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Argumente mpotriva pedepsei cu moartea

S ucizi n numele justiiei nu nseamn justiie. Archbishop Desmond Tutu


Argumente juridice:
Articolul 2 al Cartei Drepturilor Fundamentale a Uniunii Europene Dreptul la via (2)
Nimeni nu poate fi condamnat la pedeapsa cu moartea sau executat.
Consiliul Europei interzice, de asemenea, pedeapsa cu moartea. Adunarea General a ONU a
adoptat cinci rezoluii, Rezoluia 62/149 n 2007, Rezoluia 63/168 n 2008, Rezoluia 65/206 n 2010,
Rezoluia 67/166 n 2012 i ultima n 2014. Prin acestea, ONU ndeamn statele care aplic pedeapsa cu
moartea s o amne, s ncerce s o restricioneze din ce n ce mai mult, iar n final, s o aboleasc, iar
statele care au abolit-o deja sunt rugate s nu o reintroduc.
Denial of human rights. Sentencing someone to death denies them the right to life enshrined
in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Argumente statistice:
Erorile n justiie duc, n mod inevitabil, la omorrea unor oameni nevinova i. Acest risc nu poate
fi nlturat i, de asemenea, nu poate fi acceptat. Conform Amnesty International, 112 persoane din 9 ri
au fost eliberate din culoarul morii, n 2014.
n SUA, unde pedeapsa cu moartea este aplicat n unele state, 152 de persoane condamnate la
moarte au fost lsate n via deoarece s-au dovedit nevinova i, din 1973 pn n prezent. Timpul mediu
petrecut de acetia n culoarul morii este de 11,2 ani. Tot n SUA, din 1992 i pn n 2004, 39 de
persoane nevinovate au fost executate.
Studiile statistice au artat faptul c pedeapsa capital duce la cre terea gradului de violen n
societate i a criminalitii. n statele n care este permis pedeapsa cu moartea sunt mai multe infrac iuni
dect n cele n care aceasta este interzis. Spre exemplu, n statele din SUA care recurg la pedeapsa
capital, rata infraciunilor este aproape de dou ori mai mare dect n statele care nu au pedeapsa
capital.
De asemenea, infractorii ajung s fie pedepsi i cu moartea din cauza faptului c avoca ii sunt slab
pregtii, ineficieni. Un studiu din Columbia arat c n 68% dintre cazurile solu ionate prin pedeapsa cu
moartea, sentinele au fost influenate de o aprare inadecvat.
Un alt studiu realizat n SUA relev caracterul de loterie al pedepsei capitale. Din cei
aproximativ 15000 17000 de omucideri comise anual, doar 120 sunt soluionate prin pedeapsa cu
moartea, adic mai puin de 1%, ceea ce arat c nu exist un algoritm clar de alegere a pedepselor.
Does not deter(adic previne) crime. Countries who execute commonly cite the death penalty
as a way to deter people from committing crime. This claim has been repeatedly discredited, and there is
no evidence that the death penalty is any more effective in reducing crime than imprisonment.

Consistent with previous years, the 2013 FBI Uniform Crime Report showed that the
South had the highest murder rate. The South(unde din 1976 pn acum au avut loc 1142
execuii) accounts for over 80% of executions. The Northeast(adic 4 execu ii), which has less
than 1% of all executions, had lowest murder rate.
According to a survey of the former and present presidents of the countrys top academic
criminological societies, 88% of these experts rejected the notion that the death penalty acts as a
deterrent to murder.(2009)
Argumente economice: nu prea... ba da, uite jos

Cei care sunt pentru pedeapsa cu moartea pot spune ca ace ti infractori sunt inu i n nchisoare
pe banii statului. ns nchisoarea oricum exist pentru infractorii care nu sunt condamna i la moarte,
personalul este oricum pltit. Un sistem de pedepse capitale trebuie ntre inut, chiar dac este rar folosit.
Astfel, cheltuielile cresc, nu scad.
De asemenea, conform unui studiu realizat n Oregon, un stat din SUA n care pedeapsa cu
moartea este legal, s-ar putea salva 2.3 milioane de dolari dac s-ar aboli pedeapsa cu moartea n acest
stat.
Defense costs for death penalty trials in Kansas averaged about $400,000 per case, compared to
$100,000 per case when the death penalty was not sought. (Kansas Judicial Council, 2014).
A new study in California revealed that the cost of the death penalty in the state has been over
$4 billion since 1978. Study considered pretrial and trial costs, costs of automatic appeals and state
habeas corpus petitions, costs of federal habeas corpus appeals, and costs of incarceration on death row.
(Alarcon & Mitchell, 2011).
In Maryland, an average death penalty case resulting in a death sentence costs approximately
$3 million. The eventual costs to Maryland taxpayers for cases pursued 1978-1999 will be $186 million.
Five executions have resulted. (Urban Institute, 2008).
Enforcing the death penalty costs Florida $51 million a year above what it would cost to punish
all first-degree murderers with life in prison without parole. Based on the 44 executions Florida had
carried out since 1976, that amounts to a cost of $24 million for each execution. (Palm Beach Post,
January 4, 2000).
The most comprehensive study in the country found that the death penalty costs North Carolina
$2.16 million per execution over the costs of sentencing murderers to life imprisonment. The majority of
those costs occur at the trial level. (Duke University, May 1993).
In Texas, a death penalty case costs an average of $2.3 million, about three times the cost of
imprisoning someone in a single cell at the highest security level for 40 years. (Dallas Morning News,
March 8, 1992).
Argumente morale:
Un argument foarte important este presiunea care apas asupra judectorilor, n momentul n care
au de ales sentina celui care a svrit infrac iunea. Binen eles c o gre eal a ra ionamentului
judectorului poate fi mult mai uor ndreptat dac infractorul a fost condamnat la nchisoare pe via i
nu la moarte.
n trecut, execuiile persoanelor condamnate la moarte erau publice, iar acesta era un argument
pentru prevenirea infraciunilor prin ngrozirea popula iei. ns, astzi, dintre cele 36 de ri n care se
aplic pedeapsa cu moartea, doar Iran i Arabia Saudit le practic n public. n China, unde se crede c
au loc cele mai multe execuii i condamnri la moarte, acestea reprezint secrete de stat.
n Iran, cel puin 14 persoane au fost executate pentru infrac iuni pe care le-au comis cand aveau
sub 18 ani. Nigeria, Pakistan, Arabia Saudit, Maldive, Yemen, Iran i Sri Lanka sunt ri care, n 2014,
au condamnat la moarte persoane pentru presupusele crime svr ite cnd erau minori.
n SUA, Malaesia, Pakistan, Trinidad, Tobago, Indonezia, Japonia, persoane care au boli mintale
au fost condamnate la moarte.
Other capital crimes which did not meet the standard of most serious crimes, as prescribed by
Article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), but for which the death
penalty was imposed in 2014 included: economic crimes such as corruption (China, North Korea and
Viet Nam); armed robbery (DRC); committing "adultery" while married (UAE); rape that resulted in
death (Afghanistan); rape committed by repeat rape offenders (India), rape (Saudi Arabia, UAE);
kidnapping (Saudi Arabia); torture (Saudi Arabia); insulting the prophet of Islam (Iran); blasphemy
(Pakistan); witchcraft and sorcery (Saudi Arabia).
Discriminatory. You are more likely to be sentenced to death if you are poor or belong to a
racial, ethnic or religious minority because of discrimination in the justice system. Also, poor and
marginalised groups have less access to the legal resources needed to defend themselves.

A study in California found that those who killed whites where over 3 times more likely
to be sentenced to death than those who killed blacks and over 4 times more likely than those
who killed Latinos.

Used as a political tool. The authorities in some countries, for example Iran and Sudan, use the
death penalty to punish political opponents.
Not irreversible and mistakes happen. Execution is the ultimate, irrevocable punishment: the
risk of executing an innocent person can never be eliminated. Since 1973, for example, 150 US prisoners
sent to death row have later been exonerated. Others have been executed despite serious doubts about
their guilt.
Argumente religioase:
Aproape toate religiile lumii sunt mpotriva pedepsei cu moartea.
There is disagreement among Buddhists as to whether or not Buddhism forbids the death
penalty. The first of the Five Precepts (Panca-sila) is to abstain from destruction of life. Chapter 10 of
the Dhammapada states: Everyone fears punishment; everyone fears death, just as you do. Therefore
you do not kill or cause to be killed. Chapter 26, the final chapter of the Dhammapada, states, "Him I
call a brahmin who has put aside weapons and renounced violence toward all creatures. He neither kills
nor helps others to kill." These sentences are interpreted by many Buddhists (especially in the West) as
an injunction against supporting any legal measure which might lead to the death penalty.
Sharia, the religious law in Islam, requires capital punishment for certain crimes. For example,
the Quran states: The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive
with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of
hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a
heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.
Similarly, capital punishment by stoning for zina (extramarital sex) is prescribed in Hadiths, the
books most trusted in Islam after Quran: When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried
female, they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married
male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to
death.

tiri:
Iwao Hakamada, fost boxer profesionist, a fost acuzat c, n 1966, pe cnd lucra la o fabric de
soia, i-a ucis eful, pe soia acestuia i pe cei doi copii ai lor. Dup 20 de zile de interogatorii i-a
recunoscut fapta, dar n timpul procesului a spus c mrturia a fost obinut prin for i c este
nevinovat. El a fost condamnat la moarte. Dup 46 de ani, un tribunal a decis rejudecarea cazului n urma
unor noi probe ADN. Brbatul n vrst de 78 de ani este, potrivit Amnesty International, condamnatul
care a petrecut cel mai mult timp pe "coridorul morii", adic 46 de ani. n timpul acesta, el s-a
mbolnvit mintal.
Folosirea unor mijloace neadecvate, a forei, a torturii, pentru extragerea de astfel de mrturisiri,
este regsit n multe alte state, precum China, Afganistan, Iran, Coreea de Nord, Arabia Saudit, Irak,
Bahrain.
Often used within skewed(asimetric, inegal, incorect) justice systems. Some of the countries
executing the most people have deeply unfair legal systems. The top three executing countries China,

Iran and Iraq all issue death sentences in murky and unclear circumstances. Many death sentences are
issued after confessions that have been obtained through torture.
Anthony Ray Hinton a fost condamnat la moarte dup cea fost gsit vinovat c a mpucat doi
proprietari ai unui restaurant din oraul Birmingham, statul Alabama, n 1985. Anul trecut, datorit
interveniei Curii Supreme, dup 29 de ani, cazul a fost redeschis i testele balistice au relevat c
gloanele descoperite la locul crimei nu se potrivesc cu pistolul gsit n casa brbatului. Acestea au fost
de altfel singurele dovezi care l incriminau. A.R. Hinton este convins c a fost aruncat n temni din
pur rutate i indiferen. Amprentele lui nu au fost gsite la locul crimei, a trecut mai multe teste
poligraf i atunci cnd a avut loc atacul era la munc - eful i mai muli colegi chiar au depus mrturie n
acest sens. Acum are 58 de ani i, pentru prima oar dup 3 decenii, se poate considera un om liber.
On 16 October the Lahore High Court rejected an appeal against the death sentence of Asia Bibi,
a Christian woman convicted on blasphemy charges. She was initially found guilty of blasphemy on 8
November 2010 and sentenced to death for allegedly insulting the Prophet Muhammad during an
argument with a Muslim woman. Asia Bibi claimed that the evidence of her alleged blasphemy, which
had been accepted by successive courts, was fabricated, and that she did not have access to a lawyer
during her detention or on the final day of her trial in 2010. Asia Bibi was held in almost total isolation
for her own protection since her arrest in 2009. Her mental and physical health reportedly deteriorated
during her detention; her family and lawyers continued to fear for her safety.
On 25 September a prison guard shot and wounded Mohammad Asghar at the Adiala prison in
the city of Rawalpindi, Punjab province. A British national of Pakistani origin, Mohammad Asghar was
diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in the UK in 2010, before he moved to Pakistan. He was
convicted of blasphemy in 2014 and sentenced to death. Despite his diagnosis in the UK, the Pakistan
Court ruled that Mohammad Asghar was sane. His appeal was pending before the Lahore High Court
at the end of the year.106 Mohammad Asghar remained in hospital at the end of the year. The provincial
authorities charged the prison guard with attempted murder and suspended eight other prison guards.
Mohammad Asghars lawyer believes that his client is at risk of being killed if returned to prison because
of the blasphemy charge.
Reyhaneh Jabbari was executed on 25 October in Rajai Shahr Prison, in Karaj near Tehran, for
the killing of Morteza Abdolali Sarbandi, a former employee of Irans Ministry of Intelligence. Reyhaneh
Jabbari was arrested in 2007 and admitted the stabbing immediately after arrest. She said she had acted
in self defence, after he had tried to sexually abuse her. Following her arrest, she was held in solitary
confinement for two months in Tehrans Evin Prison, where she did not have access to a lawyer or her
family. She was sentenced to death under qesas(adic legea talionului) by a criminal court in Tehran in
2009. The death sentence was upheld by the Supreme Court the same year. Sentences of qesas are not
open to pardon or amnesty by the Supreme Leader.
On 23 June Meriam Yehya Ibrahim was released from prison after an appeal court overturned her
sentence. She had been sentenced to death by hanging for apostasy, and to flogging for adultery. Meriam
Yehya Ibrahim had been charged with adultery in 2013, allegedly after relatives reported her to the
authorities for her marriage to a Christian man. Under Sharia law as practised in Sudan, a Muslim
woman is not permitted to marry a non-Muslim man, and any such marriage is considered adulterous.
Meriam Yehya Ibrahim was detained in February 2014 after the court added the charge of apostasy when
she informed the court that her mother had raised her as an Orthodox Christian. On 11 May the court
gave her three days to renounce her Christian faith or be sentenced to death, an option that she rejected.
At the time of her trial Meriam Yehya Ibrahim was eight months pregnant. On 27 May she gave birth to
her second child in the clinic of Omdurman Womens Prison. Her 20-month-old son had been detained
with her. The case of Meriam Yehya Ibrahim attracted widespread international attention with over one
million people responding to Amnesty Internationals appeal for her release.