer
to soldiers: Clean the barracks! The officer ordered his soldiers to clean the
barracks. Mother to Ann: Pass me the salt, will you ? Mother asked Ann to pass h
er the salt. Teacher to Tom: (You shouls) go to the doctor . The teacher advised
Tom to go to the doctor. Aceste verbe sunt urmate n mod obligatoriu de complemen
te indirecte sau prepoziionale. Dac ele nu menionate n vorbirea direct, vor fi adugate
: Give me my ball! the little boy shouted. The little boy shouted at the bigger
to give him his ball. Dac verbul din principal este la diateza pasiv, complementul
indirect nu mai este necesar: Go to bed! they said to Tommy. Tommy was told to g
o to bed. Imperativul pentru persoana I plural (lets + infinitiv) exprim de obicei
o sugestie i se exprim n vorbirea indirect prin verbul suggest + Gerund / completiv
direct introdus de that: Nick said, Lets watch TV. Nick said, What about watching T
V? Nick suggested watching TV. Nick suggested that they should watch TV. Nick su
ggested that they watch TV. (n engleza american). Imperativele exprimnd un ordin n g
eneral se pot transforma n vorbire indirect i: - cu ajutorul verbului be to, n speci
al cnd: a) verbul din principal este la prezent: He says, Do the next exercise! He
says that we are to do the next exercise. b) ordinul este precedat de o propozii
e temporal sau condiional: He said, If she comes, ring me up. He said that if she c
ame we were to ring him up. - cu ajutorul lui should: The Captain ordered that t
he sailors should clean the deck./
26.4. Vorbirea indirect liber

Acesta reprezint un stadiu intermediar ntre vorbirea direct i indirect i este utilizat
frecvent n stilul narativ. Se caracterizeaz prin schimbarea timpurilor, a pronumel
or i adverbelor ca i n vorbirea indirect, dar propoziia principal este de obicei omis
se pstreaz unele forme din vorbirea direct: propoziii interogative, vocative, ntrebri
disjunctive etc. Aceast form este adeseori folosit n literatur pentru exprimarea gndur
ilor unui personaj. n consecin, verbul he thought este de obicei mai potrivit dect h
e said n asemenea cazuri.
Cheia exerciiilor
Cap. 1. VERBUL II. 1. It is raining; 2. is he driving; drives; 8. started, was w
alking; 4. rang, was going out; 5. has been, blew; 6. has been snowing; 7. have
you heard; 8. I've just spoken, spoke; 9. lent, asked/had asked; 10. had been, a
rrived; 11. had been living, met; 12. is, shall go; 13. is, shall be skiing; 14.
shall have skied, have 15. are you doing; am having; have; 16. does the train l
eave, leaves; 17. are you doing; am looking; have you been looking; have been lo
oking; came; did you coma; came. III. 1. It is raining. It often rains in autumn
. 2. It has been raining since you came. 3. It has rained. 4. It. rained yerster
day too. 5. It was raining when I looked out of the window. 6. It had rained whe
n I went out. 7. It had been raining for a long time. 8. It looks like rain. 9.
It is going to rain today. 10. It will be raining when you come back from your o
ffice. 11. We'll go for a walk when the rain has stopped. 12. We shan't go for a
walk unless it stops raining. IV. 1. They are being shown the museum. 2. He has
been appointed president. 8. The pupils were asked several questions. 4. The so
ldiers were ordered to stand to attention. 5. I have been given a good dictionar
y. 6. You will be told what time the bus leaves. 7. The carpenter will be paid f
or his work. 8. They were promised new bicycles. 9. I have been lent this book b
y the form teacher. 10. The singer will be offered flowers. V. 1. This matter mu
st be looked into. 2. This bed has not been slept in. 3. The children were well
looked after. 4. The dog was run over by a bus. 5. You will be laughed at if you
wear this dress. 6. Empty bottles must not be thrown away. 7. This glass ha not
been drunk out of. 8. I was taken on by his behaviour. 9. Every moment must be
accounted for. 10. She doesn't like to be stared at. VII. 1. It is advisable tha
t you be/should be there at eight o'clock sharp. 2. They require that the enemy
troops be/should be withdrawn from their territory. 3. Why should we do this? 4.
His wish that we should become teachers has been fulfilled. 5. Come what may, F
U start the engine. 6. I wish you would be quieter. 7. I wish they were here now
. 8. I wish they had attended the conference. 9. What would you do if they offer
ed you this job? 10. If anyone should call for her, tell them she is away. 11. M
other gave me some money so that I might buy the dictionary I needed. 12. I'll g
ive you his phone number so that you may ring him up. 13. He worked very hard fo
r fear he should fail the exam. 14. However late it may be, ring me up. 16. No m
atter how many mistakes he might have made, his paper is the best in the class.
VIII. 1. to become; 2. come; 3. to revise*4. wait; 5. cross; 6. to repeat; 7. wa
it; 8. to return; 9. to compare; 10. to understand; 11. to compete; 12. to say;
13. try; 14. to hear.

IX. 1. from leaving; 2. of studying; 3. about losing; 4. in posting; 5. on doing


; 6. at finding; 7. to receiving; 8. on getting; 9. on having played; 10. of hav
ing driven. X. 1. me/my reading; 2. him/his coming; 8. me for interrupting you/m
y interrupting you; 4. her/her wearing; 5. them/their making; 6. us/our coming;
7. you/your going out; 8. her/her acting; 9. them/their playing; 10. him/his pre
tending; 11. you/your trying; 12. us/ our working. XI. 1. to give. 2. meeting. 8
. interrupting. 4. to talk. 5. to give. 6. leaving. 7. cycling. 8. to walk. 9. t
o wake. 10. to tell. 11. walking. 12. selling, working, writing. 18. to make. 14
. to write. 16. singing. 16. to hear. 17. cutting. 18. to go 19. walking, travel
ling. 20. to go. 21. to see. 22. seeing. 23. smoking. 24. to smoke. XII. 1. foll
owing. 2. followed. 8. interesting. 4. interested. 5. frozen. 6. freezing. 7. ri
ding. 8. exported. 9. importing, exporting. 10. tired. 11. tiring. 12. accused.
13. accusing. 14. baked. 15. expected. 16. astonishing. 17. lost. 18. frightened
. 19. frightening. 20. dried. 21. crowded. XIII. 1. Books borrowed from the libr
ary must be returned in time. 2. The windows of the drawingroom opened on to a t
errace overlooking the sea. 8. Hearing, footsteps, he turned with a start. 4. AU
long known objects are dear to us. 5. He kept silent, as if puzzled by my behav
iour. 6. Having completed her piece of work, she rose to switch of f the machine
. 7. Then he was gone, the dog following. 8. He practised every day, his princip
le being that practice makes perfect. 9. The child stopped crying. 10. He stoppe
d to help the old woman. 11. One of the reasons for her having read the book so
many times had been to learn the new words. 12. He coughed to draw the attention
of the audience, 18. I'm sorry to have disturbed you while working. 14. His voi
ce began to tremble with emotion. 16. I promised to obey my parents. 16. I saw h
er weep(ing). 17. I'm sorry I didn't mean to hurt you. 18. Nobody is to blame. 1
9. This problem is too difficult for us to solve. He denies having been there. X
IV. 1. may leave. 2. may have heard. 3. must have gone. 4. must not play. 5. cou
ldn't have forgotten. 6. should see. 7. could repair. 8. must be true. 9. should
have written. 10. had to take. XV. 1. Will you fetch me the newspaper, please.
2. Shall I buy some bananas? You'd rather buy some oranges. 3. Would you sign in
the register, please. 4. Could you help me with my luggage? 5. Would you like a
cup of coffee? No, thank you. I'd like a cup of tea. 6. She can't speak English
yet, but she will be able to do so in a few years' time. 7. He could have learn
ed the poem but he wouldn't. 8. The sky might clear up later. 9. May I borrow th
is book? I used to go swimming every day when I was younger. 10. I used to go sw
imming every day when I was younger. 11. They may have won the match, but I'm no
t sure. 12. He should/ought to have left earlier. Then he would have caought the
train. 13. There is a good concert on TV. You shouldn't miss it. 14. Peter is a
bsent today. He must be ill. 15. You mustn't play in the middle of the road. 16.
He can't/couldn't have been out of town last week. I met him several times. 17.
He went to bed at eight o'clock last night. He must have been very tired. 18. T
he children were allowed to go out when the rain stopped. 19. How dare he say su
ch a thing? 20. You needn't have taken your umbrella; it had stopped raining. Ca
p. 2. SUBSTANTIVUL I.1. School begins in September. 2. "We go swimming on Sunday
(s). 3. Mr Brown is an MP. 4. On July

4th every year the Americans celebrate Independence Day. 5. The Danube flows int
o the Black Sea. 6. Dr. Ionescu consults the pupils every Monday. 7. Spain borde
rs on France. 8. The Chinese, the Vietnamese and the Japanese live in Asia. 9. T
he Intercontinental Hotel in Bucharest is next to the National Theatre. 10. 'Har
d Times' is a novel by Dickens. 11. We study English and Russian at school. 12.
The Conference for Peace and Security in Europe was held in Helsinki in 1976. II
. schoolboys, masterpieces, brothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, headmasters, milkme
n, women dentists, postmen, blackboards, sons-in-law, passers-by, bedrooms, car
races, lookers-on, men singers, merry-gorounds, horse races, forget-me-nots, foo
tsteps, firemen. III. 1. books, shelves. 2. toys. 3. men, tourists. 4. children,
stories. 5. watches. 6. lice, insects. 7. cliffs. 8. leaves. 9. geese. 10. pota
toes. 11. feet. 12. women, housewives. 13. mice. IV. 1. hundreds. 2. hundred. 3.
million. 4. million. 6, thousands. 6. thousands. 7. dozen. 8. dozen. 9. dozens.
10. feet. 11. foot. V. a) stimuli, phenomena, desiderata, addenda, larvae, base
s, analyses, crises, criteria; b)campuses, viruses, encyclopedias, villas, museu
ms, albums, gymnasiums, electrons, sopranos; c) syllabuses, geniuses/ genii, for
mulas/formulae, curriculums/curricula, symposiums/symposia, indexes/indices, aut
omatons/automata, plateaus/plateaux, tempos/ tempi VI. 1. sheet. 2. bars. 3. loa
f, loaves. 4. piece/stick. 5. piece. 6. piece. 7. pair. 8. piece/ item. 9. piece
/item. 10. piece. 11. piece. 12. head. VII. 1. The news I have received is inter
esting. 2. I packed my luggage last night. 3. We are going to publish all the in
formation necessary to the candidates. 4. His know-ledge of history is remarkabl
e. 5. I've bought some fruit and some cakes. 6. Have you done your homework? IX.
1. Where are the tongs? 2. Many thanks. 3. E very means has been tried/ All mea
ns have been tried. 4. The Army Headquarters was/were near London 5. Physics is
his favourite subject. 6. We caught three big trout. 7. A book on Romanian fresh
-water fishes has just been published. 8. He has brown hair. 9. She has a few gr
ey hairs. 10. Give me two loaves (of bread) please. 11. She has made great progr
ess in learning English. 12. These are the minutes of the meeting. XI. My dear u
ncle Ghi, A thousand thanks for your friendly card. As soon as I get the author's
copies from the Academy, I shall send you a copy of my work on the Black Sea. We
are having an unpleasant winter, my wife and I both being ill. But our dear Tof
u is strong and I am very pleased to hear his voice over the telephone. Gr. Anti
pa XII. 1. daughter; 2. lady; 8. niece; 4. aunt; 5. mother; 6. sister; 7. hen; 8
. hind; 9. girl; 10. wife; 11. woman; 12. queen. XIII. 1. boy-friend; girl frien
d; 2. he-goat; she-goat; 3. male student; female student; 4. Tom cat; Tibby cat;
5. Jack-ass; Jenny ass; 6. male frog; female frog. XIV. 1. This is my neighbour
' car. 2. This is Lily's doll. 8. This is Dick's bicycle. 4. This is my cousin's
stamp book. 5. This is Mr White's umbrella. 6. This is Lawrence and Paul's elec
tric train. 7. These are Peter's and Mary's bicycles.

XVI. 1. My cousins' house is large. 2. The ladies' hats are very pretty. 8. The
pupils' uniforms are blue. 4. The women's work is very much appreciated. 5. The
workers' life is much better today. 6. The teacher praised the students' work. 7
. Where are the children's clothes? 8. The babies' food is in the fridge. XVII.
1. Mary is David's sister. 2. The pages of the book have numbers. 8. What is you
r brother's hobby? 4. This is a woman's hat. 5. What's the favourite sport of th
is boy? 6. The roof of the shed was blown off by the wind. 7. That is Alice's pe
ncil-box. 8. Ladies' hats are very pretty this year. 9. This is the room of my b
rother and sister. 10. Where are the girls' blouses? 11. Dickens' novels are ver
y interesting. 12. The house is at a mile's distance. 18. Have you read yesterda
y's paper? XIX. 1. I bought a dog for Mike. 2. He gave some presents to Tom. 3.
I chose a nice present for my sister. 4. Mary showed her composition to the teac
her. 5. They sent a parcel to their parents. 6. Did you make this cardigan for H
elen? 7. Did he give a bunch of flowers to his mother? 8.1 ordered a lemonade fo
r my sister. XX. a) 1. The 12th Party Congress has taken decisions of great impo
rtance for our people and our country's progress. 2. Have you read yesterday's n
ewspaper? 3. After a moment's thought, the pupil answered all my questions perfe
ctly. 4. The jury handed rewards to all the winners of the competition. 6. We ha
d a very good time at the party of my friend's sister. 6. I think I have taken s
omebody else's hat. 7. The pen is Bob's. 8. What do you know about the climate o
f this country? 9. The teacher spoke for more than an hour about the climate of
this country. 10. The pupils offered a bunch of flowers to their teacher. 11. We
'd better meet at Mary's. 12. The printing of this book meant an important succe
ss. b) 1. Our most modern poetess spoke about her latest volume of poems. 2. You
will be accompanied by my son and daughter. 8. I don't know who acts the prince
ss. 4. I haven't seen my aunt and uncle for a few months. 5. Her youngest niece
is the heiress of the house. 6. My neighbour left the door open and forgot about
it. Cap. 8. ARTICOLUL IV. 1. -, the, the. 2. -. 3. -. 4. -. 5. the. 6. the, -.
7. -, - 8. the. 9. - the, the. 10. the,-, -. 11. - , -. 12. the. 13. a. 14. a/th
e, a. 15. the, the, -. 16. the. 17. an. 18. a. 19.-. 20. the, the. 21. a. 22. -.
23. the, an, -. VII. A. 1. What a beautiful day! 2. A dozen needles costs a pen
ny. 3. You must speak in a louder voice. 4. Did you come by bus? 5. How many tim
es a week do you have Physics? 6. The Danube crosses several European countries.
7. The People's Republic of Bulgaria is /lies to the south of the Socialist Rep
ublic of Romnia. 8. Honey is sweet. 9. My friend is spending her holiday at the s
easide. 10. All the pupils came to the school festival. 11. Children like games
very much. B. 1. Pens, pencils, rubbers, glue and ink are on sale at the station
er's. 2. Where is the pen I bought yesterday? 3. I like symphonic music. 4. I li
ke the music composed/ written for the piano. 6. We study the history of the Rom
anian people at school. 6. We also study world history. 7. In Canada there are t
wo official languages: English and French. 8. The Romanian language is a Romance
language. 9. The press, radio and television have a major educaional role in Romn
ia. C. 1. Where are your people? Grandpa is in bed, grandma is in the kitchen, m
other is at school and father is at work. 2. I generally go home by bus, but som
etimes I go by tram. 8. I can never sleep in the/a car or on the/a train. 4. Mot
her often wakes up in the night to feed the baby. 6. I don't like to go out at n
ight. 6. What time do you have lunch? 7. I usually have lunch at noon/at 12 o'cl
ock. 8. Have you finished preparing (the) lunch? 9. I had to stay in bed for a w
eek last year when I had (the) flu.

1. His shoes ____ 2. Her hat ____ 3. Their hats ____ 4. ____. its nest 5. Her dr
ess ____. 6. His eyes ____. 7. Their books ____. 8. Its tail ____. 9. Their ears
____. 10. Her brother ____. IX. 1. each 2. either 3. every 4. either 5. each 6.
each 7. very 8. each 9. either 10. either, both 11. each 13. either 18. every, e
ach 14. each. XI. "Why do people sleep at night?" "But when do you sleep, Darie?
" "Also at night. But I wouldn't sleep at all, especially in the summertime/in (
the) summer," "And what would you do?" "I would lie down in the grass. But I wou
ld lie down on my back. I'd keep my eyes open. If I could stop blinking, I would
n't blink at all, I'd look at the stars. And, looking at them, I'd imagine I was
free." "Lie down in the grass now. Look at the stars now, Darie, and imagine no
w whatever you want to imagine." I do as the wind is telling me. I lie down in t
he grass. I put both my arms under my head. I look at the sky. It seems motionle
ss, but I know it isn't. Nothing ever keeps still. The whole sky, what you can s
ee of it and what you can't, with its stars, those that can be seen and those th
at can't, comes from somewhere. From where? I don't know. Ill ask the grass. She
doesnt know either. I stretch out my hands, I stop the wind in his gentle run.
I ask him. "I dont know, Darie." "Does anyboy in this world know?" "Nobody know
s, Darie." Now, I say to myself, now I shant ask anyone. I shall look at the sk
y. I start to look at it. Cap. 4. NUMERALUL III. 1. The 24th of January, and the
23rd of August are national days of our people. 2. Open the book at page 48 and
read chapter 15 again. 3. I live at no. 49, Spiru Haret street. 4. How old are
you? I am 12. (years old) 6. At half past two Ill get on bus no. 331 and go to vi
sit the exhibition. 6. How much is a pair of shoes? 7. Ive bought butter, a doz
en of eggs and a kilo of flour. 8. We have the long break between ten minutes to
ten and ten past ten. 9. I have been waiting for you for more than half an hour
. 10. I dialled double five, seven, nine, two, four, and then I waited. 11. I th
ink they left by the 6.30 train. 12. The 12th Congress of the Romanian Communist
Party took place in November 1979. Cap. 5. PRONUMELE I. 1. her. 2. yours. 8. yo
ur, mine. 4. your 5. our 6. his 7. his. 8. theirs. 9. mine. 10. hers. II. 1. I t
old it to them. 2. I wrote it to her. 3. I sent it to him. 4. I bought them for
her. 5.1 gave them to him. 6.1 explained it to him. 7. I showed it to them. 8. I
asked him about it. III. 1. him. 2. we. 3. them 4. he 5. it 6. it 7. her 8. us.
IV. 1. who 2. - 3. who 4. who 5. - 6. who 7. who 8. which/that V. Biric and Poli
na stayed behind. They put their sickles over their shoulders and made for Tudor
Blosu's land. On the way Polina told him again they could not reach an agreement
with ver father if they stayed and waited for him to make it up to them. She kn
ew him better than that. The land must be taken by force. Biric answered that you
could take anything by force, say a horse, a cart, a cow; you take it by force
and carry it away with you. But you can't take land. You need papers at the nota
ry's office for the land and only then you can say it is yours. Telling her this
, Biric made her realize what a

fool she had been to imagine he hadn't thought of their situation from all possi
ble angles. Polina answered she knew more about legal papers than he thought. Wh
at she knew was that if you made use of one thing for several years, and afterwa
rds you brought witnesses that the thing had been yours for so many years, you c
ould obtain papers saying that it was yours even if the other person did not wan
t you to. Biric's face lightened and he said with great wonder and admiration tha
t she was some woman. Polina blushed when she heard him praise her and answered
that she no longer hoped to find any understanding from her father. They shouldn
't waste their good intentions on him. When she was a young girl, he hadn't boug
ht her anything, not a stitch of clothing; she used to come bare-footed to the v
illage dance. Biric himself knew the story well enough. He ought to understand th
ere was nothing else to do about the matter. They walked silently for a long tim
e and he ,answered only later. He told her that her father could sue him and tak
e him to court. A trial might turn out bad. Polina interrupted him by saying he
wouldn't dare do such a thing. She had married and had a right to the land she h
ad worked on. And if her father wanted a trial, she would take care to make him
sorry he had wanted it. Cap. 6. ADJECTIVUL I.1. the best. 2. longer, shorter. 3.
the longest. 4. warmer, warmer. 5. many 6. the most popular 7. as beautiful as
8. warm, more beautiful 9. the worst 10. the most interesting. II. 1. the better
2. fewer and fewer 3. the latter 4. elder 5. the next. III. 1. Have you read Ma
rin Preda's last novel? 2. Did it seem more interesting than his other novels? 3
. 11 was by far the most pleasant holiday we spent at the seaside. 4. They study
more and more and get better and better results. 5. The more attentive he was t
he fewer mistakes he made. 6. Have you met her elder brother? 7. Your dress is m
ore modern than mine. 8. Which is the farthest/furthest planet? Cap. 7. ADVERBUL
I.1. Peter works slowly. 2. Ann dances well. 3. Our teacher speaks English flue
ntly. 4. He acts badly. 6. Doris works hard. 6. Nick swims fast. 7. Mother types
carefully. 8. Father drives carelessly. 9. He teaches intelligently. 10. He spe
aks optimistically. 11. He eats noisily. 12. Paul listens attentively. 13. He sp
eaks sensibly. 14. Diana runs quickly. II. 1. She works very hard at school. 2.
He dug deep in the ground. 3 He was rightly considered the best pupil in the cla
ss. 4 I can hardly see your face in the dark. 6 The train arrived late. 6. He wa
s deeply moved by her kindness. 7. He guessed the answer right / He rightly gues
sed the answer. 8. Birds fly high. 9.I haven't seen him lately. 10. He is highly
appreciated for his work. 11. He is closely related to me. 12. Take it easy! 13
. We are mostly out on Sundays. 14. It is nearly midnight. 15. What is troubling
you most? 16. He is right at the top. 17. Open your mouth wide. Cap. 8. PREPOZII
A I. 1. at; on. 2. in, in. 3. round; into. 4. for. 5. in, on, to. 6. from, to. 7
. to, on. 8. at, at. 9. at. 10. past, in. 11. out of. 12. up, into. 13. in. 14.
against. 15. across. II. 1. from, to. 2. in, at. 8. on. 4. at, at. 5. in. 6. on.
7. in. 8. by, 9. over. 10. for. 11. in. 12. until. 13. in, in. 14. at. III. 1.
What are you looking at? 2. He is looking out of the window. 3. Who are you wait
ing for? 4. What's the time by your watch? 5. Let's go for a walk. 6. He has bee
n in hospital for two weeks. 7. What

are you afraid of? He is always kind to his patients. 8. Fm grateful to him for
the favour he has done to me. 9.I congratulated him on his success. 10. He was s
hivering with cold. 11. Don't lie to me. 12. In the morning they walked about/ro
und town, in the afternoon they stayed at home. 13. The course lasted for a whol
e month. 14. They set off towards the river. 15. The meeting began at eleven o'c
lock in the morning and lasted until two o'clock in the afternoon/and ended at t
wo o'clock in the afternoon. 16. He was away during his holiday. 17. They travel
led as usual. 18. He is delivering a lecture on contemporary art. 19. The pictur
e was painted in oil not in water-colours. 20. There is a good programme on tele
vision tonight. Cap. 9. CONJUNCIA III. In the evening they reached Mr Vasiliu's i
nn. Vitoria knew she would find some-thing there. And indeed she did. In the vil
lage of Suha people were talking. They said a judge from the city should come to
investigate how things had been with the sale of the sheep, to see whether the
bill for their sale at Dorna could be found, and whether the honourable men from
Suha had a receipt for the money they had given to Lipan. Nobody said such impo
rtant men could commit an evil deed - but it was good for them to claim their ri
ghts. Besides, somebody said the honourable men should produce the witness or wi
tnesses who had been present at the sale and at the counting of the money. It wa
s obvious that only such a stranger or strangers who had been there, could have
followed Lipan and stolen the money for the sheep. These witnesses might be tota
lly unknown. Neither Calistrat, nor Ilie Cuui had seen them before or since. Even
so, they had to say what they looked like and how their horses and clothes were
. You could learn a lot from a little Information and the evil doers would 'be f
ound. Cap. 11-13 II. 1. They say we'll have a long autumn. 2. You must be very c
areful when you drive in such a busy street. 3. They drink a lot of beer in this
country. 4. You can never tell. 5. It is easier to ride your bike when the wind
blows from behind. 6. Don't take into account what people say. 7. It is believe
d that this year's crop will be very good. III. 1. have 2. was 3. is. 4. were 5.
has 6. are 7. have 8. has 9. is 10. have. 11. attracts IV. 1. My family consist
s of father, mother, my brother and I. 2. The class were puzzled by the teacher'
s questions. 3. The information received is favourable. 4. Her savings have been
put into the bank. 5. Her hair is chestnut-brown. 6. The United States borders
on Mexico and Canada. 7. People are always inquisitive. 8. The poultry are being
fed now. 9. There are a lot of young families in this block of flats. 10. A lot
of money has been spent on equipping this laboratory. 11. Gymmastics is very po
pular in Romnia. 12. The Netherlands lie in western Europe. V. 1. is 2. are 3. ar
e 4. is 6. is 6. am 7. is 8. are VI. 1. Someone has taken my umbrella by mistake
. 2. All the pupils are in the class-room. 8. Neither of them is very young. 4.
All the food is in the fridge. 6. Everyone / Every-body has arrived and everyone
/ everybody is enjoying themselves. 6. Either they or he has done it. 7. None o
f them is right. 8. Who has done this? 9. Which books are yours? 10. It is he wh
o is to blame, not she. VII. 1. is 2. is. 8. misses 4. are 5. accompanies 6. was
h 7. ranks 8. is 9. are 10. are. VIII. 1. Fifty minutes is a short time for a te
rm-paper. 2. Most of his articles are oft literary criticism. 3. The number of R
omanian tourists who spend their holidays at the seaside increases every year, 4
.

Kindness and understanding is what is needed row. 5. Who is it? It's your father
and mother. 6. There is the letter and your glasses, Grandpa. 7. Mr Brown and h
is wife usually go to the country on Sundays. 8. Mr Brown, together with his fam
ily, usually spends his holidays at the seaside. 9. There are coal, iron and oil
in the Sub-carpathians. 10. It is they who arrange everything. 11. Four times t
en make / makes forty, 12. Romanian red and white wines are famous. Cap. 14-22 I
II. 1. Describe this landscape to us. 2. Please dictate to me the translation of
the new words. 3. Tell them/Let them know the great piece of news. 4. I bought
a very nice tie for my husband. 6. The gold medal was awarded to the Romanian at
hlete for her extraordinary performance. 6. You needn't return this book to me.
I offer it to you as a present. XI. Rou Gheorghe was the shortest soldier, not on
ly in his group or platoon, but in the entire company. He was so short that at r
ecruitment he had hardly managed to escape being sent back home. In fact they ha
d rejected him at first, after his application had been withheld twice in two ye
ars, and if people in his village had not thought this was a certain proof of in
firmity, Rou Gheorghe could have taken a train from the recruitment centre immedi
ately and left for home the same day. But the same day, the whole village would
have known he was not good for the army, the girls first of all. He came from Ba
nat. And so, stepping off the medical weighing scales, Rou Gheorghe had not left
the room, but had gone back, silent and sad, puttind off for as long as he could
the time to get dressed again. With the watchful eyes of a quiet Banat man, he
had noticed that nobody paid him any attention. And then he had mixed with the o
thers whose turn was next, had undressed and had appeared before the commission
again. Cap. 23 FELURILE PROPOZIIILOR VII. 1. None of them liked the show. 2. Neit
her of them understood what you were talking about. 3. Who have you received/did
you receive that parcel from? 4. They're going to the match, aren't they? 6. Yo
u have never been to the Art Galleries, have you? 6. Shall I leave the radio on
or turn it off? 7. Let's turn back, shall we? 8. Will you be so kind as to sing
a song for us? 9. You must ring him up. 10. It's a long time since I last saw hi
m. 11. He wasn't away long. 12. I don't like this actor and neither does my frie
nd. 13. They aren't here any longer/They are here no longer. 14. He could hardly
see anything in the dark room. VIII. The coach knew there was nothing better, w
hen you wanted to teach a man something, than to make him ambitious, make him co
mpete with others if necessary. This is the reason why he had begun to promise s
mall prizes to those who performed best the drills necessary to their training.
After a while Luca felt, like the teacher who has gained his pupils' trust, that
the indiscipline was over. Even 'Knowall, once |so stubborn, showed interest in
these games. The prizes did not amount to much, but nobody could stand someone
else being ahead of him, as usually happens with all people. Cap. 24 - 25 SINTAX
A FRAZEI IV. A. The secretary of the U.W.Y, had climbed up the iron stairs and a
lmost did not notice them. He had been looking for them all morning, without loo
king like doing it. Mucal had told him where he might find them, but he had lied,
saying he was not interested. He would have walked by, if he had not heard Sand
u's thick voice, B. Dearest Ghi, It is eight days now since I sent you a letter in
which I asked you to let me know whether the person

who wanted to buy paintings from me, about whom you wrote to me some time ago, i
s still willing to do so and whether, consequently, I should send you any pictur
es to/for this purpose. Your painting of Mount Ceahlu, which I had informed you w
as still being worked on, is now completely ready. I am looking forward to your
answer, so that I can know what to do. With all my love, Octav Bncil C. Dearest Gh
i, It is a long time since I last heard from you. I know you are very busy as you
always are, but write us a few lines when you can, to tell us how you are and wh
at you are doing. I have been feeling better since I went to- Teohari. The other
s are all well. I have finished Mrs. Cireaa's portrait and I am very pleased with
it. At first, and even all the time she sat for me, I felt desperate that I wou
ld not be able to paint her well enough because of a certain liveliness which is
characteristic of her. Then she did not keep her word. For instance, she would
tell me she was coming the next day and I would wait in vain because she was dec
eiving me. Now at last my troubles are over and the result is .completely satisf
actory, at least for me, the one who did it. I do not know what all the critics
will have to say. Octav Bncil D. Everybody knew Mr. Pantelimon had repaired his ol
d car, a 'Topolino', which had been left under repair for five years, and that h
e missed none of the Sundays when the football team played in another town. He b
orrowed money if he did not have any, he filled his tank with petrol and made a
tour of the city, driving so that people could see him. The little car burnt up
so much petrol that you would have thought a wave of artificial fog flowed over
the city. People out for a walk at eleven in the morning took out their handkerc
hiefs and shielded their noses with them. Beside him, Vizante waved to the peopl
e he knew. E. There are certain dreams that we seem to have lived somewhere and
some time just as there are things we have lived which make us wonder if they we
re not a dream. This is what I was thinking of yesterday evening when, searching
through my papers to see what was to be burned - papers mix things up - I came
upon a letter which reminded me of a strange story, so strange that, if it not w
ere only seven years since it happened, I would feel very much in doubt, I would
believe that I had only dreamed about it, or that I had read it or heard it lon
g ago. It was in 1907. I had been seriously ill in Bucharest and I had returned
to Berlin. My recovery proceeded slowly, requiring intensive care. When I left,
the doctor had advised me to avoid even the slightest exertion. Poor doctor! I h
ad shrugged my shoulders, smiling, and told him not to worry. Cap. 26. VORBIREA
DIRECT I INDIRECT VI. 1. The pupil asked the headmaster when he should/must come to
his office. 2. The clerk advised us to read the instructions carefully before o
pening the box. 3. The secretary asked if she must / had to type all the reports
. 4. Mother reminded me not to forget about my U.C.Y. meeting. 5. The doctor tol
d us that nobody could / was allowed to speak to the patient until the next day.
6. He wanted to know why my friends had left so early. 7. The old man told us t
hat he never locked / locks the back door. 8. The teacher asked the pupils wheth
er they had understood the lesson or not. 9. George apologized, saying that it w
as his fault. 10. The teacher wanted to know who had taken part in the Maths com
petition. 11. He wondered if he would manage / be able to go away over the weeke
nd. 12. Mr Brown told us that he went swimming every day when he was a child. 13
. The teacher explained that wood floats on water. 14. They said they would have
been in time if they had caught the bus. 15. Bob suggested going for a walk / t
hey should all go for a walk. 16. The guests thanked the hostess and said (that)
the party had been a great success. 17. Little Tommy wanted to know if pioneers
must / have to wear uniforms. 18. She

exclaimed with disgust that the smell was very bad. 19. He wished Mary good nigh
t and advised her to have a good rest. 20. The old woman said she wished the chi
ldren were not making so much noise. VIII. A. Though it was late, the girl came
to the gate. But she asked him why he had not come earlier. Paraschiv answered h
er that he had been busy, he had spent al evening talking with his parents. To t
he girls question he answered that they had talked about the two of them, that i
s, about their marriage. B. And as I was saying, he rushed into my office and sa
id, "Pussy dear, we have to fight against an injustice..." "What injustice?" I a
sked him. And he told me in a few words that Mangru wanted to fire you because th
e football team had lost a match in I-don't-know-what-place where you had gone.
You are a man just as he likes. He told me, as if I hadn't known, how you had fo
ught with the tramps to make them work, how you had repaired the arena; yes sir,
as if I hadn't been there with you and Mangru... I let him talk, wondering how h
e had found out all those things. "And why does he want to fire Mangru?" I asked
him when he had finished.

Bibliografie selectiv
Academia R.S.R., Gramatica limbii romne, Ed. Academiei R.S.R. Bucureti, 1966. Bant
a Andrei, A Descriptive Grammar of English, TUB, Bucureti, 1978. Bdescu Alice, Gram
atica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, 1963. Br Elena, Aspects of Modality in E
nglish, TUB, Bucureti, 1979. Catedra de limba i literatura englez a Facultii de limbi
strine a Universitii din Bucureti, Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura tiinific, Bucure
, 1962. * * * Limba englez. Exerciii pentru admiterea n nvmntul superior, E.D.P., Buc
i, 1978. Chioran D., English Phonetics and Phonology, E.D.P., Bucureti, 1978. Corn
ilescu Alexandra, The Transformational Syntax of English, TUB, Bucureti, 1976. Di
mitriu C., Gramatica limbii romne explicat. Morfologia. Junimea, Iai, 1979. Iordan
lorgu, Robu Vladimir, Limba romn contemporan, E.D.P., Bucureti, 1978. Kruisinga E.,
A Handbook of Present-Day English, volume II, English Accidence and Syntax. Kemi
nk and Zoon, Utrecht, 1922. Leech G., J. Svartvik, A Communicative Grammar of En
glish, Longman, London, 1979. Levichi Leon, Gramatica limbii engleze, E.D.P., Buc
ureti, 1971. Levichi Leon, Preda Ioan, Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific, Bucuret
i, 1967. Nicolescu Adrian, Tendine n limba englez contemporan, TUB, Bucureti, 1978. P
almer Harold i F.G. Blandford, A Grammar of Spoken English, Third Edition, Cambri
dge University Press, Cambridge, 1969. Quirk Randolph, Greenbaum S., Leech G., S
vartvik J., A Grammar of Contemporay English Longman, London, 1972. Quirk Randol
ph, Greenbaum S., A University Grammar of English, Longman, London 1973. Retinsc
hi Sanda, Explicaii gramaticale pentru cursurile intensive postuniversitare de li
mba englez, TUB, Bucureti, 1980. Schibsbye Knud, A Modern English Grammar, Second
Edition, OUP, London, 1970. tefnescu Ioana, Lectures in English Morphology, TUB, B
ucureti, 1978. Thomson A.J., Martinet A.V., A Practical English Grammar, 2-nd Edi
tion, OUP, London, 1969. Zandvoort R.W., A Handbook of English Grammar, Longman,
London, 1957.

CUPRINS
Cuvnt nainte / pag: 003 PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA 1.0. GENERALITI / pag: 005 0.1. Morfolog
ia i sintaxa / pag: 005 0.2. Criterii utilizate n definirea prilor de vorbire / pag:
005 0.2.1. Criteriul semantic / pag: 005 0.2.2. Criteriul morfologic / pag: 006
0.2.3. Criteriul sintactic / pag: 006 1. VERBUL / pag: 006 1.1. Definiie / pag:
006 1.2. Clasificare / pag: 007 1.2.1. Structura morfologic / pag: 007 1.2.2. Sen
sul lexical al verbelor / pag: 007 1.2.3. Funcia sintactic a verbelor / pag: 007 1
.2.4. Verbe cu sens lexical redus / pag: 007 1.3. Categoriile gramaticale ale ve
rbului / pag: 008 1.4. Timpul / pag: 008 1.5. Timpul prezent simplu / pag: 009 1
.5.1. Definiie / pag: 009 1.5.2. Form / pag: 009 1.5.3. Pronunare i ortografie / pag
: 009 1.5.4. ntrebuinare / pag: 010 1.6. Timpul trecut simplu / pag: 011 1.6.1. De
finiie / pag: 011 1.6.2. Form / pag: 011 1.6.3. Pronunare i ortografie / pag: 011 1.
6.4. Verbe neregulate / pag: 012 1.6.5. ntrebuinare / pag: 016 1.6.6. Traducerea l
ui Past Tense / pag: 017 1.7. Perfectul prezent / pag: 018 1.7.1. Definiie / pag:
018

1.7.2. Form / pag: 018 1.7.3. ntrebuinare / pag: 018 1.8. Mai mult ca perfectul / p
ag: 020 1.8.1. Definiie / pag: 020 1.8.2. Form / pag: 020 1.8.3. ntrebuinare / pag:
020 1.9. Mijloace de exprimare a viitorului / pag: 021 1.9.1. Definiie / pag: 021
1.9.2. Form / pag: 021 1.9.3. ntrebuinare / pag: 022 1.9.4. Be about to / pag: 023
1.9.5. Be to / pag: 023 1.9.6. Viitorul cu going to / pag: 023 1.9.7. ntrebuinare
/ pag: 023 1.9.8. Prezentul continuu / pag: 023 1.9.9. Prezentul continuu + ade
verbele de timp / pag: 023 1.9.10. Prezentul simplu / pag: 024 1.9.11. Prezentul
simplu + continuu + verbe de micare / pag: 024 1.9.12 Definiie / pag: 024 1.9.13.
Form / pag: 024 1.9.14 . ntrebuinare / pag: 024 1.9.15 Aciuni viitoare dintr-o pers
pectiv trecut / pag: 024 1.10. Apectul / pag: 025 1.10.1. Definiie / pag: 025 1.10.
2. Opoziia durativ-non durativ / pag: 025 1.10.3. Verbe de activitate / pag: 025
1.10.4. Aspectul continuu - Form / pag: 025 1.10.5. Ortografie / pag: 026 1.10.6.
ntrebuinarea aspectului continuu / pag: 026 1.10.7. Prezentul continuu / pag: 026
1.10.8. Past Tense Continuu / pag: 027 1.10.9. Viitorul Continuu / pag: 028 1.1
0.10. Traducerea formelor la aspectul continuu / pag: 028 1.10.11. Verbe care nu
pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu / pag: 029 1.10.12. Aspectul perfectiv - D
efiniie / pag: 030 1.10.13 ntrebuinarea / pag: 030 1.10.14. Aspectul perfectiv - as
pectul continuu / pag: 031 1.10.15. Mai mult ca perfectul continuu / pag: 031 1.
10.16. Viitorul perfect continuu / pag: 032 1.11. Diateza / pag: 033 1.11.1. Def
iniie / pag: 033 1.11.2.Diateza activ / pag: 033 1.11.3. Diateza pasiv / pag: 033 1
.11.4. Be + participiul trecut / pag: 033

1.11.5. Conjugarea unui verb la diateza pasiv / pag: 033 1.11.6 Get/become + part
icipiul trecut / pag: 034 1.11.7. Complementul de agent / pag: 034 1.11.8. ntrebu
inarea diatezei pasive / pag: 034 1.11.9.Traducerea construciilor pasive / pag: 03
5 1.12. Persoana i Numrul / pag: 035 1.13. Modul / pag: 036 1.13.1.Definiie / pag:
036 1.13.2. Modul indicativ / pag: 036 1.13.3.Modul subjonctiv / pag: 036 1.13.4
. Subjonctivul sintetic / pag: 036 1.13.5. Subjonctivul prezent / pag: 037 1.13.
6. Subjonctivul trecut / pag: 037 1.13.7.Subjonctivul II trecut / pag: 038 1.13.
8.Subjonctivul analitic / pag: 038 1..13.9. ntrebuinarea subjonctivului analitic /
pag: 039 1.13.10. Should + Infinitiv / pag: 039 1.13.11. May/might + infinitiv
/ pag: 040 1.13.12.Would + Infinitiv / pag: 041 1.13.13. Could + Infinitiv / pag
: 041 1.13.14.Subjonctiv sau Indicativ / pag: 041 1.14. Formele nepersonale ale
verbului / pag: 042 1.14.1. Formele nepersonale / pag: 042 1.14.2. Caracteristic
i verbale / pag: 042 1.14.3. Caracteristici substantivale / pag: 042 1.15. Infin
itivul / pag: 042 1.15.1 Formele infinitivul / pag: 042 1.15.2 Caracteristici ve
rbale / pag: 043 1.15.3. Caracteristici substantivale / pag: 043 1.15.4. Traduce
re / pag: 044 1.16. Forma n -ing / pag: 044 1.16.1. Definiie / pag: 044 1.16.2. Pa
rticipiul n -ing / pag: 045 1.16.3. Caracteristici verbale / pag: 045 1.16.4.Cara
cteristici adjectivale / pag: 045 1.16.5. Funcii sintactice / pag: 046 1.16.6. Tr
aducere / pag: 046 1.17. Gerund / pag: 046 1.17.1 Caracteristici verbale / pag:
046 1.17.2. Caracteristici substantivale / pag: 047 1.17.3. ntrebuinare / pag: 048
1.17.4. Traducere / pag: 050

1.17.5. Infinitivul cu to i Gerund / pag: 050 1.17.6. Folosirea infinitivului cu


to / pag: 050 1.17.7. Folosirea formei Gerund / pag: 050 1.17.8. Gerund sau Infi
nitiv / pag: 051 .17.9. Asemnri de sens / pag: 052 1.18. Participiul Trecut / pag:
053 1.18.1 Definiie / pag: 053 1.18.2. Caracteristici verbale / pag: 053 1.18.3.
Caracteristici adjectivale / pag: 053 1.18.4. Forme participiale folosite adjec
tival / pag: 053 1.18.5. Funcii sintactice / pag: 054 1.18.6. Traducere / pag: 05
4 1.18.7. Conjugarea verbului CALL / pag: 055 1.19. Verbele auxiliare / pag: 056
1.19.1. Caracteristici / pag: 056 1.19.2 Forme contrase / pag: 056 1.19.3. Be /
pag: 057 1.19.4.Have / pag: 057 1.19.5.Shall/Should / pag: 057 1.19.6. Will/Wou
ld / pag: 058 1.19.7.May/Might / pag: 058 1.19.8. Let / pag: 058 1.19.9. Do / pa
g: 058 1.20. Verbele modale / pag: 059 1.20.1.Definiie / pag: 059 1.20.2. Caracte
risticile verbelor modale / pag: 059 1.20.3. Can, could / pag: 060 1.20.4. May,
Might / pag: 061 1.20.5. Must, Have to, Need / pag: 062 1.20.6. Shall, Should pa
g: 064 1.20.7. Ought to / pag: 064 1.20.8. Will, Would / pag: 065 1.20.9. Udes t
o / pag: 066 1.20.10. Be to / pag: 066 1.20.11. Dare / pag: 067 Exerciii / pag: 0
67
2. Substantivul / pag: 071
2.1. Definiie / pag: 071 2.2. Clasificare / pag: 071 22.2.1. Formarea substantive
lor / pag: 071 2.2.2. Grad de individualizare / pag: 072

2.3. Numrul suibstantivelor / pag: 073 2.3.1. Substantive numrabiile / pag: 073 2.
3.2. Clasificarea substantivelor numrabile / pag: 073 2.3.3. Formarea pluralului
substantivelor numrabile / pag: 074 2.3.4. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor / p
ag: 074 2.3.5. Ortografia pluralului regulat / pag: 074 2.3.6. Pluralul neregula
t al substantivelor / pag: 075 2.3.7. Substantive nenumrabile / pag: 079 2.3.8. N
umrul substantivelor invariabile / pag: 081 2.4. Genul substantivelor / pag: 086
2.4.1. Definiie / pag: 086 2.4.2. Clasificarea substantivelor dup ideea de gen / p
ag: 086 2.4.3. Genul substantivelor nume de persoane / pag: 086 2.4.4. Genul sub
stantivelor nume de animale / pag: 087 2.4.5. Genul substantivelor nume de obiec
te / pag: 087 2.4.6. Folosirea stilistic a categoriei gramaticale a genului / pag
: 087 2.5. Cazul substantivelor / pag: 088 2.5.1. Definiie / pag: 088 2.5.2. Cazu
l nominativ / pag: 089 2.5.3. Cazul acuzativ/ pag: 089 2.5.4. Cazul dativ / pag:
090 2.5.5. Cazul genitiv/ pag: 090 2.5.6. Cazul vocativ/ pag: 093 Exerciii/ pag:
093
3. ARTICOLUL I ALI DETERMINANI/ pag: 097
3.1. Categoria determinarii/ pag: 097 3.1.1. Definiie / pag: 097 3.1.2. Determina
nii propriu-zii / pag: 097 3.1.3. Predeterminanii / pag: 098 3.1.4. Postdeterminanii
/ pag: 099 3.2. Articolul / pag: 101 3.2.1. Definiie / pag: 101 3.2.2. Referin uni
c / pag: 101 3.2.3. Referin individual / pag: 101 3.2.4. Numele proprii i referina uni
c / pag: 102 3.3. Articolul hotrt / pag: 102 3.3.1. Forma articolului hotrt / pag: 10
2 3.3.2. Funciile articolului hotrt / pag: 102 3.4. Articolul nehotrt / pag: 105 3.4.
1. Forma articolului nerotrt / pag: 105 3.4.2. Funciile articolului nehotrt / pag: 10
5 3.5. Articolul zero / pag: 106 3.5.1. Definiie / pag: 106

3.5.2. Funciile articolului zero / pag: 107 3.6. Misiunea articolului / pag: 111
Ali determinani / pag: 112 3.7. Adjectivul demonstrativ / pag: 112 3.7.1. Definiie
/ pag: 112 3.7.2. Form / pag: 112 3.7.3. ntrebuinare / pag: 112 3.8. Adjectivul pos
esiv / pag: 113 3.8.1. Definiie / pag: 113 3.8.2. Form / pag: 113 3.8.3. ntrebuinare
/ pag: 114 3.9. Adjectivul interogativ / pag: 115 3.9.1. Definiie / pag: 115 3.9
.2. Forma / pag: 115 3.9.3. ntrebuinare / pag: 115 3.10. Adjectivul nehotrt / pag: 1
16 3.10.1. Definiie / pag: 116 3.10.2. Form / pag: 116 3.10.3. ntrebuinare / pag: 11
6 3.10.4. Adjectivul negativ / pag: 117 Exerciii / pag: 118
4. Numeralul / pag: 121
4.1. Definiie / pag: 121 4.2. Clasificare / pag: 122 4.2.1. Numeralul ca determin
ant, n gramatica structuralist / pag: 122 4.2.2. Categoria numeralului n gramatica
tradiional / pag: 122 4.3. Numeralul cardinal / pag: 122 4.3.1. Form / pag: 122 4.3
.2. ntrebuinare / pag: 124 4.4. Numeralul ordinal / pag: 125 4.4.1. Form / pag: 125
4.4.2. ntrebuinare / pag: 126 4.5. Numeralul fracionar / pag: 126 4.5.1 Forma / pa
g: 126 4.6. Numeralul colectiv / pag: 127 4.6.1. Form / pag: 127 4.6.2. ntrebuinare
/ pag: 127 4.7. Numeralul multiplicativ / pag: 128 4.7.1 Form / pag: 128 4.7.2. n
trebuinare / pag: 128 4.8. Numeralul distributiv / pag: 128 4.9. Numeralul adverb
ial / pag: 128 Exerciii / pag: 129
5. Pronumele / pag: 129

5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6.


Definiie / pag: 129 Rolul de substitut al pronumelui / pag: 130 Categoriile grama
ticale ale pronumelui / pag: 130 Clasificarea pronumelui / pag: 131 Funciile sint
actice ale pronumelui / pag: 132 Pronumele personal / pag: 132 5.6.1. Categoria
persoanei la pronumele personal / pag: 132 5.6.2. Categoria genului la pronumele
personal / pag: 133 5.6.3. Categoria numrului la pronumele personal / pag: 134 5
.6.4. Categoria cazului la pronumele personal / pag: 134 5.6.5. Funciile sintacti
ce ale pronumelui personal / pag: 134 5.7. Pronumele reflexiv / pag: 135 5.7.1.
Categoriile gramaticale ale pronumelui reflexiv / pag: 135 5.7.2. ntrebuinarea pro
numelui reflexiv / pag: 135 5.7.3. Pronumele de ntrire / pag: 136 5.8. Pronumele p
osesiv / pag: 137 5.9. Pronumele interogativ / pag: 137 5. 10. Pronumele relativ
/ pag: 138 5.10.1. Definiie / pag: 138 5.10.2. ntrebuinarea pronumelui relativ / p
ag: 139 5.10.3. Locul pronumelui relativ / pag: 139 5.11. Pronumele nehotrt / pag:
140 5.11.1.Definiie / pag: 140 5.11.2. ntrebuinare / pag: 140 5.12. Pronumele nega
tiv / pag: 141 Exerciii / pag: 141
6. Adjectivul / pag: 143
6.1. Definiie / pag: 143 6.2. Comparaia adjectivelor / pag: 143 6.3. Formarea comp
arativului i superlativului / pag: 144 6.3.1. Comparaia sintetic / pag: 144 6.3.2.
Comparaia analitic / pag: 145 6.3.3. Formarea comparativului de egalitate i inferio
ritate / pag: 145 6.3.4. Formarea superlativului absolut / pag: 145 6.4. Comparai
a neregulat a adjectivului / pag: 145 6.5. ntrirea comparativului adjectivului / pa
g: 146 6.6. Funciile sintactice ale adjectivului / pag: 147 6.7. Locul adjectivul
ui n propoziie / 148 Exerciii / pag: 148
7. Adverbul / pag: 149
7.1. Definiie / pag: 149 7.2. Locuiuni i contrucii adverbiale / pag: 149

7.3. 7.4. 7.5.


7.6.
7.7.
7.2.1. Locuiuni adverbiale / pag: 149 7.2.2. Construcii adverbiale / pag: 149 Form
a adverbului / pag: 150 Modificri de ortografie / pag: 150 Clasificarea adverbulu
i / pag: 152 7.5.1. Adverbe de mod / pag: 152 7.5.2. Adverbe de loc / pag: 152 7
.5.3. Adverbe de timp / pag: 152 Comparaia adverbului / pag: 153 7.6.1. Gradul co
mparativ / pag: 153 7.6.2. Gradul superlativ / pag: 153 7.6.3. Comparaia neregula
t/ pag: 154 Adverbe speciale / pag: 154 Exerciii / pag: 156

8. Prepoziia / pag: 156


8.1. Definiie / pag: 156 8.2. Caracteristici ale prepoziiilor / pag: 157 8.2.1. Pr
epoziii cu acuzativ / pag: 157 8.2.2. Prepoziii urmate de substantive cu articol /
pag: 157 8.2.3. Prepoziii urmate de substantive nearticulate / pag: 157 8.2.4. V
erbe precedate de prepoziii / pag: 157 8.2.5. Cuvinte cu prepoziii obligatorii pag
: 157 8.3. Locul prepoziiilor / pag: 158 8.4. Relaii exprimate de prepoziii / pag:
159 8.5. Paralelisme ntre Prepoziia n lima romn i n limba englez / pag: 162 8.6. Dife
ntre Prepoziia n limba romn i n limba englez / pag: 163 8.7. Particole adverbiale /
: 163 8.7.1. ntrebuinarea particolelor adverbiale / pag: 163 8.7.2. Locul particol
elor adverbiale n propoziie / pag: 163 Exerciii / pag: 164
9. Conjuncia /
pag:
165
9.1. Definiie / pag: 165 9.2. Conjunciile coordonatoare / pag: 165 9.2.1. Clasific
are / pag: 165 9.2.2. ntrebuinare / pag: 165 9.2.3. Poziie / pag: 165 9.3. Conjuncii
le subordonatoare / pag: 165 9.3.1. Clasificare / pag: 166 9.3.2. ntrebuinare / pa
g: 166 9.3.3. Poziie / pag: 167

Exerciii / pag: 167


10. Interjecia /
pag:
168
10.1 Definiie / pag: 168 10.2. Clasificare / pag: 168 10.3. ntrebuinare / pag: 169
Exerciii / pag: 169 Partea aII-a Sintaxa propoziiei II.0. Generaliti / pag: 170 II.0
.1. Definiie / pag: 170 II.0.2. Clasificare / pag: 170 II.0.3. Timpuri de propozii
i / pag: 171 II.0.4 Subtipuri de propoziii / pag: 171 II.0.5. Prile de propoziie / p
ag: 171
11. Subiectul /
pag:
173
11.1. Definiie / pag: 173 11.2. Exprimarea subiectului / pag: 173 11.3. Situaii sp
eciale / pag: 173 11.3.1. Subiectul generic / pag: 173 11.3.2. Subiectul imperso
nal / pag: 174 11.3.3. Subiectul introductiv / pag: 174 11.4.Locul subiectului n
propoziie / pag: 174
12. Predicatul /
pag:
175
12.1. Definiie / pag: 175 12.1. Clasificare / pag: 175 12.2.1. Predicatul verbal
/ pag: 176 12.2.2. Predicatul nominal / pag: 175 12.3. Locul predicatului n propo
ziie / pag: 176 13. Acordul subiectului cu predicatul / pag: 176 13.1. Acordul n p
ersoan / pag: 177 13.2. Acordul n numr / pag: 177 13.2.1. Acordul gramatical / pag:
177 13.2.2. Acordul dup neles / pag: 179 13.2.3. Acordul prin atracie / pag: 181 Ex
erciii / pag: 182
14. Complementul direct / pag: 182

14.1. Definiie / pag: 184 14.2. Indicii formali ai complementului direct / pag: 1
84 14.3. Exprimarea complementului direct / pag: 184 14.3.1. Complementul direct
exprimat prin pronume personal / pag: 184 14.3.2. Complementul direct exprimat
prin pronume reflexiv / pag: 185 14.3.3. Complementul direct exprimat prin pronu
me reciproc / pag: 185 14.4. ntrebuinare / pag: 185 14.5. Verbe tranzitive cu un c
omplement direct / pag: 186 14.6. Verbe tranzitive cu dou complemente directe / p
ag: 186 14.7. Verbe tranzitive urmate de un complement direct i un complement ind
irect / pag: 187 14.8. Verbe tranzitive urmate de un complement direct i un compl
ement prepoziional / pag: 188
15. Complementul indirect / pag: 188
15.1. 15.2. 15.3. 15.4. 15.5. 15.6. Definiie / pag: 188 Indicii formali ai comple
mentului indirect / pag: 188 Exprimarea complementului indirect / pag: 189 ntrebu
inare / pag: 189 Locul complementului indirect / pag: 190 Transformarea pasiv/ pag
: 190
16. Complementul prepoziional / pag: 190
16.1. 16.2. 16.3. 16.4. 16.5. 16.6. Definiie / pag: 190 Indicii formali ai comple
mentului prepoziional / pag: 191 Exprimarea complementului prepoziional / pag: 191
ntrebuinare / pag: 191 Locul complementului prepoziional / pag: 192 Transformarea
pasiv / pag: 192 pag:
17. Elementul predicativ suplimentar /
193
17.1. Definiie / pag: 193 17.2. Exprimarea elementului predicativ suplimentar / p
ag: 193 17.3. Locul elementului predicativ suplimentar / pag: 193
18. Contrucii complexe /
pag:
193
18.1. Definiie / pag: 193 18.2. Caracteristicile contruciilor complexe/ pag: 194 1
8.2.1. Caracteristici predicative / pag: 194 18.2.2. Asemnri ntre construciile compl
exe / pag: 194 18.2.3. Deosebiri ntre construciile complexe / pag: 194

18.2.4. Funciile sintactice / pag: 195 18.3. Construciile cu acuzativul / pag: 195
18.3.1. Acuzativul cu infinitiv / pag: 195 18.3.2. For + infinitivul / pag: 196
18.3.3. Acuzativul cu participiul prezent / pag: 197 18.3.4. Acuzativul cu part
icipiul trecut / pag: 197 18.4. Construciile cu nominativul / pag: 198 18.4.1. No
minativ cu infinitiv / pag: 198 18.4.2. Nominativul cu participiul prezent / pag
: 198 18.5. Nominativul absolut / pag: 199 18.6. Alte construcii complexe/ pag: 1
99
19. Complemente circumstaniale/ pag: 200
19.1 Definiie/ pag: 200 19.2. Clasificare/ pag: 200 19.3. Complementul circumstani
al de loc/ pag: 200 19.3.1. Definiie/ pag: 200 19.3.2. Exprimarea complementului
circumstanial de loc/ pag: 201 19.3.3. Locul complementului circumstanial de loc/
pag: 201 19.4. Complementul circumstanial de timp/ pag: 201 19.4.1. Definiie/ pag:
201 19.4.2. Exprimarea complementului circumstanial de timp/ pag: 202 19.4.3. Lo
cul complementului circumstanial de timp/ pag: 202 19.5. Complementul circumstania
l de mod/ pag: 204 19.5.1. Definiie/ pag: 204 19.5.2. Clasificare/ pag: 204 19.5.
3. Complementul circumstanial de mod propriu-zis/ pag: 204 19.5.4. Exprimarea com
plementului circumstanial de mod/ pag: 204 19.5.5. Locul complementului complemen
tului circumstanial de mod propriu-zis/ pag: 204 19.5.6. Complementul circumstania
l de mod comparativ/ pag: 205 19.5.7. Locul complementului de mod comparativ/ pa
g: 205 19.6. Alte complemente circumstaniale/ pag: 206
20. Atributul/ pag: 206
20.1. Definiie/ pag: 206 20.2. Exprimarea atributului/ pag: 206 20.3. Locul atrib
utului/ pag: 207 20.3.1. Atributul prepus/ pag: 207 20.3.2. Atributul postpus/ p
ag: 207 20.3.3. Atribute ce pot avea ambele poziii/ pag: 208 20.4. Apoziia/ pag: 2
08 20.4.1. Definiie/ pag: 208 20.4.2. Apoziia simpl/ pag: 208 20.4.3. Locul apoziiei
simple/ pag: 208

20.4.4. Apoziia dezvoltat/ pag: 208 20.4.5. Locul apoziiei dezvoltate/ pag: 208 21.
Elemente independente/ pag: 209 21.1. Definiie/ pag: 209 21.2. Clasificare/ pag:
209 21.3. Interjeciile/ pag: 209 21.4. Adresarea direct/ pag: 209 21.5. Cuvintele
i Locuiunile parentetice/ pag: 210 21.6. Locul elementelor independente/ pag: 210
22. Ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie
22.0. Generaliti/ pag: 210 22.0.1. Importana studierii ordinii cuvintelor/ pag: 210
22.0.2. Comparaia cu limba romana/ pag: 211 22.0.3. Caracteristici generale ale
ordinii cuvintelor in limba englez/ pag: 211 22.0.4. Poziia prilor de propoziie/ pag:
212 22.1. Reguli privitoare la ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie/ pag: 212 Exerciii/
pag: 217
23. Felurile propoziiilor/ pag: 219
23.0. Clasificare/ pag: 219 23.1. Propoziia enuniativ/ pag: 219 23.2. Propoziia nega
tiv/ pag: 220 23.2.1. Exprimarea negaiei/ pag: 220 23.2.2. Doua negaii ntr-o propozii
e/ pag: 220 23.2.3. Exprimarea sensului negativ/ pag: 220 23.2.4. Sublinierea ca
racterului negativ/ pag: 223 23.2.5. Negarea unei propoziii ntregi/ pag: 223 23.3.
Propoziia interogativ/ pag: 223 23.3.1. Interogativul verbelor/ pag: 224 23.3.2.
Propoziii interogativ-negative/ pag: 225 23.3.3. Folosirea pronumelor i adjectivel
or n propoziii interogative/ pag: 225 23.3.4. ntrebri generale/ pag: 225 23.3.5. ntre
bri speciale/ pag: 226 23.3.6. ntrebri alternative/ pag: 227 23.3.7. ntrebri disjunct
ive/ pag: 227 23.4. Propoziia imperativ/ pag: 229 23.4.1. Forma verbal/ pag: 229 23
.4.2. Intonaia propoziiei imperative/ pag: 230 23.4.3. Structura propoziiei imperat
ive/ pag: 230 23.4.4. Mijloace de ntrire sau de formulare politicoas/ pag: 231 23.5
. Propoziia exclamativ/ pag: 231

23.5.1. Intonaia/ pag: 232 23.5.2. Propoziiile exclamative propriu-zise/ pag: 232
23.5.3. Propoziiile exclamative cu form nespecific/ pag: 232 Exerciii/ pag: 232
PARTEA A TREIA
Sintaxa frazei III.0. Generaliti/ pag: 235 III.0.1. Propoziia - fraza/ pag: 235 III
.0.2. Definiie / pag: 235 III.0.3. Raporturile sintactice / pag: 235 III.0.4. Leg
area propoziiilor / pag: 235
24. Fraza prin coordonare / pag: 236
24.1. 24.2. 24.3. 24.4. 24.5. 24.6. Coordonare-Definiie / pag: 236 Felul coordonri
i / pag: 236 Coordonarea copulativ / pag: 236 Coordonarea disjunctiv / pag: 237 Co
ordonarea adversativ / pag: 237 Folosirea timpurilor n frazele prin coordonare / p
ag: 238
25. Fraza prin coordonarea / pag: 238
25.1. 25.2. 25.3. 25.4. Legarea propoziiilor subordonate / pag: 238 Clasificarea
propoziiilor subordonate / pag: 239 Reducerea propoziiilor subordonate / pag: 240
Propoziia completivo-direct / pag: 240 25.4.1 Rolul completivei directe / pag: 240
24.4.2. Propoziia interogastiv n vorbirea indirect este completiv direct / pag: 240 2
5.4.3. Omiterea conjunciei "that" / pag: 241 25.4.4. Corespondena timpurilor / pag
: 241 25.4.5. Reducerea propoziiei completive directe / pag: 244 25.5. Propoziia c
ompletiv prepoziional / pag: 244 25.5.1. Prin ce se introduce / pag: 244 25.5.2. Om
iterea propoziiei / pag: 244 25.5.3. Anticiparea completivei prepoziionale prin "i
t"/ pag: 244 25.5.4. Corespondena timpurilor n completiva prepoziional / pag: 245 25
.6. Propoziia subiectiv/ pag: 245 25.6.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 245 25.6.2. L
ocul propoziiei subiective n fraz/ pag: 246 25.6.3. Folosirea timpurilor n Propoziia
subiectiv/ pag: 246

25.6.4. Reducerea propoziiei subiective/ pag: 247 25.7. Propoziia predicativ/ pag:
248 25.7.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 248 25.7.2. Folosirea timpurilor/ pag: 24
8 25.7.3. Reducerea propoziei predicative/ pag: 248 25.8. Propoziiile relative/ pa
g: 248 25.8.1. Felurile propoziiilor relative/ pag: 248 25.8.2. Prin ce se introd
uce Propoziia relativ/ pag: 248 25.8.3. Propoziia relativ restrictiv/ pag: 248 25.8.4
. Propoziia relativ descriptiv/ pag: 249 25.8.5. Folosirea timpurilor n Propoziia rel
ativ/ pag: 249 25.8.6. Reducerea propoziiei relative/ pag: 249 25.8.7. Propoziia ap
oziional/ pag: 250 25.8.8. Folosirea timpurilor n Propoziia apoziional/ pag: 250 25.8.
9. Reducerea propoziei apoziionale/ pag: 250 25.9. Propoziia circumstanial de timp/ p
ag: 250 25.9.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 250 25.9.2. Folosirea timpurilor/ pag
: 251 25.9.3. Reducerea propoziiei circumstaniale de timp/ pag: 252 25.10. Propozii
a circumstanial de loc/ pag: 253 25.10.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 253 25.10.2.
Reducerea propoziiei circumstaniale de loc/ pag: 253 25.11. Propoziia circumstanial d
e mod propriu-zis/ pag: 253 25.12. Propoziia circumstanial de mod comparativ/ pag: 25
3 25.12.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 253 25.12.2. Folosirea timpurilor/ pag: 25
4 25.12.3. Traducerea propoziiei circumstaniale de mod comparativ/ pag: 254 25.13.
Propoziia circumstanial cauzal/ pag: 255 25.13.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 255 25.
13.2. Reducerea propoziiei circumstaniale cauzale/ pag: 255 25.14. Propoziia circum
stanial condiional/ pag: 255 25.14.1. Tipuri de condiii/ pag: 256 25.14.2. Prin ce se
introduce Propoziia circumstanial condiional/ pag: 256 25.14.3. Locul propoziiilor ci
rcumstaniale condiionale/ pag: 257 25.14.4. Folosirea timpurilor/ pag: 257 25.14.5
. Traducerea propoziiilor condiionale/ pag: 257 25.14.6. Alte timpuri folosite n pr
opoziiile condiionale/ pag: 257 25.14.7. Folosirea timpurilor n condiional dup viitoru
l-n-trecut/ pag: 258

25.14.8. Combinaii ntre cele trei tipuri de propoziii circumstaniale condiionale/ pag
: 258 25.14.9. Should + infinitiv/ pag: 258 25.14.10. Will n propoziii circumstania
le condiionale/ pag: 258 25.14.11. Could/Might + infinitiv/ pag: 258 25.14.12. Re
ducerea propoziiei circumstaniale condiionale/ pag: 258 25.15. Propoziia circumstania
l de scop/ pag: 259 25.15.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 259 25.15.2. Folosirea ti
mpurilor/ pag: 259 25.15.3. Reducerea propoziiei circumstaniale de scop/ pag: 260
25.16. Propoziia circumstanial consecutiv/ pag: 260 25.16.1. Prin ce se introduce/ p
ag: 260 25.16.2. Folosirea timpurilor/ pag: 260 25.16.3. Reducerea propoziiei cir
cumstaniale consecutive/ pag: 261 25.17. Propoziia circumstanial concesiv/ pag: 261 2
5.17.1. Prin ce se introduce/ pag: 261 25.17.2. Reducerea propoziiilor circumstani
ale concesive/ pag: 261 25.17.3. Folosirea timpurilor/ pag: 262 Exerciii/ pag: 26
2 26. Vorbirea direct i indirect/ pag: 264 26.1. Vorbirea direct/ pag: 264 26.1.1. D
efiniie/ pag: 264 26.1.2. Locul i Funcia sintactic a enunului n vorbirea direct/ pag:
64 26.1.3. Folosirea timpurilor/ pag: 264 26.2. Vorbirea indirect/ pag: 264 26.3.
Transformarea vorbirii directe n vorbire indirect/ pag: 265 26.3.1. Pronumele per
sonal, reflexiv i posesiv/ pag: 265 26.3.2. Pronumele/adjectivul demonstrativ/ pa
g: 265 26.3.3. Adverbele de timp/ pag: 265 26.3.4. Predicatul la un timp prezent
/ pag: 265 26.3.5. Predicatul la un timp trecut/ pag: 266 26.3.6. Predicatul la
prezentul simplu/ pag: 266 26.3.7. Predicatul-aciune viitoare/ pag: 267 26.3.8. P
redicatul-Past simple/ pag: 267 26.3.9. Predicatul-Past Tense Continuous/ pag: 2
68 26.3.10. Predicatul-Verbe modale/ pag: 268 26.3.11. Frazele condiionale/ pag:
268 26.3.12. Propoziii enuniative/ pag: 268 26.3.13. Propoziii interogative/ pag: 2
69 26.3.14. Propoziii exclamative/ pag: 271

26.3.15. Propoziii imperative/ pag: 272 26.4. Vorbirea indirect liber/ pag: 272 Exe
rciii/ pag: 273 Cheia exerciiilor/ pag: 275 Bibliografie/ pag: 285 Cuprins/ pag: 2
86