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Proiect de lecie

Unitatea de nvmnt: Educational Center Constanta Clasa: a XII-a Disciplina: Filosofie Lecia: Tipuri de cunoastere si de adevar Data: .... aprilie 2012 Tipul leciei: mixt Competene generale: 1.Utilizarea conceptelor specifice filosofiei. 2.Aplicarea cunotinelor de filosofie n rezolvarea de situaii problem. 3.Manifestarea unui comportament activ i responsabil, adecvat unei lumi de schimbare. Competene specifice 1.Identificarea unor concepte i categorii specifice filosofiei; 2.Analizarea i compararea principalelor tipuri de cunoastere si adevar; 3.Utilizarea argumentrii, a analizei de text etc. n caracterizarea problematicii adevarului n plan social-politic, a egalitii i dreptii. Obiective operaionale O1: s evidenieze principalele caracteristici ale principalilor autori studiai la tema Tipuri de cunoastere si adevar; O2: s fac comparaii ntre conceptele fiecrui filosof; O3: s formuleze opinii personale i judeci de valoare asupra conceptului de adevar; O4: s realizeze conexiuni ntre cunotinele dobndite la filosofie i situaiile reale ntlnite.

Metode i procedee: conversaia, lucrul pe grupe, explicaia, problematizarea, activitatea independent Material didactic 1.Manual de Filosofie pentru clasele a XII-a, Ed. Economic, 2002. Momentele leciei I.Moment organizatoric: Notarea absenilor, controlul ordinii, pregtirea clasei II.Verificarea cunotinelor din lecia anterioar: Cum putem defini dreptatea? Cum se coreleaz dreptatea cu drepturile indivizilor? Dar cu adevrul? III.Captarea ateniei elevilor: Profesorul evideniaz importana leciei studiate. Elevii ascult cu atenie rolul i utilitatea leciei. IV.Predarea noilor cunotine: Particip la discuii ncercnd s defineasc conceptele cheie ale leciei i s fac deosebiri i asemnri ntre viziunile prezentate. Anumite propozitii, sentimente sau teorii pot fi considerate ca fiind adevarate sau false. De exemplu: este adevarat ca afara este cald, este adevarat ca Romeo si Julieta s-au iubit, este adevarat ca mercurul este un metal etc. Pentru o definitie a adevarului este nevoie de 3 aspecte importante interrelationate: formele cunoasterii, expunerea conceptiilor despre adevar, evidentierea legaturii dintre adevar si eroare. Formele cunoasterii, dupa Bertrand Russel (1872-1970): -cunoasterea lucrurilor/a posteriori: derivata din experienta. Ex: acest mar este rosu. -cunoasterea adevarului/a priori: nederivata din experienta. Ex: toate numerele pare sunt divizibile cu 2. Potrivit lui Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), orice cunoastere incepe cu experienta, dar ea nu provine total din experienta -> exista cunostinte empirice care sunt derivate din experienta, exprimate in judecati a posteriori si respectiv cunostinte absolute, independente de orice experienta, exprimate prin judecati a priori.

O alta problema: diferenta intre judecata analitica (explicative) si judecata sintetica (extensive, se adauga proprietati subiectului). Kant propune o solutie de sinteza -> cunoasterea sintetic-a priori (folosindu-ne de principii, extindem cunostintele noastre a priori).

V. Fixarea: Aplicaii din manual. Lucru pe grupe. VI. Feedback/ Anunarea temei pentru acas.

Worksheet types of knowledge The Problems of Philosophy is an introduction to the discipline of philosophy, written during a Cambridge lectureship that Russell held in 1912. In it, Russell asks the fundamental question, Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? Russell sketches out the metaphysical and epistemological views he held at the time, views that would develop and change over the rest of his career. We shall say that we have acquaintance with anything of which we are directly aware, without the intermediary of any process of inference or any knowledge of truths. Thus in the presence of my table I am acquainted with the sense-data that make up the appearance of my table -- its colour, shape, hardness, smoothness, etc.; all these are things of which I am immediately conscious when I am seeing and touching my table. The particular shade of colour that I am seeing may have many things said about it -- I may say that it is brown, that it is rather dark, and so on. But such statements, though they make me know truths about the colour, do not make me know the colour itself any better than I did before: so far a concerns knowledge of the colour itself, as opposed to knowledge of truths about it, I know the colour perfectly and completely when I see it, and no further knowledge of it itself is even theoretically possible. Thus the sense-data which make up the appearance of my table are things with which I have acquaintance, things immediately known to me just as they are. The Problems of Philosophy Based on this text of Bertrand Russell, what is philosophical acquaintance?

Critique of Pure Reason and Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics - Kants primary aim is to determine the limits and scope of pure reason. That is, he wants to know what reason alone can determine without the help of the senses or any other faculties. Metaphysicians make grand claims about the nature of reality based on pure reason alone, but these claims often conflict with one another. Furthermore, Kant is prompted by Humes skepticism to doubt the very possibility of metaphysics. In order to cognize an object, I must be able to prove its possibility, either from its reality as attested by experience, or a priori, by means of reason. But I can think what I please, provided only I do not contradict myself; that is, provided my conception is a possible thought, though I may be unable to answer for the existence of a corresponding object in the sum of possibilities. But something more is required before I can attribute to such a conception objective validity, that is real possibilitythe other possibility being merely logical. We are not, however, confined to theoretical sources of cognition for the means of satisfying this additional requirement, but may derive them from practical sources. What is needed, according to Kant, for one to be able to cognize an object?