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Manualul a fost aprobat prin ordinul Ministrului Educaiei al Republicii Moldova


nr. 267 din 11 aprilie 2014.
Lucrarea este elaborat conform curriculumului disciplinar i finanat din Fondul Special pentru
Manuale.
Acest manual este proprietatea Ministerului Educaiei al Republicii Moldova.
coala/Liceul ...........................................................
Manualul nr. ..................
Anul
de folosire
1
2
3
4
5

Numele i prenumele
elevului

Anul
colar

Aspectul manualului
la primire

la returnare

Dirigintele clasei va controla dac numele elevului este scris corect.


Elevii nu vor face nici un fel de nsemnri n manual.
Aspectul manualului (la primire i la returnare) se va aprecia: nou, bun, satisfctor, nesatisfctor.
Toate drepturile asupra acestei ediii aparin Editurii Prut Internaional.
Reproducerea integral sau parial a textului sau a ilustraiilor din aceast carte este permis doar
cu acordul scris al editurii.
Autori: Ion Achiri, doctor, confereniar universitar, IE (Capitolul 4)
Vasile Ciobanu, doctor, confereniar universitar, USM (Capitolul 1)
Petru Efros, doctor, confereniar universitar, USM (Capitolele 810)
Valentin Garit, doctor, confereniar universitar, USM (Capitolele 810)
Vasile Neagu, doctor habilitat, profesor universitar, USM (Capitolele 3, 5)
Nicolae Prodan, doctor, confereniar universitar, USM (Capitolele 6, 7)
Dumitru Taragan, doctor, confereniar universitar, USM (Capitolul 2)
Anatol Topal, doctor, confereniar universitar, USM (Capitolele 6, 7)
Comisia de evaluare: Dorin Afanas, doctor, confereniar universitar, UST
Andrei Corlat, doctor, confereniar universitar, AM
Aliona Pogreban, profesoar, grad didactic superior,
Liceul Teoretic Gaudeamus, Chiinu
Traducere din limba romn: Ion Achiri, Petru Efros, Antonina Erhan, Valentin Garit, Nicolae Prodan
Redactor: Tatiana Rusu
Corector: Lidia Paa
Copert: Sergiu Stanciu
Paginare computerizat: Valentina Stratu
Editura Prut Internaional, 2014
I. Achiri, V. Ciobanu, P. Efros, V. Garit, V. Neagu, N. Prodan, D. Taragan, A. Topal, 2014
Editura Prut Internaional, str. Alba Iulia nr. 23, bl. 1 A, Chiinu, MD 2051
Tel.: 75 18 74; tel./fax: 74 93 18; e-mail: editura@prut.ro; www.edituraprut.md
Imprimat la F.E.-P. Tipografia Central. Comanda nr. 3536
CZU 51(075.3)
M 34
ISBN 978-9975-54-152-7
2


,
.
. , . ,
*, .
, ,
, .

.
(, , . .) , ,
. ,
.
, , ,
, , , . : ,
, . , .
,
, ,
. , ,
, .
. ,
, ,
, , .
;
; . (*)
.

: A ,
; .

. , , .
,
.
, .

,
.
! ! , .
, .

, * ;
;
;
* R;
* , ;
* .

15 (
) .
, , , .
.
, , ,
.
, .

1.1.

,
.

A B R ,
a A b B a b.
c R , a c b .
1
x R m
, m x < m + 1.
m x [x].
1

(287212 . .) - .
5

. X R (),
c R, x c ( x c) x X .
c () X.
X R ,
, , m, M , m x M
x X .
.
, : X R
(), m R x X , x > m ( x < m). (
, , [ , ] m R
[] x X : m R, x X .)
. X R, (),
() . c ()
X, c1 , (), c,
() X. , x X,
x c c < c1 , , x c1 , , c1 .
. a X ( ), X R, ( ) X, x a
( x a ) x X . : a = max X (a = min X ).

1
A =
n n N , max A = 1, min A .

. ( ) X R , , ,
X, sup X.
( ) X R , , , X, inf X.
. = inf X = supX , Y = { x | x X }, inf Y = supY = .

1. N , .
, N . Z, Q, R
, .
1
1

2. X = n N , n 1 0 < 1.
n
n

3. A = {sin x | x R} , 1 sin x 1 xR .
. 2, inf X = 0 X, sup X = 1 X, 3, inf A = 1 A,
sup A = 1 A. , ()
X R .
6

, , ,
.
(. 2),
: () ,
().
1. ,
(), , , () .

X R , , Y
X, , Y = { y R | x X , x y}.
X , Y x y, x X , y Y .
, c , x X
y Y
x c,
(1)
xc y
c y.
(1) , c
X, , c
X, , c X.
, c = sup X.
, . .
X c c. , c < c. c = sup X
c < c, xc X, xc > c. , c = sup X . , c = c.
,
, .
2 ( )
X R , . M
X , :
1) x X x M ;
2) > 0 x X , x > M .
3 ( )
X R , . m
X , :
1) x X x m ;
2) > 0 x X , x < m + .
()
.
X (), sup X = +
(inf X = ). X = R inf R = sup R = +. x R , < x < + .
7


1
*
1. A =
1 n n N .

:
1
, 0 1 < 1 n N* . , A .
n
, sup A = 1.
1
. 1 < 1, n N* , 2
n
.
1
, > 0 1 > 1
n
N . n . , > 0

1
1
A, 1 > 1 . ,
n
n
2 . , sup A = 1.
1
, inf A = 0. 1 0, n N* . 0 n
A ( n = 1), inf A = 0. , inf A = min A A, sup A A.
1

n2

n N.
2
n + 4

a) , A .

2. A =

) A.
:
n2
a) , 0 2
< 1 n N. , A .

n +4

) , sup A = 1. 2. -

n2
> 1 n2 + 4
1
1 , N. , n > 2

1
1
1 + 1. , sup A = 1.
1, n = 2
, n N , n > 2

n2
2
0, n N , 0 A , , inf A = 0.
n +4
. , 0 < < 1

.
, .
0 1.

1.2. .
, .

. E R . ( )
f : N* E.
n N f (n) E.
8

f
N , .
.
, f (n) xn :
( xn ) n 1 . xn n- ,
.
. 1. f N ,
, ( xn ) n 0 ,
N \ {0, 1, ..., k 1}, ( xn ) n k .
2. : ( a n ) n 1 , (bn ) n 1 , (cn ) n 1 ,
( n ) n 1 , ( n ) n 1 . .

1
1. ( xn ) n 1 , xn = , , n
.
2. ( an ) n 0 , an = n, .
3. (bn ) n 2 , bn = n 2 , 0, 1, 2 , ..., n 2 , ...
, ,
.
:
1) , ,
.
, ( xn ) n 1 ,
xn = 1 + (1) n , x1 = 0, x2 = 2, x3 = 0, x4 = 2, ...
2)
, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, ...
3) .
, .

1. x1 = 2 xn +1 = 2 + xn ,

n 1, x1 = 2 , x2 = 2 + 2 , x3 = 2 + 2 + 2 , ...
2. x0 = 1, x1 = 1 xn = xn 1 + xn 2 n 2.
: x0 = 1, x1 = 1, x2 = x1 + x0 = 2,
x3 = x2 + x1 = 3, x4 = x3 + x2 = 5, x5 = x4 + x3 = 8, ...
, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, ...,
1.
,
:

xn =
1

n +1
n +1
1 5
1 1 + 5

2 n N.
5 2


()

() (1175 1250) .
9

: , , .
(, , 3, , , 4, 3, , 15,
10 . .).
. ( xn ) n 1 ( y n ) n 1 ,
xn = y n n N .

1 + (1) n 1
1, 0, 1, 0, ... , 2

n 1

1, 0, 1, 0, ... 0, 1, 0, 1, ... , ,
: {0, 1}.
. ( xn ) n 1 ,
xn +1 = xn n N .

( xn ) n 1 , x1 = 3
xn +1 =

xn + 6 , n 1, : x1 = 3, x2 = 3, x3 = 3, ...

1.3. .
*

. ( xn ) n 1 ( ), xn xn +1 ( xn xn +1 ) n N* .
( xn ) n 1 (
), xn < xn +1 ( xn > xn +1 ) n N* .
.

.
. , .
, ( xn ) n 1 , xn = (1) n: x1 = 1,

x2 = 1, x3 = 1, ...

, ( xn ) n 1 , :
1. :
xn +1 xn 0, n N , ( xn ) n 1 ;
xn +1 xn 0, n N , ( xn ) n 1 .
2. ,
:
x
xn > 0, n N , n +1 1, n N , ( xn ) n1 ;
xn
x

xn > 0, n N , n+1 1, n N , ( xn )n1 .


xn
> (<) ( ),
.
10


( xn ) n 1 , :
1
n +1
.
) xn =
a) xn =
;
n(n + 1)
n+2
:
(n + 1) + 1 n + 1 n + 2 n + 1 (n + 2)(n + 2) (n + 1)(n + 3)
a) xn +1 xn =

=
=
(n + 1) + 2 n + 2 n + 3 n + 2
(n + 3)(n + 2)
n 2 + 4n + 4 n 2 4n 3
1
=
=
> 0, n N .
(n + 3)(n + 2)
(n + 3)(n + 2)
, xn+1 > xn , n N, , .
) , xn > 0, n N* .
x
n
1
1
1
=
n(n + 1) =
< 1, n N .
n +1 =
:
n+2
xn
(n + 1)(n + 2) n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2)
, .
. ( xn ) n 1
( ), ( b) , xn a ( xn b) n N* .
( xn ) n 1 ,
, a, b R, a xn b
n N .
( xn ) n 1 , M > 0 nM N ,
| xnM | > M .

2n + 1
1. ( xn ) n 1 , xn =
,
2n + 3
:
2n + 1
> 0, n N, , .
xn =
2n + 3
, .
2
2n + 1 2n + 1 + 2 2 (2n + 3) 2
, xn =
=1
< 1, n 1.
=
=
2n + 3
2n + 3
2n + 3
2n + 3
, , :
2n + 1
< 1, n N.
0<
2n + 3
2. ( xn ) n 1 ,
2n
xn = .
n!
:
, .
x
2 n +1
2n 2
2
2
=
xn +1 = xn
n +1 =
, n N .
xn +1 =
n +1
xn
n +1
(n + 1)! n! n + 1
x
2


1, n N, n +1 1, n N .
x
n +1
n
11

, .
2n
2, n N.
, , 0 <
n!
. ( xn )n1 (nk )k 1
.
( xnk ) k 1 ( xn ) n 1 .
. ( an ) n 1 . ( an ) n 1
. nk = k , k N .
, ( xn ) n 1 , xn = n, ( xnk ) k 1 , xnk = 2k + 1 xnk = 2k , k N .


A
1. .
2.
, .
2n + 1
.
3. ( xn ) n 1 , xn =
n+4
a) .
) .

4. .
5. :
( xn ) n 1 .

2n + (1) n
.
3n
7.
, .
8. , : a) ;
) .
9. ( xn ) n 1 , :
( 1) n
3n + 1
2n
n 1
3n + 1
;
.
a) xn =
) xn =
) xn =
) xn = n ;
) xn = 2
;
;
4n + 3
n +1
5n
n +3
3
n
11
10. ( xn ) n 1 , xn = .
10
a) ;
) .
3n 1
, .
11. , ( xn ) n1 , xn =
3n + 1
1
12. ( xn ) n 1 : xn +1 = xn + n ,
3
n 1, x1 = 1.
a) .
) .
) .
6. ( xn ) n 1 , xn =

12

13. ( xn ) n 1 xn +1 = 5 xn , n 1,
x1 = 3.
a) .
) .
14. ( xn ) n 1 : x1 = 1 xn +1 = xn 2, n 1.
a) n- .
) .
15. ( xn ) n 1 n-
, :
) x1 = 4, xn +1 = 2 xn n 1.
a) x1 = 10, xn +1 = xn + 5 n 1;
.
16. ( xn ) n 1 x1 = a, a R ,
: xn +1 = xn + , n 1; , R.
, :
) 0; = 0;
) 0; 0.
a) = 1; 0;
17. ( xn ) n 1 : x1 = 3 , xn +1 = xn + 5, n 1.
n- .

, , .

2.1.
2.1.1.
( a n ) n 1 , a1 = 2
an +1 = an + 3 n 1. a1 = 2, a2 = a1 + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5, a3 = a2 + 3 = 5 + 3 = 8,
a4 = a3 + 3 = 8 + 3 = 11, ...
, , ,
, 3.
. , , ,
.
a1 , a2 , ..., an , ... , k 1 a k +1 = a k + r , r . r , a1
.
( an ) n 1 ,
a1 r.
: r > 0, ;
r < 0, ;
r = 0, .
13

1. a1 = 1, r = 2 1, 3, 5, 7, ...
2. a1 = 1, r = 3 1, 2, 5, 8, ...
3. a1 = 7, r = 0 7, 7, 7, ...
. , a1 , a2 , ..., an , .
.
4. a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., an1 , an , an+1 , ...,
, :
a + an +1
an = n 1
, n 2.
2
. 4.
.
, 4.
, ,
,
.

,
a + an +1
, n 2.
( an ) n 1 : an = n 1
2
2an = an 1 + an +1 ,
an + an = an 1 + an +1 an an 1 = an +1 an .
,
, , ( an ) n 1 .

2.1.2.
a1 ( a n ) n 1 , r .
:
a2 = a1 + r ,
a3 = a2 + r = ( a1 + r ) + r = a1 + 2r ,
a4 = a3 + r = ( a1 + 2r ) + r = a1 + 3r ,
..........................................
5. ( an ) n 1 :

a n = a1 + ( n 1) r.

(1), .
A(n) (1).
14

(1)

1. n = 1 A(1) .
2. A(k ) k 1, ak = a1 + ( k 1) r.
, A( k + 1) .
, ak +1 = ak + r = a1 + ( k 1) r + r = a1 + k r.
3. , A(n)
n.
. ( an ) n 1 r
an +1 = an + r , n 1,
an + 2 = 2an +1 an , n 1, a1 .

2.1.3. n
6. a1 , a2 , ..., an 1 , an . ,
,
: ak + an k +1 = a1 + an , k 1.

a1 , a2 , ..., an .
r ,
ak = a1 + ( k 1) r an k +1 = a1 + ( n k ) r ,
ak + an k +1 = [ a1 + ( k 1) r ] + [ a1 + ( n k ) r ] = 2a1 + ( n 1) r.
a1 + an = a1 + [ a1 + ( n 1) r ] = 2a1 + ( n 1) r.
, ak + an k +1 = 2a1 + ( n 1) r = a1 + an .
6, n
.
S n n ( an ) n 1
:
S n = a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an 2 + an 1 + an ,
S n = an + an 1 + an 2 + ... + a3 + a2 + a1 .
, :
2 S n = ( a1 + an ) + ( a2 + an 1 ) + ( a3 + an 2 ) + ... + ( an 2 + a3 ) + ( an 1 + a2 ) + ( an + a1 ).
6, :
a1 + an = a2 + an 1 = a3 + an 2 = ... = an 2 + a3 = an 1 + an .
a + an
n.
2 S n = n( a1 + an ), , S n = 1
2
a + an
n (2) n : S n = 1
2
( an ) n 1 .
2a + ( n 1) r
Sn = 1
n (3) n
2
, , a1 r.
. (3).
15


1. 1 100.
:
100 .
1, 100.
a + a100
1 + 100
100 =
100 = 5 050.
, S100 = 1
2
2
2. ( a n ) n 1 , a10 = 131, r = 12.
:
(1), : 131 = a1 + (10 1) 12 131 = a1 + 108 a1 = 23.
3. ( a n ) n 1 ,
a5 = 27, a 27 = 60.
:
a + 4 r = 27,
(1), 1

a1 + 26 r = 60.
, : a1 = 21, r = 1,5.

4. 100 ( a n ) n 1 ,
a1 = 10, a100 = 150.
:
10 + 150
(2), : S100 =
100 = 80 100 = 8 000.
2
5. , ABC
,

.
:

B
a

c
A

R , ABC.
, , ctgA ctgB = ctgB ctgC
cos A cos B cos B cos C
sin B cos A sin A cos B sin C cos B sin B cos C

=
.
sin A sin B sin B sin C
sin A sin B
sin B sin C
,

sin( B A) sin(C B )
.
=
sin A
sin C

sin C = sin( B + A), sin A = sin( B + C ),

sin( B A) sin( B + A) = sin(C B ) sin(C + B ) sin 2 A sin 2 B = sin 2 B sin 2C.


a
b
c
sin A =
, sin B =
, sin C =
. , a 2 b 2 = b 2 c 2 .
2R
2R
2R
, , a 2 , b 2 , c 2 , .
16

2.2.

, IV . . .
,
,
, 2 , 4 , 8
. . 64- . . ?

2.2.1.
(bn ) n 1 , b1 = 3
bn +1 = bn 4 n 1.
b1 = 3, b2 = b1 4 = 3 4 = 12, b3 = b2 4 = 12 4 = 48, b4 = b3 4 = 48 4 = 192, ...
, , ,
, 4.
. , , ,
, .
b1 , b2 , ..., bn , ... (b1 R ),
, k 1 bk +1 = bk q, q R .
q , b1
.
(bn ) n 1 ,
b1 q.
. , b1 , b2 , ..., bn ,
.

1
1
1 1
1, , 2 , ..., n , ...
2
2 2
2
2. b1 = 2, q = 2 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ...
1. b1 = 1, q =


.
7. b1 , b2 , b3 , ..., bn 1 , bn , bn +1 , ...,
, , , : bn = bn 1 bn +1 , n 2.

b
bn = bn 1 q bn = n +1 n 2.
q
b
b
n = n +1 = q, : bn2 = bn 1 bn +1 .
bn 1 bn
bn > 0, : bn = bn 1 bn +1 .
17

. bn2 = bn 1 bn +1 ( | bn | = bn 1 bn +1 )
(bn ) n 1.
.
, 7.
, ,
,
.
. , 7.

2.2.2.
b1 (bn ) n 1 q .
:
b2 = b1 q,
b3 = b2 q = (b1 q) q = b1 q 2 ,
b4 = b3 q = (b1 q 2 ) q = b1 q 3 ,
...................................
8. (bn ) n 1 :

bn = b1 q n 1 .

(4)

.
P(n) (4).
1. n = 1, P(1) .
2. P(k ) k 1, bk = b1 q k 1 .
, P ( k + 1).
, bk +1 = bk q = (b1q k 1 )q = b1q k .
3. , P(n)
n.
. (bn ) n 1 q
bn +1 = bn q, n 1, b1 .

2.2.3. n
(bn ) n 1 , b1 q
.
. , b1 , b2 , ..., bn ,
, :
bk bn k +1 = b1 bn ,
, ,
, .
n :
S n = b1 + b2 + ... + bn .
18

(5)

, S n , :
1) q = 1; S n = b1 n.
2) q 1. (5) q :
qS n = b1q + b2 q + + bn 1q + bn q.
b1q = b2 , b2 q = b3 , ..., bn 1q = bn , ,

qS n = b2 + b3 + ... + bn + bn q.
(5) (6), :
qS n S n = bn q b1 S n ( q 1) = bn q b1 .
b q b1 b1 bn q
=
.
q 1, S n = n
q 1
1 q

(6)

b1 bn q
, q 1 n 1 q
(bn ) n 1 .
b (1 q n )
, q 1 (7) n
Sn = 1
1 q
(bn ) n 1 , , b1
q.
: S n =

. (7).
.
, ,
, . . 1 + 2 + 2 2 + 23 + ... + 2 63.
: b1 = 1, q = 2, b64 = 263.
2 63 2 1
= 2 64 1 = 1844674407 3709551615.
S 64 =
2 1
. , 30 000 000 1 , , .
(: 20122013
700 000 000 , 614 .)

, :
b1 > 0, q > 1 b1 < 0, 0 < q < 1 ;
b1 < 0, q > 1 b1 > 0, 0 < q < 1 ;
q < 0 ;
q = 1 .
. .
(bn ) n 1 ,

q | q | <1.
(bn ) n 1 :
b ( q n 1) b1 (1 q n )
b
b
Sn = 1
= 1 1 qn.
=
q 1
1 q
1 q 1 q
19

n, q n ( ),
| q | < 1, S n b1 (. 3, . 3.3.)
1 q

1. (bn ) n 1 ,

b2 b1 = 4,
b b = 8.
3 1

:
b q b = 4,
(4), : 1 2 1
b1q b1 = 8.
, b1 = 1, q = 3.

2. , , 800 .
25 , .
5 700 ?
:
800, 775, 750, ... , a1 = 800 ,
an = x = 800 25(n 1),

r = 25. :
800 + x
n = 5 700.
S n =
2
, x = 1 625 , n = 8 .
: 8 .
3. x, y, z, :
1) x, y, z ;
2) x, y + 4, z ;
3) x, y + 4, z + 32 .
:
:

xz = y 2
9 x 2 20 x + 4 = 0,
xz = y 2

y = 4 x 2,
y = 4x 2
x + z = 2( y + 4)
z = 2 y x + 8
z = 7 x + 4.
x( z + 32) = ( y + 4) 2
, x = 2, y = 6, z = 18.


A
1. :
1 1 1
1 1
1
, ...;
) , ,
) 1, 9, 25, 49, 81,
a) 3, 3, 3, 3, ;
) 1, , , , ...;
3 9 27
2 4
8
2. ( a n ) n 1 , :
2
1
a) a1 = 7, r = 2;
) a1 = 3, r = 5;
) a1 = 1,3, r = 0,3;
) a1 = , a2 = .
7
5
3. a1 ( a n ) n 1 , :
a) a10 = 131, r = 12;
) a 200 = 0, r = 3.
4. (bn ) n 1 , :
1
1
a) b1 = 10, q = ;
) b1 = , q = 3.
2
2
20

5. ,
5 , 3 . , .
6. 10 . 100 , 20
, . ?
7. 9% .
5 , 2 700 ?
8. 100
0,7. 26. ,
14,8?
9. , , 150 ,
60 , .
, 12 ?
10. .
10 ?

b + b2 1
=
11. (bn ) n 1 , 1
b2 + b3 3
b
+
b
+
b
=
52
.
1
2
3
12. ( an ) n 1 S n , :
1
3
1
) a1 = , r = , n = 25.
a) a1 = 4, r = , n = 14;
3
5
7
13. , a, b, c ,
a 2 bc, b 2 ac, c 2 ab .
14. (bn ) n 1 , :
1
) b1 = 10, bn +1 = bn .
a) b1 = 9, bn +1 = 2bn ;
5
15. (bn ) n 1 , :
7
7
7
a) b4 = 12, b7 = 23 ;
) b1 + b4 = , b3 b2 + b1 = .
16
16
8
16. , S 3 = 40, S 6 = 60. S 9 .
17. x, y , z R , :
a) x, y, z ;
) x, y + a, z ;
) x, y + a, z + b .
18. x R 2 x 1, 2 x + 1, x + 26
?
19. (bn ) n 1 , :
) S 6 = 1, q = 2.
a) S 4 = 12, q = 3;
20. R : 1 + 7 + 13 + + x = 280.
21. ABC, , . 2?
22. 180 ,
q 1, ,
36 , . .
21

. ,

, 1
.
.

3.1.
a R
(a , a + ), > 0. a U (a, )

V ( a, ).
, U (a, ) = {x R | a < x < a + } = {x R | x a | < }.
, x0 X,
U ( x0 , ), > 0, x0 , U ( x0 , ) X .
( ). ( xn ) n 1
.
( xn ) n 1 ,
, , , .
: lim xn = a (: xn n,
n
, a ) xn a n (: xn a n, ). ( lim
limes, .)
. n , n +, n ,
.
( ). a R ( xn ) n 1 , > 0 n N* ,
n N* , n > n , | xn a | < .
. 1.
. , : a R
( xn ) n1 , 0 > 0 , n N ,
n > n0 , | xn0 a | 0 .
2. ,
, > 0 . ,
: a R ( xn ) n 1, > 0 n N* , n > n
| xn a| < , > 0.

1. ( xn ) n 1 , xn =
1

1
. , lim xn = 0.
n
n

(490 430 . .) - .

22

U 0, U = ( , ). n N* ,
1
1
1
1
n > , , 0 < < . , xn = ( , ) = U n > . ,

n
n
1

, n =
+ 1, U 0.
1
, 0 ( xn ) n 1 , xn = .
n
1
: lim = 0.
n n
2. , lim
n

2n + 1
= 2.
n +1

, > 0 n N* , n N* ,
2n + 1
1
2n + 1
1
n > n ,
2 < .
2 =
=
.
n +1
n +1
n +1 n +1

1
2n + 1
1
2 =
< . > , 2
n +1
n +1
1
1
*

< n N . 0 < ,
n +1
2
1
1
n > 1, n N* , n = 1 + 1, n N* .


2n + 1
*
, > 0 n N ,
2 <
n +1
2n + 1
n, n > n . , lim
= 2.
n n + 1
> 0 ,

3. , ( xn ) n 1 , xn = (1) n , .

, a R, lim(1) n = a.
n
1
> 0, = , n N
2
1
, n > n | xn a | < . xn {1, 1},
2
1
1
, | 1 a | < | 1 a | < .
2
2
1 1
, 2 = | (1 a) + (a + 1) | | 1 a | + | 1 + a | < + = 1, , 2 < 1, .
2 2
, .
4. , lim
n

1
= 0, R+ .
n

, > 0 n N , n N* ,
1
n > n , < , > 0.
n
23

1
1
=
n
n
1
1
1
1 n
=
>
.
n
<

n
,

1
n

1
. , > 0 n = 1 N* ,
1
1
0 < n N* , n > n . , lim = 0, > 0.
n n
n
, > 0, ,

: lim
n

1
= 0, > 0.
n

. , , ( xn ) n 1 , xn = (1) n , .
. , ( xn ) n 1
, lim xn = + , > 0
n

n N , xn > n > n .
, ( xn ) n 1 , lim xn = , > 0 n N ,
n

xn < n > n .
, ( xn ) n 1 ,
lim xn = , > 0 n N , n

| xn | > n > n .
. , lim xn = + lim xn = , lim xn = .
n

1. ( xn ) n 1 , xn = n 2 . , lim xn = +.
n

2. ( xn ) n 1 , xn = 2 n. lim xn = .
n

3. ( xn ) n 1 , xn = (1) n n , lim xn = .
n


( xn ) n 1 , xn = q n , q < 1. , lim q n = .
n
:
, , > 0
n N, n > n | q n | > .
> 0. | q n | > | q |n > . | q |, | q | > 1, :
log |q| | q |n > log |q| n > log |q| .
, > 0 n = [log|q| ] + 1 ,
| q | > n > n . lim q n = .
n

24


:
U (+, ) = {x R | x > , > 0};

U (, ) = {x R | x < , > 0};


U (, ) = {x R | | x | > , > 0},
+ , .
+ > 0
. ,
. , , + ,
. ,
, : .
,
:
. , ( , + , ) ( xn ) n1 , U (a, )
nu , xn U n > n u .
, , .
, ( ,
, ), .
9.
, .
10 (1). .


, ( xn ) n 1 *
. xn xn +1, n N . , {xn n 1} . x0 = sup( xn ), x0 R.
nN

,
> 0 n , xn > x0 . ( xn ) n 1
, , xn > xn > x0 n > n . ,
, x0 , xn x0 < x0 + , n N* . , n > n x0 < xn < x0 + | xn x0 | < , , lim x n = x0 ,
n
x0 R, ( xn ) n 1 . , .

, ( xn ) n 1 , x1 = 2
xn +1 = 2 + xn , n 1, .
1

(1815 1897) .
25

:
, ( xn ) n 1 .
xn2+1 xn2 . : xn2+1 xn2 = 2 + xn xn2 = (1 + xn )(2 xn ) > 0 n N .
, xn2+1 > xn2 , n N . xn > 0, n N ,
, xn +1 > xn n N . ,
.
, , .
: x1 = 2 < 2, x2 = 2 + 2 < 2 + 2 = 2.
, xn < 2. xn+1 = 2 + xn < 2 + 2 = 2.
, xn < 2, n N .
, ( xn ) n 1 ,
, .
. 1. 10 , lim xn = sup( xn ),
n

nN*

( xn ) n1 . ( xn ) n 1 , lim xn = inf* ( xn ).
n

nN

2. lim xn = a, , ( xn ) n 1
n
a.
11. ( xn ) n 1 x0 ,
( xnk ) k 1 x0 .
lim xn = x0 lim xnk = x0 ( xnk ) k 1 .
n +

. , ,
.

3.2.
( xn ) n 1 ( y n ) n 1 .
x
( xn ) n 1 , R; ( xn + yn ) n 1 ; ( xn yn ) n1 ; n , y n 0, n N* ; ( xnyn ) n 1 ,
yn n 1
xn > 0, n N* ,
, , ,
, .
: , , ( xn ) n 1 , ( y n ) n 1 ,
, .
12
1. ( xn ) n 1 lim xn = a ,
n
R, ( xn )n1 , lim( xn ) = a = lim xn ,
n
n+
, .
26

2. ( xn ) n 1 ( y n ) n 1 lim xn = a,
n
lim yn = b, ( xn + y n ) n 1 , lim( xn + yn ) =
n
n
= a + b = lim xn + lim yn , , n
n
.
3. ( xn ) n 1 ( y n ) n 1 lim xn = a,
n
lim yn = b, ( xn y n ) n 1 , lim( xn yn ) = a b =
n
n
= lim xn lim yn , , n
n
.
4. ( xn ) n 1 ( y n ) n 1 lim xn = a,
n

x
lim yn = b ( y n 0, n N ) b 0, n n
yn n1
x
lim
n
x
a
, lim n = = n , n y
yn
n b lim
n
.
*

3.3.
13. ( S n ) n 1 , S n = b1 + b1q + ... + b1q n 1 , b
0 < | q | < 1 b1 0. lim S n = 1 .
n
1 q

n
n

b1 , b1q, b1q 2 , ... S n = b1q i 1 , | q | < 1.


i =1
b (1 q n )
, | q | < 1, :
, S n = 1
1 q
b1 (1 q n )
b
b
= 1 lim(1 q n ) = 1 , limqn = 0.
lim S n = lim
n
n
n
1 q
1 q n
1 q

3.4. e

14. ( xn ) n 1 , xn = 1 +

1
, .
n

10 () 3.1 :
a1 + a2 + ... + an n
a1a2 ...an , a1 , a 2 , ..., a n R + .
n
n

1
, n 1, .
n
( xn ) n 1 .
1
1
1
1 + , 1 + , ..., 1 + , 1.
n 442
n 4443
n
14

, xn = 1 +

27

, n + 1 :
1

n 1 + + 1
n
n
n +1
n
n
n + 2 n +1 1
n+2
1
1 + 1
>
> 1 +
> n +1 1 + 1

n
n +1
n +1
n +1

n
n
n +1

1
1
1 +
> 1 + , n 1.

n +1
n
, xn < xn +1 , n 1, ,
.
, .
1
1
1 1 1
n + 2 1 + , 1 + , ..., 1 + , , .
n
n
n 2 2
144424443
n

n + 2 ,

1
1 1
n 1 + + +
n
n 2 2 > n +2 1 + 1 1 1

n+2
n 2 2

n + 2 n+2
>
n+2

1 + 1 1 1 > 1 + 1 1 1 + 1 < 4,
n 1.
n 4
n 4
n

n
1
, xn = 1 + , n 1, . n
( xn ) n 1 , ,

, .

( xn ) n 1 , xn = 1 +

1
,
n

1, e. e
(2, 3).
e 1815 . 2. 1728
. 3 ,
n

1
lim 1 + = e = 2,7182818284590...
n
n

: lim 1 +
n

1
= e.
n

(8)

. e . , ,
, ln x ( = log e x ).
1
2
3

(17071783) , .
(17681830) .
(17001782) .

28

3n + 8

3n + 7

1. lim
n

6 n +1

:
11 (8), :

3n + 8
lim

n 3n + 7

6 n +1

1
= lim 1 +
n
3n + 7

3n + 7
1 + 1
1

= lim 3n + 7

6 n +1

1( 6 n +1)
3n + 7

1
= lim 1 + 3n + 7
n

3n + 7 1

( 6 n +1)
1 3n + 7

= e2 .

2. ( xn ) n1 , :
n+2
) xn =
a) xn = n 2 + 2n 3 n;
;
3n + 1

n +1 n
;
) xn =
n

1
1
+ ... + n
2
2
.
) xn =
1
1
1 + + ... + n
3
3
1+

:
a) :
(n 2 + 2n 3) n 2
2n 3
= lim
=
lim( n 2 + 2n 3 n) = lim
2
2
n
n
n
n + 2n 3 + n
n + 2n 3 + n
3
n 2
n

= lim
= 1.
n

2
3
n 1 + 2 + 1
n n

2
2 lim 1 + 2
n 1 +
1
+
n

n+2
n = n n = 1 + 0 = 1 .
) lim
= lim
= lim
n 3n + 1
n
n
1
3+ 0 3
1
1
3+
lim 3 +
n 3 +
n
n

n
n

) , :
( n + 1) n
1
n +1 n
lim
= lim
= lim
= 0.
n
n
n

n
n( n + 1 + n )
n( n + 1 + n )
) n :
1 n +1
1
2
n +1
1
1
1
1
1


1 + + ... + n
1
2
2 = lim
2 = 4 lim 2 = 4 .
lim
n +1
n
1
1 n
3 n 1 n +1 3
1
1 + + ... + n

1
1
3
3
3

3
1
1
3

29

1. , .
2. , , ( xn ) n 1 ,
xn = (1) n , .
3. , , :
2n 3 1
5n + 6
4n 1
2n 2 + 1
= ;
= 5.
= 4;
a) lim
) lim
) lim
) lim
= 2;
n
n 4n + 5
n n + 1
n

2
n
n2
4. , , :
2n + 1
n 1 1
;
1.
) lim
a) lim
n n + 1
n 5n + 1
2
5. , ( xn ) n 1 , :
n +1
1
2n + 1
1
;
) xn = 1 + n ;
) xn = 1 + .
a) xn =
n +1
3
n
6. :
2
5
1
n+2
;
;
;
a) lim
) lim 2
) lim n ;
) lim
n 3
n n + n
n n + 1
n 3n + 1
n
C2
2
3n + 5 2 n
;
) lim nn ;
) lim
) lim n
) lim( n 2 + 2n + 3 n);
;
n 2
n
n
n 4 + 5 n +1
2

1
1
2n
1 + + ... + n
1 2 + 3 4 + ... 2n
n 1 ;
2
2
;
) lim
) lim
) lim
;

n n + 1
n
n
n
1
1
1 + + ... + n
4
4

n2

n +2

;
+
) lim 2
n 2n + 1
n + 3

2n 1
;
n 2n + 3

) lim

) lim
n

n!
.
(n + 1)! n!


A
1. ( xn ) n 1 , :
3n 2
1

;
a) xn =
) xn = sin n ;
) xn = ( 1) n 7 + .
2+n
n
6

2. n- :
1 2 3 5
1 1 1 1
,
, ...
) 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, ...;
) 3, 3, 3, 3, ...;
) , ,
a) , , , , ...;
2 3 4 6
3 9 27 81
3. : a) ; ) ; ) .
n

1
4. , ( xn ) n 1 , xn = .

2
5. ( an ) n 1 , :
a) a1 = 2 r = 4;
) a1 = 1 r = 2;
) a1 = 10 r = 5;
) a1 = 3 r = 7.
6. 100 ( a n ) n 1 , :
a) a1 = 2, r = 5;
) a1 = 1, r = 1.
7. x R, :
) a 2 + x, ab + x, b 2 + x.
a) 1 + x 2 , (a + x) 2 , (a 2 + x) 2 ;
30

8. (bn ) n 1 , :
1
a) b1 = 2, q = 6;
) b1 = 10, q = ;
) b1 = 3, q = 2.
2
9. , ( xn ) n 1
, :
1
a) x1 = 2, xn +1 = 3xn ; ) x1 = 4, xn +1 = 2 + xn ; ) x1 = 4, xn +1 = xn ; ) x1 = 1, xn +1 = 5 + xn .
3

.
10. a1 , a 2 , ..., a n .
a) n S n , an = 5, a1 = 23, r = 2;
) a1 n, an = 18, r = 2, S n = 88.
11. b1 , b2 , ..., bn . S n , :
) bn = 384, q = 2, n = 8.
a) bn = 1280, b1 = 5, n = 9;
12. 8 .
2 , . 60 ?
13. , , 4,9 , 9,8 /. , 8 .
14. x R , 2 x 2, x 2 + 1, 3x 2 1 .
15. ( xn ) n 1 , :
2 n + (2) n
2n + (1) n
n
; ) xn = n sin
; ) xn = cos n ; ) xn =
.
a) xn = 1 + (1) n ; ) xn =
n
2
3n
2

16. 2.
4
. .
5
17. , , :
2n 1
2n + 1
= 0.
= 2;
) lim 2
a) lim
n n + 1
n n + 1
18. , , :
6n + 1 9
n+2
;
1.
) lim
a) lim
n
n 2n + 1
3n
4
19. , 729 , a , . a
. 6 ,
64 . a.
20. , 4
1.
21. , (a + x) 2 , a 2 + x 2 , (a x) 2 , a, x R,
. n , (a + x) 2 .
22. :

3n + 1
;
2n + 1
2n 1
;
) lim
n 2 3n
a) lim

n
;
n +1

) lim
n

) lim(2n 3 n 2 + 1);

) lim(1 + 3n n 5 );

1
2n
) lim
+
;
n 2n
3n + 1

) lim

) lim 1 +
n

1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n
;
n2

n +1

1
;
n

) lim( n 2 + 1 n 2 1).
n

31

: 45

1. 5 ( xn ) n 1 :
1 + (1) n
3n 2
.
;
a) xn =
) xn =
n+2
3
2. ( xn ) n 1 , :
2n 1
xn =
.
2n + 1
3. ( a n ) n 1 , :
a2 + a4 = 16, a1a5 = 28.
4. (bn ) n 1 , :
b2 b1 = 4, b3 b1 = 8.
5. , 3 ..,
, . ,
, 48 ..

: 90

1. ( xn ) n 1 :
3
xn = (1) n 1 2 + .
n

2. (bn ) n1 , b1 = 4, bn +1 = (3) bn .
3. ( xn ) n 1 , :
n
.
xn = 1 + 2
n +1
4. ,
10 11 ... (n + 9)
( xn ) n 1 , xn =
.
1 3 ... (2n 1)
5. ( a n ) n 1 ,
5
65
a1 + a5 = , a3 a4 = .
3
72
6. (bn ) n 1 , :
45
405
b4 b2 = , b6 b4 =
.
32
512
7. 26 ..,
2 .. , . 40 ..
4
22 .. , .
9

32

xn
x n lim
= n
y n lim y n

lim y n

5. lim( x n ) yn = [lim xn ]n

4. lim

3. lim( x n yn ) = lim xn lim yn

2. lim( x n yn ) = lim xn lim yn

1. lim( xn ) = lim xn , const.

( xn ) n1 , ( yn ) n1
xn = yn , n N*

M R: xn M , n N*
:
m R : xn m, n N*

1) ;
2)
;
3) .

( xn y n ) n 1

( xn + y n ) n 1

x < m + .

X R , .
m X
, :
1) x X x m ;
2) > 0 x X ,

x > M .

: xn xn +1 , n N*
: xn xn +1 , n N*

(( xn ) yn ) n 1

1
lim 1 + = e
n
n

a1 + a2 + ... + an n
a1a2 ...an , n N* ,
n
a1 , a 2 , ..., a n R +

bk2 = bk 1 bk +1 , k N

bn = b1q n 1 , n N*
b (1 q n )
Sn = 1
, n N*
1 q

an = a1 + r (n 1), n N*
a + an
Sn = 1
n, n N*
2
a + ak +1
, k N
ak = k 1
2

xn

yn n 1

X R , . M X , :
1) x X x M ;
2) > 0 x X ,

: ( xn ) n 1

f: N R

33

;
*, , * ,
;
* , *
;
* , * .
*

1.1.
E R f : E R
. f
x0 , , , E, ,
f (x) f , x, x x0 , x0 . , x E
x0 , , x0
E, , x0 E.
. E R. x0 R E, x0 E \ {x0 }.
, x0 R E,
V x 0 V I ( E \ {x0 }) . , x0 R
E, V
x0 , E \ {x0 }, V I ( E \ {x0 }) = .
x0 E , E,
E. E R ,
.
.
34

1. x0 R E R
, ( xn ) n 1 , xn E \ {x0 }, ,
lim xn = x0 .
n

. , x0 E,
1
1
Vn = x0 , x0 + , n N, n 1, x0 .
n
n

1
1
Vn xn E, xn x0 , x0 < xn < x0 + ,
n
n
1
1

, | xn x0 | < < n >


. , lim xn = x0 .
+ 1
n
n
. E ( xn ) n 1 ,
xn x0 , , xn x0 n , , V x0 xn
V, N. , V I ( E \ {x0 }) , x0 E.
. 1 , x0
+ , . 1 Vn = ( n, + ), Vn = ( , n) Vn = ( , n ) U ( n, + ),
n N, n 1.

1. E = (a, b) E = [a, b] x0 [ a, b] .
2. N + . N .
3. E = [ 2, 1) U {3}
x0 [ 2, 1], x0 = 3 .

1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6
4. E =
1, 2, 2 , 2 , 3 , 3 , 4 , 4 , 5 , 5 , ...,

x0 = 0 x0 = 1,
1
1
( xn ) n 1 , xn = , ( xn) n 1 , xn = 1 + , lim xn = 0, lim xn = 1, xn 0,
n
n
n
n
xn 1, n 1. x0 E .

1.2.
E R, f : E R , x0 R E l R. : x
x0 , f (x) f l .
35

1. f : R R, f ( x) =
y

x
, x0 = 2 (. 2.1).
2
x
y=

1+

f ( xn )

f(x)

2 2

xn

. 2.1

2 + 2

2.1 , x
x0 = 2, f (x) f
l = 1.
.
, ( xn ) n 1 , x0 = 2,
x
( f ( xn )) n 1 , f ( xn ) = n , l = 1 (. 2.1).
2
: U = (1 , 1 + ), > 0,
l = 1 Oy, V = (2 2 , 2 + 2 ), > 0,
x0 = 2 Ox , x V , f ( x) U (. 2.1).
y

x2 1
,
x 1
1. ( xn ) n 1, xn 1, xn 1 n , 2. f : R \ {1} R, f ( x) =

x 1
= xn + 1 2 n (. 2.2).
xn 1

1
1 O

xn

. 2.2
x+

y
f ( x)
y=

+1
x

36

2
n

x + 1, x < 1,
3. f : RR, f ( x) =
x + 1, x 1,
x0 = 1 (. 2.3).
f : x
x0 = 1, 1, f
l = 2; x x0 = 1,
1, f l = 0.
, l R,
f ,
x x0 = 1.

y = f (x)

y=

f ( xn ) =

f ( xn )

f ( x)

O x

. 2.3

, 1 ( 2) ,
l = 1 ( l = 2 ) f x0 = 2
( x0 = 1), 3 , f
x0 = 1.
.
f : E R ( E R) x0 R E.
( ). , f
l R x0 , U l
V x0 , x V I ( E \ {x0 }) ,
f ( x) U .
f x0 lim f ( x) = l f ( x) l x x0
x x0
: f (x) x, x0 , l, f (x) l x, x0 .
, l
U = { y R | y l | < } = (l , l + ) , > 0, x0
V = {x R | x x0 | < } = ( x0 , x0 + ) , > 0 , , , V
U. , , = ( ). ,
.
( 1, ). ,
f l R x 0,
> 0 = ( ) > 0 ,
x E \ {x0 } | x x0 | < , | f ( x) l | < .

.

( 2, ). , f l R
x0, ( xn ) n 1 E \ {x0 }, x0 , ( f ( xn )) n 1 f
l.
l = x
limx f ( x) f x0 0
, x0 , l
.
1
2

(17891857) .
(18211881) .
37

.
( )
1. , f x0 + , > 0
= ( ) > 0 , x E \ { x0 }
| x x0 | < , f ( x) > . : lim f ( x) = +.
x x0

, , 1 :
lim f ( x) = + ( x0 R) , > 0, = ( ) > 0 , x E \ {x0 },
x x0

| x x0 | < f ( x ) > .
2. , f x0 , > 0
= ( ) > 0 , x E \ { x0 }
| x x0 | < , | f ( x) | > . : lim f ( x) = .
x x0

2 : lim f ( x) = ( x0 R )
x x0
> 0, = ( ) > 0 , x E \ {x0 }, | x x0 | < | f ( x ) | > .
3. lim f ( x) = l (l R) , > 0, = ( ) > 0 , x E ,
x +

x > | f ( x) l | < .
4. lim f ( x) = , > 0, = ( ) > 0 , x E ,
x

| x | > f ( x) < .
5. lim f ( x) = , > 0, = ( ) > 0 , x E ,
x +

x > | f ( x) | > .

. 1. x0 , l R
f
x0
:
x, x0 ,
f (x)
f l (. 2.4).

y = f (x)

l +
l
f(x)

2. f : N R, f ( n) = an , O
x0 x x0 x0 + x
3 5 ( )
. 2.4
.
3. , ( xn ) n 1 ( xn) n 1 E \ {x0 },
lim xn = lim xn = x0 , ( f ( xn )) n 1
n

( f ( xn)) n 1 , f
x0 .
3 , f x0 .
4. , ,
.
38


, .

1. , ,
3 x, x < 1,

x0 = 1 lim f ( x) = 3.
f : R R, f ( x) = 0, x = 1,
x 1
2 x + 1, x > 1,
:
U = (3 , 3 + ), > 0, l = 3.
x < 1,

f ( x) = 3x U 3 < 3x < 3 + 1 < x < 1 + x 1 , 1 .


3
3
3
x > 1,

f ( x) = 2 x + 1U 3 < 2 x + 1 < 3 + 1 < x < 1 + x 1, 1 + .


2
2
2

V = 1 , 1 + x0 = 1, V 1 , 1 + . x V ,
3
3
3
2

x 1, , x 1 , 1 x 1, 1 + , f ( x) U .
2

3
, lim f ( x) = 3.
x 1

2. f : [1, 3] R, f ( x) = 3x 2 4 x + 1. , , lim f ( x) = 5.
x 2

:
> 0 x [1, 3] | x | 3 | f ( x) 5 | = | 3x 2 4 x 4 | = | ( x 2)(3x + 2) |

. , > 0, > 0 =
11
11

, x [1, 3] \ {2} | x 2 | < , | f ( x) 5 | < .


, lim f ( x) = 5.

| x 2 | (3 | x | + 2) 11 | x 2 | < , | x 2 | <

x 2

3. f : R \ {1} R, f ( x) =
:

1
. , lim f ( x) = .
x 1
( x + 1) 3

1
1
| x + 1 | < 3 . , > 0, > 0 = 3 , x R \ {1} | x + 1 | <

, | f ( x) | > , , lim f ( x) = .
> 0 . x R \ {1}, | f ( x) | > | x + 1 |3 <

x 1

4.

lim f ( x) = 3.

f : R \ {2} R,

f ( x) =

2x 2 + 5x + 2
.
x+2

x 2

39

:
( xn ) n 1 R \ {2},
lim xn = 2, ( f ( xn )) n 1 f
n
2 x 2 + 5xn + 2
(2 x + 1)(xn + 2)
lim f ( xn ) = lim n
= lim n
= lim(2xn + 1) = 1 + 2 lim xn = 3.
n
n
n
n
n
xn + 2
xn + 2
, lim f ( x) = 3.
x 2

1
5. f : R \ {0} R, f ( x) = cos , g : R R, g ( x) = sin x. x
3, lim f ( x) lim g ( x).
x 0

x +

f x0 = 0, , ,
1
1
, ( xn) n 1 , xn =
( xn ) n 1 , xn =
,
2n
+ 2n
0 n , ( f ( xn )) n 1 ,

f ( xn ) = 1, ( f ( xn)) n 1 , f ( xn) = 1, : 1 1 .
, g x +,

( xn ) n 1 , xn = n , ( xn) n 1 , xn = + 2n , + (. 2),
2
lim g ( xn ) = 0 lim g ( xn) = 1.
n

1.3.
f : E R ( E R) x0 R E. , x0 E = E I (, x0 )
E + = E I ( x0 , + ). , x0
E.
x0 R () E. x
x0 ( ) x < x0 ( x > x0 ),
x x0 0 ( x x0 + 0). x0 = 0
x 0 ( x +0).

x + 1, x < 1 ,
f : R R, f ( x) =
1.2,
x + 1, x 1,
, l R, f (x)

f , x 1.
x 1 ( x < 1), f ( x) = x + 1
0, x 1 ( x > 1), f ( x) = x + 1
2. , f x0 = 1, ,
.
, f : E R ( E R)
, x0 R () E.
40

. , l = l ( x0 ) R
f x0 R, U l
V x0 , x V I E , f ( x) U .
. , l = l ( x0 ) R
f x0 R, U l
V x0 , x V I E+ , f ( x) U .
l ( x0 ) l ( x0 ) f x 0 .
:
l ( x0 ) = lim f ( x), l ( x0 ) = lim f ( x)
x x0
x < x0

x x0
x > x0

:
f ( x0 0) = lim f ( x), f ( x0 + 0) = lim f ( x)
(. 2.5).

x x0 + 0

x x0 0

y
f (x)
l

l (x0) = f ( x0 + 0)

l ( x 0 ) = f ( x 0 0)

x0 = 0, :

lim f ( x) = f (0), lim f ( x) = f (+0).

x 0

x +0

x0

. 2.5

, . ,
.
( ). , l R
f x0 R, > 0 = ( ) > 0
, x E x0 < x < x0 + ,
| f ( x ) l | < .
. , l l
( +, ). . .
( ). ,
f x0 , > 0 = ( ) > 0 ,
x E x0 < x < x0 + , f ( x) < .
: lim f ( x) = .
x x0 + 0


.
2 ( ). f : E R
( E R) x0 R
E E + . f x0 , f x0 : f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0).
, lim f ( x) = f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0).
x x0

41

. lim f ( x) = l , x x0

f ( x0 0) = l f ( x0 + 0) = l.
. , f ( x0 0),
f ( x0 + 0) , f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0) = l , l R.
( ) : ( lim f ( x) = l lim f ( x) = l )
x x0 0

x x0 + 0

( > 0, 1 > 0, 2 > 0 , x E \ {x0 }, x 0 1 < x < x 0


x0 < x < x0 + 2 | f ( x) l | < ).
= min( 1 , 2 ) > 0. , x E \ {x0 } | x x0 | <
( x0 1 < x < x0 x0 < x < x0 + 2 ) | f ( x ) l | < . , lim f ( x) = l.
x x0

, l .

x 2 + x, x 2,

2 x + 3, x > 2.
f x0 = 2. f x0 = 2 ?

1. f : R R, f ( x) =
:

x < 2, f ( x) = x 2 + x, ( xn ) n 1 ,
xn (, 2), lim xn = 2, lim f ( xn ) = lim( xn2 + xn ) = 6.
n

x > 2, f ( x) = 2 x + 3, (t n ) n 1 ,

t n ( 2, + ) , lim t n = 2 , lim f (t n ) = lim(2t n + 3) = 7.


n

, f (2 0) = 6, f (2 + 0) = 7
f (2 0) f (2 + 0), 2 f
x0 = 2.
2. a, f : R R,

x 2 + a 2 , x [1, 1],

f ( x) =
3ax + 1, x (, 1) U (1, + ),
1 1. ?
:
xn (1, 1) f ( xn ) = xn2 + a2 lim xn = 1, lim f ( xn ) = 1 + a2 ,
n

lim xn = 1, lim f ( xn ) = 1 + a 2 . , l (1) = l (1) = 1 + a 2 . ,


n

xn ( , 1) U (1, + ) , f ( xn ) = 3ax n + 1 lim xn = 1,


n

lim f ( xn ) = 1 3a, lim xn = 1, lim f ( xn ) = 1 + 3a. , l (1) = 1 3a,


n

l (1) = 1 + 3a.

, f x0 = 1, : l (1) = l (1)
42

1 + a 2 = 1 3a a {3, 0}. a = 0, l (1) = l (1) = 1 lim f ( x) = 1,


x 1

a = 3, l (1) = l (1) = 10 lim f ( x) = 10.


x 1

, f x0 = 1, : l (1) = l (1) 1 + a 2 =
= 1 + 3a a {0, 3}. a = 0 l (1) = l (1) = 1 lim f ( x) = 1, a = 3
x 1
l (1) = l (1) = 10 lim f ( x) = 10.
x 1

, a = 0 f , 1 1,
a {3, 3} f .

1. , x0 = 2 E R:

2n

n N* ;
n
1
+

a) E =

(1) n
) E = 2 + n n N* ;
2

4n + 3

n N* .
n
2
1
+

) E =

2. :

a) E = (1) n

n 1

n
n
2n + 3
n N.
cos
(3 + (1) n ) | n N; ) E =
n N; ) E =
n
1
3
n
+
+
3
n +1

3. E, x0 ,
x0 E:
(1) n n

) E =
a) E = R \ [0, 4), x0 = 4;
n N* , x0 {1, 1}.
n+2

4. , ,
:
3
1
1
1
) lim x 3 = 2;
) lim x + = ;
a) lim( x + 1) = 2;
1
x 1
x2 2
4
2
x 2

2
) lim (1 2 x) = 3;
x 1

) lim( x 3) = 1;
x2

) lim x 2 = 1.
x 1

5. :
a) lim
x 1

2 x 3 3x + 5
;
x2 + 1

) lim

x 2

2 x 2 + 5x + 2
;
3x 2 + 5 x 2

) lim

x 1

x3 + 1
.
x 4x 5
2

6. , , :
2x 1
3x + 7
= 2.
) lim
) lim
a) lim( 2 x 2 5 x + 3) = 1;
= 1;
x + x + 1
x2
x 2 x + 3
7. , :
1
1

;
) lim sin 2 x;
) lim sin .
a) lim cos
x 1
x 0 x
x
x 1
x
8. x0 f : D1 R:

2 x + 1, x 2,
x0 = 2;
2
x + x, x > 2,

a) f ( x) =
1

) f ( x) =

3x 2 + 4 x + 1
, x0 {1, 1}.
x2 1

D .
43

9. , f x0 ,
l = lim f ( x), f : D R:
x x0

3x + 1, x 1,
x0 {0, 1};
3
x 2 x, x > 1,

) f ( x) =

a) f ( x) =

x2 4
, x0 {0, 2}.
2 x

10. xk , k Z, f : R R:
a) f ( x) = sgn(sin x), xk = k , k Z;
) f ( x) = [ x], xk = k , k Z.
11. f : R R :
a) f ( x) = x [ x];
) f ( x) = [cos x];

0, x < 0,
) f ( x) = (sin x), ( x) =
.
1, x 0,

f x0 R,
lim f ( x).
x x0

12. f : R R :

a 2 x 2 , x < 2,
(ax + 1) 2 , x 1,
) f ( x) =
x0 = 1;
x0 = 2.
x a, x 2,
ax + 3, x > 1,
a R , lim f ( x) , .
a) f ( x) =

x x0

a 2 x x 2 , x < 2,

13. f : R R, f ( x) = 6, x = 2,

3ax, x > 2.
lim f ( x) lim f ( x) = f (2) ?
x 2

x 2

2.1.
, .
,
.
E R, x0
E f , g: E R , lim f ( x) = a, lim g ( x) = b,
x x0
x x0
a b . :
f x0 c R, c f
x0 lim [c f ( x)] = c a = c lim f ( x). , x x0

x x0

.
.

, f ( x) = 1, lim c = c. x x0

, x0 .
44

f , g x0 , f g
x0 lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] = a b = lim f ( x) lim g ( x) ()
x x0

x x0

x x0

() .

( xn ) n 1 E \ {x0 }, lim xn = x0 . f g x0 ,
n

lim f ( xn ) = a lim g ( xn ) = b.
n
n
,
lim[ f ( xn ) g ( xn )] = a b.
n

, , lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] = a b.
x x0

f , g x0 , f g
x0 lim [ f ( x ) g ( x)] = a b = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x )
x x0

x x0

x x0

f1 , f 2 , ..., f n , x0 . , , f1 = f 2 = ... = f n = f ,
, lim [ f ( x )]n = [ lim f ( x )]n , n N, n 1.
x x0

x x0

f g x0 lim g ( x) = b 0,
x x0
f ( x)
f
x0 E \ {x0 },
g ( x)
g
f ( x)
f ( x) a xlim
x
= = 0
x0 lim

x x0 g ( x )
b lim g ( x)
x x0
.
f g x0 f ( x) > 0 x E ,
f g : E R, ( f g )(x) = [ f ( x)]g ( x ) x0 (
0 0 )
lim g ( x )

lim [ f ( x)] g ( x ) = a b = [ lim f ( x)]

x x0

x x 0

x x0

.
E F R, x0
E, u: E F , f : F R , f o u: E R, ( f o u)(x) = f (u( x)),
x E , .
1) lim u ( x) = u0 ,
x x0

2) u ( x ) u 0 x x0 E x x0 ,
3) lim f (u ) = l ,
u u 0

f o u x0 lim f (u ( x)) = lim f (u ) = l.


x x0

u u 0

45

. 1. lim f (u ( x)) = lim f (u ),


x x0

u u 0

, , ,
. ,
, u = u (x) , , 1) 2) :
u u0 u u0 .
2. .
, f g
f
x0
lim g ( x) = 0.
x x0
g
, , lim f ( x) = a, a R, lim g ( x) = + ,

x x0

x x0

f + g x0 lim[ f ( x) + g ( x)] = +.
x x0

, :

lim f ( x) = a > 0, 1 ( ) > 0, x E \ {x0 },

x x0

| x x0 | < 1 a < f ( x ) < a + ;

(1)

lim g ( x) = + M > 0, 2 ( M ) > 0, x E \ {x0 },

x x0

| x x0 | < 2 g ( x ) > M ( a ).

(2)

(1) (2) , M > 0, = min( 1 ( ), 2 (M )) > 0,


, x E \ { x0 } | x x0 | < | x x0 | < 1
| x x0 | < 2 , ,
f ( x) + g ( x) > (a ) + M (a ) = M .
, lim[ f ( x) + g ( x)] = +.
x x0

: a + (+) = + ,
.
:
a + () = ; a + = ; (+) + (+) = +; a ( +) = + (a > 0);
a
a ( ) = + (a < 0);
= ( a 0) ..
0
, lim f ( x) = + lim g ( x) = ,
x x0

f + g

x x0

f
x0 .
g

(
4).
,
. ()
() .
:

46


a R, :

5. () + () =

a
=0

=
16.
a
a
17. = ( a 0)
0
18. a + = + (a > 1)

6. a = (a 0)

19. a = 0 (a > 1)

1. + a =

15.

2. (+) + a = +
3. ( ) + a =
4. (+) + (+) = +

7. a (+) = + (a > 0)

20. a + = 0 (0 < a < 1)

8. a () = (a > 0)

21. a = + (0 < a < 1)

9. a (+) = (a < 0)

a
22. (+) = + (a > 0)

10. a () = + (a < 0)

23. (+) a = 0 (a < 0)

11. (+) (+) = +


12. () () = +

24. 0 + = 0

13. (+) () =

25. (+) + = +

14. =

26. (+) = 0.


1.

2.

0
0

5. 1

4.

3. 0

6. 00

7. 0

, lim x = x0 , x0 R.
,

x x0

1. lim(3 x 2 4 x 2) = 3(lim x) 2 4 lim x lim 2 = 3 2 2 4 2 2 = 2;


x2

x 2

x2

x2

2. lim [( x + 3) (3x 4 x 2)] = lim( x + 3) lim(3 x 2 4 x 2) = 5 2 = 10;


2

x2

x 2

x2

(3x 4 x 2) 2
3x 2 4 x 2 lim
= x 2
= ;
x 2
lim( x + 3)
5
x+3
2

3. lim

x 2

lim ( x + 3 )

4. lim(3 x 2 4 x 2) ( x + 3) = [lim(3 x 2 4 x 2)]x2


x2

x2

= 2 5 = 32;

5. lim[3( x + 3) 2 4( x + 3) 2] = lim(3u 2 4u 2) = 2 (u = x + 3 2 cnd x 1).


x 1

u 2

47

2.2.
. 2.2. ,
.
.

.
I.
f : R R, f ( x) = xn , n N, n 1 (. 2.6)
y
x x0

+ , n ,
) lim x n =
x
, n ;

y = xn ,
n

y = xn ,
n

+ , n ,
) lim x =
x
, n ;
n
) lim x = +.

=1

n3

a) lim x n = x0n , x0 R;

. 2.6

x +

II.
1
f : R \ {0} R, f ( x) = x n = n , n N, n 1 (. 2.7)
x

1
1
= n , x0 R \ {0};
n
x
x0
1
) lim n = 0;
x x
a) lim

x x0

) lim
x 0

1 + , n ,
=
x n , n ;

y
1
y= n,
x
n

1
,
xn
n

y=

) lim 1n = +;
x +0 x
1 + , n ,
) lim n =
x 0 x
, n .

. 2.7

III. -

P: R R, P( x) = a0 x n + a1 x n 1 + ... + an , ai R, i = 0, n, a0 0, n N .
a) lim P ( x) = P ( x0 ), x0 R;

) lim P ( x) = lim a0 x n ;

) lim P ( x) = lim a0 x ;

) lim P ( x) = lim a0 x n .

x x0

x +

x +

1. lim (3 x 3 4 x + 2) = 3 (1) 3 4 (1) + 2 = 3.


x 1

2. lim(3 x 2 + 5 x 2) = lim(3x 2 ) = .
x

3. lim (2 x 5 + 100 x 4 3) = lim (2 x 5 ) = +.


x

48

IV.
P Q - :

P( x) = a0 x n + a1 x n 1 + ... + an Q( x) = b0 x m + b1 x m1 + ... + bm , a0 0, b0 0, m, n N.
P
: E R, E = {x R Q( x) 0}, .
Q
a) lim
x x0

P( x) P( x0 )
=
, x0 E;
Q( x) Q( x0 )

, n > m,
n
a
a
x
P( x)
= lim 0 m = 0 , n = m,
) lim
x Q( x)
x b x
0
b0
0, n < m.
a0
lim x n m .
b0 x +

x + x , )
Q ( x0 ) = 0 4.

2 x 3 4 x 2 + 3 2 23 4 2 2 + 3 1
=
= .
x 2 x 2 + 6 x 2
22 + 6 2 2 2

1. lim

2. lim

1
2 x 5 + 3x + 1
2x5
lim
=
= lim x 3 = +.
x 4 x 2
x
2
4x2 x + 2

V.

f : [0, + ) [0, + ), f ( x) = n x , n N, n 2, n (. 2.8)


y

a) lim n x = n x0 , x0 [0, + );
x x0

) lim n x = +, n .
x +

. 2.8

f : R R, f ( x) = n x , n N, n 3, n (. 2.9)
a) lim n x = n x0 , x0 R;
x x0

) lim n x = , n ;
x

) lim n x = +, n ;

x +

) lim n x = , n .
x

. 2.9

49

VI.

f : R (0, + ), f ( x) = a x , a > 0, a 1 (. 2.10)

x
a) lim a x = a 0 , x0 R;
x x0

) a > 1, : lim a x = +, lim a x = 0;


x +

a >1

0 <a <1

) 0 < a < 1, : lim a x = 0, lim a x = +;

) lim a x .

x +

. 2.10

VII.
f : (0, + ) R, f ( x) = log a x, a > 0, a 1 (. 2.11)

a >1

a) lim log a x = log a x0 , x0 > 0;


x x0

x +0

0 < a <1 x

O 1

) a > 1, : lim log a x = , lim log a x = +;


x +

) 0 < a < 1, : lim log a x = +, lim log a x = .


x +

x +0

. 2.11

VIII.

f : (0, + ) (0, + ),

f ( x) = x , R \ {0} (. 2.12)

x x0

>1

) > 0 lim x = 0, lim x = +;


x +0

a) lim x = x0 , x0 > 0;
x +

x +0

f : R [ 1, 1], f ( x) = sin x (. 2.13)


a) lim sin x = sin x0 , x0 R;
x x0

) lim sin x, lim sin x, lim sin x.


x +

1 < < 0

. 2.12

IX.

< 1
= 1

0 < <1

) < 0 lim x = 0, lim x = +.


x +

=1

y
1
O

1
. 2.13

f : R [ 1, 1], f ( x) = cos x (. 2.14)


y
1

a) lim cos x = cos x0 , x0 R;


x x0

) lim cos x, lim cos x, lim cos x.


x

50

x +

O
1

. 2.14

3
2

f : R \ + k | k Z R, f ( x) = tg x (. 2.15)
2

a) lim tg x = tg x0 , x0 k =
x x0

) lim tg x = +,
x k 0

+ k , k Z;
2

lim tg x = , k Z.

3
2

f : R \ {k | k Z} R, f ( x) = ctg x (. 2.16)

a) lim ctg x = ctg x0 , x0 k = k , k Z;

x x0

x k 0

. 2.15

x k + 0

) lim ctg x = ,

lim ctg x = +, k Z.

x k +0

3
2

. 2.16
y

X.


f : [1, 1] , , f ( x) = arcsin x (. 2.17)
2 2

1
O

lim arcsin x = arcsin x0 , x0 [ 1, 1].

x x0

. 2.17
y

f : [1, 1] [0, ], f ( x) = arccos x (. 2.18)

lim arccos x = arccos x0 , x0 [ 1, 1].

x x0


f : R , , f ( x) = arctg x
2 2

(. 2.19)

a) lim arctg x = arctg x0 , x0 R;


x x0

) lim arctg x = , lim arctg x = ;


x +
2 x
2
) lim arctg x.
x

. 2.18
y

. 2.19

51

f : R (0, ),

f ( x) = arcctg x (. 2.20)

a) lim arcctg x = arcctg x0 , x0 R;

x x0

) lim arcctg x = 0, lim arcctg x = ;


x +

) lim arcctg x.

. 2.20

XI. ( )

f : R [0, + ), f ( x) = | x | (. 2.21)
a) lim | x | = | x0 |, x0 R;
x x0

) lim | x | = +, lim | x | = +, lim | x | = +.


x +

. 2.21

,
IXI. ,

,
. ,
f : D R ( D R, D
f ( x) = f ( x0 ), x0 D ,
) xlim
x0
.

1. a) , f ( x) = x + 2 x 3 log 2 x , , ,

lim( x + 2 x 3 log 2 x) = f ( 4) = 4 + 2 4 3 log 2 4 = 12.


x4

) ,

5
5
1
lim ln(sin x) + 3 ln + cos 2 x = ln sin + 3 ln + cos 2 = ln + 3 ln 2 = 2 ln 2.
4
6
4
6
2
x

6
x

2. lim
x 0

1
1 = 0; lim ln x = ; lim3 x
3
lim
lim
x
= 0 ; lim ctg x = + etc.
;
=

;
=

x + 2
x +
x+0
x +0
x
x3

1. :
1
a) lim x 3 + x + 5 ;
x4
8

1
) lim 2 x 2 + 3 + 3 x ;
x
x

52

1
) lim x 4 + + 3 x 2 ;
x
x

) lim (5 x 3 +
x 0

1
3x 2 ) ;
x2

2
) lim 4 x 2 + x 3 ;
x +
x

1
) lim( + 3 + x 3 + 3 x ).
x 0 x

2. :
a) lim(3 x 2 + x 10);
x2

x +

) lim

x +

) lim( 2 x 4 + 3 x 3 + 1);

2 x 3 10 x 2 + 1
) lim
;
x 2
x 2 + 3x + 1

) lim

3x 3 2 x 2 + 4
;
1 + x x2

) lim

) lim (5 x +100 x );
3

) lim (2 x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3);

x x3
;
2x4 + 3

) lim

2x3 + x 3
;
x x 2 5 x 3
x 0

2 x 3 x 2 + 3x
.
5x 4 x3 x

3. :
a) lim ( 2 x + log 0 , 25 x ( 3 ) x );

) lim ( x + log 3 x);

) lim (log 0,5 x 2 x );

) lim ( 2 x 2 4 x + 8 x );

) lime (log 2 x + log 4 x e);

) lim (e x + lg x ).

x2

x log 2 e

x +0

x +0

x2

x +

4. :
a) lim ( 4 x 4 + 1);

) lim ( x 4 x 3 + 1)(1 x 2 );

) lim ( x 6 x 3 )( x 3 x + 1);

x +1
;
) lim
x 1 | x 1 |

2x + 1
;
) lim
x + | x + 1 |

) lim

x +

| x 1|
.
3x 1

5. :
a) lim (sin x + 3 cos x 3tg x );

) lim(sin x + 2ctg x cos x);

Exerciii
x + 2 cos x 3ctg x), n Z;
) lim (sin propuse

) lim (2 sin x 3 cos x + tg x), n Z.

x n

x + n
2

6. , :
a) lim sin( 2 x ) = lim sin y = 0, y = 2 x ;
x

y ...

) lim tg ( x + ln x ) = lim tg y = ..., y = ...


x 1

y ...

7. , :
a) / lim cos (1 2 x);
x +

) lim sin x 2 ;
x

) / lim (sin x cos x),


x +

/ .
8. x0 f : D R:
1

2
1
, x0 {1, 0, 1}; ) f ( x) = e x 1 , x0 {1, 1}; ) f ( x) = 1 1 , x0 = 1.
a) f ( x) =
ln | x |
1 + 2 x +1

2
2
3 x + m 2, x < 0,

9. m R f : R R, f ( x) = m + 2, x = 0,
1
2 x

(m e ) : 1 + 2 x , x > 0,
x0 = 0 , f (0) ?

10. m R, f : R R,

m 2 x 2 6mx + 9 21 x , x < 1,
x0 = 1.
f ( x) =
4 m 2 x 2 + 2mx + 3 x 1 , x 1,

53

11. ,
:
1 1

) lim ln arcsin x .
x 0
2

) lim tg sin ;
x
2
2

) lim ctg 3 ( cos x);

) lim

x 0

x 0

x 0

x 0

x4

2 sin x
;
ln(cos x)

) lim e x

) lim 3 3 x ln x 2 + x 3 ;

) lim ln(sin 2 x);

x
6

a) lim cos(1 2 sin x);

3.1.
E R, f , g : E R x0 R E.
.
1 lim f ( x) = a, a R, V ( x0 ) x0 ,
x x0

f V ( x0 ) I E.
2 lim f ( x) = a, lim g ( x) = b, a, b R, a < b ( a > b),
x x0

x x0

V ( x0 ) x0 , f ( x) < g ( x) (
f ( x) > g ( x)) x V ( x0 ) I E \ {x0 }.
. 2, g (x) = (x E , R), V ( x0 ) x0 , f (x) < ( f ( x) > )

x V ( x0 ) I E \ {x0 }.
= 0 , f ( x) < 0 ( f ( x) > 0)
x V ( x0 ) I E \ {x0 }.
3 .
a) lim f ( x) lim g ( x),
x x0

x x0

) f ( x) g ( x) x E x0 E,
lim f ( x) lim g ( x).
x x0

x x0

. 3, lim g ( x) = , lim f ( x) = ,

lim f ( x) = +, lim g ( x) = +.

x x0

x x0

x x0

x x0

4 . f , g , h: E R :
a) lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = a, a R,
x x0

x x0

) f ( x) h( x) g ( x) x E x0
E. lim h( x) = a.
x x0

54


:
a) lim ( x sin x);

) lim (sin x 2 e x ).
x

x +

:
a) x R : 1 sin x 1 .
x sin x x 1 (1). lim ( x 1) = +, x +

3 (1) , lim ( x sin x) = +.


x +

) sin x e

1 e , x R, lim (1 e x ) = ,
x
3 , lim (sin x 2 e x ) = .
2

3.2.

:

sin x
lim
=1
x 0
x

a) lim 1 +
x

1
1
= e, ) lim(1 + x) x = e

x 0
x

. | sin x | | x | | tg x |

<x< .
2
2

. 1
B
2
C
AOC, x (. 2.22). B
x
A OC,
x
O
D A
D ,
C OA. , AOC AOC, ,
, AOB,
. 2.22
1
1
1
(2)
AO DC AO 2 x AO AB.
2
2
2
, AO = 1, DC = sin x, AB = tg x, (2)

(3)
sin x x tg x, 0 x < .
2

< x < 0, 0 < x < . (3) , sin( x) x tg ( x),


2
2

(4)
sin x x tg x, < x < 0 .
2

0 < x <

(3) (4), ,
, .
55


1. x , \ {0}, sin x 0 , x 0, 2 2
x
1
, , | sin x |, : 1 <
<

sin x cos x
sin x
| cos x | <
< 1. | cos x | = cos x, x sin x
x

sin x

x , . , cos x <
< 1, x , \ {0}.
2
2
x

2 2
lim cos x = cos 0 = 1, , ,
x 0
sin x
, lim
= 1.
x 0
x
2.

1
= e (. 1, 3, 3.3),
n
, ( xn ) n 1 , xn ( , 1) U (0, + ) ,

a) lim 1 +
n

1
lim xn = , lim 1 +
n
n
xn

xn

= e.

, lim 1 +
x

1
= e.
x

) )
,
1 u0
x .
) u =
x

1. , :

(1 + x) 1
ln(1 + x)
a x 1
= 1;
= ln a, a > 0;
= , R;
) lim
) lim
x 0
x 0
x 0
x
x
x
tg x
arctg x
1 cos x 1
arcsin x
= 1;
= ;
) lim
) lim
) lim
) lim
= 1.
= 1;
2
x 0
0
x

x
0

x 0
x
2
x
x
x
a) lim

:
,
, , .
1
ln(1 + x)
= lim ln(1 + x) x = ln e = 1.
x 0
x 0
x

a) lim

) u = a x 1, x = log a (1 + u ) u 0
x 0. (. a)), :
a x 1
u
1
1
= lim
= lim
=
= ln a.
lim
1
x 0
u 0 log (1 + u )
u 0
x
log
a
a e
u
log a (1 + u )
56

ln(1 + x)
(1 + x) 1
e ln(1+ x ) 1
e ln(1+ x ) 1
= lim
= lim

=
x 0
x
x
0
0

x
x
x
ln(1 + x)
ln(1 + x)
eu 1
= lim
lim
= ln e 1 = , u = ln(1 + x) u 0 x 0.
u 0
x 0
u
x
) lim

) lim
x 0

tg x
sin x 1
sin x
1
1
= lim
lim
= 1
= 1.
= lim

x 0
x
x cos x x 0 x x 0 cos x
cos 0
2

) lim
x 0

1 cos x
= lim
x 0
x2

x 0.

x
sin x
2
2 = 1 lim
2 = 1 lim sin u = 1 , u = x 0

2 x 0 x 2 u 0 u 2
2
x2
2

2 sin 2

u
arcsin x
sin u
= lim
= lim
= 1, u = arcsin x u 0 x 0.
x 0
u 0 sin u
u 0 u
x

) lim

arctg x
tg u
u
= lim
= lim
= 1, u = arctg x u 0 x 0.
x 0
u 0 tg u
u 0
x
u

) lim

.
, ,
1,
,
, x = u (t ), lim u (t ) = 0 (
t t 0
a), lim u (t ) = ).
t t 0

2. :
sin 3 x tg 5 x
;
a) lim
x 0
sin 4 x

) lim
x 0

e 3 sin

2x

x2

2 3 x 32 x
.
) lim
x 0 cos x cos 2 x

:
, 1
, :
tg 5 x
sin 3 x
5
3
sin 3x tg 5 x
3
5 x = 3 1 5 1 = 1 ;
x
a) lim
= lim
x 0
x 0
sin 4 x
sin 4 x
4 1
2
4
4x
) lim e

3 sin 2 2 x

x2

x0

e 3 sin 2 2 x 1 sin 2 x 2
2
= 12 lim

= 12 ln e 1 = 12 ;
2
x0
2
x
3
sin
2
x

(2 3 x 1) (32 x 1)
2 3 x 32 x
= lim
=
) lim
x 0 cos x cos 2 x
x 0 (1 cos 2 x ) (1 cos x )
2

23 x 1
32 x 1

2
3x 2
2 x 2 = 3 ln 2 2 ln 3 = 2 ln 8 .
= lim
x 0
1 cos 2 x 1 cos x
1 1
3 9

4
4
2 2
x2
(2 x) 2
3

57

3. :

ln(cos 3x)
;
x 0 2 x 2 + x 3

) lim

a) lim

x 1

5 + 3x 2
.
x2 + 2x 3

:
ln(cos 3 x)
ln(1 + (cos 3 x 1))
a) lim
= lim
=
2
3
x 0 2 x + x
x 0
2x 2 + x3

ln(1 + (cos 3 x 1)) cos 3 x 1 9


1
9
9

= ;
= lim
= 1
2

x 0

+
+
x
x
2
2
0
4
cos
3
1
2
(3 x)

) : u = x 1. u 0 x 1

lim
x 1

3
3
5 + 3(1 + u ) 2
5 + 3x 2
8 + 3u 2
= lim
= lim
=
2
2
0
0
u
u

(1 + u ) + 2(1 + u ) 3
x + 2x 3
u 2 + 4u

3 3

3
1 + u 1 3
8
1 8 1
8

= 2 lim

= 2 = .
u 0
3
u + 4
3 4 16
u

4. :

1 x

2x 1 ;
a) lim

x 2 x + 3

x x
) lim 1 + sin .
x 0
2

:
a)


1 x

2x 1
a) lim

x 2 x + 3

1 x

2x 1
= lim 1 +
1
x
2 x + 3
4

2 x +3 2 x +3

= lim 1 +

x
2x + 3

u =

1
= lim 1 +
u
u
u

sin

x
x sin x
) lim 1 + sin = lim 1 + sin 2
x 0
x 0
2
2

x
u = sin u 0 x 0.
2

58

1 x

4
= lim 1 +
x
2 x + 3

(1 x )

2x + 3
u x ;
4
1
x

).

lim

4 ( x 1)
2 x +3

=e

1
4 1
x
lim
3
x 2 +
x

x
2

= lim(1 + u )
u 0

1
u

= e2 ,

x
sin
1
lim 2
x0 2 x
2

= e 2 = e ,

1. :

(1 + 2 x)(1 + 3 x)
;
x (1 + x )(1 2 x )
(1 x)(1 3 x) 1
;
) lim
x 0 (1 5 x )(1 + 7 x ) 1
(1 + x) 3 1 3 x
;
) lim
x 0
6x2 + x4
x 1
;
) lim 2
x 1 x 1
x3 1
) lim
;
x 1
x 1
sin 2 x + sin 3 x
;
) lim
x 0
sin 4 x

(3 x 1)( 2 x + 1) 3
;
x ( x 3)( x + 2) + x 2
(1 + 2 x)(1 + 3x) 1
) lim
;
x 0
10 x + x 2
( x 2) 3 8
) lim
;
x 4 ( x 3) 3 1
x 2 + 3x 10
) lim
;
x 2 2 x 2 x 6
x+2 2
) lim
;
x2
1 + 4x 3
sin 4 x
;
) lim
x 0 sin 3 x
2x

x +1
;
x
x

) lim

9x2 + 1
;
x 16 x 2 + 1
(2 + x) 2 9
) lim
;
x 1 (3 + x ) 2 16
( x 2) 2 ( x + 1)
;
) lim 3
x 2 ( x 8)( x 2 4)
3
x +1
;
) lim 3
x 1 x + 1
3
1+ x 1
) lim
;
x 0
1 x 1
x
1
) lim1 +
;
x
2 x
) lim

) lim

a) lim

) lim(1 + 3 x) x ;

) lim(1 x) x .

x 0

x 0

2. :

1 + x + x2 1 x + x2

a) lim

1 + 2x + x 1
sin 2( x 2)
) lim
;
x2
x2
sin( + 3 x)
) lim
;
x 0 sin( 2 6 x )
x 0

) lim
x 0

ln(1 + sin 4 x)
;
ln(1 + tg 2 x)

x 0

arcsin 2 x
;
x 0 sin(3 x + sin x )

) lim
x 0

ln(cos 3 x)
x2

ln(e + sin x)
2

1 cos 3 x
;
sin 2 x

) lim

arctg 2 x

;
2
cos 2 x e x
cos 2 x 3 cos x
) lim
;
x 0
arctg x 2
x 0

1 + sin 2 x 1 sin 3 x
;
tg x sin 4 x

x 0

e 2 x + e3 x + e 4 x 3
;
x 0
tg x + sin 2 x

) lim

) lim

) lim

) lim

1 + 4x 3
;
x 2
2 + 3x 2
sin(3x + x 2 )
;
) lim
x 0
x
) lim
3

) lim
x 0

1 cos x cos 2 x
;
2
e sin x cos 2 x

1 + 3x 3 1 + 7 x
;
x 1
1 + 5 1 2x
x 2 2 sin x
) lim
;
x 0 x + 3 sin x
ln(1 + x + x 2 )
;
) lim
x 0
e5 x e3 x
cos 3 x cos x
;
) lim
2
x 0
e6 x 1
e sin 2 x e sin 3 x
) lim
;
x 0 sin(sin(sin x ))
) lim

ln(1 + arcsin x)
;
1 sin 2 x 1
(1 sin x)(1 sin 3 x)
) lim
.

cos 4 x
x
2
) lim

x 0 5

3. , :
a) lim( x 2 cos x 2 );

) lim ( x + sin 2 x cos 3x);

) lim (sin x 2 );

) lim (2 + sin x)e x .

x +

x +

x +

4. m, n R, :

x2 + 1

+ mx + n = 3;
x
x +1

a) lim

) lim
x 1

sin( mx + n)
= 2, m + n = .
x 1

59

2 , .
.
x0 E R, f , g : E R ,
a = lim f ( x) b = lim g ( x).
x x0

x x0

, , :
a = , b R, lim ( f ( x) + g ( x)) = ;
x x0

a = +, b = +, lim ( f ( x) + g ( x)) = + . .
x x0

: + b = (b R),
( +) + (+) = + , a + b
, . ,
, 2.1.
a = +, b = a = , b = +, f + g x0 . , x +, :
1
a) f ( x) = x 2 +, g ( x) = x f ( x) + g ( x) = x 2 1 +;
x
1
1
) f ( x) = x + +, g ( x) = x f ( x) + g ( x) = 0;
x
x
) f ( x) = x + l +, g ( x) = x f ( x) + g ( x) = l l , l R;
) f ( x) = x + sin x +, g ( x) = x f ( x) + g ( x) = sin x .
, lim ( f ( x) + g ( x)) f
x x0

g , , ,
. ,
, a + b , .
a
, a + b, a b, a b a = lim f ( x), b = lim g ( x)
x x0
x x0
b
:

0
,
0

, 0 , , 1 , 0 0 , 0 .

, .
, .
I.

f ( x)
0
. lim
, lim f ( x) = 0, lim g ( x) = 0.
x x0 g ( x )
x x0
x x0
0

, , f (x) g (x),
f ( x)
,

g ( x)
x x0 , 1, 3.2.
60

( x 1)( x + 2)
x2 + x 2 0
x+2 3
= lim
= .
= = lim
1. lim 2
x 1 3 x 2 x 1
0 x 1 ( x 1)(3 x + 1) x 1 3 x + 1 4
( x 1 , x 1, x 1. )

ln(1 + sin(2 x + x 6 )) 0
ln(1 + sin(2 x + x 6 ))
sin(2 x + x 6 )
=
=

=
lim
lim
0 x 0
x 0
x 0
4x x2
sin(2 x + x 6 )
4x x2

2. lim

sin( 2 x + x 6 )
sin( 2 x + x 6 )
2x + x6
= lim
lim
=
2
6
x 0
x 0
x 0 4 x x 2
4x x
2x + x

= 1 lim
= lim
x 0

x(2 + x 5 )
2 + x5 1
= .
= lim
x(4 x) x 0 4 x 2

1 lim
x x0

P ( x)
, P Q .
Q( x)

P, Q: R R .
a) P ( x0 ) = Q ( x0 ) = 0, P1 , Q1: R R
i
i, j N* , P1 ( x0 ) 0, Q1 ( x0 ) 0, P( x) = ( x x0 ) P1 ( x),

P( x) P1 ( x0 )
1
=
lim
.
Q( x) Q1 ( x0 ) x x0 ( x x0 ) j i
P ( x ) P ( x0 )
1
) P ( x0 ) 0, Q ( x0 ) = 0, lim
=
lim
= .
j
x x0 Q ( x )
x
x

Q1 ( x0 )
0 (x x )
0

Q( x) = ( x x0 ) j Q1 ( x) lim
x x0

II.
lim f ( x) = , lim g ( x) = .
x x0

f ( x)

lim
,
x x0 g ( x )

x x0

, , f ( x)
(), ,

g ( x)
;
, ,
, 1,
3.2.

2 x + 3x +1
= = lim
x + 4 x +1 + 2 x + 2
x+
lim

2 x
3x + 3
3

1
4 x +1 1 +
2
x
x +1
3 4 .
x

1
3
lim lim
4 x + 4 x +

2 +3
3

1
0+3
= 0
= 0,
+0
4
1
1

1+
2
x

61

III. 0
lim [ f ( x) g ( x)], lim f ( x ) = 0, lim g ( x) = .

x x0

x x0

x x0

g ( x)
,
f ( x) g ( x) =
( f ( x)) 1
f ( x)
f ( x) 0, f ( x) g ( x) =
, g ( x) 0,
(
g
( x)) 1

0
.

1
2
sin sin
1
2

2
x
x = 0 = lim sin y sin 2 y =
lim x sin sin = ( 0) = lim
0 y 0
x
x

1
x
x
y2

2
x
sin y sin 2 y
1
= 2 lim

= 2 1 1 = 2, y = 0 x .
y 0
y
y
2
x

IV.
lim [ f ( x) g ( x)], lim f ( x) = a, lim g ( x) = b a = +, b = + a = , b = .

x x0

x x0

x x0

f ( x) g ( x)

,

( g ( x)) 1 ( f ( x)) 1
, f ( x) g ( x) 0, . ., ( f ( x) g ( x)) 1

0
.

0
f ( x) g ( x) =

x2 + 1 x2 1
2 x 2 + 4 x
2 x 2
1
=
= .

lim
= ( ) = xlim
2
2
x

+
2
4x 1
4x
2x + 1 2x 1
2
2
( x + 4 x + 5 x)( x + 4 x + 5 + x)
2. lim ( x 2 + 4 x + 5 x) = ( ) = lim
=
x +
x +
x2 + 4x + 5 + x
5
4+
4x + 5
x
= 2.
= lim
= lim
2
x +
x +
4 5
x + 4x + 5 + x
1+ + 2 +1
x x
1. lim
x +

V. 1 , 0 0 , 0
lim [ f ( x)] g ( x ) .

x x0

: a) 1 , e;
) 1 , 0 0 , 0

lim g ( x ) ln f ( x )

[ f ( x)]g ( x ) = e g ( x ) ln f ( x ) , f ( x) > 0, lim e g ( x ) ln f ( x ) = e x x

x x0

(
2), g ( x) ln f ( x) 0 .
62


2 ( 2 x +1)

x +3
x +3
2 x +1
2 x +1

x +1
1 + 2
1 + x + 1 1

(
1
)
lim
lim
=
=
=
=
1. lim

x + x + 3
x +
x +
x + 3
x + 3

= lim(1 + y )
y 0

1
y

2. lim (1 + x 2 )
x +

lim

x+

1
ln x

2 ( 2 x +1)
x +3

= lim e

1
2 2 +
x

3
x+
1+
x
lim

=e

ln(1+ x 2 )
ln x

x +

= lim e

= e 4 , y =

1
2 ln x + ln 1+

x2
ln x

x +

=e

2
0 x +.
x+3

1
ln 1+

x2
ln x
x+

2 + lim

= e 2+0 = e 2 .

4 0
.

0
:

log a x
= 0 ( > 0, a > 0, a 1)
x +
x
x
2. lim x = 0 ( > 0, a > 1)
x + a
1. lim

0 .

. x + > 0, a > 1, log a x,


x a x . 1
2 , log a x,
x , a x .

1. :

( x 2 4)( x 2 x 2)
;
x2
( x 2 + x 6) 2
3x 2 + 5 x + 2
4) lim
;
3
x 1
x +1
3x 4 x
7) lim x
;
x 0 2 4 x
ln(1 + x + x 2 )
10) lim
;
x 0 ln(1 x 3 + x 6 )

(2 x + 1) 5 (3x + 1) 5
;
x
(2 x + 6)10
3x 4 x
5) lim x
;
x + 2 4 x
ln( x 2 + x 6 )
8) lim
;
x ln( x 4 + x10 )
ln( x 2 + e 5 x )
11) lim
;
x 0 ln( x10 + e 4 x )

x + 24 x
;
x + 6
x +3 x
3x 4 x
6) lim x
;
x 2 4 x
ln( x 2 + x 6 )
9) lim
;
x 0 ln( x 4 + x10 )
ln( x 2 + e 5 x )
12) lim
;
x ln( x10 + e 4 x )

1) lim

2) lim

3) lim

13) lim ( x 2 + 6 x x);

14) lim ( x 2 + x + x);

15) lim (3 x 3 + x 2 x);

1
3
3
16) lim
;
x 1 x + 1
x +1

17) lim x + 1 x + 3 ;
x +
x 1
x+2

2x + 1
18) lim
;
x + 4 x + 3

x +

x2

63

x+4
19) lim

x x + 3

2 x + 3x x
21) lim
;
x 0
2
x2 + x 1 x2 2x 1

24) lim
;
x
x 1
x +1

1 + 4x x ;
20) lim

x 0 1 + x

;
1

22) lim( x 2 + x 5) x 2 ;

23) lim

x2

25) lim

5 2 x

x 1

(1 + x)(1 + x 2 )...(1 + x n )
n +1
2

x3 x 2 x + 1
;
x 3 3x + 2

, n 1;

26) lim
x 1

[(4 x) n + 1]
n +1
x (n + 1) x + n
ln(3 x + 23 x )
; 28) lim
27) lim
;
2
x 1
x + ln(e x + e 2 x )
( x 1)

29) lim[ x 2 ( x + 3 2 x + 2 + x + 1)];


x +

2 + tg x sin 3 2 x
6 sin 2 x + sin x 2
;
30) lim
; 31) lim

4 sin 2 x 8 sin x + 3
x
0

x
2 + sinx
6
1

33) lim x ln( x


x +

+ x3 )

34) lim (3 x + 4 x ) ln(

x + x 2 + ... + x n n
, n 1;
x 1

cos 2 x sin 2 x ;
32) lim

x 0 cos 5 x

1
x +3 x )

x +0

; 35) lim (3 x + 4 x ) ln(

1
x +3 x )

x +

1
2. a, b R , lim (3 4 x 2 x 3 + ax + b) = .
x +
3
3. lim (a x 2 + x + b 4 x 2 + x ) a, b R.
x +

4. f : R \ {1} R, f ( x ) =

lim

x +

ax 2 + bx + 4
. a, b R, ,
x +1

f ( x)
= 2, lim [ f ( x) ax] = 3, lim f ( x).
x 1 0
x +
x

x 2 + ax + 1, x < 2,
b + ln( x 1), x 2.
f ( x ) f ( 2)
a, b R, lim f ( x) lim
,
x2
x 2
x2
lim f ( x) = f (2).

5. f : R R, f ( x) =

x2

1. :

8 6x + x2
;
x 2 2 + 3x 2 x 2

) lim

( 2 x + 1)(3 x + 1)( 4 x + 1)
;
x +
(3 2 x ) 3

) lim

a) lim
) lim

) lim

6 10 x 4
;
2 x 2 3x 5

) lim

3 x 5+ x
;
3
1 + 2x + 1

x 1

x 1

3x 2 2 x + 1
;
x (1 2 x )(3 x + 4)

) lim ( x + 1 2 x + x 1).
x +

64

x 0

( 2 + x)(1 + 3 x) 2
;
9 (3 2 x) 2

3
2 x 2 3x 2 x 2 + 5 x
x 24 x 3
; ) lim

x +
x +
x2
x +1
2 x + 33 x 2

x2
;
x2
5 10 x + 5

) lim

) lim ( 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 x 2 x + 1);
x

) lim

) lim

x 1

) lim

x 1

7 6 x 5 16 15 x
;
6
9 8x 1

) lim (3 x 3 + x 2 3 x 3 x 2 );
x +

7+ x 2
;
x 1

2. :
sin 3 x
;
a) lim
x 0 sin 2 x + sin 4 x
) lim
x 0

) lim

tg 3 x + 2 sin x
;
3 sin 2 x tg x

) lim

sin 2 x arcsin 6 x
;
tg 2 (3 x)

2 sin 5 x 3arctg 2 x
;
arctg 6 x

) lim

2 3 x 32 x
;
2 + 32 x 2

) lim

e sin 2 x 1
;
tg 6 x

1 cos 4 x
;
sin 2 (2 x)

) lim

x2
;
cos 2 x cos 3 x

) lim

ln(1 + 2 sin 3x)


;
e5 x e3 x

) lim
x 0

x 0

x 0

x 0

3x

2x + 3
) lim

x 2 x 1

ln(cos 6 x)
) lim
;
x 0 ln(cos 3 x )
1

x 0

x 0

x 0

x+4

;
1

1 + sin x x ;
) lim

x 0 1 + sin 2 x

1 + x 3x x2
) lim
.
x 0 1 + x 5 x

cos 2 x x 2 ;
) lim

x 0 cos x

3. :
|1 x |
x
;
;
) lim
a) lim
x 1 ( x + 1)( x 2)
x 1
x2 1
x < 1
x >1

) lim

x2
) lim
;
x 0 ln(1 + x )
x<0

) lim

1
) lim
;
x 0 1 2 x
x<0

x2
x>2

x 1
x > 1

1
22
1

x
2 x

1+ | x|

33

1 x 2

4. a R, lim f ( x) :
x x0
4 x 2 + a, x 1
x0 = 1;
a) f ( x) =
2
5 x + 4 + 2a , x > 1,

a 2 + 3 x + 2, x < 0
) f ( x) =
x0 = 0;
2
2
5 a + x 2, x 0,
x 2 3a + 1 + ax + a, x 1
) f ( x) = 2
x0 = 1;
x x a + 4 , x > 1,

2 2
) f ( x) = a x + 1, x < 1 x0 = 1.
1 + 2ax, x 1,
5. a, b R , :
sin( x 2 + ax + b)
= 3, a + b = 1;
a) lim
x 1
2 x 2 3x + 1

2x2 x + 3

+ ax + b = 6;
x +
x
2

) lim

) lim
x 0

2e ax ae bx
= 4 .
x

11
6. f : 6, R,

2
1 6 x x , x [6, 1),

1 : 100 .
f ( x) = 0,1x + 2,1, x [1, 1],

11

2
0,45 x + 2,7 x 0,05, x 1, 2 ,

, , x [1, 1]
.
65

a) f .
) .
) , x = 1.
) , .
) , Ox
?

1 x 2 1 , x [10,2; 2]

50
7. f : [10,2; 52] R, f ( x) = 200
1
1
( x 2) 2 +
, x ( 2; 52],

5
000
1
000

, 1 : 10 000 .
y = 0,5.
a) f .
) , y = 0,5 ?
) x = 2.

: 45

1 2 , .

m 2 4 2 x , x 0,

1. f : R R, f ( x) = sin mx
m R ,
x , x > 0,
x0 = 0,
B m {1, 3}.

A m = 2.

C m {1, 2}.

D m = 1 .

2. lim (ax + b ax 2 + bx + 1) = 4, a, b R ,
x +

A a = 0, b = 4.

B a = 1, b R.

C a = 1, b = 8.

D a {0, 1}, b R.

( x 2 + 2 x 3) 2
( x 2 + x 2) 2
x 2 3x + 2
lim
l
=
,
.
l
lim
,
=

3
2
x 1 x 2 + 2 x 3
x 1
x 1 ( x 2 3 x + 2) 2
( x 2 1) 2

3. l1 = lim

a) l1 l3 .
) l 2 , l = l1l2 l3 .
) ), l2 .
) log l2 ( x l1 ) + log l2 (l3 x) log l2 9 log l2 l.
4. :

10 3x 2 + x
a) lim
;
4
x 2
9 4x 1
66

x
1
sin 5 x 3 sin
2
2
.
) lim
x 0
3x
sin 2 x 4 sin + sin 6 x
2

l = lim f ( x)

f: E R

x x0

x x0

x x0

x x0

g ( x)

x x0

= [ lim f ( x)]

x x0

lim g ( x )

x x0

x x0
x > x0
x x0

sin x
=1
x
1
1
lim 1 + = lim(1 + x) x = e
x
x 0
x

lim
x x0

0
.
0

, .


.
0 .
1 , 0 0 , 0 , ,
.

1.
: f : R *+ R, f ( x) = log a x, a R*+ , a 1.
2. :
f : R*+ R*+ , f ( x) = x , R* .
3. :
f : R R*+ , f ( x) = a x , a R*+ , a 1.
4. :
f : N N, f (n) = n!.

7 f , lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ), x0 ,
x x0
.

6 , , , .

5 , .

4 , .

3 (),
, ().

2 ()
,
() .

lim f ( x) = l l ( x0 ) = l ( x0 ) = l

1 , .

x x0
x < x0

l ( x0 ) = lim f ( x); l ( x0 ) = lim f ( x).



0
; ; ; 0 ; 1 ; 0 0 ; 0 .
0

x x0

x x0

lim f ( x)

f ( x ) x x0
=
, lim g ( x) 0
g ( x) lim g ( x) x x0

5. lim[ f ( x)]

x x0

4. lim

x x0

3. lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)

x x0

2. lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)

x x0

1. lim[cf ( x)] = c lim f ( x), c const.

x x0

x0 E E ( xn ) n1 , xn x0 , xn x0 , n N*

V ( x0 ) V ( x0 ) I ( E \ {x0 }) ,
V ( x0 ) x0

E R

67

Modulul 3

,
;
* , * ,
;
* ,
;
* , .
*

f : E R ( E R ). 2 f
x0 E,
x0 E , , x0
E, f x0 .
f x0 ,
x0 , : f x0
x0 . , f
x0 , , x0 E.

, .
,


.
. 1
. . .

1.1.

, ,
, , .
, ( )
, . .
(17811848) ,
.
1

68

s
vt

1. , , t = 0
.
v, , s(t) ,
t, s (t ) = vt , t 0. s: [0, + ) R, s (t ) = vt , 3.1.
2. f , g , h: R R,
x, x < 1,

x, x 1,
f ( x) =
g ( x) = 2, x = 1,
1, x > 1,
1, x > 1,

Gf
O

1
a)

Gh

Gg

. 3.1

y
2

x, x 1,
h( x ) =
1 + x, x > 1.

. 3.2.
y

1
O

1
)
. 3.2

s (. 3.1) f (. 3.2 a))


, g h (. 3.2 ), ))
x0 = 1.
f, g h x0 = 1,
x0 = 1 :

f (1 0) = lim f ( x) = lim x = 1, f (1 + 0) = lim f ( x) = lim 1 = 1, f (1) = 1;


x 1 0

x 1 0

x 1 0

x 1 0

x 1+ 0

x 1+ 0

g (1 0) = lim g ( x) = lim x = 1, g (1 + 0) = lim g ( x) = lim 1 = 1, g (1) = 2;


x 1+ 0

x 1+ 0

h(1 0) = lim h( x) = lim x = 1, h(1 + 0) = lim h( x) = lim (1 + x) = 2, h(1) = 1.


x 1 0

x 1 0

x 1+ 0

x 1+ 0

f g x0 = 1 1, lim f ( x) = 1 lim g ( x) = 1.
x 1

x 1

, f (1) = 1, g (1) = 2. g
x0 = 1, lim g ( x) = 1, g (1) = 2. h
x 1

x0 = 1, ( h
x0 = 1). , ,
f x0 = 1 :
1) lim f ( x); 2) f x0 = 1.
x1
,
. f : E R x0 E
E. , f x0 ,
, x0 :
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ).
x x0

69

. x0 , ,
.
,
.
f x0
f x0 .
. ,
.
1. f : E R x0 E.
1. f x0 > 0 > 0
, x E | x x0 | < , | f ( x) f ( x0 ) | < .
2. f x0 ( xn ) n 1 ,
xn E , , xn x0 n , ( f ( x n )) n 1 f ( x0 ), f ( xn ) f ( x0 ) n .
3. f x0
( x0 E):
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 0), lim f ( x) = f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0) = f ( x0 ).
x x0 0

x x0 + 0

1 3 x0
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ).

x x0

f x0 E , x0 f. f x0 E ,
x0, x0 f.
f , A E ,
A.
A = E , , , f
, , , f ( ).
. , x0 ,
, x x0 ,
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ).
x x0

, (, .)
, .
. ,
.

1. f (. 3.2 a)) x0 = 1, g, h (. 3.2 ), ))


.
2. f , g , h: R R, f ( x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 1, g ( x) = cos x, h( x) = 3 x , , R , : (, 0] R,
( x ) = 1 3 x , (, 0] .
70

x2 , x (0, 1],
f : (0, +) R, f ( x) = x + 1
2 , x (1, +).
:
, ,
.
(0, 1] f
y
x +1
f ( x) = x2, (1, +) f (x) =
2
2
f (. 3.3).
f x0 = 1.
1
: f (1 0) = lim f ( x) = lim x 2 = 1,
x 1 0

x 1 0

O
x +1
f (1 + 0) = lim f ( x) = lim
= 1 f (1) = 1.
x 1+ 0
x 1+ 0
2
, f (1 0) = f (1 + 0) = f (1). 1
( 3), f x0 = 1.
: f (0, + ) .

. 3.3

1.2.
( ).
f : E R ( E R ) x0 E ( x0
E).
. x0
f , f x0
, f ( x0 0) f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 ).

sin x , x < 0,
1. f : R R, f ( x) = x
2, x 0.
f x0 = 0.
:
sin x
f ( 0) = lim
= 1, f (+0) = lim f ( x) = 2.
x +0
x 0
x
f (0) f ( +0), , x0 = 0
f .
y
x 2 + 1, x < 1,

2. f : R R, f ( x) = 1, x = 1,
2
2, x > 1.
f R.
:
f R \ {1},
x0 = 1 f (1 0) = f (1 + 0) = 2 f (1) = 1 (. 3.4).

1
O

1
. 3.4

71

, f x0 = 1,
.
. x0
f , .
, ( ),
.

1 , x < 0,
1. f : R R, f ( x) = x
y
1, x 0.
f (. 3.5)
x0 = 0.
:
1
lim f ( x) = lim = . , x0 = 0
x 0
x 0 x
f .

. 3.5

x, x Q,
2. f : R R, f ( x) =
0, x R \ Q.
, f x0 = 0, x R \ {0}
f .
:
x0 = 0 ( xn ) n 1 , xn 0 n .
x , xn Q,
f ( xn ) = n
, f ( xn ) 0 = f (0) n .
0, xn R \ Q
, f x0 = 0.
x0 x0 R \ {0}. ,
f x0 .
( xn ) n 1 , xn Q, ( xn) n 1 , xn R \ Q, xn x0 0 xn x0 0 n .
f , f ( xn ) = xn x0 , f ( xn) = 0 0
n . x0 0. , , ( xn ) n 1
( xn) n 1 , x0 ,
( f ( xn )) n 1 ( f ( xn)) n 1 , . ,

lim f ( x). , x0 f .

x x0 0

. f : E R ( E R ) x0
E . ,
f ( x0 0) f ( x0 + 0), f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 0)
f x0 .
, f : R R, f ( x) = sgn x, x0 = 0 , 2 (. 3.6 a)).
72

. 1. , f
x0 ,
f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0).
2. f
x0 ,
f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 ).
, f : [ , ] R,
x, x [ , 0),

f ( x) = 1, x = 0,
sin x, x (0, ].

f (0) = f (+0) = 0, f (0) = 1. , f x0 = 0


(. 3.6 )).

a)

y
1
O

. 3.6

1.3.
f : E R ( E R ) x0 E E = E I ( , x0 ) = {x | x E , x < x0 }.
. f x0 ,
x0 f ( x0 0) f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 ).
f : E R x0 E
E + = E I ( x0 , + ) = {x | x E , x > x0 }.
. f x0 ,
x0 f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 + 0) = f ( x0 ).

1, x 0,
x0 = 0,
1. f : R R, f ( x) =
1, x > 0,
f (0) = 1 = f (0), ,

f (+0) = 1 , f (0) = 1, f (+0) f (0).


1, x < 0,
2. f : R R, f ( x) =
x0 = 0,
1, x 0,
f ( +0) = 1 = f (0), ,

f ( 0) = 1 , f (0) = 1, f (0) f (0).


. 1. f : E R ( E R ) x0 E (x0 E) , ,
x0 ( 1, 3).
73

2. E = [a, b] ,
b . f : [a, b] R a
( b) , a
( b ).

e x + a cos x, x < 0,

1. f : R R, f ( x) = 1, x = 0,
a, b R .
x 2 + b, x > 0,
a b, f :
a) x0 = 0;
) x0 = 0;
) R.
:
a) lim f ( x) = lim (e x + a cos x) = 1 + a. f x 0

x 0

x0 = 0 , f (0) = f (0) 1 + a = 1 a = 0 b R.
) lim f ( x) = lim ( x 2 + b) = b. f x +0

x +0

x0 = 0 , f (+0) = f (0) b = 1 a R.
) f (, 0) (0, + )
a b. x0 = 0 f ,
f (0) = f (+0) = f (0) a = 0 b = 1.
: a) a = 0, b R; ) a R, b = 1; ) a = 0, b = 1.
2. f : R R,
3x 2, x 1
f ( x) = 2
x + 1, x > 1.
:
f , x < 1 x > 1 .
x = 1 . :

lim f ( x) = lim(3x 2) = 1 = f (1), lim f ( x) = lim( x 2 + 1) = 2 f (1). , f

x 1 0

x 1

x 1+ 0

x 1

x = 1 .

1. , f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x 1,
x1 = 2.

x0 = 0

2. f :
1
x
;
;
a) f : [1; 1] R, f ( x) = 2 x + x +
) f : R R, f ( x ) = 2 x + 2
x+3
x +1
1
+ ln( x + 4).
) f : (3, + ) R, f ( x) =
x+3
74

3. f : [a, b] R , :
y
y
y

x0

a)

x0
)

4. f : [3, 5] R
.
a) , f
.
) : f (1) f (0), f (2) f (4),
f (0) f (1), f (0) f (4,5).

a
3

x0
)

2
1
3 2 1 O
1

5. | sin x | | x | , x R, f : R R:
a) f ( x) = sin x;
) g ( x ) = cos x;
) f ( x) = sin 2 x;
) f ( x) = cos 2 x.
2
6. f : [0, 4] R, f ( x) = x + x. , > 0 ,
1
x, | x 2 | < , | f ( x) 6 | < .
10
, f x0 = 2 ?

7. , f : R R R:
1
| x |

x
a) f (x) = | x +1| ; ) f ( x) = x + | x 1|; ) f ( x) = x , x 0, ) f ( x) = (1 + x) , x > 0,

1, x = 0;
2,7, x 0.
2
x + 2ax, x 1,
8. f : R R, f ( x) = 3
a R.
3
x + a , x > 1,
, f R.
9. f : R R:
2 n

lim 1 + x , x 1,
sgn( x + 1), x 0,
a) f ( x) = n
) f ( x ) =
n
2, x > 0.
sin( x 1), x > 1;

10. f : R R:

1 , x < 0
x

x + x , x Q
a) f ( x) =
) f ( x) = 2, x = 0
x + 1, x R \ Q;
sin 2 x
2 , x > 0.
11. :
x , x Q,
a) f : R R , f ( x) = lim n
) f : [1, 1] R, f ( x) = lim ( x 2 n + x 2 n + 2 ).
n
n
0, x R \ Q;
3

ax + be x , x < 1,

12. f : R R, f ( x) = 2, x = 1,

1 ax, x > 1.
a, b R , f :
a) x0 = 1;
) x0 = 1.
75

, ,
, .

2.1. ,
2. f , g : E R ( E R) x0 E ,
f ( R), f + g , f g , f g x0 . g ( x0 ) 0,

f
x0 .
g

.
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ) lim g ( x) = g ( x0 ).
x x0

x x0

lim ( f ( x)) = lim f ( x) = f ( x0 )

x x0

x x0

lim ( f ( x) + g ( x)) = lim f ( x) + lim g ( x) = f ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ),

x x0

x x0

x x0

lim ( f )( x) = ( f )( x0 ) lim ( f + g )( x) = ( f + g )( x0 ).

x x0

x x0

, f f + g x0 .

f
.
g
, ( x0 ),
, , E.
. f g , f g

1. f : R R, f ( x) = 2 x + sin x + x, R,
R.
x
2. , f ( x) =
,
sin x
E = R \ {k | k Z},
E.
3. , f ( x) = tg x ,

sin x

E = R \ + k | k Z, f ( x) =
(cos x 0, x E ) , ,
cos x
2

E.

2.2.
3. g : E1 E 2 , f : E 2 R ( E1 , E 2 R )
h = f o g : E1 R . g x0 E1
f y 0 = g ( x0 ) E 2 , h x0 .
76

( xn ) n 1 , xn E1 x n x 0 n .
, h ( x n ) h ( x0 ) n . y n = g ( xn ) E 2 .
g x0 , , y n = g ( xn ) g ( x0 ) = y 0 n .
f y 0 , f ( y n ) f ( y 0 ),
f ( g ( xn )) f ( g ( x0 )) h ( x n ) h ( x0 ) n . , ,
h x0 .
. 3
: lim f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x0 )) = f ( lim g ( x)), ,
x x0

x x0

lim sin x

1. lim e sin x = e x0
x 0

= e 0 = 1 f ( x) = e x

g ( x) = sin x;
lim

2. lim tg(2 x ) = tg(lim 2 x ) = tg(2 x


x

) = tg 2

a , tg x x .
. g : E1 E 2 E1
f : E 2 R E 2 ( E1 , E 2 R), h = f o g : E1 R
E1 .
, ,
2 3 ,
.

f , g : E R x0 E ( E).
, | f |, max( f , g ), min( f , g ) x0 ( E).
:
| f |, | f | ( x ) = | f ( x ) |,
: | f | = o f , : R R, ( x) = | x |, ,
E. 3 | f | x0
( E).
2 :
1
1
max( f , g ) = (( f + g ) + | f g |), min( f , g ) = (( f + g ) | f g |).
2
2

1. f :
2 x , 1 x < 1,
x, x 1,

a) f : [1, 4] R, f ( x) = 1, x = 1,
) f : R R, f ( x) = 2
x 1 , x > 1;
x 1, 1 < x 4;
77

cos x, x < ,

2
4

) f : , R , f ( x) = 1, x = ,
) f : R R, f ( x) = x [ x].
4
2 2

2
x 2 , < x ;
16
4
2

2. f x0 . , , , f x0 .
x 2 sin 1

x
3. f : 0,
2 R, f ( x) = sin x , x 0,
0, x = 0.


, f 0, .
2
4. , a, b R, f : R R
R:
( x 1) 2
3
x 2 1 , x R \ {1, 1},
( x 1) , x 0,

) f ( x) = a, x = 1,
a) f ( x) = ax + b, 0 < x < 1,

x , x 1;

b, x = 1.

5. f , g: R R:
a) f ( x) = sgn x, g ( x) = 1 + x 2 ;

3
) f ( x) = sgn x, g ( x) = x x;

) f ( x) = sgn x, g ( x) = sin x;

) f ( x) = sgn( x 1), g ( x) = sgn( x + 1).


f
1) f + g , f g , f g

g
.
2) f o g g o f .
6. f , g : R R:
2
a) f ( x) = x , g ( x) = x + 1;

x + 1, x 0,
) f ( x) =
g ( x) = x 1;
x 1, x > 0,

x
) f ( x) = [ x], g ( x) = e ;
) f ( x) = [ x], g ( x) = sin x;
1 , x 0,
x, x Q,
) f ( x) = [ x], g ( x) = x
) f ( x) = [ x], g ( x ) =
0, x R \ Q.
1, x = 0;
f o g g o f .

7. a R, f
:
x + 2, x [0, 1],
a) f : [0, 3] R, f ( x) =
2ax + 1, x (1, 3];

2 x , x (, 0),
) f : R R, f ( x) =
2
a + x , x [0, + );
x 2 1
, x [2, 3),

) f : [2, + ), f ( x) = x 3
ax + 1 , x [3, + );
3

78

sin a ( x 1)
, x [0, 1),
) f : [0, 2] R, f ( x) = x 1
3 x a, x [1, 2];
x sin 1 , x ( , 0),
) f : R R, f ( x) =
x
ax 2 + x + sin x, x [0, + ).
8. , x R, R? .
9. I ,
,
I.

. f : E R ( E R ) :
a) , f ( E ) = { f ( x) | x E} , , M R , , f (x) M , x E.
) , f (E) ,
, m R , m f ( x), x E.
) , f (E) ,
m , M R, , m f ( x) M , x E.
M = sup f ( x ) m = inf f ( x)
xE

xE

f.

a)

3.1.
f ( x) = x 2

O
tg x
)=

g(x

. , f : (0, + ) R, f ( x) = x 2 ,
,

(. 3.7 a)). g : 0, R,
2
g ( x ) = tg x, ,
, (. 3.7 )).
,
, , E .

. 3.7

4 ( ).
f : [a, b] R , :
1) f ;
2) f ,
x1 , x2 [ a, b] , f ( x1 ) = m f ( x2 ) = M , m M
f :
m = inf f ( x), M = sup f ( x ).
xE

xE

79

m M
f [a, b].

1. f : [0, 1] R, f ( x) = x + 1, [0, 1].


, m = 1 = f (0) M = 2 = f (1).
, ,
f .
f (0, 1) (. 3.8 a)).

a)

)
. 3.8

1
2. f : [1, + ) R, f ( x) = 2 . f ([1, +)) = (0, 1] f
x
m = 0 [1, + ) (. 3.8 )).
. 1. f : [a, b] R [a, b], m = f (a )
M = f (b) , f [a, b]. , f [a, b], m = f (b)
M = f (a) ( f ).
2. f : (a, b) R (a, b), m = lim f ( x),
x a + 0

M = lim f ( x), f (a, b), m = lim f ( x), M = lim f ( x).


x b 0

x b 0

x a + 0

3. : m = inf f = , M = sup f = +.
xE

xE

3.2.
, , : . , f
, f ,
.
. I .
, f : I R
1 I, ,
I, < , , f ( )
f ( ), f ( ) f ( ),
c (, ) , f (c ) = .

(18421917) .

80

, , f ( )
f ( ) Oy
c, Ox. 3.9
: c1 , c2 c3 .

y
f ( )

f ( )
O

c1

c2

c3

. 3.9

5 (
). f : [a, b] R [a, b]
: f (a ) f (b) < 0. c (a, b) , f (c) = 0.

, , f ( a ) < 0
f (b) > 0 (. 3.10). [a, b]
a+b
a+b

. f
= 0,
2
2
a+b
a+b
. f
, c =
0,
2
2

y
a

a1

b1
b

. 3.10

a + b , a + b , b a,

2 2

. [a1 , b1 ], f (a1 ) < 0, f (b1 ) > 0.


[ a1 , b1 ] , f ,
.
[ a 2 , b2 ] [a1 , b1 ], f (a2 ) < 0, f (b2 ) > 0.
. , f ,
. , .
[ a1 , b1 ] [ a2 , b2 ] [ an , bn ] , :
f ( an ) < 0, f (bn ) > 0 bn an = b n a .
2
(
b
)
( an ) n 1 n n 1
( a a1 a2 ... an ..., b b1 b2 ... bn ...) lim(bn an ) = 0.
n

( 1, 3.1), lim an = lim bn = c,


n
n
c [a, b]. f ( an ) < 0 f (bn ) > 0 f c, , f (c) = lim f (an ) 0 f (c) = lim f (bn ) 0.
n
n
, f (c) = 0.

81

5 :
5 (
). f I a, b I , f ( x) = 0
(a, b).
6 ( ).
, ,
.

f : I R , , I , < , ,
f ( ) f ( ), f ( ) f ( ).
: I R, ( x) = f ( x) . I
( ) ( ) = ( f ( ) )( f ( ) ) < 0. 5
c ( , ) I , (c ) = 0, f (c ) = .
. I R, I , f : I R
I. J = f (I ) .
. 1. f : I R . f
m = inf f ( x) M = sup f ( x ), f ( I ) = [m, M ],
xI

xI

f , f ( I ) = ( m, M )
( , m = , M = +).
1
, f : (0, 1) R, f ( x) = ln x +
, m =
1 x
M = +. , f ((0, 1)) = (, + ).
2. I = ( a, b) f : I R , , J = f (I ).
, , , .
x
, f : (0, + ) R, f ( x) = e , f ((0, + )) = (0, 1),

1
f : (0, 1) R, f ( x) = x x 2 , f ((0, 1)) = 0, .
4

3.3.

5, f : I R [a, b] I
f (a) f (b) < 0, f ( x) = 0 c (a, b).
f [a, b], c
[a, b].

f : R R, f ( x) = e 2 x + 3x. , [1, 0]
f ( x) = 0 .
:
f [1, 0]
82

. , f (1) f (0) = 2 3 1 < 0. ,


e

c (1, 0) , f ( x) = 0.
f : I R ( I R) I f x I ( f ( x) = 0
I ), f I, f ( x) > 0
f ( x) < 0 .
, x1 , x2 I, x1 < x2 ,
f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) < 0 , f c ( x1 , x2 ),
I, .
, f ,
f ( x) > 0 ( f ( x) < 0 ) ,
f ( ) .
,
. , f : I R
x1 < x2 < ... < xn ..., f ( xk ) = 0, k N ( ).
( x1 , x2 ), ( x2 , x3 ), ..., ( xn 1 , xn ), ... f , ,
f .

1. , -
R.
:
f : R R, f ( x) = a0 x 2 n +1 + a1 x 2 n + + a2 n +1 , ,
a0 > 0. lim f ( x) = , x1 , f ( x1 ) < 0.
x

lim f ( x) = +, , x2 , x2 > x1 , f ( x2 ) > 0.


x +

, f x1 x2 , ,
c ( x1 , x2 ) , f (c) = 0.
2. , , f ( x) = x 5 + 7 x 3 + 7 , [1, 0].
:
f [1, 0] ,
( x 5 7 x 3 + 7)
[1, 0] . f (1) = 1, f (0) = 1, f (1) f (0) < 0. ,
[1, 0] f ( x) = 0 ,
.
1
3. , ln x + x = 0 x0 , 1 .
e
:
1
f : , 1 R, f ( x) = ln x + x. f e
1 , 1 ,
e . ,

83

1
1 1
1
f = ln + = 1 + < 0 f (1) = ln 1 + 1 = 1 > 0, ,
e
e
e
e

1
x0 , 1 , f ( x0 ) = 0. x0 ,
e
g : (0, + ) R, g ( x) = ln x + x, ,
.
4. R ( x 2 9) ln x > 0.
:
f : (0, + ) R, f ( x) = ( x 2 9) ln x, 1 3. f ,
(0, +), (0, 1), (1, 3),
(3, + ). 1 = 1 (0, 1), 2 = 2 (1, 3), 3 = 4 (3, + ) .
2
1
1
f (1 ) = 9 ln > 0, f ( 2 ) = ( 4 9) ln 2 < 0, f ( 3 ) = (16 9) ln 4 > 0.
4

2
: S = (0, 1) U (3, + ).

1. f : I R I. ,

f ( x), f ( x) < 0,
f ( x), f ( x) > 0,
f + : I R, f + ( x) =
f : I R, f ( x) =

0
,
f
(
x
)
0
,
0, f ( x) 0,

I. f + f , I = R :
) f ( x) = sin x;
) f ( x) = 1 + x 2 ;
) f ( x) = e x .
a) f ( x) = x;
2. , f : (a, b) R ((a, b) )
lim f ( x) = , lim f ( x) = ,
x b
x a
, R, f .
3. , f : (0, 2) R, f ( x) = 4 x x 2 ,
(0, 2), (0, 2), g : (0, 2) R,
g ( x) = [ x], . .
4. f : (a, b) R , (a, b).
5. f : [0, 1] R :
x, 0 x 1

2
1) f ( x) =
1
1
x , < x 1;
2
2

x 2 , 0 x 1

2
2) f ( x) =
1
x
, < x 1.
2
3
1
a) , f x = .
2
) f .
) , f
.

84

6. , f : R R:
1, x < 0
2, x 0

a) f ( x) = , x = 0
) f ( x) =
sin x
, x = 0,
lim
1, x > 0;
x 0
x
x = 0. f .
7. f : (0, 1) R ,
:
a) ;
) ;
) .
8. , f , f : R R:
x, x < 0,
a) f ( x) =
) f ( x) = [ x] x;
) f ( x) = sgn x.
1 + x, x 0;
9. R :
a) (| x | 3)(ln x + 4) < 0; ) ( x 2 + 3x 4)(2 x 2) < 0;

) ( x 3 + 2 x 2 4 x + 1)(lg x 10) > 0.

10. f : R R:
a) f ( x) = x( x a )( x b)( x c), a, b, c 0 < a < b < c;
) f ( x) = ( x 1)( x 2 + 3x 4)(e x + 4 1).
2
11. f : [1, 1] \ {0} R, f ( x) = , f (1) f (1) < 0 ,
x
f ( x) = 0 . ?

1. R, f : R R,
2
2
f ( x) = x 2x + , x 1 x0 = 1.
x + 3, x < 1,
2. , f : R R:
1 , x 1
2 x + 3, x 1
a) f ( x) =
) f ( x) = x 1
x 1, x > 1;
1, x = 1;

e x 2 , x 0

n
) f ( x) =
x
1 + , x < 0.

lim
n n
x
ae , x 0

3. f : R R, f ( x) = x + 1 b
, x > 0.

x 2n + x3
) f ( x) = lim 2 n
;
n x
+1

a, b R, b > 0, , f R.
4. f , g : R R f ( x) = g ( x), x Q.
, f ( x) = g ( x), x R.

85

1, x < 0

5. f : R R, f ( x) = 0, x = 0 g : R R, g ( x) = x 2 2 x + 1.
1, x > 0;
a) f g.
) f o g g o f .
) f o g g o f .
) f , g, f o g g o f .

6. , f : [0, + ) R :
a) f ( x) =

x2 + 5
;
2x2 + 1

) f ( x) = sin x 2 ;

) f ( x) = x + sin x;

) f ( x) =

arctgx.
2

1
, f (2) f (2) < 0 , x 1
f ( x) = 0 . ?

7. f : R \ {1} R, f ( x) =

8. , f ( x) = 0 :
1 3
a) f ( x) = x 3 + 8 x + 30, R; ) f ( x) = x 4 3x + 1, [0, 1]; ) f ( x) = ( x 2) sin x, , .
2 2
9. :
) ( x 2 16) ln x < 0;
) (| x | 1)(ln x + 2) > 0.
a) x 4 9 x 2 > 0;

: 90

1. I = [a, b] f : I R.
?
a) f , .
) f .
) f .
) f .
) f , f (a ) f (b) < 0, f ( x) = 0, x [a, b],
.
) f , f (a ) f (b) > 0 f ( x) = 0 .
, .
2. f : R R:
x 2 + 3, x (, 1)
sin x 2

x < 0
,
a) f ( x ) = 2 x
) f ( x) = 2 x 2, x [1, 2]
sin x, x 0;
x, x ( 2, + ).

3. , f , f : R R:

x
a) f ( x) = e , x 0
a, x = 0, a R;
2

2
) f ( x) = x sin x.

4. aR, f : R R,
x 2 + a 2 , x (, a]
x R.
f ( x) =
3x 1, x (a, +),
86

f
g

2. .
3. .

( g ( x) 0) .

f ( R ), f + g , f g ,

1. f g .

4. f I. f I
,
, { f ( x)}, .

3. ( xn ) n 1 ,
xn E , , xn x0 ,
f ( xn ) f ( x0 ) n .

2. > 0 > 0
, x E | x x0 | <
,
| f ( x ) f ( x0 ) | < ().

1. f ( x0 + 0) = f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 ).

x0
x

x0 O

3. - .
, ,
.

2. - .
f : [a, b] R [a, b]
f (a ) f (b) < 0.
c (a, b) , f (c) = 0.

f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 0)
x0 .
x0
,
f ( x0 + 0), f ( x0 0)
.

f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 ).

f
x0 E , x0 .
x0
f ,
f x0
,
f ( x0 0) f ( x0 + 0)

f ( x0 )

1. . ,
,

x0

f ( x0 )

f : E R
E,
x E .

f ( x0 )

x x0

f : E R ( E R )
/ x 0 E ,
/
x0 f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 ) ( f ( x0 + 0) = f ( x0 ) ).

f : E R ( E R) x 0 E , lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ).

f : E R ( E R ) x0 E ,
:

()

87

, , , * ;
; ;

;
* ;
;
,
.

(
,
.), (
,
, .), ( ), .
,
,

. ,
. .
. 1 .. 2.
, , .
1
2

(16421727) , .
(16461716) .

88

1.1.
f : I R I R, x0 I , x
x0 .
. x x0 x0 .
: x x0 = x.
. f ( x ) f ( x0 ) f
x0 , x.
: f ( x ) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) f ( x ) f ( x0 ) = f .
x x0 = x , x = x0 + x.
f ( x ) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ).

f : R R, f ( x) = 2 x. x f , x0 = 1 :
a) x = 1,5;
) x = 0,9.
:
a) x = x x0 = 1,5 1 = 0,5;

f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = f (1,5) f (1) = 2 1,5 2 1 = 1;


) x = x x0 = 0,9 1 = 0,1;

f ( x0 ) = f ( x ) f ( x0 ) = 2 0,9 2 1 = 0,2.

. ,
, .

f ( x 0 + x )

x
f ( x0 ) 4.1.

f ( x0 )

Gf

f ( x 0 )

A
x

x0

x 0 + x

. 4.1

1.2. ,
, (
) ( )
.
. . . .
89

1.2.1. ( )
I f : I R .
. ,
, .
Gf = {( x, f ( x)) x I } f ,
y = f (x) (. 4.2). x0 I , A( x0 , f ( x0 )) Gf , B( x0 + x, f ( x0 + x)) Gf
AB ( Gf ), Ox . B
Gf A, x 0, AB
(AB1, AB2, ..., AT).
, AT
f
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) ,
(
) AB x 0
(. 4.2).
f
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) , .

y
B

f ( x 0 + x )

B1
f ( x 0 )

f ( x0 )

Gf

B2

T
C

x0

x 0 + x

. 4.2

!
m y = mx + b ,
Ox.
ACB ( m(C ) = 90) (. 4.2) m(x) AB:

m( x) = tg ( x) =

BC f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
.
=
=
AC
x
x

(1)

(1) x 0 :
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
lim m(x) = lim tg ( x) = lim
.
x 0
x 0
x 0
x
( )
f ( x0 , f ( x0 )). ,

lim tg ( x) = lim

x 0

x 0

f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
= tg = m.
x

(2)

, f
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) (2).

90

1.2.2.
l
,
l
s = s(t), s(t) , s (t 0 )
s (t )
t.
.
4.3
, , t (. 4.3).
( ),
s (t1 ) s (t 0 )
t 0 , t1 (t1 t 0 )

t1 t 0
.
,
s (t ) s (t 0 )
(3) . t0 .
t t0
[t 0 , t ],
t 0 t1 .
,
. , t t 0 , t t 0 ,
,
t0.
, v (t 0 ) t0 ( ), (3)
t t 0 , :
s (t ) s (t 0 )
s
= lim .
v(t 0 ) = lim
(4)
0
t t 0
t

t
t t0
, v(t)
t, a (t 0 ) t 0
( ), (4)
t t 0 , :
v(t ) v(t0 )
v
a(t0 ) = lim
= lim .
(5)
t t 0
t 0 t
t t0

, ,
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
lim
.
(6)
x 0
x

1.3.
. I R , x0 I f : I R. f : I R
. , f x0,
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
.
lim
x 0
x
f x0 f ( x0 ).
91

, , , f
x0 .

f ( x0 ) = lim

x 0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
.
f ( x0 ) = xlim
x

x x0
0
x

(7)

f ( x0 ) : x0.
. 1. (7) ,
f x0 .
2. , ,
. , , , * ,
.
3. I (
- ).
! 1. ( (4) (5)),
, :
a) v (t 0 ) = s (t 0 ) t0
t 0 ;
) a (t 0 ) = v(t 0 ) t0
t 0 .
2. v (t ) = s (t ) a (t ) = v(t ) ()
: () s t v,
v t a .
. , f : I R ( I R) M ( M I ),
M.
f : M R,
x M f (x ), f
M.
f .

dy d f d
( f ), y , f ,
,
,
. f :
dx d x d x
y = f (x).

, f : R R R ,
, :
a) f ( x) = 2 x;
) f ( x) = x 2 .

92

:
a) , f ( x) = 2 x ,
2 ( x 0 + x ) 2 x 0
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
= lim
=2
R, lim
x 0
x 0
x
x
x0 R. , f ( x ) = ( 2 x ) = 2 x R.
) , f ( x) = x 2 ,

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
( x + x) 2 x02
= lim 0
=
x 0
x 0
x
x
2
2 x x + (x)
= lim 0
= lim (2 x0 + x) = 2 x0 x0 R. ,
x 0
x 0
x
2

( x ) = 2 x x R.

R, lim

, f : I R :
x x x0 , x0 + x I .
f x0 : f = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ).
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
f
.
=

x
x
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
= f ( x0 ).
: lim
x 0
x
f x0 .
f I.
. f : I R . , f ,
f .
: D f . , D f I .
. , f ,
, .

1.4.
1 (
). ,
.

f: D R x0 D , x0 , f ,
(6) .
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
x, x 0, x D, f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) =
x
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
lim x = f ( x0 ) 0 = 0.
, lim[ f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )] = lim
x 0
x 0
x 0
x
, lim[ f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )] = 0, lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ), ,
x 0

x x0

f x0.
93

. ,
G
f : R R, f ( x) = | x |, x0 = 0, (. 4.4).
,
O
x
f ( x) f (0) | x |
x0 = 0.
=
. 4.4
x0
x
f x0 :
| x|
| x|
x
x
lim
= lim
= 1, lim
= lim = 1.
x x0 0 x
x x0 0 x
x x0 + 0 x
x x0 + 0 x
f ( x ) f ( 0)
| x|
| x|
lim

lim
, ,
x x0 0 x
x x0 + 0 x
x0
x0 = 0 . , f x0 = 0,
f

1.5.
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
.

x x0

f ( x) f ( x0 )
x x0 0
x x0
( ), , f x0 f ( x0 ).
. f : I R (I ) x0 I . lim

: f ( x0 ) = lim f ( x) f ( x0 ) .
x x0 0
x x0

(8)

f ( x) f ( x0 )
x x0
( ), , f x0 f ( x0 ).
. f : I R (I ) x0 I . lim

x x0 + 0

: f ( x0 ) = lim f ( x) f ( x0 ) .
x x0 + 0
x x0

(9)

. f : I R
( ) x0 I , (8)
( (9)) .
, f : R R, f ( x) = | x |,
x0 = 0 : f (0) = 1, f (0) = 1.
,
.
94


.
2. I R , x0 I . f : I R
x0 , x0
f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ). f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ).
2 2 2, 1.3.
. f : [a, b] R .
, b .
a b.

1. f ( x) = | x | f (0) = 1 f (0) = 1. f (0) f (0),


f x0 = 0.
2. f : R R, f ( x ) = 2 | x 1 | , x0 = 1,
, . !
x, 0 x < 1,
3. f : [0, 1] R, f ( x) = 0, x = 1.
f (0) = 1,

f (1), f x = 1.


A
1
1. f : R R, f ( x) = x2, x0 = ,
2
) x = 0,7;
) x = 3;
) x = 4,2.
: a) x = 2;
2. D f :
1
a) f : R R, f ( x) = ;
2
) f : R R, f ( x) = 3x 2 ;

) f : R R, f ( x) = 3 x 1;
) f : R R, f ( x) =

1
.
x

1
f (1), f (0), f , f (10), :
2
) f : R R, f ( x) = 2 x + 3.

3. , ,
a) f : R R, f ( x) = 0,5 x;

4. , (1, 3) :
1
) 1 3;
) 0
a) 1 3;
.
3
,
.

5. f : D R:
a) f ( x) = | x 2 |, x0 = 2;

) f ( x) = | x 2 4 |, x0 = 2, x1 = 2;

) f ( x) = x 1, x0 = 1.
95

6. f : D R:
1
a) f ( x) = x + | x |, x0 = 0, x1 = 2;
) f ( x) = x , x0 = 1, x1 = 1;
x
) f ( x) = 2 x 1, x0 = 0,5, x1 = 1;
) f ( x) = 1 x , x0 = 1, x1 = 0.
7. , x0 = 0, f : D R:
a) f ( x) = | sin x |;
) f ( x) = | cos x |;
) f ( x) =
8. :

2
;
| x + 1|

x 2 , x 0,
) f ( x) = 2
2 x + x, x > 0.

x m sin 1 , x 0,
a) m N , f : R R, f ( x) =
x0 = 0;
x
0, x = 0,
xn cos 1 , x 0,
) n N* , f : R R, f ( x) =
x0 = 0.
x
0, x = 0,

2 ln x, 0 < x e,
9. m, n R, f : (0, +) R, f ( x) =
mx + n, x > e,
x (0, + ).

2.1.
f : I R ( I R) x0 I G f
(. 4.5).
.
3. f x0 ,
()
( x0 , f ( x0 )), f ( x0 ).

y
Gf

f ( x 0 + x )

T
f ( x0 )

A
(x)

x0

C
x 0 + x

. 4.5

4. ( x0 , f ( x0 )) f , f x0 ,
m f x0 ( m = f ( x0 )).
f , x0,
3 4: f x0
() ( x0 , f ( x0 ))
f , f ( x0 ).
96

: x0
f , ( x0 , f ( x0 )), m
f ( x0 ), m = f ( x0 ) = tg .
f
( x0 , f ( x0 )) . , , f ( x0 ),
: y = f ( x0 ) x + b, b.
( x0 , f ( x0 )), f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) x0 + b, b = f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) x0 .
, x0 f ,
:

y = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 ) .

(*)


1. f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 ,
x0 = 2.
:

f ( x) = ( x 2 ) = 2 x. f ( x0 ) = 2 2 = 4, f ( x0 ) = 2 2 = 4.
(*), y = 4 + 4 ( x 2) y = 4 x 4 .
. f ( x0 ) = ( f ( x0 ) = + f ( x0 ) = ),
( x0 , f ( x0 )) Gf x0 f Oy,
: x = x0 .
f ( x0 ) = ,
f ( x0 ) = + ,
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) Gf
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) Gf
, 4.6:
, 4.7:
y

Gf

Gf

A( x0 , f ( x0 ))

x0

. 4.6

A( x0 , f ( x0 ))

x0

. 4.7

2. f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 . , Gf x0 Ox,
1
: a) x0 = 0; ) x0 = .
2
:
m = tg = f ( x0 ),
, Gf x0
Ox, :
1
1

a) tg = f (0) = 2 0 = 0, , = 0; ) tg = f = 2 = 1, , = .
2
2
4

97

2.2.
()
f x0 , f
x0. x0,
, .
f : I R , x0 I ( I )
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) G f .
x0 I f .
I. f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ), f ( x0 ), f ( x0 ) R. f
x0 Gf A( x0 , f ( x0 )) ,
y = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) ( x x0 ).
a) y
Gf

II. a) f ( x0 ) = , f ( x0 ) = +. Gf A( x0 , f ( x0 )) ,
Ox

()
(),
2
2

f ( x ) f ( x0 ), x V ( x0 ) (. 4.8 a)).

) f ( x0 ) = + , f ( x0 ) = . Gf
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) , Ox

()
(),
2
2

f ( x) f ( x0 ), x V ( x0 ) (. 4.8 )).

f ( x0 )

x0

) y
A

f ( x0 )

Gf

f ( x0 ), f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ), A( x0 , f ( x0 ))
Gf (. 4.8).

x0

. 4.8

III. a) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = +. Gf A( x0 , f ( x0 ))
, x = x0 (. 4.6);
) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = . Gf A( x0 , f ( x0 ))
, x = x0 (. 4.7).
IV. f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) .
Gf A( x0 , f ( x0 )) (. 4.9):
f ( x0 ) R

f ( x ) = +
f ( x ) R
) 0
) f ( x0 ) R
a) 0

f
x
(
)
R

f
x
(
)
0
0
f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
y

Gf

f ( x0 )

x0

Gf

O
. 4.9

98

f ( x0 )

x0

f ( x0 )

Gf

x0

f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) ,
A( x0 , f ( x0 )) Gf (. 4.9).
. , , f (. 4.8), (0, ) (. 4.9).
.
f x 0 .

1. f : R R, f ( x ) = | x 1 |. ,
x0 = 1 f .
:
f (1) = lim

x 1 0

f (1) = lim

x 1+ 0

( x 1) 0
( x 1)
1
= lim
= lim
=
2
x
1
0
x
1
0

x 1
( x 1)
( ( x 1) )

1
x 1 0
x 1
= lim
= lim
= +, x0 = 1
x 1+ 0
x 1
( x 1) 2 x 1+ 0 x 1

Gf .

2 sin x, x 0,
,
3
x , x > 0.
x0 = 0 Gf , Gf .

2. f : R R, f ( x) =

f (0) = lim

x 0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
x3 0
2 sin x 0
= lim x 2 = 0.
= lim
= 2, f (0) = lim
x +0 x 0
x +0
x 0
x x0
x0

, f (0) f (0), f (0), f (0) R , ,


x0 = 0 Gf .
, f (0) = 2 f (0) = 0
y
, (. 4.10):

1
O 1 y=0 x
1

2x

2) y = f (0) + f (0)( x 0) y = 0 + 0 ( x 0);


,
x0 y = 0, x [0, + ).

Gf

y=

1) y = f (0) + f (0)( x 0) y = 0 + 2( x 0);


,
x0 y = 2x, x (, 0];

. 4.10

99


A
1. , ,
f , :
y
y
y
Gf

Gf

Gf
x0 O

a)

x1

x0

x1

x0 O x1

x2

2. , x0 = 3 x1 = 5.
3. ( ), f : R R:
3
a) f ( x) = x , x0 = 1;
) f ( x) = 2 x 2 1, x0 = 0;
) f ( x) = 2 x 2 , x0 = 2.
4. , f
x0 Ox:

3 2
x , x 0 = 1.
2
5. ,
) y = 2.
x0 = 1 : a) y = 0;
a) f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 , x0 = 0;

) f : R R, f ( x) =

6. f :
a) f : R R, f ( x) = | x 2 9 |, x0 = 3, x1 = 3;
) f : (0, + ) R , f ( x) = | lg x 1 |, x0 = 10.
7. ,
:
a) f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x + 1, : 1) x0 = 0,5, 2) x0 = 2, 3) x0 = 5;

, 2) x0 = , 3) x0 = .
4
3
6
8. a) f , g , h: R R ,
x , x 0,
x 2 , x 0,
f ( x) = 2
g ( x) = 2
h( x) = | x 2 9 |:

<
x
x
x
2
,
0
,

,
0
,
x
x
<

) f : R [ 1, 1], f ( x) = sin x, : 1) x0 =

1) , ;
2) , .

) .
9. , f x0 ,
Ox:
a) f : R R, f ( x) = 3x x 2 : 1) x0 = 0, 2) x0 = 1;
3
) f : R R, f ( x) = + 1: 1) x0 = 3, 2) x0 = 1.
x
100

10. b, c R, , (1, 2)
f ( x) = x 2 + bx + c y = 2x.
11. , :
a) ;
) .

. f : R*+ R, f ( x) = x
f .

lg 5 x.

f , ,
.

3.1.
5. f : R R , f ( x) = c, c R. f
R f ( x ) = 0, x R.

x 0 R.
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
cc
= 0.
= lim
f ( x0 ) = lim
x
0
x 0

x
x
x 0 , f
R f ( x ) = 0, x R.
: c = 0, x R.

(1)

f : R R , f ( x) = 2 014, ( 2 014 ) = 0.
. f ( x0 ) ( f ( x0 )), 0,
.

3.2.
6. f : R R, f ( x) = x. f R f ( x ) = 1, x R.

x 0 R.
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
x x0
= lim
= 1.
f ( x0 ) = lim
x 0
x 0 x x
x
0
x 0 , f
R f ( x ) = 1, x R.
: x = 1.

(2)
101

3.3.
7. f : (0, +) R, f ( x) = x , R. f (0, +) f ( x) = x 1 , x (0, + ).
: ( x ) = x 1 , x (0, +).

f ( x) = x

(3)
(3)

, 1, x [0, +).

. 1. 1 f : [0, +) R, f ( x) = x ,
x0 = 0.
2. f : R R , f ( x) = x n , n N, n 2, R
f ( x) = nx n 1 , x R.
3. (3), :
1

( n x ) = ( x n ) =
4. (

2 n +1

x ) =

n 1

1 1n 1 1 1nn 1
x = x = x
n
n
n

1
(2n + 1)

2 n +1

2n

1
n x n 1
n

, x (0, + ).

, x R .

5. , f ( x) = n x , n N, n 2,
x0 = 0 ( 0 ).

:
) ( x );

a) ( x 2 );

) (3 x ).

:
a) ( x 2 ) = 2 x

2 1

1 12 1
1
x =
, x (0, +);
2
2 x

1 13 1
1
, x (0, + ).
x =
3
3
3 x2

) ( x ) = ( x 2 ) =
) (3 x ) = ( x 3 ) =

(3 x ) =

1
3 x2

: ( x ) =

x (, 0).

1
, x (0, +).
2 x

(4)

f : D R, f ( x) = n x , n N, n 2, :

( n x ) =

102

1
n x n 1
n

, x D \ {0} .

(5)

3.4.
8. f : R [1, 1], f ( x) = sin x. f
R f ( x) = (sin x) = cos x, x R.

x0 R. lim

x 0

sin( x0 + x) sin x0
=
x

x
x
x
cos x0 +
sin
2
2

2 lim cos x + x = cos x .


= lim
= lim
0 2
0
x 0
x 0
x x 0
x

2
x 0 , f
R f ( x ) = cos x, x R.
2 sin

: (sin x ) = cos x, x R.

(6)

3.5.
9. f : R [ 1, 1], f ( x) = cos x. R (cos x ) = sin x, x R.
: (cos x ) = sin x, x R.

(7)

. 9.

3.6.
10. f : R (0, +), f ( x) = a x , a > 0, a 1. f R (a x ) = a x ln a, x R.
: (a x ) = a x ln a, a > 0, a 1, x R.

(8)

. (8), (e x ) = e x ln e = e x , x R.
: (e x ) = e x , x R.
: a) (2 x ) = 2 x ln 2;

(8)

) ((0,3) x ) = (0,3) x ln 0,3.

3.7.
11. f : (0, +) R, f ( x) = ln x. f
1
(0, +) (ln x) = , x (0, +).
x

103

: (ln x) =

1
, x (0, +).
x

(9)

. 11.
12. f : (0, +) R, f ( x ) = log a x, a > 0, a 1. f 1
(0, +) (loga x) =
, a > 0, a 1, x (0, +).
x ln a
: (log a x) =

1
, a > 0, a 1, x (0, +).
x ln a

(10)

. 12.
. , log a x =
(9).
: a) (log 2 x) =

1
;
x ln 2

) (lg x) =

ln x
ln a

1
.
x ln 10


A
1. f D f :
) f : R + R, f ( x) = x 7 ;

a) f : R R, f ( x) = x 8 ;
) f : R + R, f ( x) = 4 x ;

1
) f : R (0, +), f ( x) = ;

2
) f : (0, +) R, f ( x) = log 1 x;

) f : R (0, +), f ( x) = 3 x ;
) f : (0, +) R, f ( x ) = log 3 x;
) f : R R, f ( x) = 5 x .

2. f : D R x0 :
1
a) f ( x ) = log 7 x, x0 = 7;
) f ( x) = lg x, x0 = ;
) f ( x) = x 2 , x0 = 60;
10
) f ( x) = x , x0 = 49;
) f ( x) = 2x , x0 = 5;
) f ( x) = 25, x0 = 64.
3. f : D R x0 :
a) f ( x) = 3 x , x0 = 1;

) f ( x) = 2 x , x0 = 0;

) f ( x ) = log 8 x, x0 = 2;

) f ( x) = x 5 , x0 = 1.

4. f D f :
a) f : [0, +) R, f ( x) = x x ;

) f : R R, f ( x ) = x 3 5 x 2 .

5. f D f , f : D R:
a) f ( x) = 7 x ;
104

) f ( x ) = | x | ;

) f ( x) = log 0, 4 ( x 2 );

) f ( x) = 2|x|.

6. f : D R :

;
2
3 x, x 0, x = 0.
) f ( x ) =
0
2 x, x > 0,
a) f ( x) = | cos x |, x0 =

) f ( x) = | 2 x |, x0 = 0;

7. f : D R x0 :

;
3
) f ( x) = 2,5 x , x0 = 1.

a) f ( x) = 7 x 2 , x0 = 3;

) f ( x) = sin x, x0 =

) f ( x) = log 27 ( x 3 ), x0 = 27;

mx + n, x < 0,
8. f : R R, f ( x ) =

sin x, x 0.
m n, f x0 = 0.
9. , . 6, 7, 8.

4.1. ,
. f , g : R R, f ( x) = x3 , g ( x) = e x , c R. :
) (c f );
) ( f g );
a) ( f + g );

f
;
g

) ( f g );

) (( f o g )).

.
13. f , g: I R ( I R)
x0 I , f + g x 0
( f + g )( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ).

( f + g )( x0 ) = lim

x 0

= lim

x 0

( f + g )( x0 + x) ( f + g )( x0 )
=
x

f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
g ( x 0 + x ) g ( x 0 )
= f ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ).
+ lim
x 0
x
x

. f g I,

f + g

( f + g ) = f + g .

(1)

h: R R, h( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x 3 + e x , (1),
:

( x 3 + e x ) = ( x 3 ) + (e x ) = 3x 2 + e x .
105

. ,
f1 + f 2 + ... + f n I

n

k =1

k =1

( f k ) = f k.

(1)

. (1) .
14. f : I R ( I R) x0 I
c R, c f x 0 (c f )( x0 ) = c f ( x0 ).
. 14.
. 1. f I c R, c f (c f ) = c f .

(2)

h: R R, h( x) = 3 e x , ( 3 e x ) = 3 (e x ) = 3e x .
2. c = 1 ( f ) = f .
3. f , g I, f g
( f g ) = f g .

(3)

h: R R, h( x) = x 3 e x , :

( x 3 e x ) = ( x 3 ) (e x ) = 3x 2 e x .
15. f , g: I R ( I R)
x0 I , f g : I R x 0
( f g )( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ).

x0 I . g x0 , x0 ,
lim g( x) = g( x0 ).
xx0

( f g )( x0 ) = lim

x 0

= lim

x 0

f ( x0 + x) g ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
=
x

f ( x 0 + x ) g ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 ) g ( x 0 + x ) + f ( x 0 ) g ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 ) g ( x 0 )
=
x

g ( x0 + x) g ( x0 )
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
= lim
g ( x0 + x) + f ( x0 )
=
x 0
x
x

= f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ).
106

. f g I, f g

( f g ) = f g + f g .

(4)

h: R R, h( x) = f ( x) g ( x) = x 3 e x , :

( x 3 e x ) = ( x 3 ) e x + x 3 (e x ) = 3x 2 e x + x 3e x = x 2 e x (3 + x).
. ,
f1 f 2 ... f n n I
( f1 f 2 ... f n ) = f1 f 2 ... f n + f1 f 2 ... f n + ... + f1 f 2 ... f n.
16. f , g : I R ( I R)

f
x 0
g
f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
f
.
( x0 ) =
g 2 ( x0 )
g

x0 I g ( x0 ) 0,

g g ( x0 ) 0, V ( x0 ),
g ( x) 0 x V ( x0 ). x , x0 + x V ( x0 ).
f
f
( x0 + x) ( x0 )

f ( x0 + x) g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 + x)
f
g
g
=
= lim
( x0 ) = lim
x 0
x 0
g
x
g ( x0 + x) g ( x0 )x

= lim

x 0

g ( x0 + x) g ( x0 )
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
1
lim
g ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
=
g ( x0 + x) g ( x0 ) x 0
x
x

f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
1
( f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )) =
g ( x0 )
g 2 ( x0 )
2

( lim g ( x0 + x) = g ( x0 ), g x0 ).
x 0

. 1. f , g I g ( x) 0
f
x I ,

g

f f g f g
.
=
g2
g
2. f = 1 (5) :

g
1
= 2
g
g

(5)

(6)

107


h: D R, h( x) =
:

x3
.
ex

x 3 ( x 3 ) e x x 3 (e x ) 3 x 2 e x x 3 e x x 2 e x (3 x) x 2 (3 x)
h( x) = x =
.
=
=
=
e2x
e2x
e2x
ex
e

4.2.

17. f : R \ + k | k Z R, f ( x) = tg x. f 2

R \
, x R \ + k k Z.
2 + k | k Z f ( x) =
2
cos x

sin x (sin x) cos x sin x (cos x) cos 2 x + sin 2 x


f ( x) = ( tg x) =
=
=
=
cos 2 x
cos 2 x
cos x

1
, x R \ + k | k Z.
2
cos x

2
: ( tg x) =

1
, x R \ + k | k Z .
cos 2 x
2

(7)

18. f : R \ {k | k Z} R, f ( x) = ctg x. f R \ {k | k Z} f ( x) =
: (ctg x ) =

1
, x R \ {k | k Z}.
sin 2 x

1
, x R \ {k | k Z}.
sin 2 x

(8)

. 18.

4.3.
19. f : I1 I 2 , g : I 2 R , I 1 , I 2 .
f x0 I 1 , g
y0 = f ( x0 ) I 2 , h = g o f : I1 R
x0 I1 h( x0 ) = g ( f ( x0 )) f ( x0 ).
:

( g ( f ( x ))) = g ( f ( x )) f ( x), x I
108

(9)

. f : I 1 I 2 , g : I 2 I 3 , h: I 3 R ,
p ( x ): I1 R , p ( x) = ( h o g o f )( x)
x I1
(10)
p ( x ) = h(g ( f ( x )) ) g ( f ( x )) f ( x ) .

:
a) h: D R, h( x) = 23x ;
) p : D R, p ( x ) = log 2 cos 2 x.
:
a) (23 x ) = 23 x ln 2 (3x) = ln 8 23 x.
) (log 2 cos 2 x) = log2 (cos 2 x) cos( 2 x) ( 2 x) =

2 tg 2 x
2 sin 2 x
.
=
cos 2 x ln 2
ln2

1
( sin 2 x) 2 =
cos 2 x ln 2

4.4.
20. f : I J ( I , J R) .
f x0 I f ( x0 ) 0,
f 1: J I , J = f (I ) , y 0 = f ( x0 )

( f 1 )( y0 ) =

1
.
f ( x0 )

. f : I J
I, f (x ) 0, x I . , f 1: J I
J

( f 1 ( y )) =

1
, y J , y = f (x) .

f ( x)

(11)


1.

f : , [1, 1] , f ( x) = sin x. ( f 1 ) .
2 2
:

x0 , (sin)( x0 ) = cos x0 0
2 2
20. , f 1 = arcsin y 0 ( 1, 1).
y 0 = sin x0 . arcsin y0 = x0 . (11) :
1
1
1
=
=
(arcsin)( y0 ) =
, y0 ( 1, 1).
2
cos x0
1 sin x0
1 y02
, :

(arcsin x) =

1
1 x2

, x ( 1, 1) .

(12)
109

2.
f : [0, ] [ 1, 1], f ( x) = cos x. ( f 1 ).
:

arccos x + arcsin x = , :
2
1
(arccos x) =
, x ( 1, 1) .
(13)
1 x2
3.

f : , R, f ( x) = tg x. ( f 1 ) .
2 2
:

1
x0 , (tg) ( x0 ) =
0 20
2
2
2
cos
x0

f 1 = arctg y 0 R , y 0 = tg x0 .
1
1
1
1
.
=
= cos 2 x0 =
=
(arctg)( y0 ) =
1
f ( x0 )
1 + tg 2 x0 1 + y02
cos 2 x0
, :

(arctg x) =

1
, x R
1 + x2

(14)

4.
f : (0, ) R, f ( x) = ctg x. ( f 1 ) .
:

arcctg x + arctg x = , :
2
1
(15)
(arcctg x) =
, x R .
1 + x2

4.5. f(x) = u(x)v(x), u(x) > 0


f : I R, f ( x) = u ( x) v ( x ) , u ( x) > 0, x I , I R.
, , ,
(3), (8) 3.
:
v( x)
f ( x ) = u ( x ) v ( x ) = e ln u ( x ) = e v ( x ) ln u ( x ) .
f : D R, f ( x) = e v ( x ) ln u ( x ) . :
f ( x) = (ev ( x ) ln u ( x ) ) = ev ( x ) ln u ( x ) (v( x) ln u( x)) = u( x) v ( x ) (v( x) ln u( x)) = f ( x) (ln f ( x)). (16)
f ( x) = u ( x) v ( x ) ,
u ( x) > 0:
u
(17)
(u v ) = u v v ln u + v .
u

110


:
a) f : R*+ R *+ , f ( x) = x x ; ) f : R *+ R, f ( x) = x
3).
:
a) (16) f ( x ) = f ( x ) (ln f ( x )).
, ( x x ) = x x (ln x x ) = x x ( x ln x) = x x (ln x + 1).
) f ( x) = ( x

lg 5 x) = ( x x ) lg 5 x + x

lg 5 x (.

(lg 5 x).

g : D R, g ( x) = x .
x

(17) (ln u v ) = (v ln u ) = v ln u + v

(2 + ln x) x x
1
(ln x x ) = x ( x x ), ( x x ) =
.
x
2 x
( 2 + ln x) x x lg 5 x
x x
+
= 0,5( 2 + ln x) x
f ( x) =
x ln 10
2 x

x 0,5

lg 5 x + x

x 1

lg e.

4.6.
f : I R I . f (x )
, , x, f , ,
x. ,
f .

f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 e x .
:

f ( x) = ( x 2 e x ) = 2 xe x + x 2 e x .
( f ( x)) = (2 xe x + x 2 e x ) = 2e x + 2 xe x + 2 xe x + x 2 e x = e x ( x 2 + 4 x + 2).
. f : I R . , f x 0 I , f
x0 f x0 .
f x0
( ) f x0 f ( x0 ).
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
.
, f ( x0 ) = ( f )( x0 ) = lim
x 0
x
. f I,
, f I.

1. f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 3x 2 + 5, : f ( x) = 3x 2 6 x,

f ( x) = 6 x 6.

2. g: R R, g ( x) = cos x, : g ( x ) = sin x, g ( x ) = cos x.


111

( ) f x 0 . : f ( x0 ) .
*
n- , n N , n 2, f
dn f
.
x 0 . : f ( n ) ( x0 ) = ( f ( n 1) )( x0 ). f ( n ) ( x)
dx n
. 1. , , ,
( ,
).
2. , f f , f ( 0 ) = f .

1. f : R R, f ( x) = sin x, : f ( x ) = cos x, f ( x ) = sin x,


IV
f ( x ) = cos x, f ( x) = sin x.

(n)
: (sin x) = sin x +

n
, n N.
2

2. : (cos x) ( n ) = cos x +

n
, n N.
2

3. g: R R, g ( x) = e x , : g ( x) = e x , g ( x) = e x , g ( x) = e x .
: (e x ) ( n ) = e x , n N.

, .
:
a + x n, n N* , :
(18)
(a + x) n = A0 + A1 x + A2 x 2 + A3 x 3 + ... + An x n , x R,
A0 , A1 , A2 , A3 , ..., An , .
A0 , x = 0 (18) :
A0 = a n .
(19)
A1 (18) :
((a + x) n ) = ( A0 + A1 x + A2 x 2 + A3 x 3 + ... + An x n ),
(20)
n(a + x) n 1 = A1 + 2 A2 x + 3 A3 x 2 + ... + nAn x n 1 .
n 1

x = 0 (20), n a = A1 .
n a n 1
.
A1 =
1
(20) x = 0
, A2 (!):
n( n 1) n 2 n( n 1) n 2
A2 =
a =
a .
2
1 2
, : A3 , A4 , ..., An . 112

k ( k N* , k n) (18) x = 0 nk
, : n(n 1)(n 2) ... (n k + 1)a = 1 2 ... k Ak .

n( n 1)(n 2) ... ( n k + 1) n k
Ak =
a .
1 2 ... k

n( n 1)(n 2) ... ( n k + 1)

1 2 ... k
, Cnk .
n(n 1)(n 2) ... (n k + 1)
n!
=
.
, Ak = Cnk a nk , Cnk =
1 2 ... k
k!(n k )!
,

(a + x) n = a n + Cn1 a n 1 x + Cn2 a n 2 x 2 + ... + Cnk a n k x k + ... + x n .

(21)

, ,
(21).


A
1. f f : D R:
a) f ( x) = 5 x 6 ;
) f ( x) = e x ;
) f ( x) = x 5 x ;
3

) f ( x) = 0,5 log 1 x;

) f ( x) = 7 x 3x + 2;
2

) f ( x ) = 2 log 5 x + 2 010.

2. D f , f D f f : Df R:
a) f ( x) = x + x ;
) f ( x) = 3 x log 1 x;
5

) f ( x) = log3 x + x 5 ;
) f ( x) =

x +1
;
x 1
2

) f ( x) = xe x ;
) f ( x) =

x
;
x3 + 2x

) f ( x) = x ln x;
) f ( x) =

x
;
ln x

ex
) f ( x ) = 2 x 2 x ;
) f ( x) = 4 log 2 2 x.
;
x3
3. f x0 , :
x 1
a) f : R R, f ( x) = 2 , x0 = 2 ;
) f : (0, +) R, f ( x) = x log 5 2 x, x0 = 0,25.
x
1
4. s (t ) = t 3 + 3t 2 + 7t , s ,
3
, t , . :
a) ;
) t = 2 ;
) .
) f ( x ) =

5. , s1 (t ) = 6t 2 + 4t s2 (t ) = t 3 + 3t 2 + 6t , s , , t , .
a) , .
) .
) .
) ,
.
113

6. f f : D R:

5
a) f ( x) = x 25 x + cos x; ) f ( x ) = sin x + log 0 , 3 x 5 x ;
) f ( x) = 5 ln x + 3 x 2 ;
x
1
) f ( x) = 6 2 x + 7e x x 9 ; ) f ( x) = 5 cos x 7 sin x 4 ln x; ) f ( x) = 54 x sin x;
3
) f ( x) = 8 x 3 ln x;
) f ( x) = 6 0,6 x 5 log3 x;
) f ( x) = 5 ln( x 2 3x);

cos(3 x 2 1)
.
ln 2 x
7. f : D R x0 :
2

a) f ( x) = cos 2 2 x, x0 = ;
) f ( x) = lg 2 (3x 1), x0 = ;
) f ( x) = x x + 2 , x0 = 1.
3
3
) f ( x) = 2 log 35 tg x;

) f ( x) = 63 x sin 2 4 x;

) f ( x) =

e 2 x , x (, 0),
8. f : R R, f ( x) = 2
ax + bx + c, x [0, +) .
a, b c, f x0 = 0.

9. f : R R, :
a) f ( x ) = 2 cos x;

) f ( x) = 2e 2 x ;

) f ( x ) = 2 sin 2 x.

10. R f ( x ) = 0, :
a) f ( x) = 2 sin 2 x + 2 x;

) f ( x) = cos 2 x 3 x.

11. R f ( x ) > 0, :
) f ( x) = 3 x + cos(6 x ).

a) f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 3x;
12. f f : D R:
a) f ( x) = 2 x 3 5 x 2 6;

) f ( x) = 2 sin 3 x;

) f ( x) = 5e 2 x ;

) f ( x) = 3 x ;

) f ( x) = ln x;

x
) f ( x) = arccos ;
3

) f ( x) =

x 1
;
x +1

) f ( x) =

32 x
;
( x 1) 2

) f ( x) = ( x ) x 1 .


13. f ( x ) 5 f ( x ) + 3 f ( x ) , f : R , , f ( x) = arctg x.
2 2
14. s (t ) = t . , .
15. F, m,
s (t ) = 4t 3 t 2 , m , s
t .
16. f ( 5) (0), f ( x) = e 2 x x 3 .
17. , Cn1 + 2Cn2 + 3Cn3 + ... + nCnn , Cnk , k {1, 2, ..., n},
.
18. :

( f g ) ( n ) = Cn0 f ( n ) g ( 0 ) + Cn1 f ( n 1) g (1) + ... + Cnn 1 f (1) g ( n 1) + Cnn f ( 0 ) g ( n ) .


114

f : I R ( I R) I x0 I .
, ,
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
.
f ( x0 ) = lim
(1)
x 0
x
(1) ,
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
= f ( x0 ) + ( x),
(2)
x
lim (x) = 0. (2) ,
x 0

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) x + ( x ) x ,
f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) x + ( x ) x.

(3)

(3) , f ( x0 ) f x0
: f ( x0 ) x, , (x) x, (x) 0 x 0.
. g : R R, g ( x ) = f ( x0 ) x,
f x0 d f ( x0 ).
,

d f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) x .

(4)


f : R R, f ( x) = x.
:
f ( x0 ) = 1, d x = x. (4), d f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) d x .
. f I, :

d f ( x ) = f ( x ) d x, x I

(5)

1. f : R [1, 1], f ( x) = sin x, :


d f ( x ) = d (sin x) = (sin x )d x = cos x d x.

1
dx
dx =
.
x ln 8
x ln 8
f , x0 ,
2. g: (0, +) R, g ( x ) = log 8 x, d f ( x) =

4.11. A( x0 , f ( x0 )) Gf .
BC
(. ABC , m(B) = 90).
x = AB, tg = f ( x0 ) =
AB
BC = f ( x0 ) AB , BC = f ( x0 ) x = d f ( x0 ).

115


f x0 : f ( x0 )
f (x
f
( x0 , f ( x0 )) , x
, d f ( x0 )
( x0 , f ( x0 )) Gf ,
Gf
x f (. 4.11).
(3) (4)
:
(6)
f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 ) d f ( x 0 ) ,
BD BC .
(6) :
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) x.

+ x )

f ( x 0 )

B
x

df ( x0 )

f ( x0 )

x0

x 0 + x

. 4.11

(7)

(. . ) x f ( x0 + x) y.
, A, f , A Gf .
(7)
.

f : R R, f ( x) = 4 x 2 x 15, x = 1,1.
:

x = 1,1 = 1 + 0,1 = x0 + x. x0 = 1, x = 0,1. f (1) f (1) :


f (1) = 4 12 1 15 = 12; f ( x ) = 8 x 1 f (1) = 8 1 1 = 7.
(7), f (1,1) f (1) + f (1) 0,1 = 12 + 7 0,1 = 11,3.
f x = 1,1 : f (1,1) = 11,26.
. (7), :
1
1. 1 + x 1 + x.
2
2. (1 + x) n 1 + n x, n N .
. (8) (9).

: a) 4,008 ;
:
a) (8), :

) (1,003)100 .

1
4,008 = 4(1 + 0,002) = 2 1 + 0,002 2 1 + 0,002 = 2 1,001 = 2,002.
2

, :
116

4,008 2,00199.

(8)
(9)

) (9) : (1,003)100 = (1 + 0,003)100 1 + 100 0,003 = 1,3.


, : (1,003)100 1,3493.
(7)
x0 ,
. ,
.
. (7)(9)
x.

sin 31.
:

f ( x) = sin x. sin 31 = sin(30 + 1) = sin +


.
6 180

, sin +
= f 6 + 180 . x0 = 6 , x = 180 .
6
180




f +
f 6 + f 6 180 .
6 180


3

1
, :
f ( x0 ) = sin = , f ( x0 ) = cos =
6
2
6 2

sin 31

1
3
1 3
+

= +
0,52.
2 2 180 2 2 180

,
:
dx
d (c) = 0, c R;
d( x ) = x 1d x, R;
d( x ) =
;
2 x
dx
d (ln x) = ;
d(e x ) = e x d x;
d(a x ) = a x ln a d x;
x
1
dx
dx

d = 2 ;
d (sin x) = cos x d x;
d (log a x) =
;
x ln a
x
x
dx
dx
d (cos x) = sin x d x;
;
d ( tg x) =
d (ctg x) = 2 ;
cos 2 x
sin x
dx
dx
d (arcsin x) =
;
d (arccos x) =
;
2
1 x
1 x2
dx
dx
;
.
d (arctg x) =
d (arcctg x ) =
2
1+ x
1 + x2
(. 4) .

1. d(e x x 3 ) = e x x 3 d x + 3x 2 e x d x = x 2 e x ( x + 3)d x.
2. d (sin 3 x) = 3 cos 3 x d x.
117

1. , (6), f : R R:
) f ( x) = x 2 + 5 x 1, x1 = 25,04, x2 = 0,98.

a) f ( x) = x 3 2 x, x1 = 1,04, x2 = 0,98;

2. , (7), (8) (9):


a) (1,0008) 200 ;

) (0,996) 7 ;

36,011;

0,998 ;

3. f : D R:
x
; ) f ( x) = sin( x + 1);
a) f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x; ) f ( x) =
1 x
4. f : D R:

) ln(1,05).

) f ( x) = 23x ;

) f ( x) = x 2 e 4 x ;
x
) f ( x) = x ctg( x + 5) ln 5 x;
) f ( x) = 3 ln + 5.
3
5. f : D R:

) f ( x) = cos 2 x.

a) f ( x ) = x log 2 x;

) f ( x) = sin x cos x, x0 = ;
3

a) f ( x) = x 2 + 5 , x0 = 2;
) f ( x) = log2 ( x 2 + 3), x0 = 1.

6. f : D R:
a) f ( x) = x + 5 x 4 x 7 ;

) f ( x) = 2 3 x ln( x 2 1) + 7;

) f ( x ) = tg 2 x 5 x 2 x .

7. f : D R:

a) f ( x) = sin 2 x cos3 x + 5, x0 = ;
6
2
x
) f ( x) = 5 7 x + arcsin , x0 = 0;
3

) f ( x) = arctg3 x + 5 arccos x, x0 = 1;
) f ( x) = x 3e 2 x , x0 = 2.

8. (7), :
a) cos 46;

) lg11,2;

) e 0 , 93 ;

) sin 0,004 ;
6

1
.
1,004 20

.
.

6.1.
!
( )
.
21 ( 1). f : I R I x0 I . x0
f, f ( x0 ) = 0.
1

(16011665) .

118

, x0 f . V ( x0 ) x0 (V ( x0 ) I ) , f ( x ) f ( x0 ), x V ( x0 ).
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0, x V ( x0 ), x > x0 ,
x V ( x0 ), x < x0 ,
x x0
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0.
x x0
, f x0 , , f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) =
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0.
0, f ( x0 ) = lim
= f ( x0 ), f ( x0 ) = lim
x x0
x
x

x x0
x x0
0
x<0
x >0
, f ( x0 ) 0 f ( x0 ) 0, , f ( x0 ) = 0.
, x0 f . ,
y
f f.
. , f ( x0 , f ( x0 )) Ox
(. 4.12).

f ( x0 )

Gf
O

.
f
x0 . ,
x0 , ,
f .

x0

x1

x2

x3

. 4.12
y

, f : R R, f ( x) = x , x0 = 0, x0 = 0 f (. 4.13).
,
.
3

y = x3

1
1

1
O
1

. 4.13

6.2.
, ,
.
22 ( 1). f : [ a, b] R
1) [a, b],
2) (a, b)
3) f (a ) = f (b),
c (a, b) , f (c ) = 0.
1

(16521719) .


119

f [a, b],
( 3, 3.1),
.
m = inf f ( x), M = sup f ( x), m, M R.
x[ a , b ]

x[ a , b ]

: m = M ; m < M .
1) m = M . f [a, b] .
, f (c) = 0 c (a, b).
2) m < M . f [a, b].
f (a ) = f (b), , m M,
[a, b], c (a, b) , f (c) = m
f (c) = M . c , , ,
f (c ) = 0.
. , 1) 2),
.
. , ( a, f ( a )) (b, f (b)) , Ox,
c (a, b) , f (c, f (c))
Ox (. 4.14).

Gf
f (a ) = f (b)

c1 O

c2

c3

. 4.14

f : [1, 0] R, f ( x) = 2 x 3 2 x + 1, :
1) [1, 0] ,
2) (1, 0) ,
3) f (1) = f (0) = 1.
, , c (1, 0) , f (c ) = 0.
c.
3
3
3
.
(1, 0), x2 = (1, 0). , c =
f ( x) = 6x 2 2 = 0, x1 =

. 1. c
.
2. .
.
. f : I R:
2 x, x (0, 1],
a) f ( x) =
I = [0, 1];
2, x = 0;

) f ( x) = 2 x, I = [0, 1];

) f ( x) = x , I = [1, 1].
, , ,
.
120


1.

(.4.15).
2.

(. 4.16).

Gf
c

a O

. 4.15
y

Gf

Gf
a c1

c1 O

c2

c2 b

a)

)
. 4.16

6.3.
23 ( 1). f : [a, b] R.
f [a, b] (a, b),
c (a, b) , f (b) f ( a ) = f (c ) (b a ).

F: [a, b] R,
F ( x) = f ( x) mx, m R. F [a, b] ( a, b). m R ,
f (b) f ( a )
. F
F (a ) = F (b), m =
ba
, c (a, b) ,
F (c) = 0.
F ( x ) = f ( x ) m F (c ) = 0 , f (c ) = m.
, f (c ) =

f (b ) f ( a )
, f (b) f ( a ) = f (c ) (b a )
ba

. f
x (a, b). , A( a, f (a ))
f (b) f ( a )
= m1 , B(b, f (b)) ,
ba
f
(c, f (c)) f (c) = m2 . m1 = m2 ,
.
, ,
, G f ,
AB (. 4.17).
1

(1).

a)

Gf

f (c )

f (b)
f (a)

O
y

Gf

A
a c1

b x

c2

b x

. 4.17

(17361813) .
121

6 2 x 2 , x [0, 1],
f : [0, 2] R, f ( x) = 4
x , x (1, 2]
c.
:
f [0, 1)
(1, 2]. f (1 0) = f (1) = f (1 + 0) = 4, f x0 = 1
, , [0, 2].
4 x, x [0, 1),
f ( x) = 4
x 2 , x (1, 2].
, f (1) = f (1) = 4.
f (1) = 4. , f (0, 2).
c (0, 2) , f ( 2) f (0) = f (c ) ( 2 0),
f (c ) = 2. f
4
, 4c = 2 c (0, 1) 2 = 2 c (1, 2),
c
c1 = 0,5 c2 = 2 . , : c1 c2 .
: c1 = 0,5; c2 = 2 .
. 1. (1) ,
.
2. , c
.
3. .
, f (a ) = f (b),
(1) , f (c ) = 0, .
4. 5 ( 2, 1, 1.1).

1. f : I R f ( x ) = 0, x I , f
I.
2. f , g : I R I f = g ,
g f I.
3. f V x0 ,
V \ {x0 } x0 . = lim f ( x0 ), R,
x x0
f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) = .
. 3 f x0 . .
x 2 sin 1 , x 0,
x
, f : R R, f ( x) =
0, x = 0,
x0 = 0, lim f ( x) .
x 0

122

6.4.

. ,
1,
f ( x)
lim
, , lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = 0 ,
x x0 g ( x )
x x0
x x0
.

6.4.1.

0
0

24. I (I R), x0 I f , g: I \ {x0 } R . : 1) lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = 0,


x x0

x x0

2) f g I \ { x0 },
3) g ( x ) 0, x V ( x0 ) I I ,
f ( x)
,
4) ( ) lim
x x0 g ( x )
lim
x x0

f ( x)

g ( x)

lim

x x0

f ( x)
f ( x)
= lim
.
g ( x) x x0 g ( x)

6.4.2.

25. I , x0 I f , g: I \ {x0 } R .
1) lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = ,
x x0

x x0

2) f g I \ { x0 },
3) g ( x ) 0, x V ( x0 ) I I ,
f ( x)
,
4) ( ) lim
x x0 g ( x )
lim
x x0

f ( x)

g ( x)

lim

x x0

f ( x)
f ( x)
= lim
.
g ( x) x x0 g ( x)

. 1. 24 25
.
2. x .
3. 24 25
0


.
0

f ( x)
f ( x)
0

4. lim
, lim

x x0 g ( x )
x x0 g ( x )
0

f , g , f , g , f ( x)
f ( x)
= lim
.
, lim
x x0 g ( x )
x x0 g ( x )
, .
1

(16611704) .
123


2x
sin 3 x
: ) lim
; ) lim x .
x + e
x 0
2x
:
(sin 3 x)
sin 3 x 0
3 cos 3 x 3
= lim
= .
= = lim
) lim
0
0
x 0
x
x

x
2x
0
(
2
)
2
2

( 2 x )
2
2x

) lim x = = lim x = lim x = 0.


x + e
x
x

e
( e )

. , ,
.

6.4.3. 0 , , 1 , 0 , 0 0
0 , , 1 , 0 , 00
0

, 2.
0


2x
1. : a) lim ( x 2 ln x);
x +0

1
1
;
tg
x
x

) lim
x 0

) lim x x ;
x +0

x 1
.
x
+1

) lim
x +

:
ln x
2
.
a) 0 . x ln x =

1
x2
1
1
f ( x) = ln x, g ( x) = 2 , f , g : (0, +) R, lim ln x = , lim 2 = +.
0
x

+
x
0
x
x
1
2
f g : f ( x) = 0 g ( x) = 3 0, x (0, +).
x
x
1
f ( x)
f ( x)
x2
lim ( x 2 ln x) = lim
= lim
= lim x = lim = 0.
x +0
x +0 g ( x )
x +0 g ( x )
x +0
2 x +0 2
3
x
: lim ( x 2 ln x) = 0.
x +0

1
1 x tg x
,
=
) .
tg x x
x tg x
0
.
1 1
0

2
cos x
( x tg x ) 0
1
cos 2 x 1
1
= ( ) = lim
= lim
=
lim
= = lim
x 0 tg x
x 0 ( x tg x )
x 0 cos 2 x tg x + x
x
0 x 0 tg x + x

cos 2 x

(cos2 x 1)
2 cos x sin x
cos2 x 1
cos2 x 1 0
= lim
= = lim
= lim
= 0.
x 0 cos x sin x + x
x 0 1
x 0

0 x 0 1
cos 2 x + 1

sin 2 x + x
2 sin 2 x + x
2

1
1
: lim
= 0.
x 0 tg x
x

= lim

. ) ,
0
.
0
124


x
) 0 0. f ( x) = x .
x ln x
ln f ( x) = x ln x, f ( x) = e .

1
(ln x)
ln x
lim ( x ln x) = lim
= = lim
= lim x = 0,
0
x +0
x +0 1
x
x +0

1

1
2
x
x
x

lim ( x ln x )

lim x x = lim f ( x) = lim e x ln x = e x+0

x +0

x +0

x +0

= e 0 = 1.

: lim x x = 1.
x +0

) 1.
2x

x 1
x 1
.
, ln f ( x) = 2 x ln
+
x
1
x
+1

2
x 1
ln
2
0

+
1
x
x
= = lim 1 = 4.
, lim ln f ( x) = lim
x +
x +
1
0 x+ 1
2x
2x 2
2x
x 1

4
: lim
=e .
x x + 1
) u v = e v ln u .

f : D R, f ( x) =

.
.
2. lim n n .
n

:
1
f : R + R, f ( x) = x x , lim f ( x).
x +
0 .

f (x) :

(ln x)
ln x
1
1
= lim = 0.
= = lim
ln f ( x) = ln x, lim
x + x
x + x
x
x + ( x)
ln n
n
ln x
, lim
= 0. lim n = lim e n = e 0 = 1
n
n
x + x
: lim
n

n = 1.

3. lim

ln n
.
n2

:
(ln x)
1
ln n
ln x

lim 2 = lim 2 = = lim 2 = lim 2 = 0.


n n
x + x
x + ( x ) x + 2 x
ln n
: lim 2 = 0.
n n
.
() .
125


A
1. , f , :
y
y
y

Gf
O

Gf
x0

x1

O x0 x1

a)

x2

Gf
x

x3

Gf

O x0 x1 x2
)

)
y

x1 x2
x0 O

O
)

x0

x1

Gf

x0 O

Gf

x1

2. f : R R:
a) f ( x) = 2 x 2 x + 3;
) f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x 3.
1) f ( x ) = 0 ,
x0 , x0 .
2) f x0 .
3. , x0 = 1 f : R R:
a) f ( x) = ( x 1) 2 ;
) f ( x) = ( x 1) 3 .
4. , x0 = 1, x1 = 2
.

5. ,
,
.
6. f c:
a) f : [1, 3] R, f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x 3);
) f : [0, 4] R, f ( x) = | x 2 |;
) f : , R, f ( x) = sin2 x;

2 2

) f : [0, ] R, f ( x) = cos 2 x.

ax 2 + 3 x 1, x [ 1, 0),
7. f : [1, 1] R, f ( x) = 2
x bx + d , x [0, 1].
a) a, b, d, f
[1, 1].
) f , .), c.
8. :
) g: R R, g ( x) = ( x 2 9)( x 2 16).
a) f : R R, f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3);
, .
126

9. , 2 x (1 + x ln 2) 20 x 9 = 0 (0, 1).
10. f : [0, 2 ] R, f ( x) = x sin x cos x 1. ,
c (0, 2 ), f (c ) = 0.
11. f c:
a) f : [3, 2] R, f ( x) = 3x 2 x + 2;

) f : [1, 3] R, f ( x) = x ln x;

2 x 2 , x [0, 2],
5 x 2, x (2, 3];

) f : [0, 3] R, f ( x) =

) f : [1, 4] R, f ( x) = x + e x .

12. f : [0, 8] R, , c (0, 8) .

2 x 3 + x, x 1,
f (1).
4 ln x + 3x, x > 1.

13. f : R R, f ( x) =

14. , :
x +1
3x 3 2 x
) lim 2
) lim
a) lim 3
;
;
x 1 3 x + 3 x
x 0
x 0 x 2 x 2 + x

xn
, n N* ;
x + e x

) lim

1 + 2x 1
;
2x2 x

) lim

ln(2 x 1)
;
x3 x

) lim

1 + cos x
.
sin 2 x

x 1

x2 + 1 2x
ln x
, n N* ; ) lim
;
n
x + x
x +
x

) lim

15. , :
n
ln 3 n
n3
;
) lim 50 ;
) lim
.
a) lim
n + 1,01n
n +
n + n + 1
n
16. , 6, 7, 11, 14.


A
1, 2 , .
1. f : R R, f ( x) = 2 x 3 x 2 + 3,
A f ( x) = 2 x 2 2 x.
B f ( x) = 6 x 2 2 x.
C f ( x) = 6 x 2 2 x + 3.
D f ( x) = 3x 2 2 x.
2. f : D R, f ( x) = 2 x 2 .
A f (1) = 0.

B f (1) = 2.

1
C f (1) = .
2

D f (1) .

3. f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 , g : R R, g ( x) = x 3 + x 2 + 1.
a) D f Dg .
) G f x0 = 1.
) R f ( x ) < g ( x ).
) f g .
) f g .
4. R f ( x ) = 0, f , :
a) f ( x) = x 3 2 x 2 ;

) f ( x) = 2 x ln x;

) f ( x) = ( x 1)e x .
127

5. R f ( x ) 0, f ,

f ( x) =

x2 1
.
x2 + 1

6. :
8 / 4 /2, 16 /.
a) , , ,
at 2
, x(t ) = vt x(t ) = v0 t +
2
.
) t,
.

7. f , :
a) f ( x) = cos(sin x);

) f ( x) = sin(cos x);

) f ( x) = ln(ln x).

8. R f ( x ) = 0, f , :
a) f ( x) = sin x + cos x;

) f ( x) = 2 sin x 2 cos x;

) f ( x) = e 3 x + e 3 x .

9. a) f : R R :
1) f ( x) = x 2 + x | x |, x0 = 0;

2) f ( x ) = x + | x 3 |, x0 = 3;

2 x , x 0
x0 = 0.
2
x , x > 0,

3) f ( x) =

) f .

10. f : R R, f ( x) = e| x 3| .
a) , f x0 = 3,
.
) f .
11. P : R R . , P , P .
12. f : [1, + ) R,

f ( x) = x 2 x 1 + x + 2 x 1 .

x sin x
13. , lim
,
x + x + cos x
.
14. , f : R R, f (x) = 2 x x 2,
[0, 1] c.
15. , f : D R
:

) f ( x) = sin 2 x, [0, ];
a) f ( x) = cos 2 x, , ;
4 4
) f ( x) = ( x 3)( x 4)( x 5), [3, 5].

ln(1 + e 2 x )
.
x + ln(1 + e 3 x )

16. , lim

128

: 45

1. f : R R, f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 1; g : R R, g ( x) = 3 + x x .
a) <, =, >, :
f (1)
g (0).
) R f ( x ) g ( x ).
) R f ( x ) + f ( x ) = g ( x ).
2

2. f : D f R, f ( x) = 3 x ln 2 x.
a) , : D f =

) :
D f = D f .

1
) f x0 = .
2
3. f : D R:
x5
.
a) f ( x) = x 2 53 x ;
) f ( x) =

x+5

4. s (t ) = 3t 2 + 9 ln t + 18
(s , , t , ).
t, 2 /2.

: 90

1. f : D f R, f ( x) = tg 3 x ; g : Dg R, g ( x) = 6 x + 1.
4

a) :
D f Dg .
) R f ( x ) = g ( x ).
) f x0 = .
2. f : D f R, f ( x ) = log 02, 2 6 x.
a) , : D f =
.
) f .
) f .
x
3. f : D f R, f ( x) = 4 cos 2 + 5 3 x. R :
2

a) f ( x ) = 0;
) f ( x ) > 0, f ( x ) < 0.
1
2

4. , lim(cos x) x .
x 0

ax 2 + bx + d , x [1, 0],
5. f : [1, 1] R, f ( x) =
2
1 + ln( x + 1), x (0, 1].
a) a, b, d R, f
.
) f , . a).
6.
t3
s (t ) =
+ 6 log 3 t + 20t (s , , t ,
ln 3
). t,
0 /2.
129

130

2.

3.

4.
( )
5.

y = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 )

1.

x0:

f = ( f ); f ( n ) = ( f ( n 1) )

8.
:

1
( f 1 )( y ) =
f ( x)

7.
:

( g o f )( x ) = ( g ( f ( x ))) =
= g ( f ( x )) f ( x )

6.
:

( f + g ) = f + g
( c f ) = c f
( f g ) = f g
( f g ) = f g + f g
f f g f g
5. =
g2
g

1.
2.
3.
4.

x x0 0

f ( x0 ) = lim

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
x x0
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) = lim
x x0 + 0
x x0

R
R
(0, + )

Df

Df

df

0
R
0
n x n 1
n x n 1dx
R
(0, + )
x 1
x 1dx
1
1
2
2 dx
R
R
x
x
1
1
[0, + )
(0, + )
5. 2 n x , n N
dx
2 n 2 n 1
2n x
2n 2 n x 2 n 1
1
1
dx
6. 2 n +1 x , n N
R
R
(2n + 1) 2 n +1 x 2 n
( 2n + 1) 2 n +1 x 2 n
1
1
dx
[0, + )
(0, + )
7. x
2 x
2 x
x
x
x
a ln a
8. a , a > 0, a 1
R
R
a ln a dx
ex
e x dx
9.
R
R
1
1
dx
(0, + )
(0, + )
10. ln x
x
x
1
1
(0, + )
11. loga x, a > 0, a 1 (0, + )
dx
x ln a
x ln a
12. sin x
R
cosx
R
cos x dx
13. cos x
R
sinx
R
sin x dx
1

1
R \ {2k + 1) | k Z}
R \ {2k + 1) | k Z}
14. tg x
dx
2
2
cos 2 x
cos 2 x
1
1
2
2 dx
R \ {k | k Z}
R \ {k | k Z}
15. ctg x
sin x
sin x
1
1
dx
[1, 1]
16. arcsin x
(1, 1)
1 x2
1 x2
1
1

dx
[1, 1]
17. arccos x
(1, 1)
1 x2
1 x2
1
1
dx
18. arctg x
R
R
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
1
1
2
dx
2
19. arcctg x
R
R
x +1
x +1

1. c ()
2. x n , n N
3. x , R
1
4.
x

df ( x ) = f ( x )dx

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) = lim
f ( x0 ) = lim
x 0
x x0
x
x x0

x0

A
x

df ( x0 )

x 0 + x x

Gf

1
2
3

f
g df f dg
5. d =
g2
g
6. df ( g ) = f ( g )dg

4. d( f g ) = g df + f dg

3. d( f g ) = df dg

2. d(c f ) = c df

1. d( f + g ) = df + dg

f ( x0 )

f ( x 0 )

f ( x0 +x)


;
: ,
, ;
*
,
;
*
,
, ;
*
;
, , , ;
,
, .

*
,
, , ,
.

1.1.
,
. ,
.
.
1. f : E R ( E R ) . f - I E , f
.

f ( x ) = 0, x I . I x0 x I , x x0 .
[ x0 , x] ( [ x, x0 ]) f
(. 4, 6, . 6.3). , c ,
x0 x, f ( x ) f ( x0 ) = f (c )( x x0 ). f (c ) = 0,
, f ( x ) = f ( x0 ). , x I f
f ( x0 ), f I.
131

. f g f = g I,
f g : f ( x) = g ( x) + C ,
x I , C R.

= f g. ( x) = f ( x) g ( x) = 0, x I . , I , f ( x) = g ( x) + C , x I , C R.

, f g ,
:
a) f , g : R R, f ( x) = cos 2 x, g ( x) = cos 2 x sin 2 x + 1;
2x
1
) f : R R , f ( x) = arctg x; g : R \ {1, 1} R , g ( x) = arctg
.
2
1 x2
:
a) f ( x ) = 2 sin 2 x g ( x ) = 2 cos x sin x 2 sin x cos x = 2 sin 2 x. , f g : f ( x) = g ( x) + C. f (0) = 1
g (0) = 2, C = 1, cos 2 x = cos 2 x sin 2 x, x R
) I1 = (, 1), I 2 = (1, 1) I 3 = (1, + ),
1
. ,
f g : f ( x) = g ( x) =
1 + x2
: f ( x ) g ( x ) = C1 , x I1 ;

f ( x ) g ( x ) = C 2 , x I 2 ; f ( x ) g ( x ) = C3 , x I 3 . I 2

C 2 = 0 ( x = 0), I1 I3 C1 = C3 = ,
2
2
, , x +.
1
2x

, : arctg x = arctg
, x (, 1);
2
2
2
1 x
1
2x

1
2x
, x (1, 1); arctg x = arctg
arctg x = arctg
+ , x (1, + ).
2
2
1 x2 2
1 x2
,
.
. ) : , f
( )
I 1 , I 2 , I1 I I 2 = , f ( x) = 0, x I1 U I 2 , ,
I1 U I 2 .
1, x (, 0),
, f : R \ {0} R, f ( x) =
1, x (0, +),
A = ( , 0) U (0, + ) , , f
.

.
2. f : I R I.
f () I , f ( x) 0
( f ( x ) 0), x I .
132

. , f I.
f ( x) f ( x0 )
0, x, x0 I , x x0 . x0 I ,
x x0
x x0 , f ( x0 ) 0, x0 I .
, f
I.
. x1 , x2 I , x1 < x2 ,
f ( x) 0 I. f [ x 1 , x 2 ],
f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ) = f (c )( x2 x1 ), c ( x1 , x2 ) f (c ) 0. x2 x1 > 0,
f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ) 0, f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ). , f I.
, f ( x ) 0, x I , f I.
. 1. f ( x) > 0, x I , f I.
2. f ( x ) < 0, x I , f I.
3. , f ( ) I,
, f I. ,
3
f : R R, f ( x) = x , R, f (0) = 0.
. ,
. , , .

1. f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x, R,
f ( x) = 3x 2 + 2 > 0, x R.

1
2. f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 x + 1, ,

1
1 , + ,


f ( x ) = 2 x 1 < 0, x ,
2
2

f ( x ) > 0, x , + .
2

1.2.
!
. f : I R ( I R) .
x0 I f ,
V ( x0 ) x0 , f ( x) f ( x0 ), x V ( x0 ) I I .
f ( x0 ) f
x0 .
x0 I f ,
V ( x0 ) x0 , f ( x0 ) f ( x ),
x V ( x0 ) I I . f ( x0 )
f x0 .
133


.
f
.
. f : I R ( I R) .
x0 I f ,
f ( x) f ( x0 ), x I , f ( x0 )
f I.
x0 I f ,
f ( x0 ) f ( x), x I , f ( x0 )
f I.

.
f
.
. 1. ()
(). ()
().
2. ,
.
y
, f : [a, b] R (. 5.1)
Gf
x1 , x4 .
3. f : [a, b] R
[a, b], , x3
x4 b
a x1 x2
x
f - O
, M = sup f ( x) m = inf f ( x), x[ a , b ]

x[ a , b ]

, [a, b].

. 5.1

f : I R I . ,
x0 I f , f ( x0 ) = 0. ,
,
I.
. f : I R I f ( x0 ) = 0,
x0 I .
1. f ( x) > 0, x I , x < x0 , f ( x) < 0, x I , x > x0 , x0 f . :
( ) ,
f ( x0 ) .
() .
2. f ( x ) < 0, x I , x < x0 , f ( x ) > 0, x I , x > x0 , x0 f . :
f ( x0 ) .
134

3. x0 , x0
.
. f : I R I.
, f , (
) f.
. 13 , f x0 ,
.
() f .
, f : R R, f ( x) = | x | , x0 = 0,
0 .
1, x ( , 0),
x0 = 0
, f ( x) =
1, x (0, +)
+.
,
, ,
:
f .
f ( x ) = 0; ( f ,
, f )
f .
f , .
f , f .
f .

1. f : R R, f ( x) = x 5 + 2 x 3 + x.
:

f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 6 x 2 + 1. , f
x R. , f
R.
2. f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 + 9 x 2 .
:

f ( x) = 3x 2 + 18 x = 3x( x + 6). f 6 0.
, :
f ( x ) > 0 ( , 6), (0, +), , 1 (. 1.1), f (, 6], [0, +).
f ( x ) < 0 (6, 0), , f
[6, 0].
135


. , .
,
. ( ),
( ) , .
x
6
0
+
f :

, 6
f
+
0

0
+
f f (6) = 108
f
108
0
, 0
f f (0) = 0 .
3. f : R R, f ( x) = e x x. ,
f.
:
f ( x) = e x 1 = 0 x = 0.
(, 0) (0, +). f ( x) < 0 (, 0) f ( x ) > 0 (0, +).
, (, 0] f , [0, +) f . x0 = 0
x
+
0
f f (0) = e 0 = 1
f

0
+
.
f
1
f :
4. f : (0, +) R, f ( x ) = ln x x.
:
1
f ( x) = 1 = 0 x = 1. f x
(0, 1) (1, +), f ( x ) > 0, x (0, 1), f ( x ) < 0, x (1, +).
x 0
1
+

f :
f
+
0

(0, 1] f ,
f
1
[1, + ) . , 1
f f (1) = 1 .
. ,
f1 ( x ) f 2 ( x ), x E .
f : E R, f ( x ) = f1 ( x ) f 2 ( x ).

, x > 1 ln(1 + x) x.
:
f ,
: f : (1, + ) R, f ( x) = ln(1 + x) x. 1
x
, . f ( x) =
1 =
.
1+ x
1+ x
136

f :
0,
(1, + ),
ln(1 + x) x 0.
, ln(1 + x) x
x = 0.

1
+

1.3.
f : [a, b] R (a, b)
[a, b]. , f [a, b]
, x1 , x2 [ a, b] , f ( x1 ) = inf f ( x) = m,
x[ a , b ]

f ( x2 ) = sup f ( x) = M . x1 ( x2 ) [a, b] ,
x[ a , b ]

f () ,
f ( x1 ) = 0 ( f ( x2 ) = 0). m M
f [a, b] .
3
R, f ( x) = cos x,
, f : 0,
2

, M = 1, 0.
f : [a, b] R , (a, b) , :
f [a, b], f (a) f (b).
f ,
f ( x) = 0, x (a, b).
f
: ()
() f [a, b].


f : I R:
a) f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 10, I = [1, 5];
) f ( x) = x 2 4 x + 6, I = [3, 10].
:
a) f ( x) = 3x 2 + 2 > 0, x [1, 5]. , f

[1, 5]. , m = f (1) = 13, M = f (5) = 53 + 2 5 10 = 125.


) f ( x ) = 2 x 4, x [3, 10]. f ( x ) = 0 f : 2 x 4 = 0 x = 2. x0 = 2 f
, f (2) = 2.
, m = min[ f (3), f (2), f (10)] = min[27, 2, 66] = 2,
M = max[ f ( 3), f ( 2), f (10)] = max[27, 2, 66] = 66
f .
137

. f I = ( a, b) ,
, f (a) f (b)
lim f ( x) lim f ( x) . xa +0

x b 0

m = inf f ( x) M = sup f ( x) , , ,
xI
xI
f .

:
x +1
.
a) f : (, 0) R, f ( x) = e x x;
) f : R R, f ( x) = 2
x +3
:
a) f ( x) = e x 1 < 0, x (, 0). lim f ( x) = +, lim f ( x) = 1.
x

x 0

, m = inf f ( x) = 1, M = sup f ( x) = + , x( , 0 )
x( , 0 )
f .

3 x2 2x
= 0 x = 3 x = 1.
x2 + 3
1
1
f (3) = , f (1) = , lim f ( x) = 0 lim f ( x) = 0 .
x +
6
2 x
1 1
1
1
1
1
, m = inf f ( x) = min , 0, = , M = sup f ( x) = max , 0, = ,
xR
6
2 2
6
2
6
xR

f.
) f ( x) =


A
1. , , f : R R:
a) f ( x) = x 3 3x;
) f ( x) = x 4 3;
) f ( x) = x 4 4 x;
3
3
2
) f ( x) = x 12 x;
) f ( x) = ( x 1) (2 x + 3) ;
) f ( x) = 2 + x x 2 .
2. f : R R:
a) f ( x) = x 4 8 x 2 + 12;
) f ( x) = x 4 4 x 3 + 6 x 2 4 x + 5;
) f ( x) = ( x 3 10)( x + 5) 2 ;
) f ( x) = x 3 6 x;
) f ( x) = ( x 1) 2 ( x + 2);
) f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 2 x 5.
3. f : I R:
a) f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 9, I = [1, 2];
) f ( x) = x 3 x, I = [0, 5].

4. , , f g
, :
a) f , g : R R, f ( x) = sin 2 x, g ( x) = 1 + 2 sin x cos x;
x +1
;
) f , g : (, 1) R, f ( x) = arctg x, g ( x) = arctg
1 x
) f , g : (1, 1) R, f ( x) = arcsin x, g ( x) = arccos x.
5. , , f : D R:
1
2
a) f ( x) = x 5 5 x 4 + 5 x 3 1;
) f ( x) = x ln x;
) f ( x) = e ( x 3) ;
) f ( x) = arctg x ln x;
138

) f ( x) =

x3
;
3 x2

) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) x 2 1.

6. a f : R R R:
) f ( x) = arctg ax + x;
) f ( x) = ax sin x ?
a) f ( x) = ax ln(1 + x 2 );
7. f : D R:

(2 x) 3
;
(3 x) 2
) f ( x) = ( x 1)e 3x ;

) f ( x) = sin 3 x + cos3 x;

a) f ( x) =

) f ( x) = x 2arctg x;

ln 2 x
;
x
1
) f ( x) = ( x + 2)e x .

) f ( x) =

) f ( x ) = x 4 e x ;

x, x 0
) f ( x ) =
x ln x, x > 0;
8.
f : I R:
a) f ( x) = x 4 8 x 2 + 3, I = [1, 2];
) f ( x) = sin x + cos 2 x, I = [0, ];
) f ( x) = x 2 ln x, I = (0, e].
) f ( x) = | x 1 |

x + 2;

9. :
a) (1 + x) 1 + x, x 1, > 1;

) ln(1 + x) 2 < x, x > 0.

, ,
. ,
f , , I,
,
. , f ( x) = x ,
[0, +), , ,
, f , (. 5.2).
.

x
. 5.2

2.1.
f : I R ( I R) I. ,
(. 5.3 a))
(. 5.3 )) ,
.
a) ,
, )
.

a)

. 5.3
139

( ) ,
, , .
y
f : I R T
I x0 I .
M0
f (x0)
f M 0 ( x0 , f ( x0 )) :
f(x)
y = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 ).
F(x)
F : R R,
x0
x
x
O
F ( x) = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 ).
I
. 5.4
F M0T (. 5.4).
, f M 0T ,
(1)
F ( x) f ( x) x I .
, f M 0T ,
(2)
F ( x) f ( x) x I .
(1) ( (2)) x I \ {x0 }, ,
f ( ) M 0T .
. f : I R ( I R) ( ) I, f
( ) .
f : I R ( I R) (
) I, f ( )
.
, f ,
( ) ( ) , f .
. 1.
:
AB, I, AB (. 5.5).
2. f I
, f I.
3. ,
(. 5.6 a)),

(. 5.6 )).

y
B
A

a) y

) y

O
x
. 5.6

I
. 5.5

/
.
140

/
.
3. f : (a, b) R
(a, b) f ( x ) 0 x (a, b) , f
.
f f 2,
. f : (a, b) R
(a, b). f ( x ) 0 x ( a, b), f (a, b).
. f ( x ) > 0 ( f ( x ) < 0), x ( a, b), f
( ) (a, b).

f : R R :
a) f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c, a, b, c R, a 0;
) f ( x) = x 3 .
:
a) f 3 f ( x ) = 2a. ,
f R, a > 0,
R, a < 0.
) f ( x ) = 6 x. , f (, 0)
(0, +).

2.2. .

f : I R I x0 I
f , f ( x0 ) = 0. , f x0 , x0
f . , .
, f , , f
I.
4. x0 ( a, b)
f : (a, b) R (a, b) f ( x0 ) > 0 ( f ( x0 ) < 0),
x0 ( ) f .

,
f ( x) = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 9 x.
:
: f ( x) = 3x 2 + 12 x + 9
f ( x ) = 6 x + 12.
141

f x1 = 3 x2 = 1. f ( 3) = 6 < 0
f (1) = 6 > 0, 4 , x1 = 3
f f ( 3) = 0 , x2 = 1
f f (1) = 4 .
f x0 ,

f ( x0 ) = 0, x0 f ,
f . , f ( x ) > 0
x < x0 f ( x) < 0 x > x0 (x x0 ),
f x0 x0 .
. f : (a, b) R
(a, b). x0 ( a, b) f , ( x0 , x0 + ) , f
( x0 , x0 ) ( x0 , x0 + ) , (. 5.7).
a)

O x 0

Gf

x0

x0+ x

. 5.7

O x0

Gf

x0

x0+ x

. x0 f , M 0 ( x0 , f ( x0 ))
.
5. f : ( a , b ) R V ( x0 ) x0 ( a, b) f ( x0 ) = 0. f ( x) < 0, xV , x < x0 ,
f ( x) > 0, xV , x > x0 , ( f ( x) > 0, xV , x < x0 ,
f ( x ) < 0, x V , x > x0 ), x0 f .
, f ( x0 ) = 0 , x0
f , f ( x0 ) = 0 , x0
f .

f :
f , f ( x ) = 0,
f ).
f , f .
f .
. f x 0 ,
f .
142


, :
a) f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 3x 2 4;
) f : R R, f ( x) = ( x 2 + 4 x + 6)e x ;
) f : R R, f ( x) = x | x |.
:
a) f ( x ) = 3 x ( x 2), f : x1 = 0
x2 = 2 . , f ( x) = 6( x 1) , : f (0) = 6 < 0, f ( 2) = 6 > 0. ,
x1 = 0 , x2 = 2 f . f 1
+
x
f :
f

0
+
, f (, 1) f
(1, + ), 1 .
) f ( x) = ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)e x f ( x) = x 2 e x , x R. f ( x ) = 0
R. f R
f (0) = 2, f ( x ) < 0, x R. , f R.
f ( x ) = 0 x1 = 0. 0
f, f ( x) > 0, x R \ {0}.
, R f .
) f ( x ) = 2 | x |, f ( x ) > 0, x 0, f . f ( x ) = 2
x < 0, f ( x ) = 2 x > 0 f x = 0. ,
f (, 0) (0, + ),
x = 0 .

2.3.
f E,
( ) . E f , ( , ,
). , f
.
f
, , f .
, , .
2.3.1.
f : E R, E - y
(a, +) + E. , f
. l (l R) , y = l ( Ox).
x (a, +), P ( Q )
O
x, y = l (
f ) (. 5.8).

Q
y=f (x)
P

y=l

. 5.8
143

. y = l
f ( f ) x +, PQ = | f ( x) l |
x +, lim | f ( x) l | = 0.
x +

, lim f ( x)
x +
lim f ( x) = l .
x +

f x , E
( , a ) E (. 5.9).

y=f (x)

y=l
x

. 5.9

f ( x) ( lim f ( x)) ,
xlim
+
x
f x + ( x ).

f : R R:
a) f ( x) =
:

x2
;
1 + x2

) f ( x) = 2 x ;

*) f ( x) = x sin x.

) f ( x) = e x ;

x2
= 1. , y = 1
x 1 + x 2
f x + x .
a) lim

) lim 2 x = 0. , y = 0 ( Ox)
x
f x . lim 2 x = +, f
x +

x +.
2

) lim e x = +, f .
x

*) f x +,
x , lim x sin x, lim x sin x.
x +

2.3.2.
y

+
mx
y=

f (x

y=

f : E R, E (a, +) ( + E ), y = mx + n,
m 0. x (a, +) P (
Q ) x,
y = mx + n, m 0 ( f ) (. 5.10).

x
. 5.10

. y = mx + n, m 0 ,
f ( f ) x +,
PQ = | f ( x) (mx + n) | x +,

lim ( f ( x) (mx + n)) = 0.

x +

144

6. y = mx + n, m 0,
f ( x)
(m 0)
f : E R x + , m = lim
x +
x
n = lim ( f ( x) mx).
x +

E ( , a ) E.
f x 6 .

:
x2
x2 + 1
;
;
) f : R \ {1} R, f ( x) =
a) f : R \ {1} R, f ( x) =
x +1
| x 1|
) f : R R, f ( x) = sin x.
:

f ( x)
x2 + 1

x2 + 1
x =
= lim
= 1 n = lim( f ( x) mx) = lim
x
x

x
x

x
1
+
x
x( x + 1)

x2 + 1 x2 x
= lim
= 1. , y = x 1
x
x 1
f x + x .
a) m = lim

f ( x)
x2

x2
= lim
= 1 n = lim ( f ( x) x) = lim
x =
x +
x + x ( x 1)
x +
x + | x 1 |
x

x2 x2 + x
= lim
= 1. , y = x + 1
x +
x 1
f x +. , y = x 1
f x .
) m = lim

) f x +, x ,
sin x
cos x
lim
= 0 lim
= 0, lim sin x
x +
x
x
x
x

lim sin x.

2.3.3.

1.
f : (0, + ) R,
1
(. 5.11). , lim f ( x) = 0 ,
f ( x) =
x +
x
, y = 0
f .
f , x, ,
1
M x, , x > 0, , x
Oy. , Oy,
, x = 0 f .

1
M x,
x

O x

x
. 5.11
145

2. f : (0, 1) R, f ( x) =
(. 5.12).
lim f ( x) = lim
x 0

x 0

1
x(1 x)

1
= + lim f ( x) = +.
x 1
x(1 x)

x = 0 x = 1
f .
O


.
f : E R a E.

1
2
. 5.12

. lim f ( x) + , ,
x a 0

x = a f
( f ).
lim f ( x) + , ,
x a + 0

x = a f .
x = a f ,
,
.
x = a
f, PQ
x a 0, Q (. 5.13 a))
+ (. 5.13 )).
f .
(!)

y
O
f (x)

x
Q

P
f (x)
O

a)

Q
x

P
a

)
. 5.13

. ,
f : E R x = xi , xi
/ E, E.
, E = ( a, b) f ( a, b ),
x = a ( x = b) f
, lim f ( x) = ( lim f ( x ) = ).
x a

146

xb


:
1

;
a) f : (1, 1) R, f ( x ) = 2
) f : , R, f ( x) = tg x.
x 1
2 2
:
a) f (1, 1), f x = 1 x = 1.
1
1
: l (1) = lim 2
= , l ( 1) = lim 2
= . ,
x 1 0 x 1
x 1+ 0 x 1
x = 1 x = 1 f .

) ( 2), l = lim tg x = + l = lim tg x = .


2 x2 0
2 x 2 +0
, x =
f.

x =

2
2

1. (, , )
f : (0, + ) R :
y
a)
) y
) y
x
=
y
3
Gf
2
G
f
Gf
1
1
O

2. (, , ) :

1
x3
;
;
) f : (2, 2) R, f ( x) = 2
x
x 4
1
x3
;
) f : (0, + ) R, f ( x ) = x
) f : R R, f ( x) = 2
.
e 1
x +1
3. f : D R:
x
;
a) f ( x) = x 3 + 9 x 2 x + 1;
) f ( x ) =
) f ( x) = sin x;
x2
1

2
x
) f ( x) = e x ;
) f ( x) = x + 3 x ;
2
) f ( x) = x 2 ln x;
) f ( x) = x sin(ln x).
a) f : (0, + ) R, f ( x) =

4. f : D R:
a) f ( x) = x 4 4 x 3 + 5 x 2 2 x;

) f ( x) = 3 x 1 + 3 x + 1;

) f ( x) =

) f ( x) = x + sin x;

a
(a > 0);
a2 + x2
5

) f ( x) = x + x 3 ;

) f ( x) = 1 + x 2 ;

) f ( x) =

x +1
.
x2 + 1
147

5. (, , )
f : D R:

1
;
| x|
x4 + 2
;
) f ( x) =
x( x 1)( x + 1)
a) f ( x) =

2
) f ( x) = x + sin x;

) f ( x) = e | x| ;

x9
) f ( x) = 3 x + 1 3 x 1.
;
| x| +2
6. :
y
y G
y
y
a)
)
)
)
Gf
f
Gf
Gf

O x0 x0 x0+

) f ( x) =

O x0 x0 x0+

O x0 x0 x0+

x x0
f
f

O x0 x0 x0+

x0

x0 +

f
7. ,
xk = k , k Z.

f : E R
G f = {( x, f ( x)) | x E} xOy.
, ,
, .

I. . f , , ,
D R, f ( x), x D, .
, , . . ,
().
f ,
f : Ox ( y = 0)
( x1 , 0), ( x2 , 0), ..., x1 , x2 , ... f ( x) = 0 ( );
Oy ( x = 0) (0, f (0)), 0 D.
II. . f 0 ( f 0),

f () Ox.
f () ,
Oy ( ), D
D I [0, + ).
f , , ,
D.
148

III. , , .
D , ( ) f
x + (/ x ), ( ) , f .
D , f .
. D, f
, .
IV. . f . D f ,
. f ( x ) = 0,
f . , , f
,
. D
( ) . f
. , ,
f .
f ,
.
V. . f ,
f ( x ) = 0. , , , f . f
( f )
.
VI. 1 f ,
IV.
, f , x ( ,
, f f ).
, ,
IV. 0.
.
, V. 0.
.
f , ,

,
, ; m, M i
, .

VII. 1. xOy
f ( )
1

, , ,
, .
149

( x, f ( x)) f . f
, , , , f .
. V .
, IV, .

1. f : D R:
x3
2 x 2 + 3 x;
a) f ( x ) =
3
x
sin x
;
) f ( x) =
) f ( x) =
.
2 + cos x
1 + x2
:
a) I. f R .
x3
2 x 2 + 3 x = 0 x ( x 2 6 x + 9) = 0
x = 0 f (0) = 0. f ( x) = 0
3
x {0, 3}. , f
Ox x0 = 3.
x3
II. f , , f ( x) = 2 x 2 3 x
3
1 3
1
2
f ( x) f ( x), f ( x) f ( x). f ( x) = ( x 6 x + 9 x) = x( x 3) 2 ,
3
3
f ( x) 0 x 0 f ( x) 0 x 0.
III. f R , , .
(, + ). :
1
1
lim f ( x) = lim x( x 3) 2 = lim f ( x) = lim x( x 3) 2 = +.
x
x 3
x +
x + 3
, f , .
IV. f (x) = x2 4x + 3.

f ( x) = 0 x 2 4 x + 3 = 0 x {1, 3}. x1 = 1 x2 = 3 .
V. ,
.
VI. f
:
x

f
f

1
+

0
M

+
+

1
4
: M = f (1) = 2 + 3 = ,
3
3
m = f (3) = 9 18 + 9 = 0.
VII. f 5.14.
150

4
3
O

. 5.14

) I. f R.
f .
II. f ; f , f (x) = f ( x), x R.
, (R) R + = [0, + ).
III. f R. f x
x
= 0 lim
( , + ) lim f ( x ) = lim
= 0. , x
x 1 + x 2
x + 1 + x 2
y = 0 f x
x +.

1 x2
, x R. f ( x ) = 0 x1 = 1 x2 = 1
(1 + x 2 ) 2
( f ). x > 0 x2 = 1.
, f (1) = 0,5.
IV. f ( x) =

V. f ( x) =

2 x( x 2 3)
. f ( x) = 0 x > 0 x3 = 3.
(1 + x 2 ) 3

VI. f x 0:
1
M = f (1) = 2
, x3 = 3 .
x2 = 0 .

f 0

VII. f
R + (. 5.15). f
, xOy , ,
R + , f R.

M
y
1
2

3 1

1
2

. 5.15

) I. D = R. x = 0 f (0) = 0. f ( x) = 0 sin x = 0 x {k | k Z}.


f Oy , Ox
xk = k , k Z.
II. f , 2 . ,
f [0, 2 ],
f .
III. f , .
IV. f ( x) =

x1 =

2
4
x2 =
.
3
3

1 + 2 cos x f ( x ) = 0 pe [0, 2 ] :
.
(2 + cos x) 2

151

V. , .
VI. f ( [0, 2 ]) :

2
: M = f
3

= 1 ,

3
4
1
m = f
.
=
3
3

2
3

0
+

4
3

2
+

VII. f [0, 2 ], R 2 .
f 5.16.
y

2
3

1
3

O 1 2

4
3

4
3
2

. 5.16

2x2 + 1
, a R. x( x + a)
f , , (1, 1).

2. f : D R , f ( x) =
:

I. (1, 1) Gf , : f (1) = 1

3
= 1 a = 2.
1(1 + a)

2x2 + 1
D = ( , 2) U ( 2, 0) U (0, + )
x( x + 2)
.
, f ( x) =

f .
II. f ; f , ;
f ( x) 0 , x( x + 2) > 0 ( x D), x (, 2) U (0, + ) ,
f ( x) < 0 x (2, 0).
III. f D.
(2, 0 ):
2x2 + 1
2x2 + 1
l (2) = lim
= +, l ( 2) = lim
= ,
x 2 0 x ( x + 2)
x 2 + 0 x ( x + 2 )

2x2 + 1
2x2 + 1
= , l (0) = lim
= +.
x 0 x ( x + 2)
x +0 x ( x + 2)
, x = 2 x = 0
f .
l (0) = lim

152

2x2 + 1
= 2, y = 2
x
x x ( x + 2)
f x x +.
lim f ( x) = lim

IV. f ( x) =

4x2 2x 2
1
, x D f ( x) = 0, x1 = , x2 = 1.
2
2
2
x ( x + 2)

V. , .
1
2
0
1
+

x
VI.
2
f :
f + + + + 0
0+ +
: m = f (1) = 1
f
m
M
1
M = f = 2.
y
2
VII. f
5.17.

2
1
2

1
2

O1

2
. 5.17


A
1. f : R R:
a) f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 1;
) f ( x) = x 3 3x + 2;

) f ( x) = x 2 + 3x 4;
) f ( x) = x 2 ( x 1) 2 .

2. f : D R . (
, .)
x2
) f ( x) =
) f ( x ) = x + 1 x 2 ;
a) f ( x) = x ln x;
;
x+2
2
|1 x2 |
ex
;
;
) f ( x ) = e x ;
) f ( x) = x
) f ( x) =
x
e 1
) f ( x) = ( x 3) x ;

) f ( x) = sin 4 x + cos 4 x.

3. , a:
a) ;
) ;
) (
).
153

, ,
.

,
.

, , ..,
, , , ,
.
, ,
()
, , . ,
.
-
( ) ,
.

1.
50 2x
50 80
, x
. ,
x
80 2x
.
. 5.18
:
x , V (x)
: V ( x) = x(50 2 x)(80 2 x) = 4 x 3 260 x 2 + 4 000 x,
50
= [0, 25]. ,
x 0,
2
V : [0, 25] R,

V ( x) = 4 x3 260x 2 + 4 000x.

V . V ( x) = 12 x 2 520 x + 4 000.

V ( x) = 0 [0, 25] : x0 = 130 4 900 = 10.


6
V (0) = V (25) = 0, x0 V .
: , 10 .
2. , 2a, , .
:
x AB ABCD, AD > AB (. 5.19).
154

ax

x
B

. 5.19

2a 2 x
= a x.
2
ABCD A ( x) = x(a x) = x 2 + ax.
A : [0, a] R, A ( x) = x 2 + ax.
a
A ( x ) = 2 x + a . A ( x) = 0 2 x + a = 0 x = .
2
a
x
a
0
A : [0, a ] R :
2
ABCD
A (x)
+
0

a
a 2 A =
2 4
a2
a
A (x)
.
4
2
a2
: A max =
.
4
. ,
, .
, ,
, , .
AD =

3. f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 + 3,
M (10, 5) (. 5.20).
:
2
A f x x + 3, x R.
(x) M A.
y

( x) = ( x 10) 2 + ( x 2 + 3 5) 2 = x 4 3x 2 20 x + 104.

: R R, ( x ) =

x 4 3 x 2 20 x + 104 .
2 x 3 3x 10
: ( x) =
= 0 x = 2.
x 4 3x 2 20 x + 104
x0 = 2
, < 0, x < 2 , > 0 ,
x > 2. f (2) = 2 2 + 3 = 7. ,
A 2 7.

M(10, 5)
3
O

. 5.20

: 2 7.
4. , ,
. ,
, 100 , 150 .
, ,
18 000 .
:
x y , , , :
x
100 x + 2 150 y = 18 000 x + 3y = 180 y = 60 .
3
155

x
2

A ( x) = x y = x 60 . A ( x) = 60 x.
3
3

A ( x ) = 0 60 x = 0 x = 90.
3
2
A ( x) = < 0, x = 90 A (x) .
3
, , ,
90
A max = 90 60 = 2 700 ( 2 ).
3

: 2 700 2 .

h2
5.
h1

M
N
A B, , ,
x
d
axd
d,
a
.
. 5.21
:
h1 , h2 A, B, ,
a A B (. 5.21).
,
L(x ). , :
2

L( x) = AM + MN + NB = x 2 + h1 + d + h22 + (a x d ) 2 .
L( x) =

x
x + h1
2

axd
h + (a x d ) 2
2
2

L( x ) = 0 x1 =
x1 =

(a d )h1
(a d ) h1
, x2 =
.
h1 + h2
h1 h2

(a d )h1
, L(x) , L( x1 ) > 0.
h1 + h2

, Lmin = L( x1 ) = (a d ) 2 + (h1 + h2 ) 2 + d .
6. p( x) = 780 2 x 0,1x 2 , x
, p ( ). 1000
C ( x) =
+ 500 + 2 x. (
x
.)
, () , .
:
B( x) = p( x) x C ( x) x =

1000
= (780 2 x 0,1x 2 ) x
+ 500 + 2 x x = 280 x 4 x 2 0,1x 3 1000.
x

B( x) = 280 8 x 0,3 x 2 .
156

B( x ) = 0 , 0,3 x 2 + 8 x 280 = 0,
x1 = 20 , x2 =

28
( x ).
0,6 2

B ( 20) < 0, x = 20 . ,
B(20) = 280 20 4 20 2 0,1 203 1 000 = = 2 200 ()
p(20) = 780 2 20 0,1 20 2 = 700 ().
: 2 200 ; 700 .
7. 100 v / ( ,

40 v 70), 8 +

v2
. 300

( ), ,
30 /, 12 .
:
100

,
v
2
2

v 100 v + 2 400
.
=

8 +

300 v

3v

c(v) = 30

v 2 + 2 400 4v 2 + 13 600
100
().
+ 12
=
v
3v
v

, .
4v 2 13 600
= 0, , v0 = 3 400 58,31 (/).
c(v) =
v2
, .
: v 58,31 ( / ).
8. , Q . 100 ,
= 0,2. ,
, Q.
:
5.22 ,
F , Q, G
N , :
Q cos F = 0,
N + Q sin G = 0.

,
F = N , Q( ) ,
:
G
Q( ) =
.
cos + sin

G
. 5.22

157

,
G

Q: 0, R, Q( ) =
.
cos + sin
2
G ( cos sin )
.
Q. Q( ) =
(cos + sin ) 2
Q( ) = 0 = arctg. Q( )
:
G
.
Qmin = Q(arctg ) =
1+ 2
, :
0,2 100
tg 0,2; 1120 Q =
19,6 .
1 + 0,2 2
: 11 2 0 .
9. a .
, , ,
I , 1 E
I cos
E =
, .
r2
:
S
x
. 5.23, :
r

x
.
r 2 = a 2 + x 2 cos =
x
a2 + x2
, , ,
A
B
2a
I x
E = E ( x) =
,
x

(
0
,
+

).
3
. 5.23
(a 2 + x 2 ) 2
, :
3

(a 2 + x 2 ) 2 3x 2 (a 2 + x 2 ) 2
= 0.
E ( x) = I
(a 2 + x 2 ) 3
a
x =
. E (x)
2
2I
: Emax =
.
3 3a 2
a
: x =
.
2
10. , ,
= 10 V , r = 20 ,
? ?

().

158

:
x P
. , , : P = I 2 x, I

, : I =
.
x+r
2
x
, x (0, + ),
, P ( x ) =
( x + r)2

P( x) = 2

( x + r ) 2 2 x( x + r )
rx
=2
4
(x + r)
( x + r )3

x = r. P(x) .
2 5
= W.
, Pmax = P ( r ) =
4r 4
5
: x = r , Pmax = W.
4


A
1. s(t ) = 12t t 3 ( s ,
, t , ).
a) ?
) , , ?
, ?
2. E r I R. RE 2
E
.
I =
, P ( R ) = RI 2 =
r+R
(r + R) 2
R P ?
3. a h, , , a .
.
4. 225 .
C( x) = 95x + x 2 , .
.

5. s (t ) = at 3 + bt + c.
t.
6. s (t ) = t 3 6t 2 + 2. :
a) , ;
) .
7. C ( x) = 5 + 36 x,
p( x) = x 2 + 18 x + 3, 9 < x < 13. x,
, .
159


A
1. f : R R :
x
a) f ( x) = x 3 + 6 x 2 ;
) f ( x) = x 3 ;
) f ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ;
) f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1.
3
2. , , f : R R :
3
a) f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x;
) f ( x) = x 3 x 2 ;
) f ( x) = ( x 1) 2 ( x + 2) 2 ;
2
) f ( x) = ( x + 1) 3 ( x 2) 2 ;
) f ( x) = 3 + x x 2 ;
) f ( x) = x 4 4 x + 2.
3. , f : R R :
9
a) f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x + 1;
) f ( x) = x 4 x 2 + 8;
) f ( x) = x 3 12 x + 4;
2
1
) f ( x) = x 3 + x 4;
) f ( x) = x 5 + x 3 4 x + 1;
) f ( x) = x 2 ( x + 1) 3 .
5
4. f : I R :
a) f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 2, I = [0; 1];

) f ( x) = x 3 x + 2, I = [0; 2].

5. f : R R :
a) f ( x) = x 3 4 x 2 + 1;

) f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x + 2.

6. f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 + ax 2 2. f , , :
a) (1, 1);
) x = 1 f .
7. 240 .
C ( x) = 3x 2 + 6 x + 120, x . ().
: B(x) B ( x) = 240 x C ( x).

8. , :
1 x 2 2arctgx, x [0, + )
=
a) arccos
1 + x 2 2arctgx, x ( , 0];

1+ x

= arctgx + , x (, 1);
1 x
4
2x
= 0, x ( 1; 1).
) 2arctgx arcsin
1 + x2
) arctg

9. , :
x
;
) f : R R, f ( x) =
a) f : R R, f ( x) = | x + 1 |;
+
x2
1
2
) f : (0, + ) R, f ( x) = x ln x.
10. , m R, f : R R, f ( x) = mx ln(1 + x 2 )
R.
160

11. , m R, f : R R, f ( x) = ( x 2 + mx)e x
.
12. f : R R :
a) f R; ) lim f ( x) = a R ; ) lim f ( x).
, lim f ( x) = 0.

x +

x +

x +

e x f ( x)
.
x +
ex

. lim
13. f : R \ {1} R, f ( x ) =

mx 2 1
, m R.
x 1

, m:
a) (, 1); (1, + );
) , a);
) ;
) .
14. :
a) f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 ;
x
;
) f : R R, f ( x) = 2
x +1

) f : [0, 2 ] R, f ( x) = sin x;
) f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 + | x | .

15. :

x 3 , x 0
1, x = 0;

a) f : R R, f ( x) = x 3 + 2;

) f : R R, f ( x) =

) f : R R, f ( x) = x 4 4 x;

) f : ( , 1) R, f ( x ) =

) f : (0, + ) R, f ( x) = | ln x 1 |;

) f : R R, f ( x ) = | x 2 4 x | .

x 2 1;

16. f : D R, D :
x
x
x2
;
;
;
) f ( x ) = 2
) f ( x) =
a) f ( x) =
2x 1
x 1
x 1
1

ln x
1
;
.
) f ( x) =
) f ( x) = e x ;
) f ( x) =
x 1
sin x
17. a, b, , y = 2 x + 3
4 x 2 + ax + 1
.
x + f : D R, f ( x) =
bx + 1
18. f : D R :
x
x
;
;
a) f ( x) =
) f ( x) = 2
x +1
x +1
ln x
x2 + 1
;
) f ( x) =
) f ( x) = 2
;
x2
x 1

) f ( x ) =

x2
;
3x 2

) f ( x) = ln( x 2 4).

19. ( ) C ( x) = 1 + 76x,
p( x) = x 2 + 42x 80, 2 x 40. x,
, .

161

: 45

1. , ,
f : D R, f ( x) = x 2 6 x.
2. f : R R, f ( x) = x 2 + x 2.
3. 160 . C ( x) = 3x 2 + 34 x + 450, x .
().
. B ( x) = 160 x C ( x).

: 45

1. , ,
f : D R,

f ( x) = x 2 e x .

2. I = [1, 2] f : D R,

x 2 , 1 x 0
f ( x) =
2 ln x, 0 < x 2.
3. f : D R,

f ( x) =

x2
.
x +1

4. p ( x) = 800 0,5 x p1 ( x ) = 700 + 2 x


(x ), ,
.
. x V ( x ) = ( p ( x ) p1 ( x )) x.

162

x0

x0

x0
x

x0

4. f ( x ) = 0
f.

3. f ( x0 ) = 0 V ( x0 ) x0 I .
f ( x ) < 0, x V ( x0 ), x < x0 ,
f ( x ) > 0, x V ( x0 ), x > x0 ,
( f ( x) > 0, x V ( x0 ), x < x0 ,
f ( x) < 0, x V ( x0 ), x > x0 ),
x0 f .

2. f ( x ) 0, x I , f
I.

f : I R, I R, I.
1. f ( x ) 0, x I , f
I.

5.

.
6. f ( x ) = 0
f.

4. f ( x) < 0, x I , x < x0 , f ( x) > 0,


x I , x > x0 , x0
f.
: f ( x0 ) .



f : I R, I R, , I.
1. f ( x ) = 0, x I , f (x)
I.
2. f () I ,
f ( x) 0 ( f ( x) 0), x I .
3. f ( x) > 0, x I , x < x0 , f ( x ) < 0,
x I , x > x0 , x0
f .
: f ( x0 ) .

x +

y
x

3. lim f ( x) ( lim f ( x)) +


x a 0
x a + 0
, x = a
()
f .

f
x + ( x ) .

y = mx + n, m 0,

x +

m = lim

f ( x)
(m 0)
x
n = lim ( f ( x) mx),

2.

1. lim f ( x) = l ( lim f ( x) = l ) ,
x +
x
y = l
f x + (
x ) .

163

, , ;
,
;
, , ( , *, *, *,
*) ;
* , ; ;
* n- , n N \ {1}, , .

, ax 2 + bx + c = 0, a, b, c R, a 0,
, .
(,
3x2 x + 4 = 0, x 2 + 1 = 0), , R
.

, XVI
a , a R + . XVIII .

1 = i (i imaginarius). ,

a + b i , a, b R, . . 1 XIX
.

. a + bi,
a, b R, i , i 2 = 1.
1

(17771855) , .

164

C.
, C = {a + bi | a, b R, i 2 = 1}. , N Z Q R C.
z = a + bi, , z
( z = a + ib). a
z = a + bi Rez, b z Imz.
z1 = a + bi z 2 = c + di , a = c
b = d . a + 0i a. ,

. 0 + bi, b 0, bi.
i = 0 + 1i ,
. C
x 2 + 1 = 0 ( R ).

x, y, 2 + 3i + ( x + yi) = 5 + 7i.
:
2 + 3i + ( x + yi) = 5 + 7i ( 2 + x) + (3 + y )i = 5 + 7i.
, :
2 + x = 5
x = 3,
3 + y = 7 y = 4.

,
:
(a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d )i;

(a + bi) (c + di) = (a c) + (b d )i;


(a + bi) (c + di) = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc)i.
() , () .
.

1. (2 + 3i) + (3 + 7i) = [2 + (3)] + (3 + 7)i = 1 + 10i;


2. (2 + 3i) (3 + 7i) = [2 (3) 3 7] + [2 7 + 3(3)]i = 27 + 5i.
. , , i, i 2 = 1.
. z = a + bi = a bi
z = a + bi.
z z , z C, , : z z = (a + bi)(a bi) = a 2 + abi abi b 2i 2 = a 2 + b 2 .
165

( ,
):
1 z1 + z 2 = z 2 + z1 ;
2 ( z1 + z 2 ) + z 3 = z1 + ( z 2 + z 3 ) ;
3 0 = 0 + 0 i ;
4 z = a bi , z = a + bi ;
5 z1 z 2 = z 2 z1 ;
6 z1 ( z 2 z 3 ) = ( z1 z 2 ) z 3 ;
7 z1 ( z 2 + z 3 ) = z1 z 2 + z1 z 3 ;
8 1 = 1 + 0 i ;
1
a
b
9 = z 1 = 2
i , z = a + bi, z 0.
2
2
z
a +b
a + b2
z 1 :
a bi
a
b
1
1
z 1 = =
=
=

i.
z a + bi (a + bi)(a bi) a 2 + b 2 a 2 + b 2
,
: z1 : z 2 = z1 z 21 , z 2 0, , ,
:
z
a + bi ( a + bi)(c + di)
=
=
z1 = a + bi, z 2 = c + di, z 2 0, 1 =
z 2 c + di (c + di)(c + di)
( a + bi)(c di) ( ac + bd ) + (bc ad )i ac + bd bc ad
i.
+
= 2
=
=
(c + di)(c di)
c2 + d 2
c + d 2 c2 + d 2

7 + 3i (7 + 3i)(5 + i) 35 + 7i + 15i + 3i 2 35 3 + 22i 16 11


=
=
=
= + i.
1.
5i
(5 i)(5 + i)
25 + 1
26
13 13
2. (1 + i) 1 =

1
1 i
1 i 1 1
=
=
= i.
1 + i (1 + i)(1 i)
2
2 2

. z = a + bi a 2 + b 2 , | a + bi | | z |. , | a + bi | = a 2 + b 2 .

z1 =

1
3
1 3
i, z 2 = i, | z1 | =
+
+ = 1, | z 2 | = | i | = 0 2 + 12 = 1.
2 2
4 4

1. z , z1 , z 2 :
1 z1 z 2 = z1 z 2 ;
4 z z R;
166

z z
3 1 = 1 , z 2 0 (, z 2 0);
z2 z2
6 z = z z R;
7 z = z.

2 z1 z 2 = z1 z 2 ;

5 z + z R;

, .
:
2 z1 = a1 + b1i, z 2 = a2 + b2 i, z1 z 2 = (a1 + b1i)(a2 + b2i) =

= (a1a2 b1b2 ) + (a1b2 + b1a2 )i = a1a2 b1b2 (a1b2 + b1a2 )i = (a1 b1i)(a2 b2i) = z1 z 2 .
3 t =

z1
z z
. t z2 = z1 , , t z2 = z1 , t = 1 = 1 .
z2
z2 z2

. , z1 , z 2 C z1 u = z 2 ( z1 0)
z1 + t = z 2 .
. ,
, ,
,
k
z 2
z , z k = ( z 1 ) k ,
...3
z: z 0 = 1, z = 1
k

k N ; : z n z m = z n + m , ( z n ) m = z nm , z 0, n, m Z .
: i 2 = 1, i 3 = i, i 4 = 1, i 5 = i 4 i = 1 i = i.
b + b 2 4ac
b b 2 4ac
x1 =
, x2 =
2a
2a
2
: ax + bx + c = 0, a, b, c C, a 0.
, ,
z u, u 2 = z
( ).

1. : A = (2 + 3i) 3
:

7 + 3i
.
5i

, :

16 11
16 11
A = 8 + 3 4 3i + 3 2 (3i) 2 + (3i) 3 + i = 8 + 36i + 54i 2 + 27i 3 i =
13 13
13 13
i = 8 54

16
11
614 106
+
i.
+ 36 27 i =
13
13
13
13

2. :
a) i 73 ;
) i 24 k +3 , k N;

) (7 3i) 1 ;

*) ( 2 + i ) 7 .

:
a) i 73 = i 72+1 = (i 4 )18 i = 118 i = i.
) i 24 k + 3 = (i 4 ) 6 k i 3 = 16 k (i) = i.
) (7 3i) 1 =

1
7 + 3i
7 + 3i
7
3
=
=
=
+ i.
7 3i (7 3i)(7 + 3i) 49 + 9 58 58
167

) , :

(2 + i) 7 = 27 + 7 26 i + 21 25 i 2 + 35 2 4 i 3 + 35 23 i 4 + 21 2 2 i 5 + 7 2 i 6 + i 7 =
= 128 + 448i 672 560i + 280 + 84i 14 i = 278 29i.
3. C :
a) (2 + i) z (3 + 6i) z = 5 + 2i;

) z 2 2 z + 3 = 0.

:
a) , :

(2 + i 3 6i) z = 5 + 2i (1 5i) z = 5 + 2i
(5 + 2i)(1 + 5i)
15 + 23i
5 + 2i
15 23
z=
=
=
= + i.
1 5i (1 5i)(1 + 5i)
1 + 25
26 26
15 23
: S =
26 + 26 i .

) = 4 12 = 8 = (i 8 ) 2 = (2 2 i) 2 .
, : z1 =

2 + 2 2i
2 2 2i
= 1 + i 2 , z2 =
= 1 i 2.
2
2

: S = {1 i 2 , 1 + i 2}.


A
1. :
a) (2 + 3i) + (1 i);

) 4 + 3i (2 + 5i);

) ( 3 i) + ( 2 i 3);

) (1 3i)(2 4i);

) ( 3 i)( 2 i 3 );
2 + 4i
+ 22 23i;
)
1 i
(1 i) 3
;
)
(1 + i) 7

) (2 + i) : (3 + 4i);

) (3 i) ;

(1 i) 3
;
)
(1 + i) 5
2. :
) i 4 ;
a) i 3 ;

) i 24 ;

) i131 ;

) (1 i)(1 + i)2 ;
)

(1 2i) 2 (1 + i)3
.
(3 2i)3 (2 i) 2

) i 2010 .

3. x y , :
a) (1 + 3i) x + (2 5i) y = 7 + i;

) (2 + 5i) x (1 + i) y = i;

) i x + i((i + 1) x (3 i) y ) = 3 + 2i;

) 7i x + ( 3 i)( x iy ) = 4 3i.

4. C :
a) 2 z 2 3 z + 3 = 0;
)

2 z 2 z + 1 = 2 z;

) (3 z )(4 + z ) = (2 + z ) z + 7;
168

) z 2 z + 1 = 0;
) 2 z 2 + z 2 = 3 z 7;
) z 2 2 z + 2 = 0;

) z 2 + z + 4 = 0;
2 z 4z + 1
=
;
)
3+ z
5 z
3 z
.
) z + 2 =
z +1

5. :
3
3
a) (2 + i) + (2 i) ;

) (3 i) 3 (3 + i) 3 ;

6. C :
a) (1 i) z = 3 + i;
z
7 + i = z (1 + i);
)
2+i

*) (1 2i) 5 (1 + 2i) 5 ;

*) (1 2i) 6 .

) 3z i + (5 2i) z = 3z + 2 i;
*

) | z | iz = 1 2i.

7 * . ( z1 , z 2 C) :

2 z ( 2 + i) z 2 = i,
) 1
( 4 + 2i) z1 5 z 2 = 1 2i.

2 z (3 + 3i) z = 3 i,

2
a) 1
(1 i) z1 3iz 2 = i;

8. z, :
a) Re z = 1, | z | = 2 ;

) Re z + Im z = 2, | z | = 1;

) Im z = 3, | z i | = 2.

9. :
a) (3 + 2i)(2 + 3i) 1 (i) + 1;
)

( 3 i) 4
;
1+ i 3

10. C :
a) z 4 z 2 2 = 0;
) z 4 + z 2 12 = 0;

) (2 + i)(5 + i) 1 (7 + 5i) 2 (3 i) 1 ;
)

1 + (1 + i) 5
.
1 + (1 i) 5
) z 4 + 12 z 2 + 35 = 0.

11. :
a) ( z 1 i)( z 1 + i)( z + 1 + i)( z + 1 i);
) ( z i)( z + i)( z 1)( z + 1);

1 i 3
;
+
2
2
1 i 3
.
) (a + b + c 2 )(a + b 2 + c ), = +
2
2
12. :
8n
4n
a) (1 + i) = 2 , n Z;
) (1 + i) 4 n = (1) n 2 2 n , n Z.
) (b 2 + a )(a 2 + b ), =

13. , :
1
z 1
4n
4n
, z z = 1;
)
) (3 + 2i) + (2 + 3i) .
a) ( z z );
i
i( z + 1)
14. z, | z + i | = | z + 1 | = | z + iz | .

1+ i 3
. R , z R.
( + 1)i
zz
z+z
, Re z =
, z C.
16. , Im z =
2i
2
15. z =

169

, .
XIX , .
z = x + iy
M ( x, y ) ( M z) (. 6.1).
,
C ,
y
z = x + iy
M3
M(x, y)
M ( x, y ) .
M1
z = x + iy z, 2
r

1
. , , M2
Ox,
x
O
1 2
, . 6.1
Oy ,
.

z1 = 2 + 2i, z 2 = 3, z 3 = 3i M1 ( 2, 2),
M 2 (3, 0) M 3 (0, 3) (. 6.1).
.
z = x + iy OM , O (0,0), M ( x, y )
z (. 6.1). , | z | = | OM |.
t1 = a + bi, t 2 = c + di ( A1 ( a, b), A2 (c, d ))
OA1 , OA2 , A3 , y
A2
OA3 = OA1 + OA2 , a + c b + d (. 6.2).
A3
t1 t 2 OA4 ,
OA4 = A2 A1 = OA1 OA2 (. 6.2).
, | t1 t 2 | = A2 A1 , ,
A1 A2
t1 t 2 .

A1
A4

. 6.2

:
2. z , z1 , z 2 C :

170

1 | z | = | z | = | z |;

2 | z1 + z 2 | | z1 | + | z 2 |;

4 | z1 z 2 | = | z1 | | z 2 |;

z1 | z1 |
=
, z 2 0;
z2 | z2 |

3 | z1 | | z 2 | | z1 + z 2 |;
6 | z1 | | z 2 | | z1 z 2 | .

1 .
2, 3, 6 ,
| z1 |, | z 2 |, | z1 + z 2 |, , ,
. 4, 5 .
,
.
, , , .
, z = x + iy

| x + iy | = x 2 + y 2 = r .
z = x + iy , z 0, , OM , O (0,0), M ( x, y ) z,
Ox. z, z 0,
, 2k , k Z. ,
0 .
z = x + iy , < . arg z. z Arg z ,
, : Arg z = arg z + 2k , k Z.
. Arg z = {arg z + 2k | k Z},
arg z ( , ] arg z [0, 2 ).

z1 = 2 + 2i | z1 | = | OM1 | = 4 + 4 = 2 2 , arg z1 = , 4

Arg z1 7 , 9 + 2k , k Z.
4
4 4
, z = a + bi, b 0, arg z = arg z.
z = a + bi, z 0, arccos:

arccos a , b 0

r
arg z =
a
arccos , b < 0, r = a 2 + b 2 .
r

(1)

1. arg(2 2i) = arccos


2. arg(2 + 3i) = arccos

2
2 2

= arccos

2
= ;
2
4

2
.
13
171

z = x + iy , z 0, , r = x 2 + y 2 ,
. sin cos
, : x = r cos , y = r sin .
z = r (cos + i sin ).
r (cos + i sin ) z.
,
, , :

r = r ,
r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ) = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) 1 2
1 = 2 + 2k , k Z.

(2)


:
a) z1 = 1 + i;

) z 2 =

1
3
;
+i
2
2

) z3 = 1;

) z 4 = 2 3i.

:
a) z1:
1
| z1 | = 1 + 1 = 2 , arg z1 = arccos
= .
2 4

, 1 + i = 2 cos + i sin ,
4
4

z1 .
) , | z2 | =
,

2
1 3
+ = 1, (1) arg z2 = + arctg( 3) = .
4 4
3

1
3
2
2
+i
= cos
+ i sin
.
2
2
3
3

) z3 : | z3 | = 1, arg z3 = arccos(1) = , , 1 = cos + i sin .


) z 4 = 2 3i : | z 4 | = 4 + 9 = 13 , arg z 4 = arccos

2
2
+ i sin arccos
.
, 2 3i = 13 cos arccos
13
13

2
.
13

. z1 , z 2 , z 3
( ) :

9
9
z1 = 2 cos
, z 2 = cos 4 + i sin 4 , z3 = cos( ) + i sin( ),
+ i sin

4
4

3
3
, ,
.
3 , ,
, .
172

3. z1 , z2 , z C , z1 = r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ), z 2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ),


z = r (cos + i sin ), :
(3)
z1 z 2 = r1 r2 (cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin( 1 + 2 ));
z1 r1
(4)
= (cos(1 2 ) + i sin(1 2 ));
z 2 r2
z n = r n (cos n + i sin n ), n Z ( )1. (5)

(3) :

z1 z 2 = r1 r2 (cos1 cos 2 + i cos1 sin 2 + i sin 1 cos 2 + i 2 sin 1 sin 2 ) =


= r1 r2 [cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 + i(cos 1 sin 2 + sin 1 cos 2 )] =

= r1 r2 (cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 )).
(4) ( .
(5) n N .
1. , n = 0, n = 1.
2. , n = k , ,

(r (cos + i sin ))k = r k (cos k + i sin k ), n = k + 1 :


z k +1 = z k z = (r (cos + i sin ))k r (cos + i sin ) = r k (cos k + i sin k ) r (cos + i sin ) =
= r k +1 (cos(k + ) + i sin(k + )) = r k +1 (cos(k + 1) + i sin(k + 1) ).
3. , (5)
n.
n = k , k N* , (5) :

z n = z k =

1(cos 0 + i sin 0)
1
= k
= r k (cos(0 k ) + i sin(0 k )) =
k
z
r (cos k + i sin k )

= r k (cos( k ) + i sin( k )) = r n (cos n + i sin n ).


. 1. (3), (4) 4 5
, 2.
2. (3)(5) :
;
; z n
n z. ,
, 2 .

1. A =
1

2(1 + i)(1 i 3 )
.
( 3 + i) 30

(16671754) .
173

:
:


1 + i = 2 cos + i sin , 1 i 3 = 2 cos + i sin ,
4
4
3
3

5
5
3 + i = 2 cos + i sin .
6
6

(3) (5), :

4 2 cos + i sin cos + i sin


4 2 cos + i sin
12
4
4 3

12
3
A=
=
=
30

5
5
30


5
5
2 cos 30 + i sin 30
2 cos 6 + i sin 6

2
=

55
2

cos + isin
12
55
12

55
11
11
+ i sin
.
= 2 2 cos + i sin = 2 2 cos
cos25 + i sin 25
12
12
12
12

2. , :

cos 5 x = cos5 x 10 cos3 x sin 2 x + 5 cos x sin 4 x;


sin 5 x = 5 cos 4 x sin x 10 cos 2 x sin 3 x + sin 5 x.
:

cos 5 x + i sin 5 x = (cos x + i sin x) 5 = cos5 x + 5 cos 4 x i sin x + 10 cos3 x i 2 sin 2 x +


+ 10 cos 2 x i 3 sin 3 x + 5 cos x i 4 sin 4 x + i 5 sin 5 x =
= cos5 x 10 cos3 x sin 2 x + 5 cos x sin 4 x + i(5 cos 4 x sin x 10 cos 2 x sin 3 x + sin 5 x).
,
.
, n- a b
( ), b n = a . .

. u n- , n N ,
n 2, z, u n = z.

1 i 3
1 i 3
1 1, +
,
,

2
2
2
2
3
3
1 i 3 1 i 3
= 1, 1 1.
= +
1 =
2 2
2
2
z ,
n- z.
3

. n {k , k + 1, ..., m}, k , m Z, k < m,


n = k , m.
174

4. n n- , n N, n 2, z. , z = r (cos + i sin ),
n- z :
n

+ 2 k
+ 2 k
+ i sin
k = 0, n 1 .
r cos
n
n

(6)

u = (cos + i sin ) n- z,
.
n (cos n + i sin n ) = r (cos + i sin ), (2)
n = r n = + 2k , k Z.
= n r (, r R + ,

r
n- r),
+ 2k 2k
, k Z. k = 0, n 1 n u:
= +
=
n
n
n
2k
2k
u k = n r cos +
+ i sin +
,
n
n
n

n


n- ( n 3), n | z |
(!). k k = n q + t , 0 t n 1,
, , :

t
t
u k = n r cos + 2q + 2 + i sin + 2q + 2 = ut , t = 0, n 1.
n
n
n
n
, u k , k Z, ut , 0 t n 1. , n n- z, z 0 .
. (6) .

1. 4, 4.
:
4 : 4 = 4 (cos + i sin ). (6)

+ 2
+ 2

= 2i.
+ i sin
u0 = 2 cos + i sin = 2i, u1 = 2 cos
2
2
2
2

, 4 2i.

175

2. 3- 2i.
:

2i = 2 cos + i sin , (6) :


2
2

3 1

u0 = 3 2 cos + i sin = 3 2
+ i ,
6
6

2 2

+ 2
+ 2

+ i sin 2
u1 = 3 2 cos 2
3
3

a)

u1

3
3 1
+ i ,
= 2
2
2

+ 4
+ 4

3
2
2
u 2 = 2 cos
+ i sin
= 2 i.
3
3


(. 6.3, a)).
3

5
6

u0
3

3
2

u2
y

3. n- 1.
:

0
1

0
1

n- 1 :
2k
2k k = 0, n 1.
+ i sin
,
k = cos
n
n

6.3 ), )
1: {1, i} 1:

1
3
1
3
1, 2 i 2 , 2 i 2 .

. 6.3

1 , 2 a + bi (
) :

1) b 0, 1, 2 =

a2 + b2 + a
+ i sgn b
2

a , a 0,
2) b = 0, 1, 2 =
i | a | , a < 0,

1, b > 0,

sgn b = 0, b = 0,
1, b < 0.
176

a 2 + b 2 a
;


1. 40 42i.
:

( 402 + 422 + 40) i ( 402 + 422 40) .


b = 42< 0, 1, 2 =
2
2

, {7 + 3i, 7 3i} 40 42i.


2. C z 2 3 z + 3 i = 0.
:

. 3 + 4i,
3 + 4i 1 + 2i 1 2i.
3 (1 + 2i)
3 + (1 + 2i)
.
, z1 =
, z2 =
2
2
: S = {2 + i, 1 i}.

1. :
1, i, 1 i, 5i, 3, 3 + i, 1 2i, 1 i 2 ,

2 i.

2. :
a) 2i;
) 5 12i;
) 2 2 3i;
) 1 2i 6 ;
3. C :
a) z 2 + 4 z + 4 2i = 0;
) z 2 + (3 2i) z 1 3i = 0;
2
) (2 + i) z (5 i) z + 2 2i = 0;

) 48 + 14i;
) 1+ 2i 6 .

) i z (4 + i) z + 6 + 12i = 0;
) (1 + i) z 2 + (2 + i) z 7 i = 0;
2
) z (48 + 14i) = 0.
2

4. + i i z.
z.
5. :
a) 5;
) 3i;

) 1 i 3;

) 4 cos i sin ;
5
5

1
3
i;

2 2

) 2 2i;

) 3 + 4i;

) sin i cos ;

100

1
)
.
i 1

6. :

cos + i sin cos + i sin

12
12
24
24

;
a)

cos + i sin
8
8

20

) (1 + i 3 ) 3 (1 + i) 7 ;

3 i
.
)
1+ i
177

7. :
a) i;
) 2 2i 3;
1 i
.
)
3 +i

) 27;
) 1;

8. z, :
) Re (iz ) = 1, | z + i | = 2.
a) Im z 1, | z | 1;

3.1. mz k + p = 0, m C , p C, k N
. mz k + p = 0, m C , p C, k N , .
p
mz k + p = 0 z k = ,
m
p
k, k 2, .
m

C 2 z 5 = 1 + i 3.
:

2z 5 = 1 + i 3 z5 =

1
3
.
+i
2
2

1
3
.
+i
2
2
2
2
1 i 3
1 3

= arccos 1 = .
r = +
= 1 arg +

2
2
2 3
2 2

1 i 3

, +
= cos + i sin .
3
2
2
3
3

(6) 2, :

+ 2
+ 2
7
7

3
3
3
z0 = cos + i sin = cos + i sin ; z1 = cos
+ i sin 3
= cos + i sin ;
5
5
5
15
15
5
15
15
z 2 = cos

11
13
13
+ i sin
; z3 = cos
15
15
15

+ i sin 11

15

; z = cos + i sin .
4

7
7
13
13
: S =
cos 15 + i sin 15 , cos 15 + i sin 15 , cos 15 + i sin 15 ,


11
11
+ i sin
cos
, cos + i sin .

15
15
3
3
178

3.2. mz 2k + pz k + q = 0, mC, p, q C, kN
. mz 2 k + pz k + q = 0, m C , p, q C, k N ,
.

mu2 + pu + q = 0,
k
z = u k
z = u.

C 6 z 12 z 6 1 = 0.
:
1
6
z = u , 6u 2 u 1 = 0, : u1 = ,
2
1
1
1
u 2 = . z : z 6 = z 6 = .
3
2
3
1
1
1 1
1 1
: = (cos 0 + i sin 0), = (cos + i sin ).
2
3
2 2
3 3
(6) 2, :

1 + 2k

+ 2k
2k
2k
+ i sin
k = 0, 5.
z 6 cos
k = 0, 5 z 6 cos
+ i sin

6
6
6
6
3

3
3 6 1 1
3 6 1 1
1 1
1
1
i
,
+i
,
: S = 6 , 6 , 6 i
,

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1 6 1 6 1 3 i 6 1 3 i 6 1 3 i 6 1 3 i
3
1 1
6
6
+

,
+ ,

+
.
,i ,
,
i
i
3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2
3
2
2 2

3.3.
ax 3 + bx 2 + bx + a = 0, ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + bx + a = 0,
a 0, 3, 4 .

x 4 3 x 3 + 4 x 2 3 x + 1 = 0 4.
:
1 ax 3 + bx 2 + bx + a = 0 x0 = 1.
1
2 y = x + ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + bx + a = 0 ,
x
y
x.

C x 4 3 x 3 + 4 x 2 3 x + 1 = 0.
:
x = 0 , x 2 ,
3 1
1
1
: x 2 3x + 2 + 4 = 0 x 2 + 2 3 x + + 4 = 0.
x x
x
x

179

6
2

1
1
1
y = x + , x 2 + 2 = x + 2 = y 2 2
x
x
x

2
y 3 y + 2 = 0, y1 = 1, y 2 = 2. x,

x + 1 = 1,

x
:
, II
1
+
=
x
2
.

x
2
x x + 1 = 0,
: 2
, x1 = 1,
x 2 x + 1 = 0.

1 i 3
1+ i 3
, x4 =
.
2
2
1 i 3 1+ i 3
,
.
: S = 1,
2
2

x 2 = 1, x3 =

3.4.
,
. , , ,
, .
, M , M 0 , M1 ,
M 2 , ..., z = x + iy , z 0 = x0 + iy0 , z1 = x1 + iy1 , z 2 = x2 + iy 2 , ...
a) M 0 r | z z 0 | = r ,
( x x0 ) + ( y y0 ) = r .
, M C ( M0 , r ) , | M M 0 | = r ,
| z z 0 | = r.
y
) M 0 r
| z z 0 | r.
M
r1
) ,
r2
M
0
z
C ( M0 , r1 ) C ( M0 , r2 ), r1 < r2 , z0
r1 < | z z 0 | < r2 (. 6.4).
O
x
) M1 M2 M3 . 6.4
z z2
+ 2k , m( M1 M2 M3 ) = arg 3
y
z1 z 2
M3
k Z .
2


z z
arg 3 2 = arg( z3 z 2 ) arg( z1 z 2 ) + 2k , k Z
z1 z 2
(. 6.5).

M1

M2
O

1
. 6.5

180


1. 3 M 0 (1, 2).
:
M 0 z 0 = 1 2i, , M C ( M0 , 3)
, | z (1 2i) | = 3, M ( x, y ), z = x + iy. , :

( x 1) 2 + ( y + 2) 2 = 3 ( x 1) 2 + ( y + 2) 2 = 9, x, y R.
2. xOy
M ( x, y ),
z = x + iy , | z 1 + i | 3.

y
1
O
1

| z 1 + i | 3 | x + iy 1 + i | 3
| ( x 1) + ( y + 1) i | 3 ( x 1) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 9 = 32 .
A(1, 1) 3 (. 6.6).

. 6.6

1. C :
a) (1 i) z 6 = 1 i 3;

) (1 + i 3 ) z 5 = 1 + i;

8
4
) z + z 2 = 0 ;

) z 10 + z 5 6 = 0.
3

6
3
) z 7 z + 6 = 0 ;

z i + z i + z i + 1 = 0.



z+i z +i z +i

2. C

3. , ( z + i) n + ( z i) n = 0 .
6
6
4. C ( z + 1) = ( z 1) .

5. :
a) x 4 + 5 x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 1 = 0;

) x 4 3 x 3 2 x 2 3 x + 1 = 0;

) x 3 4 x 2 4 x + 1 = 0.


A
1. :
a) (2 3i) + (1 + i);
) (2 i) : (3 4i);

) (4 3i) (2 5i);
) (1 + 3i) (2 + 4i);
) (i) 3 ;
) (i) 4 ;
) i13 .

2. , :
2

a) (1 i) 24 ;

1 1 ;

1 i 1+ i

1
1
;
+
1 + 2i 1 2i

) ( 3 + i) 6 .

181

3. C :
) zz + 2( z z ) = 20 + 8i.
a) z 2 = 9;
8+i
.
4. z =
7 4i
5. z1 = 3 i, z 2 = 2 + 2i 3. : a) z1 z 2 ; ) ( z1 : z 2 ) 2 .
6. :
a) (1 + i)(2 + i) +
)

1+ i 3
(1 i)12 ;
1 i 3
5+i
.
)
(1 + i)(2 3i)

5
;
1 + 2i

(1 + 2i) 3 (1 2i) 3
;
( 2 i) 2 ( 2 + i) 2

7. z = x + iy , 2 z = | z | + 2i.

1
, , z 2 + z + 1 = 0.
z4
9. ( 3 + i) 6 .
8. z 4 +

10. C :
a) z 2 3 | z | + 3 = 0;

) | z | 2 z + 2i = 0;

) z 2 + | z | = 0;

) (2 + i) z 2 (5 i) z + (2 2i) = 0.

| z | = | z 2i |,
)
| z i | = | z 1 |;

11. :

;
a) cos + i sin
) sin i cos , 0, .
6
6
2
12. :
3
a) 2 + 2i 3;
) ( 3 + i).
8
13. :
12

3 +i
;
a)
1 i

12

12

3 +i

+ 3 i ;
)

+
1
i
1
i

(1 i 3 )15
.
(1 + i) 2

14. n, n N, (1 + i) n = (1 i) n .
15. z 0 = 1 + i, z1 = 2 + i, z 2 = 2 + 3i, z 3 = 3 + i M 0 , M1 ,
M 2 , M 3 .
a) | z1 z 0 |, | z 2 z 0 |, | z 3 z 0 | .
) , M1 , M 2 , M 3 2
M 0 .
16 * . , ( x k , k Z) :

sin 2 nx
;
sin x
sin 2nx
) cos x + cos 3 x + ... + cos(2n 1) x =
2 sin x.
a) sin x + sin 3x + ... + sin(2n 1) x =

17 * . , n N :
n
n
n
n
.
;
) C n1 C n3 + C n5 ... = 2 2 sin
a) 1 C n2 + C n4 C n6 + ... = 2 2 cos
4
4
182

: 45

A
1 2
1. : a) (2 3i) + i ;
3 5

1 7
) (5 2i) i ;
3 2

2 3i
.
7+i

2. C (3 + 2i) z + 5 z = 4.
3. x y , (2 + 3i) x + (5 y 2i)(3 i) = 3 x 4i.
4. C 7 z 2 2 z + 1 = 0.
5. z = 1 i.
a) z 2 .
) , .
z
A x 2 + (2 + i) x 3i.

B x 2 + 4 x + 1 = 0.

C x 2 + (2 + 2i) x + 2i = 0.

D x 2 + 1 = 0.

: 90

1. :

2
3
a) (1 2i) 2 +
i ;
3 2

) (5 i) 3 ( 2 3i)(7 i);

3i
.
2i 7

2. C 2 z 2 + 7 z + 7 = 0.
3. x y ,

( x + 2i)(2 + yi) x( 2 3i) = x(1 + 2 ) + 8 xi.


4. xOy M(x, y),
z = x + iy,
1 | z 2i | 3.
5. z = x + iy , 1 z zz = i.
6.

(1 + i 3 )12
.
(2 + 2i) 5

3
7. C 2 z = 3i.

(1 + i) z1 + (1 i) z 2 = 1 + i,
8. C C
(1 i) z1 + (1 + i) z 2 = 1 + 3i.

183

184

4
5
6
7

z1 z1
= , z2 0
z2 z2
(, z 2 0)
z z R
z + z R
z = z z R
z=z

z = a bi
z , z1 , z 2 C :
1 z1 z 2 = z1 z 2
2 z1 z 2 = z1 z 2

a + bi (a + bi)(c di)
=
c + di
c2 + d 2

(a + bi)(a bi) = a + b = | z |

6 | z1 | | z 2 | | z1 z 2 |

|z |
z
5 1 = 1 , z 2 0
z2 | z2 |

4 | z1 z 2 | = | z1 | | z 2 |

3 | z1 | | z 2 | | z1 + z 2 |

2 | z1 + z 2 | | z1 | + | z 2 |

1 | z | = | z | = | z |

| z | = a2 + b2

|z|

mz 2 k + pz k + q = 0, m C* ,

mz + p = 0 z
p
k-
m

mu2 + pu + q = 0
p, q C k
z = u

+ 2k
+ 2k
+ i sin
k n r cos
, k = 0, n 1
n
n

r = | z | = a + b2
cos = a

b
sin =
r

z,
arg z ( , ]

M ( a, b)

1, b > 0,

sgn b = 0, b = 0,
1, b < 0.

1) b 0,

a2 + b2 + a
a2 + b2 a
+ i sgn b
1, 2 =

2
2

a , a 0,
2) b = 0, 1, 2 =
i | a | , a < 0,

z = a + bi

z n = r n (cos n + i sin n ), n Z

z1 r1
= [cos(1 2 ) + i sin(1 2 )]
z 2 r2

z1 z 2 = r1r2 [cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 )]

z 2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 )

z1 = r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 )

r R*+ , R, = arg z.

z = r (cos + i sin ),

z = a + bi

n- , n N \ {1}, z

(a + bi)(c + di) = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc)i

a + bi + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d )i

i = 1

z = a + bi , a , b R

N ZQR C

, ,
;
( ),
, * ;
, ,
; *
, ;
, , , , * .

1.1.
. 4
: , , . :
890 , 400 , 250 , 90 .
: 1500 , 700 , 400 160 .
. :
890 400 250 90
1500 700 400 160
(1)

( ) ,
.
. m n (m, n N* )
a11 a12 ... a1n

A = a21 a22 ... a2 n ,


a

m1 am 2 ... amn
m n , m n .

(2)

: A = (aij ), i = 1, m, j = 1, n .
ai1 , ai 2 , ..., ain i- , a1 j , a2 j , ..., amj j-
(2). , (i) aij ( --
185

(); , a12 --, -)


, ( j) , .
, (1) (2 4), a21 = 1500, a22 = 700.
. : ) (1); ) (1).
m n C (
R, Q, Z ) Mm n (C) ( Mm n (R ), Mm n (Q),
Mmn (Z)). ,
.
.
a11 a12 ... a1n

m = n (2) A = a21 a22 ... a2 n


a

n1 an 2 ... ann
n. Mnn (C) , Mnn (R ), ...
Mn (C), Mn (R ), ... a11 , a22 , ..., ann , a1n , a2 n 1 , ..., an 1 2 , an1
. , ,
( ) , ,
( ) .
a
11
a
n = 1 (2) A = 21 -,
M
a
m1
m = 1 A = ( a11 a12 ... a1n ) -.

1 0 ... 0

n I n = 0 1 ... 0
0 0 ... 1

I.
(2) 0, A
Om n O, .

3
4

0 2

1 0
0 5

1 0 0

0 1 0 = I3
0 0 1

0
0

0
2
0
0

3
1
1
0

2
1

0 0

0 0 = O32
0 0


3 2

, A Mm n (C), A = (aij ).
. A = (aij ), B = (bij ) Mmn (C) ,
aij = bij , i = 1, m, j = 1, n.
186

1.2.
, ,

. A = (aij ), B = (bij ) Mmn (C) . A B D = (d ij ) Mmn (C), d ij = aij + bij , i = 1, m, j = 1, n.
: D = A + B.

3
2 1
1
B =
A =
1 0 4
2
3 + 5 1 6
8
2 1 1 7
.
=
D =
1 + 2 0 3 4 + 0 1 3 4

7 5

3 0

. A = (aij ) Mmn (C) C


B = (bij ) Mmn (C), bij = aij , i = 1, m, j = 1, n.
: B = A.
. 1. (1) A A ,
A + (1) A = (1) A + A = O. A A.
B + ( A) B A.
2. ,
.

6
4 2
i
, iB =
2 A =
2 0 8
2i

7i 5i
.
3i 0

i 0 1
0

1 0, Y = 3
2 X iY + 3I 3 , X = 3
2 i
0
0

:
1 i 0 3
0 2 0
2i



i + 0
2 X iY + 3 I 3 = 6
2
0 + 3i
1
4 2i
2i 4i 0
0 0

3 + 2i

= 6 3i
4

1 i 0

i
1 .
2 4
0 0

3 0 =
0 3

1 i
2

6
i .
4i 3 4i

. A = (aij ) Mmn (C)


B = (bij ) Mnm (C) , bij = a ji , i = 1, m, j = 1, n.
187

A m n,
n m tA; ()
() A.

2
1. A =
3

3
2

0 1
t
, A = 0 1 .
1 0
1 0

3
2 0
1 0 0
, B =
. 3 tA 5 B ?
2. A =

1
4
2
0
1
0

tA B (, 3 tA 5B ) , 3 tA 5B.
1 .
1. A = (aij ), B = (bij ), D = (d ij ) Mmn (C)
, C :
1 A + B = B + A ( );
2 A + ( B + D) = ( A + B ) + D (
);
3 A + O = O + A = A (O );
4 A + ( A) = A + A = O (
);

5 ( + ) A = A + A;
6 ( A + B ) = A + B;
7 ( ) A = ( A);
8 1 A = A;

(A) = tA;
10 t( A + B) = tA + tB;
11 t ( tA) = A.
9


. , , 2.
F = A + ( B + D ) , F = ( A + B ) + D. f ij
F f ij = aij + (bij + d ij ), f ij F : f ij = ( aij + bij ) + d ij . , f ij = f ij, i = 1, m, j = 1, n. , F F .
. .
, . .
, .

2 i

X, 2 A + 3 X 4 I = O, A = 1 0
2 3

3i .
i

24 ,
.
188

2 1 2 4 0 0 4 2



3 X = 2 A + 4 I 3 = 2 i 0
3 + 0 4 0 = 2i
0
0 3i i 0 0 4 0 6i



4
4
0 2
0 2

1
= 2i
4 6 . X = 2i
4 6 .
3
0 6i 4 + 2i

0 6i 4 + 2i
t

4 4 0 0

6 + 0 4 0 =
2i 0 0 4


.
: () ().
(. ) :

5
3 .

A = 6 7 .
4 8 .

50
( ) B = .
90
, , :
v11 = 5 50 + 3 90 = 520 ( ),

v21 = 6 50 + 7 90 = 930 ( ),
v31 = 4 50 + 8 90 = 920 ( ).
, v11 ( v21 , v31 )
( , ) A
- B.
v11

V = v12 A B.
v
13
. A = (aij ) Mmn (C), B = (bij ) Mnk (C).
A B ( )
D = (d sp ) Mmk (C) , d sp :
n

d sp = as1b1 p + as 2 b2 p + ... + asn bnp = asi bip , s = 1, m, p = 1, k .


i =1

: D = A B D = AB.
, d sp AB s A p B (
, d sp s A
p B).
189

. AB ,
A B. ()
() A (B).

1 0 2

0
1 2
, B = 1 3
1 .
D = A B, A =
2 0 3
0 2
0


1 0 + 2 3 + 0 2
1 (2) + 2 1+ 0 0 1 6 0
11+ 2 (1) + 0 0
.
=
D =
2 1+ 0 (1) + (3) 0 (2) 0 + 0 3 + (3) 2 (2) (2) + 0 1+ (3) 0 2 6 4
. , .
AB , BA .
, AB BA ,
.
1 1 0 3
1 2
1 1 0 2
1
2
=
.

=


:
3 5 1 1 2 5 5 4 1 1 3 5
.
2. A, B, D
, :
1 A( BD) = ( AB) D ( );
2 A( B + D) = AB + AD, ( A + B ) D = AD + BD ( );
3 t( AB) = tB tA;
4 A I n = I n A = A, I n , A Mn (C) ( I n

Mn (C));

5 A O = O, O A = O.

,
.
, , 1.
A = (aij ) Mmn (C), B = (bij ) Mn p (C), D = (d ij ) Mpq (C) , ( AB) D. ,
A(BD): BD n q , , A(BD)
m q , , ( AB) D.
, : U = AB = (uij ), V = BD = (vij ),
S = ( AB ) D = ( sij ), T = A( BD) = (tij ).
190

:
n

k =1

l =1

l =1

uil = aik bkl , vkj = bkl d lj , sij = uil d lj = aik bkl d lj , tij = aik vkj = aik bkl d lj ,
l =1 k =1

k =1

k =1 l =1

sij = tij i = 1, m, j = 1, q, , , A( BD) = ( AB) D.


.
. .
Mn (C) , ,
,
. n N A Mn (C), An = 1
A 4
A2
...
A.
43
n

As At = As +t , ( As )t = Ast , s, t N .

2 1
.
1. f ( A) = A3 2 A2 + 3I 2 A =
1 0
:
2 1 2 1 3 2
3
,

=
A2 =
A3 = A 2 A =
1 0 1 0 2 1
2
4
, f ( A) =
3
2
2.
4

2 2

1 1

1 4
=
0 3

3
.
2

3 6 4 3 0 1 1
+
.
+
=
2 4 2 0 3 1 3

3 1 0 1 0 2
=

5 0 1 0 1 4

3 2
=
5 4

3
.
5

1 0
, n N .
3. A n , A =
1
1

:
.
A n , A2 , A3:
1 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1 0
=
,

=
.

A 2 =
A3 =
1 1 1 1 2 1
2 1 1 1 3 1
1 0
.
, A n =
n 1
1. n = 1 .

1
2. , A k =
k

0
, k N , Ak +1 . 0
0
1 0 1 0 1
.

=
, : A k +1 = A k A =
k 1 1 1 k + 1 1
1 0

3. , A n =
n 1

n N .
191

1.3. .

.
. , ( ), () ,
, .
() ( ) .

1. 0
0

a11 = 1,

0 2 3 1

0 3 0 5 .
0 0 0 0
a23 = 3.

2 1
.
2.
3 0
. 1. , .
2. .
. , :
a) aij , i j;
) aij = 0, i > j.
, , ,
, .
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3)
, .
A B ,

.
: A ~ B.

1 1 0 2

0 1 1 .
A = 2
1 2
3 0

( ):
192

a)
1 1 0 2 1 1 0 2

3 0;
2 0 1 1 ~ 1 2
1 2
3 0 2 0 1 1

) i
i 1 1
0 2 i i
0 2i

2 0 1 1 ~ 2 0 1 1 ;
1 2
3 0 1 2
3 0

) ,
2
1 1 0 2 1 3 6 2

2 0 1 1 ~ 2 0 1 1 .

2
3 0 1 2
3 0
2 1
) , 3,
, 2
0 2 1 1 6 6
3 1 1

2 0 1 1 ~ 2 0 1 1 .
2
3 0 1 2
3 0
2 1
3. A , ,
,
A .

A
:

1 1 0 2 2 1 1 0
2
2
0
1 1 0
1 1

1 3
2 2~ 0
1
3
2 0 1 1 ~ 0 2 1 3 ~ 0
1 2 3 0
0
0 2 1 3
0 0 7
1 3
2

2 .
7

. 1. ,
, A
.
2. , A, .

1.4.
, a 1 ,
1
a a 1 = a 1 a = a = 1. B, a
A A B = B A = I , :
193

. A ,
B, AB = BA = I .
B A A1 .
, B I , A. A A1 = A1 A = I
1
, A A, . . ( A1 ) 1 = A.

2 1 1

3 5
B = 3 0 1
A =
1 2
0 2 4

2
6
1

2 5
1 0
1
1
1
1
1

A =
=

B
12
8
5

, A A = A A =

22
3
0
1
1

6 4 3

1 0 0

1
1
B B = B B = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1


1 , , .

. B C A, . . CA = AC = I
BA = AB = I . : B = BI = B ( AC ) = ( BA)C = IC = C.
2 A1 , A2 , ..., Ak Mn (C) , A1 A2 ... Ak ( A1 A2 ... Ak ) 1 = Ak1 Ak11 ... A21 A11 .

( A1 ... Ak ) ( A k1 A k11 ... A 21 A11 ) = A1 ( A 2 ... ( Ak 1 ( Ak Ak1 ) Ak11 ) ... A21 ) A11 =

= A1 ( A 2 ... ( A k 1 A k11) ... A 21) A11 = ... = A1 A11 = I n .


( Ak1 ... A11 ) ( A1 ... Ak ) = I n .
, A1 A2 ... Ak ( A1 A2 ... Ak ) 1 = Ak1 Ak11 ... A21 A11.

.
, A Mn (C) ,
:
- 2n B = ( A I n), A
In ;
- B , A
In .
, In , A1 .
194

. A ,
, A .
B = ( A I ) A ,
, A .

2 1

1. A = 3
0
0 2

:
1 1 0 0
3 2 1
2 1

( A I 3 ) = 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 ~ 2 0 3
0 2 4 0 0 1 3 0 2

22 2

~ 0
0

1 .
4

1 0 0

5 3 2 0 ~
4 0 0 1

0
0 16 4 33
44 22

3 5 3 2 022 ~ 0 66
0 36 24 15 ~
0 22 6 4 35 0
0 22 6 4 3
1

1 0

36
6
1 0 0 12

0
12 36 6
132
132
132
132 0


36 24 15
~ 0 66
0 36 24 15 ~ 0 1 0
= ( I 3 A 1 ).
66
66
66

0 0 22 6 4 3
6
4
3

0 0 1

22
22 22

2
1
12
, A =
22
6
1

6 1

8 5 .
4 3

. , A A1 A1 A.

1 2 2

2. , A = 2 3 1 .
3 5
1

:
2 1 2 2 1 0 0 3 1 2
2 1 0

( A I3 ) = 2 3 1 0 1 0 ~ 1 0 1 5 2 1
3 5 1 0 0 1
0 1 5 3 0

0 1 2 2 1 0 0

0 ~ 0 1 5 2 1 0 .
1 0 0 0 1 1 1

A ,
, A .

195


A
1. :

) 5
0

2 0 7 1
+
;
a)
1 3 0 4
i 0 2
3

;
)
i 2 + i i 3
1 7
)
23

3
;
4

1 2 0

2 3 1 ;
1 2 i

1 0 3
;
) 3
1 2 i

0 3 i
i
;
+
)
1 2 i i 3i

1 2

0
) 2 i
2 i

) i
1

7i 3
2 i
;
i
)
1 8i
1 3
2 0 y z
+
1 2 1 u

1
2. x, y, z, u, x
3

7 ;
3

6 3
=
2 7

3 0 1

) 2i i 2 i 1 ;
5 i 3

0 1 0 0 0

0 2 + 0 0 0 .
2 i 0 0 0

3 6
.
2 2

3. AB, BA ( , ):

4 1
1 6 11
3 0 0

1 3
3 5
4 0
, B = 0 7; ) A = 0 2 0 , B = 9 2 5 ;
, B =
; ) A =
a) A =
2
5

6
2

7 6
2 9
0 3 7
0 0 1

0 1

a b c
1 0 1

2 1
) A = 1 1 1, B = 0 1 1; ) A =
3 0
x y z
1 1 1

3 7

a b c
1 0 0
3 1

1
=
A
d
e
f
,
B
=
,
)
=
B
2
1
;

0 1 0 .

1
g h i
0 0 1
1 0

4. :

0 1 1 1 3 1


;
a)
3 2 2 2 0 1
2

1 2
;
)
3 4

1
)
3

0 1 1 1 3 1
)

;
3 2 2 2 0 1
2

2
;
4

1
;
2

2 3 4 1 3
)


1 3 2 0 2

1 1
)
;
2 1

1
)
1

1
.
2

a) )?
5. A2 B 2 ( , ), A, B 3.
6. X, 3 X + A = 2 B, A, B 3.
7. :

1 1

1 2 3

3 0
a) 2 0 1; )
5 2
4 4 5

5
1

196

1
; )
5

3 2 1 3
1 2 0 3

2 1 4 1; ) 2 1 3 1; )
4 5 5 6
3 0 1 1

25 31 17 43

75 94 53 132.
25 32 19 46

8. C1 , C 2 , C3 , C 4 , C5 A, B, C. (
) 1000
T:
C1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5

2 3 4 2

T = 4 2 3 6
3 1 2 3


, .

3 A

3 B
5 C
10%.

9. , (. 8)
, M1 , M 2 , M3 :

4 7 10 8 5
2 1 0 3 4
4 2 3 0 2

M1 = 10 8 4 0 6 , M2 = 6 3 4 2 2 , M3 = 3 0 1 3 4 .
3 3 4 10 7
3 3 1 4 0
6 7 4 3 1

,
.

10. :

2
a)
3

1 5

5 1

0
1

2 3

5;
0 2

4 3
3
1 0
;
) i
3i i 4 + i

0
3 0
; )
1 2
3

1 i 3 1
;
) 3
i 3 + i
0

2 5
i
+
0 2 i 2 + i

1
)
3

1 1
, n N ;
)
0
1

1 1
, n N ;
*)
1 0

1 1 1

*
) 3 1 2 , k N ;
2 1 0

1 0 ... 0

) 0 2 ... 0 , k N* ;
0 0 ...
n

8
3 5 6 2 18

3 3 1 2 ;
) 2 4
3 1
1 4
5 3

8
)
3

1
7
4
3

2 3i
;
i 0

3
6
2
7

4 2

5 3
6 1

8 2

1
5
2
3

2
4
2
1

6
.
7

11. f ( A), :

2 1 0

a) f ( X ) = X 2 X + I 3 , A = 0 2 0 ;
1 1 0

2 1 1

) f ( X ) = X 3 X + 2 I 3 , A = 1 2 1 .
1 1 0

12 * . , A, B Mn (C) AB BA = I .

197

13. T1 , T2 , T3
F1 , F2 , F3 . , ,
:
T1 T2 T3

1 0 2 F1

M = 1 1 0 F2 .
0 2 1 F

3
(2 V1 V2 )
(. .):
V1 V2
5,1 4,1 T1

P = 5,2 4,0 T2 .
5,0 3,8 T

3
, ( ).
14. , (
a), ) R ):

1 1 0
1

1 ;
a) 1 3
0
4
8 1

) 8
2

1 5
2 6
1

7 ;
2

37 259 481 407

) 25 175 325 275 .


19 133 247 209

15. , ,
:
2 1
3
2 2 3

0 1
5 20
1 2
;
;
;
)
)
) 1 2 1 ;
) 1 1 0 ;
a)
2 3
4 16
4 3
2
1 2 1
2 3

) 2
3

1 2
;
)
3 4

2
)
1

1
2
2
1

3
1
3
2

2
;
4

4
3
5

1 ;
1
1

3
)
2

) 7
5

2
8
2
8

1
0
4
1

5
3
2

4
;
3

4 ;
3

i
0 1+ i

) 0
i 1 2i ;
1 1
i

1 1 1 ... 1 1

0 1 1 ... 1 1
*
)
.
0 0 0 ... 1 1

0 0 0 ... 0 1
144
42444
3
n

1 0
.
16. X M2 (R ), AX = XA, A =
1 2
4 3
, X M2 (R ).
17. X 2 =
0 1

198

(
a1 x1 + a2 x2 + ... + an xn = c, c, ai C, i = 1, n) .
, , 22 , 20 .
, 1,5 ,
0,5 ? , y
.
x + y = 22,
:

1,5 x + 0,5 y = 20.
( , .), x = 9, y = 13.
,
, , .
,
, .
.
.

2.1. () . ()
()
:

a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1 ,
aij , bi C, i, j = 1, 2.

a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2 ,
a11 a12
(1).
A =
a21 a22

(1)

, , ,
, .
:
(a11a22 a12 a21 ) x1 = b1a22 b2 a12 ,
(2)

(a11a22 a12 a21 ) x2 = a11b2 a21b1 .

, (1) (2).
a11a22 a12 a21 0,
b a b a
a b a21b1
x1 = 1 22 2 12 , x2 = 11 2
.
a11a22 a12 a21
a11a22 a12 a21

(3)

. = a11a22 a12 a21

a11

( ) A =
a21
.
: det A, | A |

a12
,
a22

a11 a12
a a
. , 11 12 = a11a22 a12a21 = .
a21 a22
a21 a22

(1).
199

, (3) , : b1a22 b2 a12 =

b1

a12

b2

a22

= 1 , a11b2 a21b1 =

a11

b1

a21 b2

= 2 , -

(1).
, 1 ( 2 ) | A | (

b1
(1).
b2

3 1
3 1
| A | =
= 3 2 4 1 = 2.
A =
4 2
4 2
(3) :
4 ( 1).

(1) ,

: x1 = 1 , x2 = 2 .


: x1 = c1 , x2 = c2 (1),

x1 , x2 (3). ,
(3) , (1).

2 x 4 x = 3,

2
R 1
3x1 + 2 x2 = 1.
:
2 4
= 4 + 12 = 16 0,
=
3
2

1 =

3
1

4
2

= 10; 2 =

5
8

: S = ,

2 3
3 1

= 7. , x1 =

1 5
7
= , x = 2 = .
16
8 2

7
.
16


, :

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ,

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 = b2 , aij , bi C, i, j = 1, 3,


a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 = b3 ,
: x1 = 1 , x2 = 2 , x3 = 3 ,
1

(17041752) .

200

(4)
(5)

= a11a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21a32 a13 a22 a31 a12 a21a33 a11a23 a32 ,
1 = b1a22 a33 + a12 a23b3 + a13b2 a32 a13 a22 b3 a12 b2 a33 b1a23 a32 ,
2 = a11b2 a33 + b1a23 a31 + a13 a21b3 a13b2 a31 a11a23b3 b1a21 a33 ,
3 = a11a22 b3 + a12 b2 a31 + b1a21a32 b1a22 a31 a11b2 a32 a12 a21b3 .

a11 a12 a13

. A = a21 a22 a23 , a

31 a32 a33
,
= a11a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21a32 a13 a22 a31 a11a23 a32 a12 a21a33 ,
a11

a12

a13

: det A, | A | a21

a22
a32

a23 .
a33

a31

2 1 1
0 2 3 = 2 (2) (4) +1 3 (3) + 0 4 (1) (1) (2) (3) 2 3 4 1 0 (4) = 11.
3 4 4
. 1.
, ,
A ().
2.
(. 7.1) (.
7.2): ,
7.1 a) 7.2 a),
, 7.1 ) 7.2 ).
a11 a12 a13
a11 a12 a13

a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

a21
a31

a22
a32

a23
a33

a21
a31

a22
a32

a23
a33

a31

a32

a33

a31

a32

a33

a11
a21

a12
a22
a)

a13
a23

a11
a21

a12
a22
)

a13
a23

a)

)
. 7.1

. 7.2

(4). ( A ). ,
1 , 2 , 3 (5)
(!):
b1 a12 a13
a11 b1 a13
a11 a12 b1

1 = b2
b3

a22
a32

a23 , 2 = a21 b2
a33
a31 b3

a23 , 3 = a21
a33
a31

a22
a32

b2 .
b3
201

, i (i = 1, 3) ( ) , A (4) i
(4).
(5), , 4.
5 ( ). (4) , :

x1 = 1 , x2 = 2 , x3 = 3 .


, , :

2 x1 x2 + x3 = 3,

3 x2 x3 = 1,

4 x1 + x2 x3 = 3.

2 1 1
3 1 = 6 + 4 12 + 2 = 12 ,
= 0
4
1 1
. :
2 3 1
3 1 1
2 1 3
1 = 1 3 1 = 12 ; 2 = 0 1 1 = 0 ; 3 = 0
3 1 = 12.
4 3 1
3
1 1
4
1 3
12
0
12
= 1, x2 =
= 0, x3 =
= 1.
12
12
12
: S = {(1, 0, 1)}.

: x1 =

. ,
, 3.

2.2. n
2 (3) 2 (3)
n n (n N, n 2).
n.
, , ,
det ( a11 ) = a11 ,
( /).
, :
| A | = a11 ( a22 a33 a23 a32 ) + a12 ( a23 a31 a21a33 ) + a13 ( a21a32 a22 a31 ).
:

| A | = a11 (1)1+1
202

a22

a23

a32

a33

+ a12 (1) 1+ 2

a21

a23

a31

a33

+ a13 (1)1+ 3

a21

a22

a31

a32


a1 j , :
, 1 j.
i
aij M j . , A :

| A | = a11 (1)1+1 M 11 + a12 (1)1+ 2 M 21 + a13 (1)1+3 M 31 ,


.

. , :

| A | = a13 (1)1+ 3

a
a22
+ a23 (1) 2 + 3 11
a32
a31

a21
a31

a12
a
+ a33 (1) 3+ 3 11
a32
a21

a12
=
a22

= a13 (1) 4 M 31 + a23 (1) 5 M 32 + a33 (1) 6 M 33 ,


.
/.
. ,
.

2 1
= 0
:

1
3 1 , .
1 1

( ):
3 1
1 1
1 1
= 2 (1)1+1
+ 0 (1) 2 +1
+ 4 (1) 3+1
= 2 (2) + 0 + 4 (2) = 12.
1 1
1 1
3 1
n (
n), n N, n 2, , ,
, n 1,
aij A = (aij ), i, j = 1, n. , A i j; M ij .
. A = (aij ) Mn (C), n 2,
n,
n

= a11 (1)1+1 M 11 + a12 (1)1+ 2 M 21 + ... + a1n (1)1+ n M n1 = (1)1+ j a1 j M 1j .

(6)

j =1

a11
: | A |, det A a21
an1

a12 ... a1n


a22 ... a2 n .
an 2 ... ann

,
.
203

. aij

A = (aij ) Mn(C), n 2, ( | A |) Aij = ( 1) i + j M ij .


, a23 | A |
2 1
= 6,
M 32 =
4
1

A23 = (1) 2+3 6 = 6.

, (6) :

= a11 A11 + a12 A12 + ... + a1n A1n = a1 j A1 j .

(7)

j =1

. .
.
(6), (7) ( n = 3 )
.

3
1

0
0
3

3 1 2
1 0

0 0 4
0 0 3

5
0
1+ 4

+ (3) (1)

0
1+1

= 3 (1)

0 4
0 3

1
0
0
0

2
1
4
3

3
2
.
5
0

2
1 1
1+ 2
5 + 1 (1)
0 4
0

0 3

2
1 0
1+ 3
5 + 2 (1)
0 0
0

0 0

2
5+
0

1 0 1
0 0 4 = 3 0 + (1) (+15) + 2 0 + (3) (1) 0 = 15.
0 0 3

(6), (7) ( ), : ,
,
. , .
6. A = (aij ) Mn (C), n 2. i = 1, n
:
n
(8)
= | A | = ai1 (1) i +1 M 1i + ai 2 (1) i + 2 M 2i + ... + ain (1) i + n M ni = aij Aij .
j =1

i.
204

3 1 2
1 0

0 0 4
0 0 3

5
0

:
6, 4- (
).
3 1 3

| A | = 0 (1) 4+1 M 14 + 0 (1) 4+ 2 M 24 + 3 (1) 4+3 1 0


0 0

2 + 0 (1) 4+ 4 M 44 = (3) 5 = 15.


5

, ,
.
.
7. A = (aij ) Mn (C), n 2. j = 1, n
:
n

= | A | = a1 j (1)1+ j M 1j + a2 j (1)2+ j M j2 + ... + anj (1)n+ j M jn = aij Aij .


i =1

j.

.
:
1+ 2

| A | = 1 (1)

1 1 2
0 4
5 + 0 (1) 2+2 M 22 + 0 (1)3+2 M 23 + 0 (1) 4+ 2 M 24 = 115 = 15.
0 3 0

2.3.
, 3, ,

. : 4 , 20 .
, .
1 A tA.
, | A |, |t A | n = 2, n = 3
n > 3 ( | A |
, |t A | ).
205

. , ,
, .
, .
2 B A , | B | = | A |.

: k = 2 , k 1 k , k 3,
, , .

3 1 2 3

1 0 1 2
,
2 4 A =
0 0 4
5

0 0 3
0

3 1 2 3
0

0
0 0 3
1+ 2
4+3
4
B=
. : | A | = 3 (1) M 3 = 15, | B | = 1 (1) 0
0 0 4
5

1
1 0 1 2

4 5=
1 2

= (15) = 15. Deci, | B | = | A |.


3 A , .

, , B, ,
2, | B | = | A |. B = A,
. , | A | = | B | = | A |, 2 | A | = 0 | A | = 0.
4
0:
ai1 Ak 1 + ai 2 Ak 2 + ... + ain Akn = 0 (i k ).

a11 ... a1n


:

ak 1 ... akn k
.
ai1 ... ain i

an1 ... ann


k
.
, .
5 A ,
A , A.
:
.
206

aij i A : aij = aij .


n

j =1

j =1

| A | i, : | A | = ( aij ) Aij = aij Aij = | A |.

2i 3i
2 3
2i 3i
2 3
= 16i 15i = i,
= 1, ,
=i
.
5 8
5 8
5 8
5 8
6 ,
.
5 = 0.
5 7.
7 ,
. i s A ,

aij = asj , j = 1, n.

3
2 i

4 2i 6 = 0, 1 2 .
7 i 3
8 A
, , ,
A.

k A s, . k B :
akj + a sj . | A | k,
n

j =1

j =1

j =1

| A | = (akj + asj ) Akj = akj Akj + asj Akj = | A | + 0 = | A | .

1 2

A = 2 4
1 2

6 3
1 2 3

, 2, B = 0 0 0 .
1 2 3

, | A | = | B | = 0.
9 i A aij = aij + aij, j = 1, n.
A ( A ) , A i aij ( aij), j = 1, n, | A | = | A | + | A | .
207

| A | i, :
n

j =1

j =1

j =1

| A | = (aij + aij) (1) i + j M ij = aij (1) i + j M ij + aij(1) i + j M ij = | A | + | A |,


aij + aij, aij , aij A, A A .

2.4.

( ()).
n n 1. , 8, ,
.
()
(), ()
1 1.

1 i
2
= i
:

2+i
5

3i
0 .
2 + i

1 4+i
: = i 2 + i
0
5

3i
0 .
2 + i

i: , i.

1 4+i
: = 0 3 3i
0
5

3i
3 3i
3 = 1 (1)1+1
5
2 + i

3
= (3 3i)(2 + i) 15 = 18 + 9i.
2 + i

( , ()
, ).
:

a11
a21
1 =
an 1 1
an1
208

0
a22
an 1 2
an 2

...
0
...
0
... an 1 n 1
... an n 1

0
a11
0
= a11a22 ...ann = 0
0
0
ann

a12 ... a1 n 1
a22 ... a2 n 1
0 ...
0

11n
a2 n ;
ann

a11
a
2 = 21
an 1 1
an1

a12
...
an 1 2
0

... a1 n 1
... a2 n 1
...
...
0

a1n
0

= (1)

n ( n 1)
2

a1n a2 n 1 ...an1 = 0
an1

...

0 ... a2 n 1
an 2 ... an n 1

a1n
a2 n .
ann

, 1 ( 2 ) , , (),
.
:

1 = (1) 2 a11

a22
an 2

a33
0 ... 0
= a11a22
an 3 ... ann
an 3

0 ... 0
= ... = a11a22 ... ann .
an 4 ... ann

a11
1. a21
a31

a12
a22
0

a13
3 ( 3 1)
0 = a13 a22 a31 (1) 2 = a13 a22 a31 .
0

3 0
1 2
1 2
5 0
2. =
( ) 0 1 0 1
1 2 1 0
, , ,
:
3 0
1 2
0 6 2 2
0 0 2 4
1 2
5 0
0 4
4 0
0 0
4 4
=
=
=
=
0 1 0 1
0 1 6 0 1
0
1
4 0 1
1 2 1
0
1 2 1 0
3 1 2 1 0
0
0
= 8
0
1

0 1 2
0
1 1
= 8
1 0
1
2 1
0

0
0
0
1

0
0
1
2

0 3
4 3
1 1
= 8(1) 2 (1)(3) = 24.
0
1
1 0

n
.

n: =

0 1 1 ... 1 1
1 0 1 ... 1 1
1 1 0 ... 1 1
1 1 1 ... 1 0

209

:
,
( n 1 ) , , , , , n-
, 1:
n 1 n 1 ... n 1
1 1 ... 1 1
1 1 1 ... 1

= 1

...

1 = (n 1) 1 0 ... 1

...

0 = (n 1) (1)n1.
0 0 ... 1

= (n 1) 0 1 0 ...

1 1 ... 0

8 ( ). A, B Mn (C),
| A B | = | A | | B |.

2
2 1
0
1 3
, AB =
.
, B =
A =
1 1
1 1
1 1
| A | = 1, | B | = 2, | AB | = 2.

2.5. ()

,
(. . 1.4, 1).
9. ,
.

8. A , I = A A 1 ,
, , 1 = | I | = | A | | A1 |, , | A | 0 ( !)

| A1 | =

1
= | A |1 .
| A|


. , ,
A11 A21 ... An1

1
1
A =
A12 A22 ... An 2 .
(9)

| A|

A1n A2 n ... Ann


, 4
() n 2 :

A11
1
A A=
A
| A | 12
A1n
1

210

A21
A22
A2 n

...

An1 a11

... An 2 a21
... Ann an1

a12
a22
an 2

... a1n

... a2 n =
... ann

n
Ai1ai1
i =1
1 n
=
Ai 2 ai1
| A|
i=n
n
Ain ai1
i =1

A a

i1 i 2

i=n
n

i2

ai 2

i=n
n

A a
in

i2

i =n

| A | 0 ... 0
n
| A|
1
0 | A | ... 0 =
I = I.
... Ai 2 ain =

| A|
| A|
i=n

n
0 ... | A |
0
... Ain ain
i=n

...

A a

i1 in

, A A1 = I n .

1
, ,
a11

n = 1, | A | = | a11 | 0 A1 =

AA1 = A1 A = I .

1 1

0 1 .
2 4

, A = 3
0

1
0
2

2
: | A | = 3
0

1
1 = 6 + 4 + 12 = 22.
4

, | A | 0.
A:
0 1
3 1
3 0
A11 =
= 2; A12 =
= 12; A13 =
= 6;
2
4
0 4
0 2

A21 =
A31 =

1 1
2 4

1
0

= 6; A22 =

2 1
0 4

2
1
= 1; A32 =
1
3

= 8; A23 =

2
1
= 5; A33 =
1
3

2
1
12
(9), : A =
22
6
1

= 4;

= 3.

6 1

8 5.
4 3

, .
A B , AX = B, A
, det A 0, .
A 1 , :

A1 ( AX ) = A1 B, ( A1 A) X = A1 B, I X = A1 B, X = A1 B.

1 0

, A B = 2 1
0
1

6 1 1 0
2
14 5

1
X = A1 B = 12
8 5 2 1 = 4 3 .
22
22

1
7
6 4 3 0
2
211

. a) , XA = B, | A | 0,
X = B A1 .
) , AXB = C, A, B, C Mn (C), | A | | B | 0,
X = A 1CB 1 .

1. 1 0,2 0,5
, 1 0,14
0,6 ( ). ,
, 0,15 0,5 .
:
x1 x2 ( )

0,2 x + 0,14 x = 0,15

1
2
. :
0,5 x1 + 0,6 x2 = 0,5

0,2 0,14
0,15
x
, X = 1 , B =
, AX = B, A =
.
x
0
,5
2
0,5 0,6
: A 1 =

0,14
.
0,2

1 0,6

0,05 0,5

AX = B A 1 ,

X = A 1 B =

1 0,6

0,05 0,5

0,14 0,15
1 0,02 0,4

= .

=
0,2 0,5 0,05 0,025 0,5

, 0,4 0,5 .
2. M1 M 2 M 3 , M1 ( x1 , y1 ), M 2 ( x2 , y 2 ), M3 ( x3 , y3 ),
:

AM M M
1

x1
1
= x2
2
x3

y1 1
y2 1 . , M1 , M 2 , M 3
y3 1

, .
M1 ( 2, 3), M 2 (3, 0), M3 ( 2, 2).
M1 M 2 M 3 , .
:

2 3 1
3 0 1 1, , .
2 2 1
M1 M 2 M 3

212

1
1
| 1 | = (. .).
2
2


A
1. :
2 3
1 2
;
;
a)
)
3 4
4 6

2 3 7
9;

a 2
;
2a 3

3
2
1

1 1 2

3
1

7
3 ;

5i
i

2
;
3

1 1

2i
i
;
3
5i

1 1 3

1 5
3 3 .
1 3 3

2. R R :
4 x1 2 x2 = 5,
2 x 3x2 = 4,
3x + 8 x2 = 1,
a) 1
) 1
)
x1 + 2 x2 = 1;
7 x1 + 11x2 = 3;
x1 + 3 x2 = 2;

5 x1 + 3x2 = 3,
)
x1 x2 = 6;

) 8 1

4 6

) 2 3 3 ;

5 3 1

ax + bx = c,

2
) 1
bx1 + ax2 = d , a b 0, a b;

3 x1 x2 = 5,

) 2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 0,
2 x1 x2 + 4 x3 = 15;

) 2 1 3 ;

1
) 2

2 x1 x3 = 1,

) 2 x1 + 4 x2 x3 = 1,
x1 + 8 x2 + 3 x3 = 2;

x1 + x2 x3 = 2,

) 2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 3,
x1 + x2 + x3 = 6;

2 x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 4,

) 3x1 + x2 3 x3 = 7,
x + x 2 x = 3;
2
3
1

x1 + x2 + x3 = 1,

) x1 + 2 x2 + 2 x3 = 2,
2 x + 3 x + 3 x = 3.
2
3
1

3. :

2
1
a)
2
1

0
2
1
1
1 3
1 3

2
2 11 5
0
1 2 2
1
1 5 2
2
0 1 1
; )
; )
2

3
3
2
2
3 1 1
1 3 3 4
4
2 3 0

5
2 1
2
1 2
; )
1
2 0
2
0 2

2
0
2
1

0
1 2 3
2
1 0
1
; )
1
3 1 1
2
1 2 0

4
2
.
0
5

4. , :

a1

b1

a) a2 b2
a3 b3

a1 b1
a1 x + b1 y + c1
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = a2 b2
a3 b3
a3 x + b3 y + c3

c1
a1 + b1 x a1 x + b1
c2 ; ) a2 + b2 x a2 x + b2
c3
a3 + b3 x a3 x + b3

c1
a1 b1
2
c2 = (1 x ) a2 b2

c1
c2 .

c3

c3

a3 b3

5. ,
: a) 3;
) n?
6. A Mn (C), ?
7. n,
?
z1 z1 c1
8. , z 2

z2

c2 , ci R, zi C,

z3

z3

c3

213

9. C C :

(3 i) x + ( 4 + 2i) y = 2 + 6i,
a)
( 4 + 2i) x ( 2 + 3i) y = 5 + 4i;

(2 + i) x + ( 2 i) y = 6,
)
(3 + 2i) x + (3 2i) y = 8;

x + iy 2 z = 10,

) x y + 2iz = 20,
ix + 3iy (1 + i) z = 30.

10. M1 M 2 M3 , M1 , M 2 , M3 :
a) M1 ( 2, 1), M 2 (3, 4), M3 (1, 6);

) M1 (0, 0), M 2 ( 2, 1), M3 ( 4, 2);

) M1 ( 2, 4), M 2 (0, 3), M3 (1, 7);

) M1 (5, 4), M 2 (11, 0), M3 (0, 3).

11. , :

a 1 a2
a) b 1 b 2 ;
c 1 c2

x a a
) a x a ;
a a x

a2 b2
) c b
b c

c2
a .
a

12. , :

1 2
;
a)
4 3

0 1
;
)
2 3

1 1

1 1
)
1 1

1 1

3 1 2

) 0 3 1 ;
4 2 1

) 1
2

2 1

2 1 ;
2 3

) 1
1

1 1
;
1 1

1 1

2
)
1

2 3

1 0 ;
2 1
2
3
1
0

13. AX = B, YA = B, A 12 a) B 12 ).
14. R :

x2
a) x
2

1
1
3
1 = 0;
5 x + 1

ax
a
) a
ax
a

a
a = 0.
ax

15. , :

a2
a) bc
b2 + c2

214

b2
ac
a2 + c2

c2
ab ;
a2 + b2

a
) a 2

b
b2

c
c2 .

bc ca ab

3
1
1
2

2
.
1

3.1.
,
,
.
m n :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ... + a2 n xn = b2 ,
aij , bi C, i = 1, m, j = 1, n.
(1)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm ,


aij , i = 1, m, j = 1, n, ,
b1 , b2 , ..., bm .
:
a11 a12 ... a1n
a11 a12 ... a1n b1

A = a21 a22 ... a2 n , A = a21 a22 ... a2 n b2 ,


a

m1 am 2 ... amn
m1 am 2 ... amn bm
.
. n (c1 , ..., cn ) (1), xi ci , i = 1, n,
(1) ,
n

ij

c j = bi , i = 1, m.

j =1

. n
c1

( x1 , ..., xn ) - X 0 = M
c
n
Mn1 (C), , x1 = c1 , ..., xn = cn .
,
, .
, , ,
.

x 2 x = 3,

x 2 x = 3,

x 2 x = 3,

1
2
1
2
2
1

2 x1 + 3x2 = 1; 4 x1 8 x2 = 12; x1 2 x2 = 4.

, ,
, , .
: , , x1 = 1, x2 = 1; x1 = 3, x2 = 3.
, , .
215

:
a) , ;
) .
, C.
(1) :

AX = B,
b1
x1


A = (aij ) Mmn (C), X = M , B = M Mm1 (C).
b
x
m
n
:
A1 X = B1 ,
A1 , B1 A, B .

(2)

(3)

. (2) (3) ,
( , ).

x + x x = 1

x x = 0

1 2 3
1 3
x1 = 1, x2 = 1,

+
=
2
2
x
x
x
1 2 3
x1 + 2x2 x3 = 2

x3 = 1, , x1 = 2, x2 = 1, x3 = 2
, .
. A, A1 Mm n (C), B, B1 Mm 1 (C)

U Mm (C) , UA = A1 , UB = B1 , (2) (3) .

(2) , X 0 Mn1 (C) (2),


A X 0 = B. U, UAX 0 = UB ,
A1 X 0 = B1 . , (2) (3).
, (3) (2),
A = U 1 A1 , B = U 1 B1 . , (2) (3) .

3.2. n
n

(1) m = n, :
a11 x1 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
an1 x1 + ... + ann xn = bn .

AX = B,

x1
b1


A Mn (C) , X = M , B = M Mn1 (C).
x
b
n
n
216

(4)

(5)

10. A (4) ,

X0 = A1 B.
(6)

(5) A 1 , : A1 ( AX ) = A1 B,
( A1 A) X = A1 B, I X = A1 B, X = A1 B. . 3.1, (5)
X = A1 B : U A1 .

x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 4,

C C C : 2 x1 + 3 x2 + x3 = 3,
x1 + x2 + x3 = 2.
:
1 2 3

A = 2 3 1 .
1 1 1

( A I ) ,
A ( ) I :
1 2 3 1 0 0

0 1 5 2 1 0 .
0 0 3 1 1 1

, A, ,
( 2 1 ) A
. ,

1 0 0 2

1
: 0 1 0
3

1
0 0 1
3

1
3
2
3
1

7
7
3
2 1

5
1
1
. , A = 1 2 5 .
3
3
1
1
1 1

7 4 1
2 1
x1

1

1
(6) x 2 = A B = 1 2 5 3 = 0 , . .
3

x
3
1 2 1
1 1
x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1.
: S = {(1, 0, 1)}.

( 2 n = 2, n = 3 ) (4). 4 2.3, (7) 2.2


(9) A1 2.5, (6)
x1 , x2 , ..., xn .
217

7
n

x1
A11

x2
1
1

= A B =
A
:
| A | 12
M
x
A1n
n
a11
1 n
1
xj =
Aij bi =
a
| A|
| A | 21
i =1
an1

a12
a22
an 2

A21
A22
A2 n
j
... b1
... b2
... bn

Ab
i1 i
... An1 b1

in=1
b2
1
A b

=
... An 2
i 2 i , :
M | A | i =1

n
... Ann b
n
Ain bi

i =1
... a1n

j
... a2 n =
, j = 1, n, j
... ann

, A j (4). = | A | , 1 , 2 , ..., n (4).


.
11 ( ). (4)
, :

x1 = 1 , x2 = 2 , ..., xn = n .

11 ,
= 3, 1 = 3, 2 = 0, 3 = 3, . . x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1.

3.3.
, (
), ,
(1).
, :
- ;
- ;
-
, .
,

A (. 1.3).
; , .
2 x1 x2 + x3 = 3,

1. C
x2 x3 = 1,

2 x3 = 1.

, .
218

: , . .,
. ,
.
1
x3 = ; 2
1
x3 x2 = ; ,
2
x2 , x1 = 1. ,
1
1
: x1 = 1, x2 = , x3 = .
2
2

1 1
: S = 1, , .

2 2

2 x1 x2 + x3 = 1,
3x2 x3 = 1 .

, 0 = b, b 0,
2. C

, , . ,
, ( ,
(),
, r
r ). , , c,
, , , .
x1 x2 , x3
.
x1 , x2 :
, , , :

2 x1 x2 = 1 x3 ,

3x2 = 1 + x3 .

x3 , C, , , 2 1
1 1
: x1 = , x2 = + , x3 = , C.
3 3
3 3
,
2
1
. , = 0 x1 = , x2 = , x3 = 0,
3
3

.
= 1 x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1 .
, , x3 , C, .
. 1. : , . , x1 , x3 .
219

2. :
,
.
.
12. A Mm n (C), B Mm1 (C) A = ( A B ) .
AX = B ,
A1 , A1 , A A ,
.

. , AX = B ,
.

a
11
0
A1 =
0

... a1p
... arp
... 0
... 0

... a1n b1

... arn br
, ... 0 br+1

... 0 bm
0.
, arp
AX = B ,
A1 . , bi = 0 i = r + 1, m,
. . A1 A1 .

A1
... a1n b1

... arn br
, arp 0.
... 0 0

... 0 0
A1 AX = B
( r = n ) ( r < n ),
.
. r
a11 ... a1 p

0 ... arp
A1 , A1
0 ... 0

0 ... 0

x1 2 x2 + x3 4 x4 = 1,

x2 x3 + 2 x4 = 2,
1.
x1 + 3 x2 2 x3 + 6 x4 = 1.
:
A :
2
1
1 4 1 1 2
1 4 1 1 2
1 4 1

1 1
2 2 ~ 0
1 1
2 2 ~ 0
1 1
2 2 .
0
1
3 2
6 1 0
1 1
2 2 0
0 0
0 0

1 4
1 2

A1 = 0
1 1
2 , ,
0
0 0
0

220

1 4 1
1 2

A1 = 0
1 1
2 2 , ,
0
0 0
0 0

2 . , .
2.
1 2 1 4 1

5, , : 0
1 1 2 2.
0 0 0 0 4

, , 2 3 . ,
.
, 12,
. ,
. :
1. A = ( A B) (1).
2.
: A1 = ( A1 B1), A1 , A.
3. A1
A1 , .
4. A1 r
A1 , . .
4.1. r, . 4, .
A1
.
, .
4.2. r, . 4, n .
A1 , .
, A1 (
(1)). (
r), , x p = , xq = , ...,
, , ... C. ,
,
. r < n,
.
r r ().

. x1 , ..., xn
. , ,
.
221

. ,
4.2., . A1 X = B1
xk , xl , ... , , ... :
xk = f k ( , , ...)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xl = f l ( , , ...)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(7)
x p =

xq =
. . . . . . .
(1),
, (7)
.

x1 + 2 x2 2 x3 = 2,

1. C C C 2 x1 + x2 + 5 x3 = 10,
x1 x2 + 7 x3 = 8.
, .
:
A :
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
1 2 2 2
1 2 1

1
5 10 ~ 1 0 3
9 6 3 ~ 0 1
3 2 .
2
1 1
0 3
0 0
7 8
9 6
0 0

, A1 , A1 ,
, ,
. , .
,
A1 :

x1 + 2 x2 2 x3 = 2,

x2 + 3x3 = 2.

x1 x2 ,
x3 . , C, :
x1 + 2 x2 = 2 + 2 ,

x2 = 2 3 .

x1 , x2 , :
x1 = 6 4 , x2 = 2 + 3 , x3 = .

, , , = 0, x1 = 6,
x2 = 2, x1 = 6, x2 = 2, x3 = 0.
: S = {(6 4 , 2 + 3 , ) | C};
: x1 = 6, x2 = 2, x3 = 0.
222

x1 + x2 x3 = 1,

2. C C C 2 x1 x2 + 3 x3 = , x1 + x2 = 0,
( C).
:
:
1
0 0
1
0
0
1 1 1
1
1

3 1 ~ 0 3
3

3
2 1 3 ~ 0
.
2

1 1
1 0 0
0 6 3 3 +
0 1 + 1 1 3
0
2
1) 6 3 0, 2, (
) :
2 + 3
3+
3+
.
x1 =
, x2 =
, x3 =
6 + 3
6 3
6 + 3

x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 1

2) 6 3 = 0, = 2, 2 x1 x2 + 3 x3 = 2
x1 + x2 = 0
, A1 , ,
1 0
0
1

2 , A1 3 : 0 3 3
2 .
0
0 0 5

x1 + 2ix2 x3 + (1 + i) x4 = 3 + 2i,

3. C 2 x1 + x2 + ( 2 + i) x3 + 2ix4 = 4 + 5i,
x1 + 2ix2 + (1 + i) x3 + (2 + i) x4 = 3.
:
:
2 1

2i

2 1
1 2i

1
1 + i 3 + 2i 1 1
2i

2 + i 2i 4 + 5i ~ 0 1 4i
0
1 + i 2 + i
3
0

1 1 + i
i 2
i

3 + 2i

2 + i .
2i

2i x2 x3 + (1 + i) x4 = 3 + 2i,
x1 +

(1 4i) x2 + ix3
2 x4 = 2 + i,
:

x4 = 2i.
ix3 +
x1 , x2 , x4 ,
2ix2 + (1 + i) x4 = 3 + 2i + x3
x1 +

(1 4i) x2
2 x4 = 2 + i ix3 x1 , x2 , x4 .
x3

x4 = 2i ix3
1
x3 = , x1 = ( 5 + 48i (6 + 7i) ),
17
1
x2 = (10 11i + (12 3i) ), x3 = , x4 = 2i i .
17

1
(5 + 48i (6 + 7i) ),
(10 11i + (12 3i) ), , 2i i C.
17
17

: S =

223

. ,
,
.
( n r ) (),
n , r .
, 1 x1 , x3 , ,

x 2 x3 = 2 2

x2 = , 1
3x3 = 2 + ,

1
1
x1 = (10 4 ), x2 = , x3 = (2 + ), C.
3
3

3.4.
(1) ,
, . m
n :
a11 x1 + ... + a1n xn = 0,

(8)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
am1 x1 + ... + amn xn = 0.
.
(), ,
, .
, :
1. ;
: x1 = 0, x2 = 0, ..., xn = 0.
2. , (8), , , : x1 = 0, x2 = 0, ..., xn = 0.
3. , (8), , . ,
, (8) m = n
.

3 x1 + 5 x2 + 6 x3 = 0,

C C C 3 x1 + 8 x2 + 24 x3 = 0,
4 x1 + 5 x2 2 x3 = 0.
:
:
4 3 5
6 1 3
5
6 3 5
6 3 5 6

3
18 ~ 0
1
6 ~ 0 1 6 .
3 8 24 ~ 3 0
1

3 4 5 2

5 0 5 30 0 1 6 0 0 0
224

3x1 + 5 x2 + 6 x3 = 0,
x2 + 6 x3 = 0.

, ,

x1 x2 .

3x + 5 x2 = 6 x , x .
x3 = 1
1
2
x2 = 6

x1 = 8 , x2 = 6 , x3 = , C.
: S = {(8 , 6 , ) C}.


A
1. ,
x + y + z = 0

2 x y + z = 2 ( ( x, y , z )):
x + 2 y + z = 1
a) (0, 0, 0);

) (1, 1, 1);

) (0, 1, 1);

) (3, 1, 0).

2. , , C
:
x + 8 y + 3 z = 2,
x + 4 y + 9 z = 16,
x + 4 z = 7,
2 x + 4 y + 6 z = 2,

) 2 x + 2 y + 2 z = 2, ) 2 x + y + 3 z = 7, ) 2 x + y + z = 2,
a) 2 x + 4 y z = 1,
2 x z = 1;
x + 2 y + 3 z = 4;
x + 2 y 2 z = 7;
x + 3 y + z = 5.
3. C :

x + 4 y 7 z = 5,

a) x y 2 z = 2,
2 y 6 z = 2;
x + y + 3 z = 1,

) x + 2 y + 2 z = 3,
7 x + y 6 z = 5;

x 2 y z = 0,

) 2 x + y = 0,
x y + 2 z = 0;
x + y = 1,

) x + y + z = 4,
y + z = 3;

x + y = 0,

) x + 2 z = 4,
2 x + y + z = 2;
x y + z = 0,
)
2 y z = 1.

4. a) 3 2 21,5 , 2
13 . , .
) 20 2 , 2 ,
22 , 3 .
, . ? ?

5. C :
x1 + x2 + 2 x3 + 3x4 = 1,
2 x1 + (1 + i) x2 x3 = 1,
x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 1,
3x x2 x3 2 x4 = 4,

a) x1 + ix2 + 2 x3 = i,
) 2 x1 x2 + 2 x3 = 4,
) 1
2 x + 3x2 x3 x4 = 6,
1
x2 + (2 i) x3 = 0;
4 x1 + x2 + 4 x3 = 2;
x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 x4 = 4.
225

6. , :
x1 + x2 2 x3 = 2,
x1 2 x2 + x3 = 3,

a) x1 + 3 x2 x3 = 1,
) 2 x1 + 2 x2 + 4 x3 = 1,
x1 + x2 + 6 x3 = 1;
3x1 + 4 x2 x3 = 5;

2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 2,
x + 3 x2 + x3 = 5,
) 1
x + x2 + 5 x3 = 7,
1
2 x1 + 3x2 3x3 = 14;

2 x1 x2 + 3 x3 = 3,
3 x + x2 5 x3 = 0,
) 1
4 x x + x3 = 3,
1 2
x1 + 3x2 13x3 = 6;

x1 + x2 3x3 = 1,
2 x + x2 2 x3 = 1,
) 1
x + x + x3 = 3,
1 2
x1 + 2 x2 3x3 = 1;
x1 x2 + x3 = 0,

) x1 + x3 = ,
x2 + 2 x3 = 1.

7. C 6.
8. R R R ( ), )
R ) :
x1 x2 + x3 = 0,
x1 + x2 2 x3 = 0,
x1 2 x2 + x3 = 0,
4 x1 3 x2 + 5 x3 = 0,

a) x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 0, ) 2 x1 x2 + x3 = 0,
) x1 + x3 = 0,
) x1 x2 + x3 = 0,
x2 + 2 x3 = 0;
x1 + 3 x2 = 0;
x1 + 2 x3 = 0.
x1 x2 + 2 x3 = 0;


A
1. :
) iA + 2 B,
a) 3 A 2iB;
1 i 1
i 1 0
, B =
.
A =
0 2 3i
1 i i + 1
2. :

3 1

2 1 1
2 1 ;
a)
3 0 1 1 0

2

) 1 (1 2 3) ;
3

2 1 2
4


6 4 ;
) 3 4
5
2 7 5

6
4
3 4 9 5

9
7 .
) 5 1 6 8
5
3 5 4 5 3

1 i i 3i

;
)
1
2i 0 0

3. x, y R , :
1
2 x 3 y 1 y x 11

y + 3 x 1 x 2 + 1 1
.
; )
=
=
a)
0 19
0
y x 3
6
7x + 6 y

1 1
.
4. A2 5 A + 7 I 2 , A =
1
2
5. .
:
1 3 2
2 1
2
2
4

i 1 0
.
) 3 4
)
a) 1 0
2
4;
6 4;
1 i 1 + i
1 1 1

6
2 7
5

5
226

1 2
= (3 4).
6. X, X
3 5
7. A:

1
1
;
a) A =
3
i
2
i

2 1 2
2 0 5

3
1
;
A
=

A
=
6
1
1
;
5
3
3
) A =
)
)

3 3
4

5
3
6

0 4

a + b b a b
1 1 2i
2 1 1
1 1 2

) A = b + c c b c ; ) A = 2
1
3i ; ) A = 1 1 1 ; ) A = 2 0 1 .
c + d a c a
4 5 2i
1 0 2
1 3 5

8. :
x1 + x2 3 x3 = 1,

x1 + 2 x2 = 4,
x1 + (1 i) x2 = 1,
a)
)
)
2 x1 + x2 2 x3 = 1,
2 x ix = i;
3x x = 5;
2
1
1 2
x1 + x2 + x3 = 3;
2 x2 + 3 x2 5 x3 = 7,
2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 1,
x1 4 x2 = 1,

) 4 x1 + 8 x2 11x3 = 17,
) x1 2 x2 + x3 = 1,
) 3 x1 + 2 x2 = 4,
2 x1 2 x2 x3 = 1;
x1 + x2 2 x3 = 1;
7 x1 + 10 x2 = 12;

2 x1 x2 + x3 = 3,

) x1 + 2 x2 + x3 = 6,
3 x1 + 3 x3 = 10;

x1 x2 + x3 = 2,

) x1 + 3 x2 x3 = 12,
2 x1 4 x2 + 2 x3 = 10.

9. 8 : . 8 , 6.
, ,
54 ?
10. 30 c2, 13 .
.
11. C , :
x1 + 2 x2 + x3 = 0,
2 x1 x2 + x3 = 0,

a) 3x1 x2 + x3 = 0,
) x1 + 2 x2 + x3 = 0,
3 x1 + x2 + 3 x3 = 0.
2 x1 + 7 x2 + x3 = 0;

12. A = 2
2
7

3
5 . R, A M (N).
2
5
6

13. x, y, u , v R , :
x 3 1
x y y
x + 1 x + y 2 x 1

=
.
;
=
a)
)
+

u
v
v
x
y
x
0
2
0
9
2
1
3
1
2u 8 2


14. A 3, aij {0, 1}.
detA.
n

1 a
, n N .
15.
0
1

227

16. A 3, aij {1, 1}.


a) , detA .
) , detA.
17. :
1 2 3 1

3 1
2 2

1 1 1
3 2 1 1

2
1 1 1
)
) 2 3 1
a) 2 1 5 ;
1 .
;

1
1
4
3

1 0 2

2 2 2 1

3 3 2
1

5 5 2 0
18. AB, BA ( ):

4
3 2
2 3 0
4 1 4 2
6 3 3

2 3 , B = 1 4 1 6 ; ) A = 2
5 1 , B = 5 2 2 ;
a) A = 2
1
3 1 1
1 0 3 3
13 7 4
0 1

i 3 1+ i
i 1
.
, B =
) A =
0 i 1 i
0 i

19. R , 0 1
0

1 ,
1

1 2 3 1
=
.
20. X, X
0 1 0 4
21. A:

1
a) A =
1

1 1 1

2 3 4
;
3 6 10

4 10 20

3
3 2

1
1 0
) A =
2 1 1

3 2 0

1
;
1

1
) A =
2

1 4 1

2 0 2
.
2 3 3

2 1 2

22. , A1 A2 A3 A4 A1 A2 A3 A4 , A1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ),

A2 ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 ), A4 ( x3 , y3 , z3 ), A1( x4 , y 4 , z 4 ), :

x2 x1
V = mod x3 x1
x4 x1

y 2 y1
y3 y1
y 4 y1

z 2 z1
z3 z1 .
z 4 z1

, A1 A2 , A1 A4 , A1 A1,
A1 (1, 1, 1), A2 (1, 2, 2), A4 (0, 4, 2), A1(5, 6, 8).
23. C :

1 x
a) x 1
x

228

x
x = 0;

x 1

0 1 1 x
x 0 1 1
)
= 0.
1 x 0 1
1 1 x 0

0 0 1

24. X , X I 3 , A = 0 1 0 .
1 0 0

x + x = 4

1
2
25.
x + 4 x = 4, C,
2
1
R.

26. , A 7 ( ).
27. , A 21 ( ).
28. :
x1 + x2 + x4 = 0,
2 x1 x2 + x3 + x4 = 2,
3x + 2 x2 x3 + 4 x4 = 4,

) 1
a) x1 + 2 x2 2 x3 + 2 x4 = 1,
2 x1 x2 + 2 x3 2 x4 = 3,
3 x1 + x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 10;

3x1 + 2 x2 + 2 x3 + 7 x4 = 7;

x1 4 x2 + 2 x3 = 1,
2 x 3x2 x3 5 x4 = 7,
) 1
3x 7 x2 + x3 5 x4 = 8,
1
x2 x3 x4 = 1;
x1 + x2 + x3 = 1,

) x1 + x2 + x3 = 1,
x1 + x2 + x3 = 1;

x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 x4 = 1,
3x + 2 x2 + x3 x4 = 1,
) 1
2 x + 3x2 + x3 + x4 = 1,
1
5 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3 = 2;
5 x1 3x2 + 2 x3 + 4 x4 = 3,
4 x 2 x2 + 3x3 + 7 x4 = 1,
) 1
8 x 6 x2 x3 5 x4 = 9,
1
7 x1 3x2 + 7 x3 + 17 x4 = .

29. ( C ) :
x1 + x2 + x3 x4 = 0,
x1 + 2 x2 + x3 x4 = 0,
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0,

2 x + x2 x3 + x4 = 0,
a) 3 x2 x3 + x4 = 0,
) x1 + x2 + x3 = 0,
) 1
3 x x x3 x4 = 0,
2 x1 + 7 x2 + x3 x4 = 0;
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0;
1 2
x1 2 x2 2 x4 = 0.
30. , :
75 , 50 . ,
, 42% .
, , 50% .
?
31. 30 .
. 2 ,
2,5 , .
2 , 3 ,
. ?
32. 4%, 5% 6% . () 530 . .
70 . . , .
5%, 500 . .
.

229

: 45

1. :

1
1

2 1 0
3 2 .
)
3 2 1 0
1

2.
3
4
2 1

A = 0 1
2 3 .
3 1 2
1

3. C C C 2 x1 x2 = 3,

x1 + x2 3 x3 = 0,
x1 + 5 x3 = 1.
x1 + 9 x2 6 x3 = 0,

4. C C C x1 + 3 x2 2 x3 = 0,
x1 + 3 x2 2 x3 = 0.
, .
3
a) 2
2

1 2 2
+
1 6 1

1 0
;
2 4

: 90

3 , .
1. :
2

3i 2 i 7 + 2i 2 i 1 7 i
+
; ) 6
a) i
0
1 i i 1 2 3 + i
3 i
3

3
2 i i 1
.
1
3i 2 + i

2
2 3i 0 2 i

2. , A = 4 i 1 5 2i .
3 5i 2 7 0

0
2 1

3. A = 1 3 2 A 1. B 0. C 4. D 6.
1 3 2

4. A 3.

2 1 3

5. XA = B, B = 0 1 2, A 3.
1 1 0

6.
2 x1 + x2 = 1,
3 x + 2 x2 = 0,
1
x + 2 x2 3 x3 2 x4 = 2,
1
4 x1 2 x2 + x3 + x4 = 1.
7. C AX = O, 2.
230

j =1

(aij ) = (a ji ), i = 1, m, j = 1, n

AA1 = A1 A = I n , A1 , A

j = 1, n, k = 1, p, d ik = aij b jk

(aij )(bjk ) = (d ik ), i = 1, m,

(aij ) = (aij )

(aij ) + (bij ) = (aij + bij )

-
-

1 ... 0
I n =

0 ... 1

m=n

a12 ... a1n

a22 ... a2 n = (aij ), i = 1, m; j = 1, n


am 2 ... amn

a11

A = a21
a
m1

Aij = (1) i + j M ij

A11 ... An1

1
A =
A ... An 2 , | A | 0
| A | 12

A1n ... Ann


1




()

a1n
n ( n 1)
0 = (1) 2 a1n a2 n 1 ... an1
0

a12 ... a1n


a22 ... a2 n = a11 a22 ... ann
0 ... ann

a11 ... a1n 1


a21 ... a2 n 1
an1 ...
0

a11
0
0

M ij ,
i
j

n
n
a11 ... a1n
= (1) i + j aij M ij = (1) i + j aij M ij ,
an1 ... ann j =1
i =1

+ a13 a 21a32 a13 a 22 a31 a11a 23 a32 a12 a 21a33

a13
a23 = a11 a 22 a33 + a12 a 23 a31 +
a33

a12
a22
a32

a11
a21
a31

a12
= A = a11a22 a12 a21
a22

a11
a21

xk = f k ( , , ...)
..........................

x = f l ( , , ...)
l
..........................
x p =
x =
q
..........

A1
, n .

m = n
=| A | 0 ,

x1 = 1 , ..., xn = n

A1 n
.

A1 , A1 .

b1

A = ( A | B), B = M
b
m
AX = B

A , A

a11 x1 + ... + a1n xn = b1

................................
am1 x1 + ... + amn xn = bm

231

,
;
, , ;
, , ;
, , ;
, ,
.

, , , . ,
, , , . .
, , :
1 , , ,
(. 8.1 a)).
2 ,
(. 8.1 )).
3 ,
(. 8.1 )).
B

A , B
a)

232

A, B, C
)
. 8.1

( A , A , )
I = a
)

:
1. ,
(. 8.2 a)).
2. , , ,
(. 8.2 )).
3. ,
(. 8.2 )).
A

A, B AB

A a a

a)

M
b

a I b = M
b

)
. 8.2

: , , , ...
, d A, (A, d) (d, ).
, A, B, C, (ABC).
, , ,
.
4 ( ). , ,
, A, B
AB , C,
C (. 8.3).
. 4 , ,
.
.
: (A
A; [A
A (. 8.3).
C
A

C [A, [CA] I = , B [A, [ AB ] I = E


. 8.3
233

A
1. , ?
2. . ,
: .

3. DABC , P ( AB ), Q ( AD).
:

a) ABD CPQ;
) CPQ ABC;
) CPQ ADC.

4. ABCD a.
APQ, P
BD, Q DC.

P
B

5. , .
?
6. , ,
. , .
7. . :
) , ;
) , .
8. , . :
a) , ;
) , .
9. :
a) ;
) 2 014 ;

) ?

10. :
a) ;
) ;
) ?
11. .
?

12. a b . , a (a ),
b .
13. AB CD . ,
, AB, CD.
14. d1 , d 2 d 3 . ,
.
15. A , B, C, D.
, AD CB .
234

16. A, B, C, D . ,
, , .
17. , ,
, .
18. a, A, B
a. , A B.
19. . , ,
.
20. AB CD . , AC BD
.

a b .
:
a) a b ( ,
, );
) a b ( ) (. 8.4);
) a b
(. 8.5);
) a b . , (. 8.6).
), ), ), a, b (. 8.4, 8.5).
B b

. 8.4

. 8.5

. 8.6

:
B, .
a A, (. 8.6).
A B b , a b .
. ,

(. 8.5).
235

. ,
, (. 8.6). ,
, ,
.
5. , (. 8.7).
6.
, (. 8.8).
a
A

( a || b , a I = A ) b I
. 8.7

(a || b, a || c) b || c
. 8.8

. 5 6.

1. A, B, C, D . ,
AD, DC, CB BA .
:

M, N, P Q AD,
DC, CB BA . [MQ] ABD, ,
A Q B
[MQ] || [DB], [NP]
BDC. , [NP] || [DB]. P
M
6 [MQ] || [NP]. ,
[MN] || [QP]. ,
D
C
N
MNPQ ,
. 8.9
.
D

2. A, B, C, D .
E ( AB ), F (DC ). , :
a) E F ;
) EF AD, EF BC, EF AC, EF BD
.

236

F
A

C
E

B
. 8.10

:
a) , E F , , AB
CD E, , A, B, C, D , .
) EF AD . A, E, F, D B ( AE , C (DF , , A, B, C D
, .
.

A
1. d d1 d 2 . , d, d1
d 2 ?
2. a b , c b .
a c.
3. a , b a.
b ?
4. ,
. ,

.

A
5. .
a b , AB
DC . a b.

6. . ,
.
7. . ,
, .
8. a b , c b .
c a?
9. A d. A
d. ?
10. d1 d 2 , d d1 .
d d 2 ?
11. d. A A d , B
B d . d AB?
237

:
a)
( ) (. 8.11 a));
)
(. 8.11 ));
) (. 8.11 )).
a

a I = A
a)

b , a I = , a || b
)
. 8.11

a
)

. ,
.
8.11 ), ), a .
7 ( ). , - ,
.

. a ( a )

.
a
A a
(. 8.12).
b. a b
b
B
,
A

, . 8.12
, a || .
. a ( a )
b, . a
. , a
B,
( , a b ) (. 8.12),
b, , a || b.
a .
238

8. ,
, , ,
(. 8.13).

1 2

a2

(a || , a i , i

a3

a1

(i = 1, n, n N )

) i I = ai || a
. 8.13

. 8.
d

8 ( ).
d1 d 2 .
, d1 , , d 2,
d, d || d1 d || d 2 (. 8.14).

d1

d2

. 8.14


1. E ABCD, F
AE. , FC BED G BED (. 8.15).
:
EAC. F O AC ABCD . ,
G CF
EO EAC. EO BED, ,
( FC ) I ( BED ) = G.

F
A

B
O

C
. 8.15

2. A, B, C, D. E, F G
DE DF

(. 8.16 a)).
AD, DC BC ,
EA FC
EFG ADC, DBC, ABC ABD.
239

D
D
a)
)
:
, E
E
EFG F
F
ADC EF,
DBC C
A
H
C A
FG (. 8.16 )).
H G
G
L
EF
B
B
. 8.16
AC, DE DF

. H EFG
EA FC
ABC, HG. HG I AB = L.
EFG ADB EL.

3. d1 d 2 , ,
. d D,
d1 d 2 (. 8.17). ,
d, d1 d 2 .
:
O d1 d 2 .
d
, O
A
- A d, . ,
A1 D
, D O
d1 d 2 , d1
A2 d 2

. ,
. 8.17
d, d1 d 2 , .
b
a
4. a b
b
A B .
M
M a , b.
c
B
M
A

(. 8.18). , M a M . 8.18
,
A.
:
b , A b (
). a b A. , .
c. c .
240

A
1. M BD, N AD ABCD.
d ABC MNC.
d MN?
2. A, B, C, D . E AD ( AE = 2ED), L AB ( AL = 2LB),
F DC ( DF = 2 FC ), M CB ( BM = 2MC ).
EL FM?
3. A, B, C . , AB,
BC AC M N . MN, :
) AB = 30 MB : BC = 2 : 3;
) AB = 16 BM : MC = 5 : 3;
) CM = 20 AB : BC = 4 : 5;
) BM = a, MC = c, AB = b.

4. A, B, C, D . AB, BC, CD DA
A1 , B1 , C1 D1 , AA 1 : A1 B = 1 : 3, BB 1 : B1C = 3 :1, CC 1 : C 1 D = 2 : 1 DD1 : D1 A = 1 : 2 .
, A1 , B1 , C1 D1 .
5. A, B, C D . AB , BC CD
A1 , B1 C1 , AA1 : A1 B = a, BB1 : B1C = b CC1 : C1 D = c. A1 B1C1
AD D1 . DD1 : D1 A.
6. A, B, C, D . M AD , N BD.
MN ABC, , AM : MD = BN : ND ?
7. A, B, C, D . M ABD,
N BDC. , MN
ABC.

:
a) (. 8.19 a));
) (. 8.19 ));
) (. 8.19 )).

I =d
a)

I =

. 8.19
241

. ,
.
9 ( ).
, .

a
a b,
b
c

,
(. 8.20).

,
. 8.20
.
c. 8, a b c,
, ,
a b, c, . ,
.
10. ,
(. 8.21 a)).
11. ,
, (. 8.21 )).

A
a

a
N

(a || b, || ) [ AM ] [ BN ],
A, B , M, N

( || , I = a, I = b) a || b
a)

. 8.21

. 10 11.

N

M
1. AB
A
B2
M2
N2
M N ,
AM : MN = MN : NB = 1 : 2. A, M,
A1 M
B1
N1
1
N B ,


. 8.22
A1 , M1 , N1 B1 (. 8.22).
MM1 NN1 , , AA1 = 2 , BB1 = 16 .
242

:
A , A1 B1 ,
MM1 , NN1 BB1 M 2 , N2 B2 . AM 2 M
AB2 B , , MM 2 : BB2 = AM : AB.
AM : MN = MN : NB = 1 : 2 , AB = 7 AM . MM2 : BB2 = 1 : 7,
MM 2 = BB2 : 7 = 14 : 7 = 2 ().
, MM1 = MM 2 + M 2 M1 = 2 + 2 = 4 ().
, ANN2 ~ ABB2 .
3
NN2 : BB2 = AN : AB = 3 AM : 7 AM = 3 : 7, NN2 = BB2 = 6 ().
7
, NN1 = NN2 + N2 N = 6 + 2 = 8 ().
: MM1 = 4 , NN1 = 8 .
2. A1 , A2 , A3 VABC , AA1 = A1 A2 = A2 A3 .
, ,
VB VC B1 , B2 , B3 C1 , C 2 , C3 (. 8.23).
A1 B1C1 A2 B2 C 2 ,
V
ABC A3 B3C3 P P3 .
:
A2 B2
P + P3
A3
C3
(1), P1 P2 A1 A3 B3 B1 , P2 = 1
B3
2
A2
C2
A1 B1C1 A2 B2 C 2 .
B2
A1
P + P2
C1
(2). (1) (2) :
, P1 =
2
B1
A
C
2P3 + P
2P + P3
, P1 =
.
P2 =
3
3
2P + P3
2P + P
, P2 = 3
.
: P1 =
B
. 8.23
3
3
3. ABCD E AC , BCD. , AE : EC = 2 : 3
a (. 8.24).
:
, FGE D
BDC FGE . AEF ~ ACB :
BC AC AE + EC
EC BC
3 5
G
=
=
=1+
,
=1+ = ,
FE AE
AE
AE FE
2 2
E
2a
A
C
FE =
.
5
( EF ) 2 3 4a 2 3 a 2 3
F
=
=
A FGE =
.
4
25 4
25
:

2
A FGE = a 3 .

25

B
. 8.24

243

4. ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 ,
BD1 M (CC1 ).
:
D1
C1
, A1
BM MD1 (. 8.25).
B1
M
{N } = CD I D1 M
L
ABC, . C
, {P} = BN I AD N
D
ADD1 , .
B
A
{L} = AA1 I PD1 .
: BLD1 M .

. 8.25

A
1. A, B, C, D . M, N, P AD, BD CD
. , MNP ABC .
2. ABCD L AD, P AD ( AL = LP = PD), M BD
( DM = 2 BM ), N CD ( ND = 2 NC ).
a) , MNL ABC .
) I 1 PM ABC.
) I 2 PN ABC.
V
) ABC PMN.
3. A1, A2, A3, A4 AV
VABC , [ AA4 ] [ A4 A3 ] [ A3 A2 ] [ A2 A1 ] .
,
, VB
VC B1, B2, B3, B4 C1, C2, C3, C4 .
, , A1 B1C1 5 ,
ABC 40 .

C1

A1

B1 C2

A2

B2

A3

B3

A4
A

B4

C3
C4
C

4 * . ABCA1 B1C1 ,
M [ AA1 ] AB1 AC1 . ,
, AM = 1 , AA1 = 3 , AB = AC = 4 , BC = 2 .
5. ABCD , M [ AD ]
ABC. , ,
AM = 5 , AD = 15 , AB = 20 , BC =19 , AC =18 .
244

6. VA VABC A1 , A2 , A3 , A1 A2 = 2 AA1
A2 A3 = 2 A1 A2 . , , VB B1 , B2 , B3 , VC
C1 , C 2 , C3 . P1 , P2 P3 A1 B1C1 , A2 B2 C 2 A3 B3C3 , ABC P , AA1 : VA3 = .
7. ABCD E, ABCD. M, N, P, R AE, BE, CE, DE ,
2 AM = 3ME, 2 BN = 3NE , 2CP = 3PE , 3DR = 2 RE .
a) , MNP ABCD.
) I NR ABCD.
8. ABCD E, ABCD. M, N, P
ABE, BCE CDE . , MNP Q
ADE.


A
1. AB . , M,
, A1, B1 M1
. MM1, :
a) AA1 = 3,2 , BB1 = 2,3 ; ) AA1 =19 , BB1 = 2 ; ) AA1 = 33 , BB1 = 75 .
2. AB M N
: [AM], [MN], [NB]. A, B, M, N ,
A1, B1, M1 N1 .
MM1 NN1, , AA1 = 16 , BB1 = 4 .
3. , , M ,
, . M ,
A1 A2 , B1 B2 .
A1 A2 , B1 B2 = 20 MA1 : A1 B1 = 3 : 2.
4. A, B, C, D . L DC , DL = 2LC , M
ABD . , ML ABC.

5. O, , a1, a2, a3 a4, A1, A2, A3 A4


, B1, B2, B3 B4 .
AA
AA
AA
OA1 OA2 OA3 OA4
, 1 2 = 2 3 = 3 4 =
.
=
=
=
B1 B2 B2 B3 B3 B4 OB1 OB2 OB3 OB4
6. , , ,
, .
245

7. A. B C (B A C), , , ,
B1 C1 . BB1 , :
) CC1 = a AB : AC = ;
a) CC1 = a AC : BC = ;
) AB = l AC : CC1 = k ;
) AC = a, BC = b, CC1 = c.
8. A, B, C, D AC = 12 , BD = 20 . , AB, BC, CD, DA.
9. E ABCD ( BC || AD). M L
AB CD , N P BE CE. ,
MN PL .
10. A, B, C, D . AC BC M
N , AM : MC = BN : NC = m : n. ,
AD BD, MN = a.
11. .
AF, BF, CE DE A1 , B1 , C1 D1 ,
A1 B1C1 D1 (. )).
(. )).
,
9 , , 12 , 8 ?

a)

D1
A1

B1

D1

C1

A1

B1

C1

C
B

12. ABCD , A
BD CD. ,
2a.
13.
. ,
.
14. a. A
B , C .
, ABC .

B a
A

15. A, B, C D . M DC.
, ADC , CBD , ABC ABD
, M A BD.
16. A, B, C D , E AC ,
AE : EC = 3 : 2. , ADC, ADB, ABC
, E BCD.
246

17. E ABCD. , ABE


CDE , DC.
18. E, ,
a b, A
B . D a,
C b. DC .

b
E

a
D
C

19. A , B , C D. M
AD , G
ABC.
a) F MG BCD.
) , B, D, C, F .
20. A, B, C D . E, F H AD, DC
BC , EF AC FH DB.
EFH AB DB.
21. A, B, C D. ,
E ( AD), F ( ABD) H (BCD ).
a) , EFH
ABC, ACD, ABD BCD.
) , ABC
EF, EH FH.
) FH ADC.

D
E
A

22. A, B, C D. a
AB DC, b AD BC, c
AC DB. , a, b c
.
23. E ABCD. M
EC, N ED, EM : MC = EN : ND.
a) ACE BDE.
) , MN || AB.
) P LMN AD, L
BC.
) NMLP.
24. ABC , AB,
AC BC ,
M ( M ( ABC ) M ) . M 1 , M 2 M 3
MA, MB MC
.
a) , F1 , F2 F3 ,
M 3 M 2 , M 1 M 3 M 2 M ,
M.
) , F1 , F2 F3 .

M
B

M1

M2
M3

247

25. c. a b . A , B , AB . AB
.

A
a

b
26. ABCD .
. E
. :
) EAD EBC;
) EAC EBD.
a) EAB EDC;

27. A, B, C D . , , , .

: 45

1. A B, , , A1 B1
. A1B1, AB = 8 .
2. ABCDA1B1C1D1:
a) , BCD; ) , A1B1.
3. M AD ABCD,
a. MNC, N
BD , MC AB.
4. ABCD ABB1A1 .
B1C, A1 D = 8 .

: 45

1. a , b .
a b.
2. A, B, C, D .
ABC :
a) EF, E AD, F BD;
BG CH 1
=
= .
) GH, G BD, H CD
GD HD 3
3. E SD SABCD. , , E .
4. ABCD ,
E ( AD) , AE : ED = 1 : 2, ABC.
,
A.
248


1.

ab

a b

ab

a I b = {C}

ab

aIb =

aIb =

2.

a
a

a I = {A}

b , a || b, a I =

a a ||

3.

I =c

I =

249

, , , ;
,
;
, ,
;
, ,
;
.

.
180 (. 9.1 a)).

AMB A1 M1 B1 , [MA || [M1A1, [MB || [M1B1,


MA = M1 A1 MB = M1 B1 . , A1 ,
MM1 A, B1 , MM1 B (. 9.1 )). MAA1M1 MBB1M1
, MM1 = AA1 = BB1 . , ABB 1A1
AB = A1 B1 . AMB A1 M1 B1 .
B

M1
A1

B1
A1

a)

B1

M1

)
. 9.1

250

A1

M1

B1

. a b
BMA, M , MB || b, MA || a
m(BMA) [0, 180] (. 9.1 a), )).
. a b ,
90 (. 9.2).

a
c

(c , a I c = {A}, c || b) a b
. 9.2

D1

: a b.
, ,
9.3, AA1 BC .
AD1 CB1 .

B1

A1
D

,
,
.

, ,

(. 9.4).

a b, , O, c
a b (. 9.5).
, c
d, .

. 9.4

9.4 AO , AB, , AD
.

B
. 9.3

.
, ,
. , .

1. ,
,
.

C1

b
O

B
A

C
. 9.5
251

,
c d O. a b
A B , O, , d AB
D. c C C , [OC ] [CO ] (. 9.5).
COA C OA COB C OB (
), [ AC ] [ AC ] [ BC ] [ BC ]. , ACB AC B CAB C AB. ,
CAD C AD, , CDC .
DO CDC , ,
[DO] , c d .
, ,
2. , , .
. 2.

, A, a, , a, .

A
:

C
, a A,
AA a
A

(. 9.6). 1 ( 8), B, ,
. 9.6
a .
A AC , a. , A, A, C , .
2.

3. ,
, .

A .
A

.
b c. , c b

A b c
(. 9.7).
. 9.7
, A, a.
b c , a b a c. 1, a .
252

a . , A a, (. 9.8).
, a a ,
A , d = I , . , a
a .

A
a

. 9.8

.
4. , (. 9.9 a)).
5. ,
(. 9.9 )).
a

a)

)
A

( a , b || a) b

. 9.9

( a , b ) a || b

. 4 5.

A
1. CDAB CDEF .
, CD BF .
2. CAD BAD, m(A) = 90 , .
, AD MN, M CD, N
BD.
3. AB 5
C. D , AD = 3 , BD = 4 . CD.
4. A ABCD AM.
MB, MD MC, AB = 4 , MA = 3 .
5. A ACB
AE. AB, AE = CB = a, EC = b.
6. A B, ,
a b . AB, A1 B1 = c,
A1 , B1 AA1 , BB1 .
253

7. A ABCD AE , AE = 4 . DE, CE, BE d E BD,


AB = 6 AD = 4 .
8. D 9 ABC
C, AC = 8 , BC = 6 . D
ABC.

9. A B, ,
a b . AB, A1 B1 = c,
A1 , B1 AA1 , BB1 .
10. A ABCD
AE , AE = c. BE, CE, DE, AB = a, AD = b m(BAD) = .
11. D ABC ( AB = AC ). D ABC, BC = a, AD = b,
m(CAB) = .
12. M ABCDE. , MA,
MB, MC, MD ME .
13. d1 d 2 A. A ,
d1 , d 2 . , , d1 d 2 .
14. E, ABCD,
. , , O ABCD E, ABCD.

. M
M1 , M
(. 9.10 a)).
: pr M = M1 .
a)

C1
F1

M1

( MM 1 , M 1 ) M 1 = pr M
. 9.10
254

A1

F1 = pr F

B1

() F
F1
(. 9.10 )).
. , , .
M 1 (. 9.11 a), )).
a

a)
M

)
M

( M1 )

M1

. 9.11

. M 1 , MM 1 a
(. 9.11).
.
.
6. .

B
a ,
C


A
a
a .
, a B1
C1
(. 9.12).
A1
a1
a A

B A1 B1
.
. 9.12
5, AA1 BB1 . ,
.
a a1 = A1 B1 . C a,
C1 = pr C (CC1 || AA1 C a ). , C1
, , A1B1. , a , a1,
, pr a = a1 .

7 ( ). a1 a b, ,
a b.
255

AA1 a,
A a, A1 . AA1 b (. 9.13). , b
a1, , b AA1, BA1, , b
,
A, B, A1. , b
AB = a, .

a
a1 = pr

A1
b

. 9.13

8 ( 7). a b,
, , a1
a b.

AA1 (. 9.13) a. , AA1 b


, AB b, b
ABA1. , b a1 = BA1 = pr a.
9. , A , , B , , A1 = pr A. AA1 AB (. 9.14).

, AA1 a, , BA1. , AA1B A1,


, AA1 AB ,

, B A1 ( AB ).

A1

. 9.14

. ,
.
9.14 AA1 A .
10. ABC A1 B1C1
AB A1 B1 , AC A1C1 BC > B1C1 , m (BAC ) > m (B1 A1C1 ).
10 ,

, .
, a (a
} , a ),
A. a B, A,
B1 = pr B (. 9.15).
256

A
C
a
. 9.15

B1
b

b, (b AB1 ) A,
C, AC = AB1 .
CAB B1AB 10: AC = AB1 ,
[AB] CB > BB1 , CB1B B1. , m (BAC ) > m (BAB1 ).
,
.
.
9.16, a .
.
.

pr a

pr M

. 9.16

11.
.

AB, , [AB] ,
A1 B1 A B D AB
(. 9.17).
C BB1 , A
A1B1. ABC
C m(BAC) = m(ADA1) = .
, ABC
AC = AB cos , AC = A1 B1 ,
A1 B1 = AB cos .
A B
(. 9.18).
A1 B1 = A1 D + DB1 , AA1D BB1D
A1 D = AD cos , DB1 = DB cos .
A1 B1 = AD cos + DB cos =
= ( AD + DB) cos = AB cos .
([AB] || , ...) .

B
A

C
B1

A1

. 9.17

B
A1
A

B1

. 9.18

257

A
1. ABC ABD AB C(ABD),
M AB.
a) , AB MCD.
) MC ABD, CMD .
) MC ABD, MC = 4 , MD = 8 ,
CD = 6 .
) D ABC, ).
2. A1 B1 AB . :
a) A1 B1 , AA1 = 9 , BB1 = 13 , AB = 5 ;
) AB .
3. A 3 . AC AB (C , B )
6 . M CB, A1 = pr A.
A1 M , :
) m(CAB) = 60.
a) m(CAB) = 90;
4. , , 30
25 . 11 . .
5. , 3 5 .
, 2 : 3, .

6. V ABCDEF
.
a) , , V O , .
) , VA, VB, VC, VD, VE, VF
.
7. E, ABCD,
.
a) , ABCD .
) , , E ABCD, .
) , EA, EB, EC, ED ABCD .
8. [OC [OA [OB .
OC AOB, m(AOC ) = m(BOC ) = , m(AOB) = 2 ,
OC = c.

258

, a, ,
, a, 1 2,
. , 1 2. , , .
1 2.
a
. , ,
(. 9.19).
1 , 1
( 1 1 ).

. 9.19
a ( 1 1 ),
1 1 .
1 1 ,
1 1 .
1 1 , .
, .

, 1 ,
1 , , 1 , 1 .
( 1 1 ) A
m. A 1 1 a b,
m (. 9.20 a)). ,
A, [AB [AC (C b, B a ).
( 1 1 ) , m A (. 9.20 )).
m
m
a)
)

A
a
B

b
C

1
. 9.20

. ,
, ( ) .
259

,
.
. .
9.20 a), : m (( 1 1 )) = m (BAC ).
. 1 1 ,
m((11 )) = 90.
.
: 1 1 , .
12. ,
, .

a
. ,
C
, .

.
a, (. 9.21).
c, B
A
b
a c A.
c
A . 9.21
b, c. ,
BAC .
a , a b. , m(( )) = 90, .
A

13. ABC , A
ABC, A pr ABC ,
A pr = A cos (. 9.22).

A1

A1 BC = pr ABC ,

AA BC = AABC cos
1

. 9.22

1. ABC, AB = BC = 8 AC = 5 .
A B ABC AA1
BB1 , A1 B1 ,
ABC, AA1 = 12 BB1 = 6 (. 9.23). :
a) CD1 , D1 A1 B1 ;
) C A1 B1 ;
) ABC A1 B1C .
260

A1
:
D1
a) C D1 A1 B1
B1
DD1C
( DD1 || AA1 DD1( ABC )). DD1
AA1 B1 B, , DD1 = 9 , DC
ABC.
K
1
(mc =
2a 2 + 2b 2 c 2 ),
2
1
114 .
, DC =
2
B
CDD1 ,
, :
D
1
2
2
D1C = DC + DD1 =
114 + 81 = 109,5 ( ).
4
C
A
) C A1 B1
. 9.23
A1CB1 , C.
, A1 AC , A1C = 13 .
B1 BC A1 KB1 , B1C = 10
A1 B1 = 10 .
C A1 B1 2A A1B1C
.
: hc =
A1 B1
1 :

A A B C = p( p a)( p b)( p c) = 33 13 13 7 = 13 231 ().

2 2 2 2 4
13
2
231 13
4

hc =
231 ().
=
10
20
) ABC A1 B1C ABC. ,
ABC A1 B1C A ABC = A A1B1C cos .
5
A ABC = 5 231 2 . cos = 5 , = arccos 13 .
4
13
5
13
: ) CD1 = 109,5 ; )
231 ; ) = arccos .
M
13
20
1 1

. 1 ) ,
.

2. [OA, [OB, [OC


O ,
O
m(AOC ) = m(BOC ) = < 90, m(AOB) = 2 (. 9.24).
a) , [OC
OAB AOB.

(1 . .) .

M1
N

. 9.24
261

) OA.
) OC OAB.
:
a) M1 M [OC OAB, N L
, M OA OB . NM1 LM1 MN
ML OAB.
NM1OA LM1OB.

ONM OLM , [ON ] [OL] [ MN ] [ ML].

MNM1 MLM1 , [ NM1 ] [ LM1 ].

ONM1 OLM1 NOM1 LOM1 , [OM1 AOB, . . .


) OMN , ONM1 , MNM1 :
ON = OM cos , NM = OM sin ; NM1 = ON tg = OM cos tg ;
NM1 OM cos tg
cos =
=
= ctg tg . = arccos (ctg tg ).
NM
OM sin
) ONM1 MOM1 :
OM1 cos
cos
ON
OM cos
=
, = arccos
OM1 =
=
, cos =
OM cos
cos
cos
cos
: ) = arccos(ctg tg );

cos
cos

) = arccos

3. , M, M
,
. , .
:
M, O
A1 A2 A3 ... An , , [ MA1 ] [ MA2 ]
A1
[ MA3 ] ... [ MAn ] (. 9.25). O
A2

A3
M . OMA1 , OMA2 , OMA3 , ...,
. 9.25
OMAn ( ), ,
[OA1 ] [OA2 ] ... [OAn ]. , O, , ,
, O .
. OM A1 ... An .
4. ( ) AD,
b (. 9.26).
AD .
262

:
ABC
( ). m(ABC ) = ,
m(ADB) = . AC , , ADC
. ABD, ACB ACD : AB = AD sin ,
AC = AB sin = AD sin sin , AC = AD sin .
, AD sin = AD sin sin .
, sin = sin sin .
5. A ,
AB AO,
,
.
BC,

. AB OB BC (. 9.27). ,
cos = cos cos .

. 9.26
A

O
C

. 9.27

:
OD BC . , , AD BC . AB = x.
AOB, BDO ADB : BO = x cos ; BD = BO cos = x cos cos , BD = x cos .
, cos = cos cos .

A
1. ABC ABD AB,
. CD, AB = 2 .
2. ABC 3 . AB . ABC 30. :
a) ABC, C ;
) C .
3. . 6 ,
3 : 2. .
4. . 10 . .
263

5. A1 B1C1 ABC .
ABC , AA1 = BB1 = 3 , CC1 = 8 ,
A1 B1 = 13 , A1C1 = C1 B1 = 12 .
6. E ABCD . , :
a) E
;
) EAB, EBC, ECD, EDA .
7. ABCD E ,
EAB , EBC, ECD, EDA . ,
ABCD , E
ABCD .
8. ABC ( AB = AC ) ADE
AF. , AF
, F, B, D.
9. , 45.
.
10. ABCD, m(BAD) = 60. AB ,
D 45.
.


A
1. AB, AC AD . CD, :
) AB = 6 , BC = 14 , AD = 3 ;
) BD = 18 , BC = 32 , AD = 10 ;
) AB = m, BC = n, AD = p;
) BD = s, BC = n, AD = p.
2. M b. -

a 3
.
3
3. B ABCD ( AD || BC )
BE , BE = 4 . d1 d 2
E CD AD , ,
4 , BC = 4 AD = 12 .
M , a, b >

4. A ABCDEF
AM , AM = AB. :
) DCM DEM.
) MDC AEF;
264

5. D ABC. D , D
2 , AB = AC = 6 , BC = 4 .
6. , 8
20 , , 9 .

7. M, ,
. , .
8. M ABCDE.
, AMB , BMC , CMD , DME , EMA
.

V
D

9. AV VABC D, , ABC, a (. ).
.

10. a , P
. , P a?

B
C

11. , ,
, , .
12. , .
2 31 . ,
30 40 .
13. ,
.

, a b?
14. M , a.
M , M b.

a
b
x

15. C AOB .
C , CO = a, C
b.
16. A . ,
, 2 , ,
, 2 . A ,
b.
265

17. , a,
. 2 ,
. ,
.
18.
0,4 1,2 .
2 .

,
. .

: 45

1. AB ,
, A B 2,4 4,6
.
2. 6 . ,
, 3 . .
3. M ,
4 10 . M ,
, M 5 .
4. ABC 12 . MA, MB, MC
ABC 30.
M ABC.

: 45

1. l .
a b . .
2. . , , ,
.
3. ABC 5 , 5 , 2 . M ABC 8 , ABC
.
M .
4. , .
266

c
b

(a , b , b, c a, c b) c

a
a1 = pr

(a || b, a ) b

b
B

a C

A1
b

( a , AB ,
B , A1 , A1 B b) AB

(1 1 ) , I = m,
( ABC ) m, m (( 1 1 )) = m (BAC )
a

pr a

1) a b pr a b
2) b pr a a b

(a , b ) a || b

A1

F1

B1

([ A1 B1 ] pr [ AB ], AC || A1 B1 )

( F , F1 = pr F , m(( )) = )

[ AB] AB cos

A F1 = A F cos
a

M1

( MM 1 , M 1 ) MM 1
M

a
M

( M1 )

M1

a , M , M 1 , M 1 a, MM 1
M a
267

10

: , , , * ,
* , * ;
, ;
, ;
.

, ,
, . .
, . ,
,
, .

X Y . ,
x X y Y,
X Y. : f : X Y
f
X Y . y = f (x) x X , x
y Y . , x y f.

1. d,
. M M
,

d. M
(. 10.1).
. 10.1
,
M M , MM || d ,
d.
268

M
2. O . P
,
N
M, O, M , N
O
P
O MM , O
, M
. 10.2
(. 10.2).
O: S O .
O .
, M M,
M M ; , M M
.
,
(
), .

. .

.
F g .
F = g (F ), F g, F g.
,
.
; ; . .
g F , . . g ( F ) = F ,
g F F.
, g F.
. g
( ) , M N
M = g (M ), N = g (N )

MN = M N .

, ,
. .
, , ,
, .
, ,
.
1. , , ,
, .
269

10

A, B, C .
. B A C.
AB + BC = AC . A, B , C A, B, C
. AB = AB , AC = AC ,
BC = B C , AB + B C = AC , B
A C , , A, B , C .
. g A,
g ( A) = A; g d,
g (d ) = d ; g
, g ( ) = .
g,
.

, ,
( ) .
:
. a b
g. a b .
a b M, M = g (M )
(), . . g ( M ) = M . .
a b AB, A a, B b.
AB a b, , A B
g, .

A
1. .
2. ?
3. AOB f , :
a) M , AOB,
M;
) , AOB, ,
.
?
?
4. .
? .

5. , :
) ; ) .
6. , .
270

7. , , , .
8. ABC ABC g.
:
) BL;
a) BK;
A
) BM;
) G;
) I ;
) H;
) O , - B
ABC .

C
A
B

9. a) , A B f ,
AB .
) ?
10. a) , A, B, C f ,
ABC .
) ?
11. f .
a) f 1 ?

) f o f ?

12. f , f ( A) = B, f ( B ) = A.
f o f ?

1
.
2. .

M N M N
S O .
M, N O (. 10.3 a)),
MON M ON ( ), . . MN = M N .
M , N O , ,
M O N (. 10.3 )),

a)

M
O

N M

. 10.3

MN = ON OM = ON OM = M N .
MN = M N
M, N O . ,
, , .
. F F O, S O ( F ) = F .
, F O, F
- , O F. , , , - .
271

10


A BOC. ,
A.
C
D
:
O
O = S A (O ) OC
A
B
B
OB, OC OB .
DE, D = OC I OB E = OB I OC , E
O
C
.
. 10.4

A
1. - .
2.
?
3. , ? ?
4. ?
5. ?
?
6. A, B, C, D , A C B, B D C. ?
7. , :
a) ;
) .
8. , , ?
9. S O o S O ?
10. - ?

11. , , , .
12. , :
a) ;
) ;
) ,
, ;
) .
13. A F, A F . , A F, F :
a) ;
) ;
) .
14. , .
15. , F = [ AB ] U [CD ] -,
[ AC ] U [ BD ] - .
272

d A d . A A
d, AA d , AA I d = M AM = AM . d
.
. ,
d,
d d.
: S d , S d ( A) = A, S d ( B ) = B (. 10.5).
B

C = C

M
d

A
. 10.5

3. .

d
B
d A1
N

A B A B
A1
B
. , AB = AB.
AB d , , AB = AB . , AB d (. 10.6)
A
A
BB I d = N . N . 10.6
, AA ,
A1 N NA1, A1 A1 = AA. AA1 A1A , , AA1 = AA1. d
BB A1 A1, , . , AA1 || d || AA1 , AA1 A1 B AA1A1B .
A1 NB A1NB , BA1 = B A1. ,
AA1 B AA1B , ,
, , AB = AB.
S d F F,

F = S d (F ), F F d.
d F,
d F , . . S d ( F ) = F . , ; ,
, .
273

10


AB AC ABC m(A) < 90
P Q (. 10.7).
BC X 1 , PQX .

A
P
Q

:
P1 = S BC ( P ), P1 X = PX , X ( BC ).

X1
P1

PQX , P1 X + XQ

. 10.7

, , X = X 1 = BC I P1Q.

A
1. , :
a) ;
) .
2. ?
3. :
a) ;
) .
4. d
S d , :
a) d ;
) d ;
) d .
5. A B. , A B. ?
6. :
a) ;
) ;
) ;
) .

) ;

7. :
a) ;
) ?
8.
) S d ;
) , S d .
9. AB, A, B, C, D
, ABC ABD AB.

274

D
C

A
B

A, A,
. A A
, AA .
B
(. 10.8).

A
C

B = B

D
A
. 10.8

. ,
, ,
.
: S .
.
F F = S (F ),
F, F ,
.
, ,
.


(. 10.9).
F
ABCD AECF .
, EBFD .
C
:
D
B
, S ,

A
S ([ FB ]) = [ BE ], S ([ FD ]) = [ DE ].
, [ FB] [ BE ], [ FD] [ DE ].
E
, S ,
S ([ FB ]) = [ FD ], , [ FB ] [ FD].
, EBFD
. 10.9
, . . .

1. , .
2. .
3. ( ):
a) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
4. , AB AB .
?
5. ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 . , A : a) CC1 D1 ;
) BDD1 ;
) CDA1 ;
) BDC1 ;
) BCB1 .
275

10

6. d. A B
C . C d,
AB = 10 .
7.
. ?

8. ,
:
a) ;
) , S = S1 ;
) .
9. A B .
M, AM + MB .
10. A B .
M, AM MB .
11. d . A d.
, A ?
12. , .

, ,
( ), ,
, .
A
B
C
[AC [BC 10.10 . 10.10
, [BA [AC .
: [ AC [ BC , [ BA [ AC.
,
. , ,
. ,
(. 10.11 a)),
(. 10.11 )).
B

A
C

B
C

[ AB [CD
a)
276

A
D

[ AB [CD
. 10.11

, , ,
.
. ,
( A, A), - M
,
M M ,
[MM [ AA MM = AA MM = AA (. 10.12).

M
C

. 10.12

, ( A, A), t AA . ,
M = t AA (M ), C = t AA (C ) . .
, t AA ( M ) = M , t MM ( A) = A, t AA = t MM .
, ,
.
, : t AA ( M ) = t BB ( M ) = M , M
A, B.
M = t AA (M ) M AA, AAM M .

, A B, , .
,
( )?
B
:
a
a ,
B1
, (. 10.13).
N
B1 = t a ( B ), M AB 1
, A, a
M
, .
M1
A
M 1 M 1 M ,
. 10.13
AM 1 + M 1 B1 > AM + MB1 = AB1 = AM + NB.

1. ABCD t AM , M
:
) C;
) D;
) .
a) B;
2. ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 t AM , M
:
a) B;
) B1 ;
) C1 ;
) AB;
) O.
3.
ABC A1 B1C1 . ,
.
277

10

4. A, B, C, D , ABD ABC AB (. ). ABCD


t AC .

D
A

5. ,
, ?

C
B

6. , t AB .
7. , :
a) ;
) , , ;
) .
8. ,
) ?
, : a) ;
9. , ,
.
10. , SB o S A = t AA 1, A1 = S B ( A).
11. ,
, , , ,
.
12. , . ?
13. , , ,
. ?

. k
.
k ( k)
,
A, B A, B
AB = kAB.
, k = 1.
AB = kAB , A B, A B,
.
. 1) k1 k 2
k1k 2 .
2) , k,
1
.
k
278

1) A, B k1
A, B , k 2 A, B . AB = k1 AB AB = k 2 AB . ,
AB = k1 k 2 AB , , A, B A, B
, k1k 2 .
2) k A B
A B AB = k AB. 1
, AB = AB, , A, B A,
k
1
B , .
k
,
, .
(k = 1).
. O k. O k , :
1. O .
2. M O M M, O,
M M . O
MM k > 0
k < 0.
3. M M OM = | k | OM
(. 10.14).

M
O

k >0

B
A
M

A
M

O
A

k<0
. 10.14

, , .
.

ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 (. 10.15). ,
.
:
A1 DB
A1 DB . A
3
k = . A1 DB
2
A2 D2 B2 ,
MNPQRS. M,
N, P, Q, R, S DC , CB , BB1 ,
A1 B1 , A1 D1 D1 D .

D2

D
A

C
B N

B2

S
P

A1

A2

D1
R
Q

C1
B1

. 10.15
279

10

1. .
2. ?
3. ?
4. k 1 ?
?
5.
. .
?
6. O A A. B C ( ) ) ).

C
B

A
O
A
A
a)
)
7. , O,
A, B, C A1 , B1 , C1 . , ABC A1 B1C1
.
A

8. ,
.
9. . :
a) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ?

. l (
l ) ,
l , A,
l, A, A A
, l, A0 A = A0 A m(AA0 A) = , A0 = I l.
: Rl .
, ( ) A A
A,
l
(. 10.16).
l ,
.
280

C = C

A0

. 10.16

Rl ( F ) = F , l F. ,
.
. , ,
.
.
, , , , , .

.
:
K = ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 (. 10.17).
M ABCD, N -

D
A

M
B

90
180
270
Q
A1 B1C1 D1 , RMN
( K ) = RMN
( K ) = RMN
(K ) =
O
P
360
( K ) = K . , MN
= RMN
C1
. .
D1 N
A1
AC1
B1
120, 240 360.
DB1 , CA1 , DD1 .
. 10.17
180
360. , .
, 13 .

1. ,
A B , AB,
AB.
2. A B. , A B. *
?
3. :
a) ;
) ;

) ;
) ?

4. , .
5. , .
6. , a, ,
a , , a; ,
a a, .
7. l A B , l AB . l M, AM + MB .
281

10


A
1. d1 , d 2 A, C. B, D ( B d1 , D d 2 ) ,
ABCD . .
2. d, C A, C. B D ( B d , D C ) ,
ABCD . .
3. , BM ABC , ABC .
4. C1 C2 M .
d M , , , d .

5. AB ABC P,
AC BC X Y . X 1 Y1
, PX 1Y1 .
6.
.
, .

7. A, B ABC d, C . C.
8. d1 d 2 a ,
. M1 d1 M 2 d 2 , M 1 M 2 = a .
9. d1 , d 2 A, B,
. ABB1 A1 , A1 d1 , B1 d 2 .

282

: 45

1. .
2. .
3. , ?
4. , ,
.
5. , ,
.

: 45

1. , .
2. ,
.
3. , , ,
.
4. :
a) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ?
5. A(2, 1), B(1, 4),
C(3, 1), D(0, 4). , :
) A;
a) O;
) ;
) AB.

283

10

: S O

: S d

B
M
N

1. M d , S d ( M ) = M ;
2. A d , S d ( A) = A,
AAd , AA I d = M , M
[ MM ].

: S
A

,
( A, A) : t AA
A

A
M

B = B

M ( AA), t AA ( M ) = M ,
AAM M .
t A A (C ) = C

1. B , S d ( B ) = B;
2. A , S d ( A) = A ,
AAd M = AA I d
AA.
k , k > 0
A, B
A, B

AB = k AB.

l : Rl
l

C
B

1. S O (O ) = O;
2. M O, S O ( M ) = M , O
MM .

C = C

AB = 2 AB,
AC = 2 AC ,
BC = 2 BC.

A0

Rl ( A) = A, Rl ( B) = B

O k

k >0
O

284

k <0

M
O

R=spunsuri [i indica\ii


1
n

1. 1. A. 2. , ( xn ) n 1 , xn = . 3. a)

3 5
9 11
, , 1, , ; ) .
5 6
8 9

1 5 5 9 9
, , , , . 8. , a) ( xn ) n 1 , xn = (1) 2 n 1 n; ) ( xn ) n 1 , xn = n + 2.
3 6 9 12 15
9. a) , ; ) , ; ) , ; ) , , ; ) , 2
3
4
5
11 11 11 11 11
, , , , ; ) , .
. 10. a)
10 10 10 10 10
3
3
1
12. a) xn = 1 n , n N ; ) ; ) 1 xn < , n N . 13. a) xn = 3 5n 1 ;
2
2 3

) . 14. a) xn = 1 2n, n N ; ) ,
. 15. a) xn = 5n 15, n N , , ; ) xn = 4 2 n 1 , n N ,
, . 16. a) xn = a + (n 1), n N ; ) xn = a n 1 , n N ;
) :
xn = a n 1 + (1 + + 2 + ... + n 2 ), n N . 17. xn = 5n 2, n N .
1. . 6.

1
1
2. A. 1. a) xn = 3(1) n 1 ; ) xn = ; ) xn = ; ) xn = (2n 1) 2 . 2. a) 7, 9, 11, 13;
2

3
2
1
4 1
) 3, 2, 7, 12; ) 1,3; 1,6; 1,9; 2,2; )
, ,
,
. 3. a) a1 = 23; ) a1 = 597.
7 5 35 35
5
5
1
3 3 3 3
, ,
. 5. 23 . 6. 1900 . 7. 4 154,28 .
4. a) 10, 5, , ; ) ,
2
4
2 2 2 2
8. 1700 . 9. 5 760 . 10. 512 .
n 13
77
5n + 16
405
, S14 = ; ) an =
, S 25 =
. 14. a) bn = 9 2 n 1 ;
2. . 11. 484. 12. a) an =
3
3
35
7
n 1
5
768
5
1
1
3
1
; q = ; ) b1 = ; q = . 16. S 9 = 408 .
) bn = 10 . 15. a) b1 =
125
4
2
2
5
2
17. . x, y, z xz = y 2 , x + z = 2( y + a), x( z + b) = ( y + a) 2 .
1
47 1993
. 19. a) b1 = 0,3; ) b1 = . 20. S = {55}. 21. , 2. 22. ,
18.
21
4
9 27 81 243
+ +
.
180 = 12 + 24 + 48 + 96 ; 180 = +
2 2
2
2
8
1
1
3. . 6. a) 0; ) 0; ) 0; ) ; ) 0; ) 0; ) 0; ) 1; ) ; ) e 4 ; ) 1; ) ; ) e 2 ; ) 0.
3
3
2
1
3
3 1
1
7 5 13
, 1,
, ;
; ) ,
. A. 1. a) , 1, , ,
3
5 3 7
2 2
2 2
1
15
20 29 34
n
, ,
,
. 2. a) xn =
; ) xn = 2n; ) xn = 3 (1) n 1 ; ) xn = n .
) 6,
2
3 4
n +1
5
3
n
, n 1. 4.
3. , a) 22, 24, 26, 28, 30; ) 1, 1, 1, 1, ...; ) xn =
n +1
. 5. a) an = 4n + 2; ) an = 2n 1; ) an = 5n 15; ) an = 7 n 4. 6. a) 24 550;
n 1

(a 2 1) 2
1
; ) a = b, x R. 8. a) bn = 2 6 n 1 ; ) bn = 10 ; ) bn = 3 2 n 1.
2a ( 2 a )
2
n 1
1
1
9. a) xn = 2 3n 1 , q = 3; ) xn = 2n + 2, r = 2; ) xn = 4 , q = ; ) xn = 5n 6, r = 5.
3
3
10. a) n = 10, S n = 140; ) a1 = 4, n = 8 a1 = 2, n = 11. 11. a) S 9 = 2 555; ) S 8 = 765.

) 4850. 7. a) x =

285

12. 5 . 13. 313,6 . 14. 1 6 . 15. , a) x2 k = 1 + (1) 2 k ;


2 2 k 1 + (2) 2 k 1
6k + (1) 3k
; ) x2 k = 2k sin k ; ) x2 k = cos 2k ; ) x3k =
.
) x2 k 1 =
2 k 1
6k
2
. 16. 24 . . 19. 243 . 20. 1224. 21. S n = n[ x 2 + (3 n)ax + a 2 ]. 22. a) + ; ) + ; ) ;
2
1
2
) ; ) ; ) ; ) e 1 ; ) e; ) 0.
3
2
3
1
7 5 13
2
2
. A. 1. a) , 1, , , ; ) 0, , 0, , 0. 2. .
3
5 3 7
3
3
3. a1 = 2, r = 3 a1 = 14, r = 3. 4. b1 = 1, q = 3. 5. 6 .
7
11 13
1
1
. 2. bn = 4(3) n 1 . 3. . 5. a1 = , r = .
. 1. 5, , 3, ,
2
4 5
3
4
30
3
3
30
, q = b1 = , q = . 7. 9 .
6. b1 =
7
4
7
4

2. 1. . 1. . , ( 2 r , 2 + r ) I E , r > 0. 2. a) 2, 2;

1 1
2
3
n
1
1
, x =
. 5. a) 2; ) ; ) .
) 2, 4; ) , , 1, 1. 3. a) xn = 4 + ; ) xn = 1 +
2 2
2n + 1 n n + 1
7
2
n
7. . lim f ( xn ) lim f ( xn) ( xn ) n 1 , xn x0 ,
n

( xn) n 1 , xn x0 , , , , 0, 1 1, 3
e. 8. a) l (2) = 5, l ( 2) = 6; ) l ( 1) = l ( 1) = 1; l (1) = , l (1) = +.
9. a) l (0) = 1, / l (1); ) l (0) = 2, l (2) = 4.

10. a) l (k ) = 1, l (k ) = 1 / lim f ( x);


x k

+ k , k Z; ) x0 k , k Z.
x k
2
12. a) a = 1, lim f ( x) = 4; a = 2, lim f ( x) = 1; ) a = 2, lim f ( x) = 0; a = 3, lim f ( x) = 5. 13. a = 1.
) l (k ) = k 1, l (k ) = k / lim f ( x). 11. a) x0 R \ Z; ) x0
x 1

x 1

x 2

x 2

2. . 1. a) 1; ) +; ) +; ) ; ) +; ) . 2. a) 4; ) ; ) +; ) ; ) 55;
2
1
1
) ; ) 0; ) +; ) 3. 3. a) ; ) ; ) +; ) e(e 1) 2 ; ) e; ) +. 4. a) ; ) ;
5
2
2
1
) ; ) +; ) 2; ) . 5. a) 1; ) 2; ) (1) n ; ) 3 (1) n +1 . 7. . .
3
7 1. a) ; ) ; ) . 8. a) f (0) = 0, f (1 + 0) = f (1 0) = +,

f (1 0) = f (1 + 0) = ; ) f (1 + 0) = f (1 0) = 0, f (1 0) = f (1 + 0) = +; ) f (1 0) = 1,
f (1 + 0) = 0. 9. m = 1, m = 2. 10. m [1, 3]. 11. a) 1; ) ; ) 0; ) ; ) +;
) ; ) ; ) .
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
; ) 1; ) ; ) ;
3. . 1. a) 3; ) 3; ) ; ) ; ) 2; ) ; ) 4; ) ; )
4
2
4
2
4
9
16
1
4
5
3
5
3
2
8
1
2
3
2
) ; ) 3; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) e ; ) e ; ) e ; ) e . 2. a) ; ) ; ) ;
3
4
2
12
8
3
3
1
1
9
1
1
2
1
5
1
) 2; ) 3; ) ; ) ; ) 3; ) ; ) 2; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) 1; ) ; ) ;
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
6
3
5
5
9
3
) ; ) ; ) ; ) . 3. a) +; ) +; ) ; ) +. 4. a) m = 1, n = 4;
6
2
4
4
) n = 2 + , m = 2.
5

3
1
5
12
1
3
; 2) ; 3) ; 4) 3; 5) 1; 6) 0; 7) 2 log 2 3; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ;
2
4
25
3
5
2
2
1
1
1
2
3
5
12) ; 13) 3; 14) ; 15) ; 16) 1; 17) 3; 18) 0; 19) e ; 20) e ; 21) 6 ; 22) e ; 23) ; 24) 1;
3
5
2
3
4. . 1. 1)

286

n( n 1)
3
1
7
; 27) Cn2+1 ; 28) ln 2; 29) ; 30) ; 31) 32 e ; 32) e10 e ; 33) 3 e ;
2
2
4
2
3b
3
2
3
4
34) e ; 35) e . 2. a = 1, b = 1. 3. +, a + 2b > 0 ; , a + 2b < 0; ,
4
a + 2b = 0. 4. a = 2, b = 5, f (1 0) = . 5. a = 3, b = 1.
2
1
7
5
. . 1. a) ; ) ; )
; ) 3; ) 14; ) ; )
;
5
2
12
28
2
2
1
4
2
8
1
3
3
1
1
; ) ; ) . 2. a) ; ) 1; ) ; ) ; ) log 72 ; ) ;
; ) ; ) ; )
) 1; )
3
2
3
3
9
12
4
4
4
3
2
3

2
1
3
1
2
2
) 2; ) ; ) 3; ) 4; ) e ; ) e ; ) e ; ) . 3. a) ; ) 0; ) ; ) + ; ) + ; ) 0.
5
2
5
1

4. a) a , 1; ) a {1, 4}; ) a = 5; ) a = 0. 5. a) a = 1, b = 2; ) a = 2, b = 3;
2
) a = 2, b = 4. 6. a) x = 1, x = 3; ) 600 ; ) 400 ; ) 5,7; ) 200 . 7. a) 5 200 ;
) 621 480 ; ) 10 .
9
1
. . 1. C. 2. C. 3. a) l1 = 4, l3 = 9; ) l = ; ) l2 = ; ) S = ( 4, 5] U [8, 9).
4
16
1
4. a) 1; ) .
2
25) 2 n ( n +1) ; 26)

3. 1. . 2. a), ), ) , . 3. a), )
[a, b]; ) [ a , x0 ) ( x0 , b]. 4. a)
[3, 2), [2, 1), (1, 2], (2, 4] (4, 5]; ) f (1) f (0) = 2 1 = 2, f (2) f (4) = 1 3 = 3,

f (0) f (4,5) = 1 2 = 2.

5. a) . x0 R | sin x sin x0 | = 2 sin

x x0
x + x0
cos

2
2

x x0
| x x0 | 0 > 0 ( < ) , | sin x sin x0 | < , x R , | x x0 | < ;
2
1
), ) ) a). 6. . | f ( x) 6 | <

10
1
2
| x + x 6 | = | x 2 || x + 3 | < . | x + 3 | 7 ( 0 x 4),
10
1
1
, = . ,
, | x 2 | <
70
70

1
. , > 0 = > 0 ,
10

| x 2 | < | f ( x) f (2) | < . 7. a), ) ; ) x0 = 0 ; )


2 sin

x0 = 0 . 8. a = 0, a = 2 , a = 2 . 9. a) x0 = 1; f (1 + 0) f (1 0) = e; ) x0 = 1, x1 = 0;

f (1 + 0) f ( 1 0) = 2, f (+0) f (0) = 1. 10. a) x1 = 1, x2 = 1;


) R \ {0}, x0 = 0 . 11. a) ; ) x1 = 1, x2 = 1. 12. a) a + be = 2, a, b R; ) a = 1.

; )
4
, | x x0 | < | f ( x ) f ( x0 ) | 0 .

2. . 1. a) x0 = 1; ) x0 = 1; ) x0 =

2. 0 > 0, > 0, x
1
x sin
x = 0 = f (0). , f 0, . 4. a) a = 2,
3. . lim f ( x) = lim
2
x +0
x +0 sin x
x
b = 1; ) . 5. a) 2) f o g , g o f x0 = 0; ) 2) f o g

xk = k , k Z .

0, 1, 1, g o f ; ) 2) f o g xk = k , k Z;
287

g o f x0 = 0; ) 2) f o g x0 = 1, g o f x0 = 1.
x, x 1,
6. a) ( f o g)(x) = ( x +1)2 ( g o f )( x) = x 2 + 1 ; ) ( f o g )( x ) =
x 2, x > 1
x, x 0,
x0 = 1, ( g o f )( x) =
x0 = 0 ; ) f o g
x 2, x > 0
xn = ln n, n N ; g o f xk = k , k Z; ) f o g xm = m ,

m Z , xk = + 2k , k Z; g o f xk = k , k Z; ) f o g 2
1
x0 = 0 xk = , k Z \ {0}; g o f xk = k , k Z \ {1}; ) f o g
k
x R \ [0, 1]; g o f xk = k , k Z . 7. a) a = 1; ) a = 1; ) a = 0;
3
) a = ; ) a R.
2
1, x Q,
g: R R, g ( x) = f ( x).
8. , f : R R, f ( x) =
1, x R \ Q;
1, x < 0,

9. , f : R R, f ( x) = 0, x = 0, g : R R, g ( x) = x.
1, x > 0;
3. . 1. . lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ), x0 I . 2. . (a, b) .
x x0

f ( x), a < x < b,


~
~

f : [a, b] R, f ( x) = , x = a,
[a, b], ,
, x = b,
~
: m ( f ( x)) M , x [a, b] m f ( x) M , x (a, b). (a, b) = (a, + )
(a ), > 0 > a , < f ( x) < + , x . (a, ) f : m f ( x) M , x (a, ) min( , m) f ( x) max( + , M ), x (a, + ).
(, b) (, + ).

4. f : (a, b) R, f ( x) =

1
1, x 0, 2 ,

1 3
7. : a) f : (0, 1) [0, 1], f ( x) = 4 x + 3, x , ,
2 4

0, x 3 , 1 ;
4

1
.
( x a)(b x)

1
2 x, x 0, 2 ,

) f : (0, 1) (0, 1), f ( x) = x ; ) f : (0, 1) (0, 1], f ( x) =

2 x + 2, x 1 , 1 .

2
8. a) . = 1, = 0. f (1) = 1 f (0) = 1 , f
(1, 0) (0, 1); ) f (0,5) = 0,5 f (1) = 0, f
(0,5; 1) (0,5; 0); ) f
3 + 13
, 1 U (1010 , +). 10. a) f > 0
. 9. a) x (e 4 , 3); ) x (, 4); ) x
2

( , 0) U ( a, b) U (c, + ) f < 0 (0, a ) U (b, c ); ) f > 0 (1, +) f < 0


( , 4) U ( 4, 1). 11. .
288

. . 1. = 1. 2. a) x = 1 ; ) x = 1 ; ) x = 1 ;
1
) f (x) R. 3. a = , b = 1. 5. a) x = 0
2
0, x = 1,
4, x < 0,
( g o f )( x ) =
f , g ; ) ( f o g )( x ) =
) f o g

1
,
1
,

1, x = 0;
x = 1; g o f x = 0. 6. a), ), ) ; ) .
1
9. a) S = ( , 3) U (3, + ); ) S = (1, 4); ) S = 0, 2 U (1, + ).
e
. . 1. a) (. .); ) ; ), ), ), ) (.
.) 2. a) ; ) x0 = 1 . 3. a) ;
) . 4. a {0,5; 1}.

4. 1. A. 1. a) x = 1,5, f = 3,75; ) x = 0,5 3 , f = 2,75; ) x = 4,7,

1
. 3. a) f ( 1) = f (0) = f (0,5) = f (10) = 0,5.
x2
4. a) y = x + 4, ; y = 3 x + (3 3 ), ; ) y = x + 2, ;
3
9 3
x+
, .
y = 3 x + (3 + 3 ), ; ) y = 0, ; y =
3
3
1. . 5. ) f x0 = 2 x1 = 2. 7. a) f
x0 = 0; ) f x0 = 0. 8. a) m Z, m > 1;
2
) n N , n 2. 9. n = 0, m = . . m n
e
x0 = e.

f = 17,39. 2. ) f ( x) = 6 x 2 ; ) f ( x) =

2. A. 1. a) f x0 x1 ; ) f x1
x0 ; ) f x1 x0
x2 . 3. a) y = 3 x 2; ) y = 1; ) y = 4 x + 6. 4. a) 0; ) 60.
2. . 6. a) f x0 = 3 x1 = 3; ) f
(4 ) 2
2
x+
;
x0 = 10. 7. a) 1) y = x + 0,75; 2) y = 6 x 3; 3) y = 8 x 24; ) 1) y =
2
8

1
3 3
3
3 6
; 3) y =
x+
x+
. 8. a) 1) f, g, h 2
6
2
12
R; 2) f R \ {0}; g
R \ {0}; h R \ {3, 3}. 9. a) 1) y = 3x, = arctg3; 2) y = x + 1,
1
1

= ; ) 1) y = x 1, = arctg ; 2) y = 2 x + 6, = arctg2. 10. b = 4, c = 1.


3
3
4
1
8

, D f = R + ;
3. A. 1. a) f ( x ) = 8 x 7 , D f = R; ) f ( x ) = 7 x , D f = R + ; ) f ( x) =
3
4
4 x
x
1
1
1

x
f ( x) = ln , D f = R; ) f ( x) =
, D f =R ;
)
f ( x ) = 3 ln 3, D f = R; )
2
2
x
ln
3

1
10
1
1
1
; )
; ) 120; )
;
, D f = R . 2. a)
, D f = R ; ) f ( x) =
) f ( x) =
4
5
7
ln
7
ln
10
14
x ln 3
5 x
1
2
2
) 32 ln 2; ) 0. 3. a) y = x + ; ) y = x ln 2 + 1; ) y = x log 8 e + log 8 ; ) y = 5 x + 4.
3
3
e
1
2
, D f = R ;
3. . 4. a) f ( x) = 1,5 x , D f = R + ; ) f ( x ) = 3,4 x , D f = R. 5. a) f ( x ) =
77 x 6
2) y =

289

1
, x > 0;
2 x

f ( x) =

f ( x) =

f ( x) = 2 x ln 2, x > 0;

1
, x < 0; D j = R ;
2 x

f ( x ) = 2 x ln 2, x < 0; D f = R.

f ( x) =

6. a)

1
, D f = R ;
x 2 ln 0,4

f = 1, f = 1;
2
2

) f (0) = 2, f (0) = 2; ) f (0) = 3, f (0) = 2. 7. a) y = 42 x 63; ) y =

1
3 3
;
x+
2
6

3x
ln 9 1
+
; ) y = 2,5 x ln 2,5 + 2,5(1 ln 2,5). 8. m = 1, n = 0.
27 ln 27
ln 3
1
4. A. 1. a) f ( x) = 30 x 5 ; ) f ( x) = e x ; ) f ( x) =
; ) f ( x) = 3x 2 10 x;
x ln 9
2
2 x +1
f ( x) =
.
f ( x) = 14 x 3; )
)
2. a) D f = R + , f ( x) =
, D f = R + ;
x ln 5
2 x
1
+ 5 x 4 , D f = R ; ) f ( x ) = e x (1 + x ), D f = D f = R; ) D f = R + ,
) D f = R + , f ( x) =
x ln 3
log x 3 x
x 2 2x 1
ln x
x
, D f = R+ ; ) f ( x) =
,
f ( x) =
, D f = R+ ; ) D f = R+ , f ( x) = 3 2
+
x ln 3
x
( x 1) 2
2 x
33 x
2x
ln x 1
, D f = R; ) f ( x) = 2 , D f = D f = R+ \ {1};
Df = D f = R \ {1}; ) D f = R , f ( x) = 2
ln x
( x + 2) 2
e x ( x 4)

4
x
1
, D f = D f = R \ {3}; ) f ( x) =
, D f = ( ; 0] U [0,5; + ),
) f ( x) =
( x 3) 2
2 2x2 x
2
2 1
4
D f = (; 0) U (0,5; + ); ) D f = R+ , f ( x) =
.
; ) log 5 0,5 +
, D f = R . 3. a)
ln 5
2
x ln 2
) y =

4. a) v(t ) = t 2 + 6t + 7; ) 15 / ; ) 7 . 5. a) t1 = 1 , t 2 = 2 ; ) v1 (t ) = 12t + 4, a1 (t ) = 12;

v2 (t ) = 3t 2 + 6t + 6, a2 (t ) = 6t + 6; ) v1 (1) = 16 / , v1 (2) = 26 / , a1 (1) = a1 (2) = 12 / 2 ;


v2 (1) = 15 / , v2 (2) = 30 / , a2 (1) = 12 / 2 , a2 (2) = 18 / 2 ; ) v1 (t ) = v2 (t )
3 3
3+ 3
t2 =
, a1 (t ) = a 2 (t ) t = 1 .
2
2
1
1
1
;

4. . 6. a) f ( x) = 25 x 24
sin x; ) f ( x) = cos x +
x ln 0,3 5 5 x 4
2 x
1
3
5
3
10
4
+ 7e x + 10 ; ) f ( x) = 5 sin x 7 cos x ;
) f ( x) = +
+ ; ) f ( x) =
5
6
x
x 2 3x x 3
x
3 32 x
sin x 4

) f ( x) = 5
+ x cos x ; ) f ( x) = 8 x 2 (3 ln x + 1); ) f ( x) = 3x 6 (log3 x 0,2 log3 e);
3
4
4 x

6 2 log 52 tg x
10 x 15
) f ( x) = 2
; ) f ( x) = 3 63 x ln 6 sin 2 4 x + 4 63 x sin 8 x;
; ) f ( x) =
sin 2 x ln 5
x 3x

t1 =

) f ( x) =

) y = 3 x + 1 3.
)

1 3
; ) y = 0;
7. a) y = 3 x +
3
4
8. a R, b = 2, c = 1. 9. , a) f ( x) = 2 x sin x + 2008;
n
k
| n Z}; ) S = {( 1) k +1 +
| k Z}.
10. a) S = {( 1) n +1 +
8
2
6
2

6 x 2 ln x sin(3x 2 1) 2 cos(3 x 2 1)
.
x ln 3 x

f ( x) = e 2 x 100.

k 7 k
11. a) S = (, 2 3 ) U (2 + 3 , + ); ) S = U
+
+
,
. .
36 3 36
3
k Z
1
sin(6 x ) < . 12. a) f ( x ) = 12 x 10; ) f ( x ) = 18 sin 3 x; ) f ( x) = 20e 2 x ;
2
290

) f ( x) =

3
(3 x ) 3 x
2

; ) f ( x) =

1
; ) f ( x) =
x2

x
3

; ) f ( x) =

4
;
( x + 1) 3

x
27 1
9

1
1
1
x

x 1
) f ( x) = ( x ) ln x +
. .
+
+
2 x 2 x 2 x 2

1
2x
5
(ln x) =
f ( x). 13. 2

+ 3arctg x. 15. 70m N. 16. 168. 17. n 2 n 1. f ( x)


( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 1
. (1 + x) n = Cn0 + Cn1 x + Cn2 x 2 + ... + Cnn x n x = 1.
2

2. a) 1,16;
dx
;
) 0,972; ) 6,0009 ; ) 0,999 ; ) 0,05. 3. a) d f ( x) = (3x + 2)d x; ) d f ( x) =
(1 x) 2
) d f ( x) = cos( x + 1)d x; ) d f ( x) = 2 sin 2 x d x. 4. a) d f ( x ) = (log 2 x + log 2 e)d x = log 2 (ex )dx;
5. . 1. a) f ( x1 ) 0,96, f ( x2 ) 1,02; ) f ( x1 ) 751,2,

f ( x2 ) 4,86.

x
1
9
d x; ) d f ( x) = d x.
) d f ( x) = 2 xe 4 x (1 + 2 x)d x; ) d f ( x) = ctg ( x + 5)
2
x
x
+
sin
(
x
5
)

1
3 +1
2
d x. 6. a) d f ( x) = 1 + 20 x 3 + 78 d x;
d x; )
5. a) d x; )
ln 4
3
2
x
2 x
2 sin x
2 x 1
1
2x

d x. 7. a) 2 d x; )

) d f ( x) = 2 e x ln 3 2
d x; ) d f ( x) =
3
8
cos x 55 ( x 2 x) 4
x 1

1
4
; ) d x ; ) 28e d x. 8. a) 0,695. . cos(45 + 1). ) 1,05.
3
. lg(10 + 1,2). ) 2,511; ) 0,497; ) 0,92.

1
6. A. 1. a) x0 ; ) x0 , x2 ; ) x2 ; ) x2 ; ), ) . 2. a) 1) S =
4 ;

1
; ) 1) S =
2 ; .

3. a) ; ) .

6. . 6. a) c = 1; ) f x0 = 2; ) c = 0; ) c = .
2
3
7. a) a = 7, b = 3, d = 1; ) c = . 8. . .
14

f ( x) = x 2 x 2 x10 + 2.

11. a) c = 0,5;
3 3
; ) f ,
) c =
e
e5 1
. 13. f ( x ) = 7. .
(0, 3); ) c = ln
5e
1
3 . 14. a) 3; ) ; ) ; ) 1; ) 0; ) 0; ) 1; ) 0. 15. a) 0; ) 0; ) 0.
3

9. . f : R R,

. A. 1. B. 2. D. 3. a) ; ) y = 2 x 1; ) S = R * ;

1
1
) O (0, 0). 4. a) S =
0, 1 3 ; ) S = {e }; ) S = {0}. 5. S = [0, + ). 6. a) 4 ; ) 6 .

d x. 8. a) S = + k | k Z ;
. 7. a) (cos x) sin(sin x)d x; ) ( sin x) cos(cos x)d x; )
x ln x
4

) S = + k | k Z ; ) S = {0}. 9. a) 1) f (0) = f (0) = 0; 2) f (3) = 0, f (3) = 3;


4

3) f (0) = 2, f (0) = 0. 11. . . 12. f


1
[1, + ), x0 = 2. 14. c = . 15. a) f
2
291

c = 2; ) f 12 3
2

. 16. .
c = ; ) f c =
2
3
3

+ 15
3x
. 4. 1,5 .
3. a) f ( x) = x 5 (2 + x ln125); ) f ( x) =
2 x 5 ( x + 5) 2
2 log 0 , 2 6 x

. 1. a) ; ) S =
(k + 1) 6 | k Z ; ) y = 6 x (6 + 1). 2. a) R + ; ) x ln 0,2 d x;

2(1 ln 0,2 log 0, 2 6 x)

)
. 3. a) S = (1) k +1 10 + k | k Z ;
3
x 2 ln 2 0,2

4
2

) S = U 10 + 2k ,
10 + 2k ; S = U
10 + 2k , 10 + 2k .
3
3
3
3
k Z
k
Z

2
4. e . 5. a) a = ln 2, b = 0, d = 1; ) c = 0. 6. 1 .
1
6

. A. 1. a) <; ) S = , + ; ) S = {3, 0}. 2. a) R*+ ; ) ; ) y = x + 1.

5. 1. A. 1. a) (, 1] , [1, 1] , [1, + ) ; f (1) = 2 , f (1) = 2


; ) (, 0]

, [0, + ) ; f (0) = 3 ; ) (, 1]

, [1, + ) ; f (1) = 3

; ) (, 2] , [2, 2] , [ 2, +) ; f (2) = 16 ; f (2) = 16 ;

3
3 1

) , , ,
2

2 2
1
2

f (0) = 12

) ,

27
3
1
1
, , + ; f = 0 ; f =
;
2
2
2
2

1
9
1
, , + ; f =
. 2. a) f (2) = f (2) = 4 ,
2
2 4

; ) f (1) = 4 ; ) f ( 5) = 0 , f (1) = 324

; ) f ( 2 ) = 4 2 , f ( 2 ) = 4 2 ; ) f (1) = 0 ,
2
, M = 120.
f (1) = 4 ; ) f . 3. a) m = 7, M = 9; ) m =
3 3

1
1
, + ; ) (, 3] , [3, +) ;
1. . 5. a) (, 1] , (1, 3) , [3, + ) ; ) 0,
,
e
e

) [0, +) ; ) (, 3] , [ 3, 3 ] , [ 3 , 3 ] , [ 3 , 3] , [3, +) ; ) ( , 1] ,
27
[1, + ) . 6. a) a [1, +); ) a [1, +); ) a 1. 7. a) f (5) =
;
4
5
2

) f (2k ) = 1, f (2k + ) = 1, f (2k + ) =


, k Z, f ( 2k + ) = 1,
2
4
2

, k Z , , ) f (1) = 1 , f (1) = 1 ;
f 2k + =
2
2
4 2

2
e
2
) f = ; ) f ( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) = 4e 2 ; f (0) = 0 ; ) f (1) = 0
3
3
5
93 6
; f (e 2 ) = 4e 2 ; ) f =
; f (1) = 0 ;
8
4
1
1
) f (0) = 0 ; f = ; ) f (1) = e1 ; f (2) = 4 e
e
e

. 8. a) m = min[ f (1), f (0), f (2)] = f (2) = 13; M = max[ f (1), f (0), f (2)] = f (0) = 3;

5
5

) m = min[ f (0), f , f , f ( )] = f (0) = f ( ) = 1, M = max[ f (0), f , f


6 6
6 6

5
5
= f = f = ; ) m = 2 2 ln 2, M = +.
6
6

4
292

, f ( )] =

2. . 1. a) y = x; ) ; ) x = 0, y = 3. 2. a) y = 0, x = 0; ) x = 2; ) y = 0 +,
x = 0; ) y = x + . 3. a) (, 3) (3, +);
) ( , 1) U (0, 1) ( 1, 0) U (1, + ); )
(2k , (2k + 1) ) , k Z, ((2k + 1) , (2k + 2) ), k Z;
) (, 0) (0, +); ) (, 0)
3

(0, + ); ) 0, e 2 e 2 , + ; )

2 k 4 2 k + 34
2 k + 4 2 k + 54
, k Z, e
,e
,e
e
,

k Z. 4. . , f = 0 , , f

, f
. 5. a) y = 0, x = 0; ) ; ) x = 0, y = 1; ) x = 1, x = 0, x = 1, y = x; ) y = 1
y = 1 +; ) y = 0. 7. , f : R \ {k} R, f ( x) = 1 , k Z.
x [ x]
a2
3. . 3. ) A max =
.
2
4. A. 1. a) v(0) = s(0) = 12 /. ) 2 . 16 .
E2
2. R = r, Pmax = P(r) = . 4. 4 225 .
4r
4. . 5. v(t ) = 3 a t 2 + b; a (t ) = v(t ) = 6 a t. 6. . v(t ) = 3t 2 12 t ; a (t ) = 6 t 12,
a(t ) = 0 t = 2, vmin = v ( 2) = 12. 7. . B ( x) = p ( x) x C ( x). x = 11 .,
Bmax = 479 . .

1
1 1
, ,
3 3

) ,
3

1. a) (, 4] , [4, 0]

, [0, + )

1
, , + . 2. a) (, 1] , [ 1, + ) ; ) (, 0] , [0, 1]

A.

1
4
1
4
, 2, , , + ; ) , , , 2 , [2, + )
2

5
5
2

1
1
1
,
, + ; ) (, 1] , [1, + ) . 3. a) (, 1]
,
,
2
2
2

[1, + ) ; ) (, 2]

1
) ,

3
[ 1, + ) ; ) ,
2

3
, , 0
2

3
, 0,
2

[ 2, + ) ; ) (, + ) ; ) (, 1] , [1, 1]
[0, + )

4. a) m = 3, M = 2; ) m =

3
, , +
2

, [1, + )

62 3
, M = 8.
3

; ) (, 2] , [2, 2]

2
2
, , 0
5

; ) ,
5

3
6. a) a = 2; ) a = .
2

7. Bmax = B (39) = 4 443 .


. 9. a) (, 1] , [ 1, + ) ; ) (, 1] , [1, 1] , [1, + )

; ) [0, e 2 ]

, [e 2 , + ) .

10. m (, 1]. 13. a) m [0, 1]; ) m ; ) m ( , 0) U (1, + ); ) m = 1. 14. a)


( , 1) (1, + ); ) (0, )

( , 2 ); ) (, 3 ) U (0, 3 ) ( 3 , 0) U ( 3 , + ).
15. a) x = 0; ) x = 0; ), ) ; ) x = e; ) x = 0, x = 4. 16. a) x = 1, y = 1
293

1
1
, y = x + ;
2
2
) x = 0, y = 0 + ; ) x = 0, y = 1 + ; ) x = k , k N. 17. a = 8, b = 2.
+ ; ) x = 1, x = 1, y = 0 + ; ) x =
19. x = 26, Bmax = B ( 26) = 336 .
. A. 1. (, 3]

, [3, +) . 3. Bmax = B ( 21) = 873 .

. 1. (, 1] , [1, 0] , [0, 1] , [1, +) . 2. m = , M = 2 ln 2. 4. Vmax = 1 000 . .


50 . . .
1. a) 1+ 2i; ) 6 2i; ) 3 + 2 (1 + 3 ) i; ) 10 10i;
1
i
2 1
3 1
44 + 5i
+ i; ) 21 20i; ) 2 + 2i; ) ; ) ; )
.
) 6 3 (3 + 2 ) i; ) i; )
2
4
5 5
10 10
318
37 20
1
7
2
8
2. a) i; ) 1; ) 1; ) i; ) 1. 3. a) S = ,
; ) S = 7 , 7 ; ) S = 5 , 5 ;

11 11

6. 1. A.

3 + 4 3

, 8 + 3 .
) S =
3

3 i 15 3 + i 15
1 i 3 1 + i 3
,
; ) S =
,
;

2
4
4
2

4. a) S =

1 i 4 2 1 1 + i 4 2 1
1 i 15 1 + i 15
1 3i , 1 + 3i ;
,
,
; ) S =
) S =
; ) S =

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2 i 31 2 + i 31
5 i 127 5 + i 127
,
; ) S =
,
; ) S = {1 i, 1+ i}; ) S = {2 i, 2 + i}.

5
5
4

4
1

5. a) 4; ) 52i; *) 76i; *) 117 44i. 6. a) S = {1 + 2i}; ) S =


5 (3 4i) ; ) S = 3 + 5i ;

1
1
1

*) S = (4 3i). 7*. a) S = 1 i, ; ) S = z1 = ((2 + i) z 2 i), z 2 C. 8. a) {1 i};


3
2

) ; ) {3i}.
) S =

1. . 9. a) 0; )
)

S = {2i, 3};

1
1
(19 3077i); ) 72(1+ i); )
(1 + 32i). 10. a) S = {i, 2};
130
41
) S = {i 5 , i 7 }. 11. a) z 4 + 4; ) z 4 1; ) a 2 ab + b 2 ;

1 2 1 2
1 3
+i
. 15.
.
2
2
2
2. . 2. a) {(1 i)}; ) { ( 2 3i)}; ) {(7 + i)}; ) { ( 3 i)}; ) {( 3 i 2 )};
3i
) {( 2 + i 3 )}. 3. a) S = {1 + i, 3 i}; ) S = {1 + 2i, 6i}; ) S = {i, 3 + i}; ) S =
3 + i, 2 ;

) S = {1 + i, 1 i}; ) S = {7 i, 7 + i}.
4. { ( i )}.
5. a) 5(cos + i sin );
) a 2 + b2 + c 2 (ab + bc + ac). 14.

) 3 cos + i sin ; ) 2 cos + i sin ; ) 2 2 cos + i sin ;


2
3
4
2
3
4

2
4
4
4
4
2

) cos
+ i sin 3 ; ) 4 cos 5 + i sin 5 ; ) cos arctg 3 + i sin arctg 3 ;
3

) cos + + i sin + ; ) 2 50 (cos + i sin ) . 6. a) 1; ) 64(1 + i); ) 512(1 i 3 ) .


2

3 + i
1
1

7. a) i,
; ) 3, (1 i 3 ); ) 2 [( 3 + 1) ( 3 1) i], 2 [( 3 1) + ( 3 + 1) i];
2
2

294

2
1

1 5
1 5
2
+ 2k k = 2, 3.
+ 2k + i sin
(1 i),
(1 i); ) 2 12 cos
6 12
6 12
2

2
8. a) i; ) 2 i, 2 i.
)

3. . 1. a) S = 12 2 cos

1
1
(23 + 24k ) + i sin (23 + 24k ) k = 3, 2 ;
72
72

1
1
1
) S = 10 cos ( 23 + 24k ) + i sin ( 23 + 24k ) k = 3, 1 ;
60
60

2
4

8
1
3
(1 i) ;
) S = 1, , 2 , 3 6 , 3 6 , 3 6 2 = + i
; ) S = 1, i,

2
2
2

) S = 5 2 cos


2k
2k
+ i sin
k = 2, 2 U 5
5
5

1
1
3 cos ( + 2k ) + i sin ( + 2k ) k = 2, 2.
5
5

k + 1

2k
2k
+ i sin
, k = 2, 3 .
k = cos
1
6
6

2. S = {0, 1, 1}. 4. S =

1
3
5 21 5 + 21
5 21 5 + 21
,
.
5. a) S = i, i,
; ) S = 2 3 , 2 + i 2 ; ) S = 1, 2 ,
2
2
2

2 1
. A. 1. a) 1 2i; ) 2 + 2i; ) 10 + 10i; ) + i; ) i;
5 5
) 1; ) i. 3. a) S = {3i}; ) S = {4 + 2i}. 4. 1. 5. a) 4( 3 i); ) 2 2i 3. 6. a) 2 + i;
)

127
3
3
11
12 5
+ i. 7. z =
; ) i; )
+i
+ i.
4
13 13
2
2
3

. 8. 1. . z 1; z 4 = z. 9. 64.

3
3 + 21 3 21
+ i ; ) S = {1 + i}; ) S = {0, i};
i,
i ; ) S =
10. a) S =
2
2
3

) S = {1 i; 0,8 0,4i}. 11. a) cos + i sin ; ) cos + + i sin + .


6
6
2

2 8 14
,
,
;
9
9 9

12. a) 3 4 (cos t + i sin t ) | t

3
7 19 31
5
6
7
(cos t + i sin t ) | t ,
,
. 13. a) 2 ; ) 2 ; ) 2 . 14. n = 4k , k N.
4
18
18
18

15. M 1 M 3 .
) 3

11 23
2
5 17
16 109
i. 2. S = (4 i).
i; )
i; )
50 50
3 5
3
6
17

1
1 i 6 1+ i 6
,
. 5. a) 2i; ) C.
3. S = 1, . 4. S =
7
5
7
. A. 1. a)

. 1. a)

7 7i 7 + 7i
23 1
11 8 + 3
+ i. 2. S =
,

i; ) 93(1 i); )
. 3. x = 2, y = 3.
53 53
4
4
3
2

3
3 1
3
4
+ i , 3 i . 8. S = {(i, 1 + i)}.
5. z1 = i; z 2 = 1 i. 6. 2 (1 + i). 7. S = 3
2
2
2
2

295

3 + i

2 + i

; )
; ) 8 3 ; )
;
7. 1. A. 1. a)
1 + i 2 + 2i
1 7
2i 1 + i
2 1 i

4 2
0
2i
7 3
2
6i

3 0 9
2 ;
; ) 2i
0 14 ; ) 2 4i 1 2i ; ) 2
)
3
3 6 3i

4 2i
10i 2
2
6i
6

3
0
1

17 18
4 12
, BA =
;
0 2. 2. x = 2, y = 1, z = 1, u = 0. 3. a) AB =
) i
43 30
5 51
1 2 i

6 18
3 18 33
3 12 11
a + c

, BA = 42 14; ) AB = 18 4 10 , BA = 27 4 5; ) AB = 2
48
0 3 7
0 6 7
x+ z
8

0 1

b+ y
c+z
a+x

3
9
BA = 1 + x
1+ y
1 + z ; ) AB =
, BA ;
10
3
a +1+ x b +1+ y c +1+ z

24 10

4
5i
;
)
1 + i 5i
) AB -

b +c a +b +c

2
3 ,
y + z x + y + z
) AB = BA = A.

7 10
6 4
46 10
7 10
7 5
13 21
; )
; )
; )
.
; )
; )
4. a), )
3
8
32
8

34
15 22
15 22
10 7
21

39
96
46

9 12
; ), ) ; ) 9 69 144 ;
5. a)
62
5

27
27 63

a 2 + bd + cg 1 ab + bc + ch
ac + bf + ci

1 9 3
2
; ) ;
) ad + ed + fg bd + e + fh 1 dc + ef + fi . 6. a)
3 12
7
ag + hd + ig

2
bg
eh
h
cg
fh
+
+
+
+

i
i
1

c
5 12 22
2 a b 2 c
2 a b

1
1
1
1
1 ; ) ; ) d 2 e f .
) 18 2 10 ; ) 1
3
3
3

h 2 i
0 6 13
2 x 2 y 2 z
g
2,2 3,3 4,4 2,2 3,3
10 10 13 11 11

8. T1 =1,1T = 4,4 2,2 3,3 6,6 3,3. 9. M = M 1 + M 2 + M 3 = 19 11 9 5 12 .


3,3 1,1 2,2 3,3 5,5
12 13 9 17 8

3
9
5 6
6
; )
; )
1. . 10. a)
20
15

4
10

1 + i
i
)
3

0
1

3i
c
1 n
; ) k
; )
0
1
1 + 4i

ck 1

1k

ck = ck 1 + ck 2 ; ) 0
0

296

2 i 2 + 3i
3
3 3i 9
;
; )
i
2 i
+ 3i
0
3
i
9

ck 1
, c : c1 = 0, c0 = 1,
ck 2 i

19
32
0 ... 0
7 0 0
33

1 ;
47
k2 ... 0 ; ) 0 7 0 ; ) 4
0 0 7
5 50 29
0 ... kn

21 10 17
6

54 51 30
1
)
. 11. a)
4 39
20 7

26
19 2 71

15,1 11,7 F1
5 11 0
16 15 8

0 5 0 ; ) 16 14 8 . 13. S = 10,3 8,1 F2 .


15,4 11,8 F
2 6 1
8 7 8

14. a) 3, 9; 2, = 9; ) 3, 5; 2, = 5; ) 1. 15. a)

1 3 2
;

5 4 1

4 4
4
3
8
1

2
1 3 1
1 4
1
;
; )
1 7
2 ; ) 1
5
3 ; )
) ; )

2 2 0
2 3 1
20

2
8
6
1 6 4
8 29 11
2 + 2i 1 2i 2 i

1
) 5 18 7 ; ) ; )
i
0 ;
1 2i

2
i
1 3
i
1
1+ i
0

3 7
6
2

7 10
1 1 2
;
)
7 4 1
0 2

3 1
0
5

3 4 8
24
23
7
2
2 1
2 ;
)
1 2 3
10
5 0
1
1

2
0
3
a
, a, b R. 17. S =
,
16.
a b b
0 1

1 1 0 ...

1 1 ...
0
)
0 0 0 ...

0 0 0 ...

0 0

0 0
.
1 1

0
1

2 3 2 1

,
.
1 0 1
0

2. A. 1. a) 10; ) 24; ) a; ) 17i; ) 910i; ) 374; ) 11; ) 22; ) 4; ) 18.

13 2
11 2
19 3
21 27
2. a) S = ,
; ) S = 23 , 23 ; ) S = 14 , 14 ; ) S = 8 , 8 ;

7 7

ac bd ad + bc
S = 2
, 2
;
2
a + b 2
a + b

S = {(1, 0, 1)};

S = {(1, 3, 2)};

S = {(2, 1, 3)};

5
2
) S = , 0, ; ) .
3

2. . 3. a) 20; ) 0; ) 0; ) 15; ) 36. 5. a) ;


) (1) n . 6. . 7.
n . 8. . . 9. a) x = 1 + i, y = i;
) x = 2 + i, y = 2 i; ) x = 3 11i, y = 3 9i, z = 1 7i. 10. a) 4 . .; ) e;
27
)
. .; ) 13 . . 11. a) .
2
, 1. (a b)(c a)(c b) ; ) ( x a) 2 (2a + x) ;
4 4
8

1 3 2
1 3 1
; )
; ) 1 1 7
) ab(a 2 + b 2 cb) + c(c 3 b 2 c a 3 ). 12. a)
2;
5 4 1
2 2 0
20
2
8
6

1 1
1 1
22 6 26 17

4
3
1
1 3 5

5
20 13
17
1 1 1 1 1
1
5
3 ; ) 4 5
3 ; )
) 1
; )
.
4 1 1
17
1 1
0
2 1
1
1 6 4

12 2 9
1 1 1 1
4 1 5
3

297

1 4 3
1 4 1
. 14. a) S = {1, 2}; ) S = {0, 3a}. 15. a) .
, Y =
13. X =
5 2 1
5 6
1
.

(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )(a b)(a c)(c b)(a + b + c) ; ) (a b)(b c)(c a)(ab + ac + bc).


3. A. 1. a), ), ) ; ) . 2. a) S = {(1, 0, 1)};
) S = {(1, 3, 3)}; ) S = {(1, 1, 2)}; ) S = {(1, 2, 2)}. 3. a) S = {(5 1, 3 + 1, ) C};

7
4
; ) S = {(7, 6, 3)};
5
5

) S = {(1 , , 2 1) | C}. 4. a) 4,5 ; 4 .


2 + 4i 1 2i 4 + 3i
3. . 5. a) S =
,
,
; ) S = {(1, 2, 2)}; ) S = {( 1, 1, 0, 1)}.
3
15
15
1

2
6. a), ), ), ) ; ), ) . 7. a) S = (11 ) , (1 + ), C;
5

: (3, 2, 4); ) S = {(1, 2, 2)}; ) S = {(1, 2, 1)}; ) S = {( , 1, 0) | 0};


S = {( , 1 2 , ) | C, = 0}. 8. a) S = {(3 , , ) R}; ) S = {( , 3 , ) | R};
) S = {(0, 0, 0) | 0}; S = {( , 2 , ) | = 0}; ) S = {(0, 0, 0) | R}.
) S = {(0, 0, 0)}; ) S = {(0, 0, 2)}; ) S = , 0,

3
i
5
3i 1
; )
. A. 1. a)
2i 8 2 + 7i
2 4i

i
.
1 + 2i

9
13
2 4 6
5
11

9 3
i 2i
; ) 1 2 3 ; )
; ) 52 ; ) 22 27 17 .
2. a)

10
3
2
6

3 6 9
33
29
32
26

1 3
. 5. a) 2; ) 3; ) 2. 6. 12.
3. a) x = 1, y = 2; ) x = 5, y = 11 x = 1, y = 5. 4.
6 1
7. a) i; ) 0; ) 70; ) 88; ) 0; ) 21i; ) 0; ) 0. 8. a) S = {( 2, 1)}; ) S = {(i, 1)}; ) S = {(1, 1, 1)};

1
; ) S = {(4 t , 5 t ) t C}; ) S = {( 2, 3, 1)}.
2
16

9. 5 3 . 10. 5 12 . 11. a) C \
3 ; ) C .

1 na
.
. 12. = 210. 13. a) x = 1, y = 3; ) x = 1, y = 2, u = 0, v = 3. 14. 2. 15.
0 1
16. ) : 4, : 4. 17. a) 2; ) 2; ) 4. 18. a) BA
) S = {(3, 2, 1)}; ) S = ; ) S = 1,

14 5 22 6

1 7 ; )
, AB = 7 10
3
1 1 1

0
1 4i
. 19. 1 2 1
BA =
0
1
1
i

AB = BA = 0
0

1 , 1.
1

0 0

3 0 ; ) AB ,
0 3
3 5
. 21. a) 1; ) 36;
20. X =
4
0

0 1 2

) 15. 22. V = 6 (. .). 23. a) S = , 1; ) S = {2, 0, 1 i}. 24. 4 3 4 . 25.


2

2 1 0

298

2 ; = 2
2 i
; ), ), ), ) A 1 ;
; = 2 . 26. a)
3
i

7
3
20 15
8
6
17 8 5

1
1
1
14 14 14 ; )
)
31 ; )
30 12
16 10 1 .
70
88
21
20
6i 9i 3i
14 4
8 6
34

6
27. a) A 1 =
4

1 7
1
) A =
15 2

1 13 7 1
4
36 18
18
4 1
6

1 11 1
14 11
3
1
4
12
6
6 ;

=
A
;
)
7
2
1
11 10 3

9
9
9

3 3
1
7
1
1
1

6
6
4 12
7
0 8

2 15
17
5 19 9t 11 3t

,
, t t C;
. 28. a) S = ,
6
t
0
7
8
3

2
15 13

) S = {(5 3t , 5 + 2t , 1 t , t ) t C}; ) S = {( 5 + 2 + 4t , 1 + + t , , t ) , t C};

1 7 1
1
1
t , + 5 t , 6t t C; ) S =
,
,
C R \ {2, 1};
6 6 6

6
+ 2 + 2 + 2

S = {(1 t , , t ) t , C} = 1; S = = 2; ) S = R ;

) S = + 5 t ,

S = {( 0,5 6,5t 1,5; 3,5 9,5t 3,5; ; t ) , t C} = 0.


29. a) S = {( 5 , , t , 3 + t ) , t C}; ) S = R \ {1, 2};
S = {(t , t , t ) t C} = 2; S = {( , t , t ) , t C} = 1;
) S = 1; S = {( 2t , 3t , 5t , 4t ) t C} = 1. 30. I 7,5 , II 45 .
31. I 5 /, II 3 /. 32. I 2 000 . ., II 3 000 . ., III 5 000 . .

3
4
2 1

0
8 1 4
5

2 3 .
. A. 1. a)
; ) 9 2 . 2. , 0 1
3
0
16

0 0 11 10

2
3. S = {(1, 1, 0)}. 4. S = {(0, , ) | C}; : (0, 2, 3).
3
4 + 5i
4 + 7i
2 3i 0 2 i

1 3i 5 + 6i
; ) 12 9i 8 + 5i . 2. , 0 i 4 8 3i .
. 1. a)
4i 2 4 + 2i
6 9i 7 + i
0 0 27 47 21i

1
0 1

22
15
21

2
2

1
1 1 . 5. X = 16 14 18 . 6. S = {( 2, 3, 24, 39)}.
3. C. 4. 1
4
5
7
6

6
4 6
4
4
4

5
9

1
3

7. S = + i ,

1
28
47
7
+ i , i , , , C.
9
27
27
9

299

a2
3 . . 5. 3 .
16
6. 6 . 7. a) 6; ) 4. 8. a) 10; ) 10. 9. a) ; ) ; ) . 10. a), ) ,
, ; ) , , ,
. 11. a, .

8. 1. A. 1. . 2. . 3. a) PQ; ) PC; ) QC. 4.

1. . 14. . d1 d 2 . d 3
d1 d 2 . 15. . AD
CB . 16. .
, 17. .
. 18. . a I AB = C A B. 19. .
A A , B B AB. 20. . D ( ABC ).
2. A. 1. . 2. a c. 3. . 5. .
2. . 8. a c. 9. (A, d). 10. d d 2 . 11. d AB
.
bc
.
3. A. 1. d || MN . 2. EL || FM . 3. a) 10 ; ) 6 ; ) 16 ; )
a+c
3. . 4. . A1 BB1 ~ ABC A1 B1 || AC D1 DC1 ~ ADC D1C1 || AC . 5. 1
. 6. MN || ( ABC). 7. . M 1 = DM I AB ,
. .
abc
N1 = DN I BC , DMN ~ DM1 N1.
4. A. 1. . MN || AB, NP || BC. 2. . a) LM || AB MN || BC; ) I 1 = PM I AB;
) I 2 = PN I AC ; ) ( ABC ) I ( PMN ) = I1 I 2 .
3. PA2 B2C 2 = 13,75 , PA3 B3C3 = 22,5 ,

PA B C = 31,25 .
4 4 4

4. . 4. 8 .

5. 38 .

6.

4 + 1
P1 = 6 + 1 P , P2 = 7 + 1 P ,

7 + 1
a) MEN ~ AEB NEP ~ BEC; ) I = NR I BD.
( MNP ) I ( AED ) d || AD Q d .

P3 = P . 7. .
7 + 1

8. . ( MNP ) || ( ABC )

. A. 1. a) 17,15 ; ) 19,5 ; ) 54 . 2. MM1 = 12 ,


NN1 = 8 . 3. 12 . 4. . M 1 AB,
MDL ~ M 1 DC ML || M 1C .
l
c
m+n
a
a. 11. 2 . 12. 0,25a 2 11 ..
. 7. a) ( 1); ) a; ) ; ) ( a b). 8. 32 . 10.
k
a
2n

13. . I - . , , I,
, . 14. AB DC,
D = a I AB.
15. AM, MN || DB , AN AL || DB; . .
D
M
16. . ,
L
, ,
C
. 17. . 16. 18. , AB || DC,
N
, AD : DE =/ BC : CE. 19. . BE = EC ,
A
B
[MF] ADF . AG : GE = 2 : 1,
, [AE] ADF . 20. . I = AC I EF , IH I AB
, FH I DB . 21. . a) I 1 = EF I AB ,
300

H 1 = BC I HD , I 2 = EH I AH 1 ( EFH ) I ( ABC ) = I1 I 2 .. ) F1 = DF I AB , H 1 = DH I BC ,
F1 H 1 I AC = P, FH I DP . 22. .
. 23. a) , E
; ) MN || DC || AB; ) LP || DC ; ) MNLP . 24. .
F1 , F2 F3 CB, AC BA .
25. . M c ( M , AM || , BM || ). ( ABM ) I
A1 B1 , A1 = a I AM , B1 = b I BM , AB I A1 B1 . 27. 4.
. A. 1. 8 . 2. a) A1 B1 , A1 D1 , D1C1 , B1C1 , A1C1 , D1 B1 ; ) ( ADB), ( DCC1 ),
( ABA1 ), ( D1 A1 B1 ). 3. a (0,5 + 3 ). 4. 8 .
4
. 1. a b. 2. a) EF || ( ABC ), ) GH || ( ABC ). 4. A .
9

9. 1. A. 1. . CD CB, CD CF CD (CBF ). 2. DA CB, CB || MN


MN AD. 3. 2,4 . 4. MB = MD = 5 , MC = 41 . 5. AB = b. 6. AB = (a b) 2 + c 2 .
4
7. DE = 4 2 , CE = 2 17 , BE = 2 13 , d =
286 . 8. 2 14 .
13
1. . 9. AB = (a + b) 2 + c 2 . 10. a 2 + c 2 , a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2ab cos , b 2 + c 2 .

a2
13. . d = I , d1 d1 d ,
.
4 sin 2
d 2 d 2 d d ( d1d 2 ). 14. . AEC EO AC ; -

11.

b2

, BED EO BD.
2. A. 1. . a) AB MD, AB MC ; ) pr( ABC ) [ MC ) = [ MD) ; ) 2,75 ; ) 1,5 15 .
2. a) 3 ; ) 0,6. 3. a) 3 ; ) 3 2 . 4. 24 . 5. 3,8 .
2. . 6. . a) AVD , [VO] ; BVE ,
[VO] VO ( ABC ); ) AOV BOV COV DOV EOV FOV .
7. . a), ) O = pr( ABC) E, AOE BOE COE DOE OA = OB = OC = OD.
8. c

cos
.
cos

3. A. 1.

6 . 2. a)

9
3 3
; )
. 3. 15 . 4. 5 .
4
4

1221
. 6. . a) O = pr( ABC ) E , [EM], [EN], [EP], [EQ]
39
AEB, BEC, CED DEA , OM = ON = OP = OQ, . . O
; ) MOE NOE POE QOE EMO ENO
EPO EQO. 7. O = pr( ABC ) E [EM], [EN], [EP], [EQ] AEB,
BEC, CED DEA , MOE NOE POE QOE , . .
3. . 5.

MO = NO = PO = QO. 9. 30. 10.

3.

p 2 + n 2 m 2 ; ) 2 p 2 + n 2 s 2 .
1
7
2. b 2 a 2 . 3. d1 = 2 6 , d 2 = 4 2 . 4. a) 30; ) arccos . 5. 2 . 6. 15 .
3
8
ab
. 10. . pr a. 12. 32 . 13.
.
a+b
2a sin
2
2
2
2
2
2
. 18. 0,5 .
14. b a . 15. 2b a . 16. b cos 1 tg ctg . 17.
cos
. A. 1. a) 13 ; ) 30 ; )

301

. A. 1. 3,5 . 2. 6 . 3. 5 2 ,
1
. 1. | a b | . 3. 70 , 2 16,06 . 4. 45.
2

29 . 4. 4 .

10. 1. A. 2. . 3. , . 4. (, ).
1. . 8. a) BK , AK = K C ; ) BL, ABL LBC . . 9. C [ AB]
f (C ) = C , AC = AC , CB = C B AC + CB = AC + C B, , C C . C [ AB]. 10. a) . 9; ) . 11. a) , f ( A) = A,
f 1 ( A) = f 1 ( f ( A)) = I( A) = A. ) , ( f o f )( A) = f ( A) = A. 12. ,
( f o f )( A) = f ( f ( A)) = f ( B ) = A.
2. A. 2. . 3. ; , . 4. . 5. . 6. . 8. a ( ,
, , ). 9. . 10. .
2. . 13. a) , ; ) ,
; ) , .
3. A. 1. a) , ; )
, . 2. ,
; , , . 4. a) d ; ) d ; ) d I . 5.
AB. AB. 6. a)
; ) ; )
; ) , ,
, ; ) , .
3. . 7. a) , , , ;
, , , , ,
; , , ,
. 8. a) , ,
; ) .
4. A. 2. , , , .
3. a) , , ; ) , , , ;
) , ; ) ,
, , ,
, ;
) , , , ,
, , ,
; ) , ,
, . 4. .
6. 5 . 7. || , || ; || , || .
302

4. . 9. M AB c , B ,
B . 10. M AB , B , B .
11. , , A d, d , A d.
5. . 5. . ,
, . 6. t BA .
6. . 2. . 3. . 4. . ,
. 5. 9 . 6. a) ABC
ABC; ) . 6 a). 7. ABC ~ A1 B1C1 . 9. a) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .
7. . 3. a) ; ) ; ) ; )
. 7. . l, B
B , : 1) B (lA); 2) A B
l. M = AB I l .

. A. 1. . O [AC], S O ( d1 ) I d 2
. 2. . O [AC], S O (d ) I C

C
3. B

M
A

4. S M (C1 ) = C1

S M ( B ) = B1 ABCB1
ABCB1 .

C1I C2 = B,

AB .

. 1. P1 = S AC ( P ) P2 = S BC ( P ), X 1 = AC I P1 P2 Y1 = BC I P1 P2 . 6. .
, ,
. 7. C
d BA1 , A1 = S d ( A). 8. d 3 = t a ( d1 ), M 2 = d 3 I d 2 , M 1 = t a ( M 2 ). 9. B2 d 2
BB2 || d1 , A2 d1 AA2 || d 2 , a = AA2 , b = BB2 , t a +b ( A) = A1 , t a +b ( B) = B1 .
. A. 1. ,
, . 2. ,
, , . ,
, , ,
, , , . 3. , 13 , 9 . 4.
, 7 , 6 .
. 1. a b . AB
a b ( , ), A a, B b. C
AB. a1 , b1 C
a b . AB
, a1 b1 . 4. a) a; ) ; ) ;
) , ; ) , .

303

C
........................................................ 3
1.
........................ 5

.......... 160
...................................... 162
6. ........... 164

1.
. ................ 5
2.
....................... 13
3. .
,
........... 22
............ 30
........................................ 32

1. ,
........ 164
2.
.
.................................... 170
3. ............. 178
.......... 181
...................................... 183

2. ................... 3 4

7.
............................................ 185

1. ............................ 34
2. .
.............. 44
3. ................ 54
4.
.................................... 60
............ 64
........................................ 66
3. ........ 6 8

1. , .
, ...... 68
2.
.................................................. 76
3. .............. 79
............ 85
........................................ 86
4.
............................................. 8 8

1. ............................... 89
2. ........ 96
3.
..................................................... 101
4. .................. 105
5. .......................... 115
6.
..................................................... 118
.......... 127
...................................... 129
5. ... 131

1.
............................. 131
2.
. ........ 139
3. .............. 148
4. ,
, .
............... 154
304

1. ................................................... 185
2. ........................................... 199
3. ................. 215
.......... 226
...................................... 230
8.
.................................... 232

1. ....... 232
2.
.......................................... 235
3. ................................. 238
4. ......................... 241
.................................... 245
...................................... 248
9.
................................. 250

1.
................................................... 250
2. .
............................... 254
3. .............. 259
.................................... 264
...................................... 266
10.
............................... 268

1. .
............ 268
2. .......................... 271
3. .................................... 273
4. ....... 275
5. ............................ 276
6. . ..... 278
7. ......................... 280
.................................... 282
...................................... 283
....................................... 285