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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr.

2/2011

INDICATORI MACROECONOMICI UTILIZATI IN


COMPARATII
INTERNATIONALE

MACRO-ECONOMICAL
INDICATORS IN
INTERNATIONAL
COMPARISONS

Conf. univ. dr. Vaduva Maria


Universitatea Constantin Brncusi din TrguJiu

Associate prof. PhD Vaduva Maria


Constantin Brancusi University of
Trgu-Jiu

Rezumat:
Produsul i n t e r n , produsul naional i venitul
naional sunt trei concepte economice fundamentale
care exprim rezultatele activitii economice din
ntreaga economie naional.
Produsul intern exprim produsul final de
bunuri economice obinute ntr-o perioad de timp de
agenii economici care i desfoar activitatea in
interiorul rii.
Produsul naional exprim produsul fina! de
bunuri economice obinute ntr-o perioad de timp,
att de ageni economici din interiorul rii, ct si de
cei care i desfoar activitatea n afara granielor
naionale.
Venitul naional exprim valoarea net adugat
ntr-o perioad de timp n urma activitii economice
desfurate, respectiv suma veniturilor factorilor de
producie.
Cete trei concepte msurate statistic permit s
determinm trei indicatori macroeconomici principali
care evideniaz rezultatele obinute in economia
naional ntr-o perioad determinat de timp. In cele
ce urmeaz prezentm necesitatea calculului i analiza
acestor indicatori.

Abstract:
The intern product, the national product and
the national income are three basic economical
concepts expressing the results of the economical
activity in the entire national economy.
The intern product expresses the final
product of economical goods obtained in a lapse of
time by the economical agents who develop their
activity inside the country.
The national product expresses the final
product of economical goods obtained in a lapse of
time both by the economical agents inside the country
and by the ones who develop their activity outside the
national borders.
The national income expresses the net value
added in a lapse of time after the developed
economical activity, respectively the sum of the
incomes of the production factors.
The three concept statistically measured
allow us to determine three main macro-economical
indicators spotlighting the results obtained in the
national economy in a determined lapse of time.
Hereinafter, we present the necessity of the
calculation and the analysis of these indicators.

Cuvinte cheie: produs intern, venit naional, producie


naional

Key words: Intern product, national income,


national product

1. Necesitatea i rolul indicatorilor care


exprim
rezultatele
din
economia
naional
n cadrul sistemului de indicatori
macroeconomici, indicatorii care exprim
rezultatele clin economia naional ocup un
loc important. Aceti indicatori, denumii i
agregate economice, pun n eviden diferite
aspecte ale produciei de bunuri materiale i
servicii obinute ntr-o perioad de timp de
agenii economici. Cu ajutorul acestor

1. Necessity and role of the indicators


expressing the results of the national
economy
In frame of the system of macroeconomical indicators, the indicators
expressing the results of the national
economy have a very important place. These
indicators,
also
called
economical
aggregates, spotlight different aspects of the
production of material goods and services
obtained in a lapse of time by the

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indicatori (agregate) se caracterizeaz i se


analizeaz mrimea i structura produciei
naionale, evoluia ei n timp. Iar prin
corelarea cu ali indicatori macroeconomici
se calculeaz i se analizeaz eficiena
valorificrii potenialului economic att la
nivelul ansamblului economiei naionale, ct
i pentru clementele sale structurale (ramuri,
sectoare economice e t c ) . [9].
2. Utilizarea Indicatorilor sintetici de
rezultate n analizele macroeconomice
Indicatorii sintetici care exprim
rezultatele din economia naional stau la
baza majoritii calculelor i analizelor
macroeconomice. Pe baza acestora, in
corelaie cu ali indicatori, se calculeaz o
serie de indicatori derivai care permit
evidenierea i analiza unor aspecte eseniale
ale activitii economice.
Menionm i prezentm, n continuare,
principalele aspecte ce pot fi analizate:
- analiza evoluiei, dinamicii economiei;
- analiza structurii i a modificrilor n
structura economiei;
- calculul i analiza eficienei folosirii
factorilor de producie;
- analiza
principalelor
corelaii
macroeconomice
- compararea nivelului, structurii i
evoluiei economiei naionale cu cele ale
altor ri.
Evoluia economiei unei ri se exprim
i se analizeaz pe baza indicatorilor
macroeconomici care pun in eviden
rezultatele din economie (produsul intern,
produsul naional, venitul naional etc).
Pentru
a
cuantifica
modificrile
intervenite pe o perioad mai mare de timp,
mrimea acestor indicatori trebuie s fie
exprimat
in
preuri
neschimbate
(comparabile sau constante). Orice analiz
efectuat pe baza indicatorilor exprimai n
preuri curente nu poate conduce la rezultate
concludente privind evoluia economic,
dinamica economiei, modificrile care
intervin de la o perioad la alta.

economical agents. By means of these


indicators (aggregates), we feature and
analyse the size and the structure of the
national production, its evolution in time,
and by correlation to other macroeconomical indicators, we calculate and
analyse the efficiency of the capitalization of
the economical potential both at the level of
the national economy ensemble and for its
structural elements (branches, economical
sectors, etc.)[9].
2. The use of the synthetic
indicators of results in macro-economical
analyses
The synthetic indicators expressing
the results of the national economy are at the
basis of most of the macro-economical
analyses and calculations. Based on these, in
correlation to other indicators, we calculate
a series of derived indicators allowing the
spotlighting and the analysis of certain
essential aspects of the economical activity.
Hereinafter, we mention and present the
main aspects that may be analysed:
- The analysis of the evolution, dynamics
of the economy;
- The analysis of the structure and of the
changes in the economy structure;
- The calculation and the analysis of the
efficiency of using the production
factors;
- The analysis of the main macroeconomical correlations;
- Comparing the level, the structure and
the evolution of the national economy to
the ones of other countries.
The evolution of a countrys
economy is expressed and analysed based on
the macro-economical indicators that
spotlight the results in the economy (intern
product, national product, national income
etc.). In order to quantify the changes
interfered on a longer lapse of time, the size
of these indicators should be expressed in
unchanged prices (comparable or constant).
Any analysis accomplished based on the
indicators expressed in current prices cannot

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Pentru a obine indicatori n preuri


comparabile (indicatori reali) este necesar ca
din mrimea indicatorilor valonei exprimai
n preuri curente (indicatori nominali) s se
elimine influena modificrii preurilor.
In acest scop se calculeaz indici de
preuri Ip), care exprim modificarea
preurilor bunurilor ce compun agregatul
respectiv.
Indicele de preuri este utilizat, n
continuare, la calcularea indicatorului valoric,
n preuri comparabile, prin raportarea
indicatorului n preuri curente, la indicele de
preuri corespunztor.
De exemplu. PIB exprimat n preuri
comparabile sau constante (PIBcomp), numit
i indicator real. se poate calcula[3]:

lead to decisive results regarding the


economical evolution, the economy
dynamics, the changes that interfere in every
lapse of time.
In order to obtain indicators in
comparable prices (real indicators) it is
necessary from the size of the value
indicators expressed in current prices
(nominal indicators) to remove the influence
of changing the prices. In this purpose, we
calculate the price indexes (Ip) expressing
the change of the prices of the goods
composing the respective aggregate. The
price index is used hereinafter when
calculating the value indicator, in
comparable prices, by reporting the indicator
in current prices, at the corresponding price
index.
For example, GIP expressed in
global, prin raportarea PIB in preuri
crt
curente (PIB )la un indice general de preuri comparable prices or constant ones
(PIBcomp), also called real indicator, may be
numit deflatorul PIB (D).
calculated[3]:
- Globally, by reporting GIP in current
prices (PIBcrt) to a general index of
pe componente, prin raportarea fiecrui
prices called GIP deflator (D).
element al PIB in preuri curente la indici de
preuri corespunztori sferei de cuprindere
ai fiecrei componente.
- On components, by reporting every
Aceste calcule se pol efectua:
GIP element in current prices at price
9 pe r a m u r i .
indexes corresponding to the containing
sphere of every component. These
calculations may be accomplished:
- On branches,
Unde:
VABcrtind, agr...ar - valoarea adugat brut din
industrie, agricultur,...,alte ramuri in preuri
curente.
Where:
Ipind, agr,...,ar indicii de preuri afereni
VABcrtind, agr...ar - gross added value in
produselor i serviciilor create n fiecare industry, agriculture,..., other branches in
ramur
current prices;
Ipind, agr,...,ar price indexes afferent to
9 pe elemente de producie (producie the products and services created in every
brut) i consum intermediar:
branch.
- On elements of production (gross
production)
and
intermediary
consumption:

Unde:
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Pbcrt valoarea produciei brute in preuri


curente;
Cicrt valoarea consumului intermediar in
picturi curente;
Where:
IpPB.CI indicele de preuri corespunztor
Pbcrt value of the gross production
produselor i serviciilor incluse n producia in current prices;
brut, respectiv n consumul intermediar.
Cicrt value of the intermediary
in current prices;
9 pe elemente de utilizare final a consumption
PB.CI
Ip
price index corresponding to
PIB:
the products and services included in the
gross production, respectively in the
intermediary consumption.
- On elements of final use of
GIP:
Unde:
Cpvcrt consumul privat n pre uri
curente;
Where:
Cpocrt consumul public n preuri curente;

Cpvcrt private consumption in


FBCcrt formarea brut de capital n current prices;
Cpocrt public consumption in
pre uri curente;
current prices;
Exp.ncrt exportul net n pre uri curente;
FBCcrt gross forming of capital in
IpCpv,Cpb,FBC,Exp.n indicele de preuri current prices;crt
net export in current
Exp.n
corespunz tor bunurilor ce intr n prices:
IpCpv,Cpb,FBC,Exp.n price index
componen a
fiec rui
element
de
corresponding to the goods entering the
utilizare a PIB. [4].
composition of every use element of GIP[4].
After calculating GIPcomp by one of
Dup calcularea PIBcomp printr-una dintre the presented methods, we may go on to
metodele prezentate se poate trece la establishing the dynamics (the evolution) of
stabilirea dinamicii (evoluiei) agregatului the respective aggregate, by calculating the
respectiv, prin calcularea indicelui produsului index of the gross intern product (IGIP):
intern brut (IPIB):

Se observ c acesta este un indice al


volumului fizic al PIB, nefiind influenat de
modificarea preurilor. De aceea, el exprim
evoluia real a produsului intern brut.
Analizele privind evoluia economic
efectuate pe baza agregatelor de rezultate (n
principal PIB) trebuie nsoite i de analiza
indicatorilor globali pe locuitor. Acetia au o
semnificaie deosebit, evideniind mrimea
care revine n medie pe o persoan i evoluia

We notice that this is an index of the


physical volume of GIP, without being
influenced by the change of prices. This is
why it expresses the real evolution of the
gross intern product.
The
analyses
regarding
the
economical evolution accomplished based
on the aggregate of results (mainly GIP)
should be also accompanied by the analysis
of the global indicators per inhabitant. These
have a special signification, spotlighting the

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acestui indicator.

size that comes averagely per person and the


evolution of this indicator.

UNDE:

Where:
Gip gross intern product per inhabitant;
P the average number of the population;
Igip the index of the gross intern product
per inhabitant;
IP the index of the average number of the
population.
The gross intern product per inhabitant
spotlights more clearly the level of the
economical development than the size and
the evolution of the total gross intern
product. The GIP dynamics per inhabitant is
much more significant because it correlates
the GIP dynamics to the population
dynamics. It is a requirement for the
economical development and for the
increase of the living standard so that the
GIP dynamics could outmatch the
population dynamics:
IGIP > IP.
For the analysis of the national economy
structure, we mainly use the following
indicators:
The structure of the intern product
and of the national income on branches
(added value, net product) YVAB;
The structure of the population
occupied on branches YT;
The structure of the settled funds on
branches YF.
Based on these indicators, we
calculate the contribution of the branches to
the forming of the intern product, of the
national income, and also the proportions on
branches of the occupied manpower and of
the existent settled funds.
These proportions are established
based on the relative sizes of structure as
report between the indicators of the branches
(VABa, VANi, Ti, Fi) and the glocal
indicators on the national economy (GIP,

Pib produsul intern brut pe


locuitor

popula iei

IPib indicele produsului

num rul

mediu

al

intern brut pe locuitor;


IP indicele num rului mediu al
popula iei.
Produsul intern brut pe locuitor evideniaz
mai clar nivelul dezvoltrii economice dect
mrimea i evoluia produsului intern brut
total. Dinamica PIB pe locuitor este mult mai
semnificativ, cci coreleaz dinamica PIB cu
dinamica populaiei. Este o cerin pentru
dezvoltarea economic i pentru creterea
nivelului de trai, ca dinamica PIB s o
devanseze pe cea a populaiei.
IGIP > IP.
Pentru analiza structurii economiei
naionale se folosesc, n principal, urmtorii
indicatori:
structura produsului intern i a venitului
naional pe ramuri (valoarea
adugat, produsul net) - YVAB;
structura populaiei ocupate pe ramuri - YT;
structura fondurilor fixe pe ramuri - YF.
Pe baza acestor indicatori se calculeaz
contribuia ramurilor la formarea produsului
intern, a venitului naional, precum i
proporiile pe ramuri ale forei de munc
ocupate i ale fondurilor fixe existente.
Aceste proporii se stabilesc pe baza
mrimilor relative de structur ca raport intre
indicatorii ramurilor (VABa, VANi, Ti, Fi) i
indicatorii globali pe economia naional
GIP, VN, T, F)[8].

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VN, T, F)[8].

These proportions that spotlight


important aspects of the structure of the
economy of a country are analysed in
dynamics for a longer lapse of time. The
changes detached from their analysis in
dynamics spotlight the branches owning an
important role in economy, the direction
where they manifested, their level of
efficiency, etc.
The combined analysis of the
dynamics of different indicators (on the
ensemble of the economy or in structure, on
branches) allows the spotlighting of certain
very
important
macro-economical
correlations, inclusively on the efficiency of
using the production factors.
- The correlation between the GIP
dynamics (IGIP) and the dynamics of
the manpower (IT) shows if the work
productivity (W) has increased or
not.
If IGIP calculated based on the
values expressed in comparable prices has a
dynamics higher than the one registered by
the occupied population, it results an
9
Corelaia ntre dinamica PIP i increase of the work productivity (and viceversa[6].
dinamica fondurilor fixe (IF) arat daca a
IGIP > IT IW > 1 (100)
crescut sau nu eficiena folosirii fondurilor
IGIP < IT IW < 1 (100)
fixe (E).
IPIB > IF IE > 1 (100)
- The correlation between the GIP
IPIB < IF IE < 1 (100)
dynamics and the dynamics of settled
funds (IF) shows if the efficiency of
9
Corelaia ntre dinamica PIP i
using the settled funds (E) has
dinamica fondurilor fixe (IF) arat dac a
increased or not.
crescut sau nu eficiena folosirii fondurilor
fixe (ICM).
IGIP > IF IE > 1 (100)
Dac PIB crete mai rapid dect
IGIP < IF IE < 1 (100)
consumurile de materiale, rezult o scdere a
acestora din urm n costuri i. implicit, o
- The correlation between the

Aceste proporii care evideniaz aspecte


importante ale structurii economiei unei ri
suni analizate n dinamic pentru o perioad
mai mare de timp. Modificrile care se
desprind din analiza lor in dinamic pun in
eviden ramurile care dein un rol important
n economie, direcia n care s-au manifestat,
nivelul lor de eficien etc.
Analiza combinat a dinamicilor diverilor
indicatori (pe ansamblul economiei sau n
structur, pe ramuri) permite evidenierea
unor corelaii macroeconomice de mare
importan, inclusiv asupra eficienei utilizri
factorilor de producie.
- Corelaia ntre dinamica PIB (IPIB) i
dinamica forei de munc (IT) arat dac a
crescut sau nu productivitatea muncii (W)
n cazul n care IPIB, calculat pe baza
valorilor exprimate n preuri comparabile,
are o dinamic superioar celei nregistrate de
populaia ocupata, rezult o cretere a
productivitii muncii (i invers) [6].
IPIB > IT IW > 1 (100)
IPIB < IT IW < 1 (100)

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cretere a beneficiului, a rentabilitii


produciei.
IPIB > IC ICCM > 1 (100)
IPIB < ICM ICCM < 1 (100)

Gip
dynamics
and
the
dynamics of the material
consumption (ICM)
If GIP increases faster than the
material consumptions, it results a decrease
Unde:
of costs of the last ones and, implicitly, an
ICCM indicele eficien ei consumului increase of the benefice, of the capitalization
of the production.
de materiale:
IGIP > IC ICCM > 1 (100)
IGIP < ICM ICCM < 1 (100)
CCM eficienta consumului de
materiale
9

Where:

Corelaia

muncii

si

productivitatea

dintre
salarii

productivitatea

muncii

cea
i

dintre

nzestrarea

muncii cu fonduri fixe


IPIB > IT IW > 1 (100)
IPIB < IT IW < 1 (100)
ntr-o economie cu o evoluie pozitiv,
eficien i cu influene benefice asupra
nivelului de trai al populaiei, dinamica
productivitii muncii trebuie s devanseze
dinamica salariilor msurat prin indicele
salariului mediu real (ISR) si pe cea a
nzestrrii muncii cu fonduri fixe IZ).
IW > ISR
IW > IZ IE > 1 (100)

ICCM the index of the efficiency


of the material consumption;
CCM the efficiency of the material
consumption
- The correlation between the
work productivity and wages
and the ones between the work
productivity and the work
endowment with settled funds
IGIP > IT IW > 1 (100)
IGIP < IT IW < 1 (100)

In an economy having a positive,


efficient evolution having beneficial
influences on the living standards of the
population, the dynamics of the work
productivity should outmatch the wage
dynamics measured by the index of the real
average wage (ISR) and the one of the work
Cnd aceste corelaii nu se respect, endowment with settled funds (IZ).
IW > ISR
influena asupri strii economiei i a nivelului
IW > IZ IE > 1 (100)
de trai este negativ

Evident c la determinarea proporiilor


i corelaiilor menionate o mare importan o
are msurarea lor corect Aceasta se poate
realiza numai dac statistica oficial asigur
surse de date primare veridice, iar
prelucrarea, ordonarea i sistematizarea
acestora se realizeaz dup principiile tiinei
statistice.
Compararea internaional a nivelului de
dezvoltare atins de diferite ri i a
structurilor economice ale acestora a devenit,
n ultimele decenii, o necesitate. O dat cu

When these correlations are not


respected, the influence on the economy
status and of the living standards is negative.
Obviously, when determining the
mentioned proportions and correlations,
their correctly measuring is very important.
This may be accomplished only if the
official statistics provides sources of
veracious primary data and their processing,
ordering
and
systematization
is
accomplished according to the principles of
the statistical science.
The international comparison of the

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intensificarea procesului de integrare a


statelor europene, preocuprile n domeniul
comparaiilor internaionale s-au accentuat.
Efectuarea acestor comparaii a impus ca
sarcin, att instituiilor statistice naionale,
ct i organismelor internaionale de
specialitate,
stabilirea
concepiei
i
metodologiei dup care se realizeaz
comparaiile internaionale.
Compararea internaional a gradului de
dezvoltare economic a diferitelor ri se
poate efectua pe baza indicatorilor n expresie
fizic prin compararea produciei i a
consumului pe locuitor nregistrat la o serie
de produse de baz.
Deci, se stabilesc dou liste: una cu rile care
se compar i una cu produsele de baz. Este
necesar ca aceste produse s fie
reprezentative pentru toate rile cuprinse n
comparaie i ct mai apropiate din punct de
vedere calitativ.
n continuare, pentru a desprinde concluzii cu
privire la nivelul dezvoltrii, se alege o ar
ca baz (de regul, cu un nivel ridicat de
dezvoltare), iar nivelurile atinse de celelalte
ri se compar cu nivelul rii luate drept
etalon.

development level reached by different


countries and of their economical structures
has become a necessity in the last decades.
At the same tie with the intensification of
the integration process of the European
states, the concerns in the field of the
international comparisons have been
emphasized. The accomplishment of these
comparisons has imposed as a task both to
the national statistical institutions and to the
international
special
organisms,
the
establishment of the conception and
methodology according to which we
accomplish the international comparisons.
The international comparison of the
degree of economical development of
different countries may be accomplished
based on the indicators in physical
expression by comparing the production and
the consumption per inhabitant registered
for a series of basic products.
So, there are established two lists:
one with the compared countries and one
with the basic products. It is necessary for
these products to be representative for all the
countries contained in the comparison and as
close as possible from the qualitative
viewpoint[7].
Hereinafter, in order to detach
In acest scop se utilizeaz mrimile
conclusions regarding the development
relative de coordonare (Y):
level, we choose a country as a basis
(usually having a high development level),
and the levels reached by the other countries
Unde:
are compared to the level of the standard
Xi nivelul indicatorului n ara i;
XE nivelul indicatorului n ara country. In this purpose, we use the relative
sizes of coordination (Y):
selectat drept etalon
Astfel de comparaii, dei necesare, sunt
insuficient de concludente. O comparare
satisfctoare se poate efectua utiliznd
indicatorii macroeconomici de rezultate
calculai n cadrul S.C.N.. sistem folosit dup cum s-a artat - de majoritatea rilor
lumii.
Compararea internaional a nivelului,
structurii i ritmului de dezvoltare pe baza
indicatorilor macroeconomici de rezultate
necesit rezolvarea a dou probleme
eseniale, i anume

Where:
Xi the indicator level in country i;
XE the indicator level in the
country selected as standard.
Such comparisons, even if they are
necessary, are not enough decisive. A
satisfying comparison may be accomplished
by using the macro-economical indicators of
results calculated in frame of S.C.N., a
system used as it was shown by most of

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asigurarea comparabilitii indicatorilor din


punct de vedere al coninutului acestora, al
sferei l-or de cuprindere;
asigurarea comparabilitii indicatorilor din
punct de vedere al mutailor valorice
(monetare) in care se exprim.
n prezent cnd majoritatea rilor i
organismelor internaionale folosesc pentru
calcule microeconomice S.C.N., prima
problem este soluionat. rile care aplic
S.C.N determin indicatorii macroeconomici
dup o concepie i o metodologie unitar.
Unele diferene neeseniale care apar ca urmare
a unor particularitilor naionale ale sistemului
de eviden sunt relativ uor de nlturat.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1] Ciurlu C., Dura C., Slusariuc G., Preuri
i concuren, Editura Focus, Petroani, 2002
[2]Moteanu T., Floricel C., Dumitrescu D.,
Alexandru F., Preuri i concuren, Editura
Didactic i Pedagogic, R.A., Bucureti,
1997
[3]Moteanu T., Concurena. Abordri
teoretice i practice, Editura Economic,
Bucureti, 2000
[4]Moteanu
T.,
Preuri,
echilibru
concurenial i bunstare social, Editura
Economic, Bucureti, 2008
[5]Moteanu T., Dumitrescu D., Alexandru
F., Vu M., Obreja L., erbnescu C., Stoian
A., Preuri i concuren, Editura
Universitar, Bucureti, 2009
[6]Postole. M. Preuri i concuren, Editura
Titua Maiorescu, Bucureti, 2005
[7]Tomi I., Ciurlu C., Preuri i
concuren, Editura Universitaria, Craiova,
2001
[8]Vrnceanu D., Politici de preuri, Editura
Uranus, Bucureti, 2006
[9]Vaduva C.," Preturi si Concurenta",
Editura Academica Brancusi, Tirgu-Jiu, 2008

the world countries.


The international comparison of the
level, the structure and the development
rhythm based on the macro-economical
indicators of results need the solving of two
essential problems, namely:
- Providing the compatibility of
the indicators from the viewpoint
of their content, of their
containing sphere;
- Providing the compatibility of
the indicators from the viewpoint
of the value (monetary) units by
means of which they are
expressed.
At present, when most of the
countries and of the international organisms
use
S.C.N.
for
macro-economical
calculations, the first problem is solved. The
countries applying S.C.N. determine the
macro-economical indicators according to a
unitary conception and methodology. Some
non-essential differences that appear as a
consequence
of
certain
national
particularities of the evidence system are
relatively easy to remove[5].

BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1] Ciurlu C., Dura C., Slusariuc G.,
Preuri i concuren, Editura Focus,
Petroani, 2002
[2]Moteanu T., Floricel C., Dumitrescu D.,
Alexandru F., Preuri i concuren, Editura
Didactic i Pedagogic, R.A., Bucureti,
1997
[3]Moteanu T., Concurena. Abordri
teoretice i practice, Editura Economic,
Bucureti, 2000
[4]Moteanu
T.,
Preuri,
echilibru
concurenial i bunstare social, Editura
Economic, Bucureti, 2008
[5]Moteanu T., Dumitrescu D., Alexandru
F., Vu M., Obreja L., erbnescu C.,
Stoian A., Preuri i concuren, Editura
Universitar, Bucureti, 2009
[6]Postole. M. Preuri i concuren, Editura
Titua Maiorescu, Bucureti, 2005

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Economy Series, Issue 2/2011

240

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr. 2/2011

[7]Tomi I., Ciurlu C., Preuri i


concuren, Editura Universitaria, Craiova,
2001
[8]Vrnceanu D., Politici de preuri, Editura
Uranus, Bucureti, 2006
[9]Vaduva C.," Preturi si Concurenta",
Editura Academica Brancusi, Tirgu-Jiu,
2008

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Economy Series, Issue 2/2011

241