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Prof. univ. dr.

LIVIU FILIMON

BAZELE TIINIFICE
ALE
COSMOLOGIEI

EDITURA DIDACTIC I TIINIFIC


BACU - 2013

CUVNT NAINTE
Lucrarea de fa i propune s argumenteze existena lui Dumnezeu,
demonstrnd c ideile biblice despre facerea lumii sunt confirmate de
descoperirile tiinifice. Aa cum se tie, autoritatea tiinei a crescut foarte mult ca
urmare a generalizrii nvmntului i a progresului tehnicii, bazate pe
cunoaterea legilor realitii.
Descoperirile astrologilor i biologilor nu mai pot fi ignorate. Ele trebuie luate
n seam la explicarea textelor religioase ce trateaz despre crearea Universului i
formarea Pmntului, despre dezvoltarea vieii i originea omului.
Chiar dac metodele de aflare a adevrului difer de la tiin la religie,
autenticitatea veridicitii i obiectivitatea ei sunt absolute. Revelaia religioas,
de exemplu, poate s constituie o metod eficient de cunoatere a adevrului. Noi
am constatat c afirmaiile cuprinse n Cartea Facerii sunt adevrate n sens
propriu, respectiv corespund realitii.
Precizm de la nceput c limitarea lucrrii de fa la analiza descrierii facerii
lumii n Vechiul Testament nu este ntmpltoare. Ideile din aceste texte ne ajut
s-L cunoatem pe Dumnezeu n toat mreia Sa.
Desigur, n-a fost ochi care s vad - spune Eminescu - ce a fost la nceput i ce
s-a creat mai nti. Totui, faptul c afirmaiile cuprinse n Cartea Facerii sunt
confirmate de tiin, dovedete valoarea revelaiei ca metod incontient de
cunoatere a adevrului.
Se justific astfel de ce n-am extins analiza dincolo de ziua a asea, ncheiat cu
Sabatul G30 (Vechiul Testament II/l-3). Am avut n vedere faptul c revelaiile au
ca obiect cunoaterea evenimentelor predeterminate de legile realitii. Prin
necesitatea acestor legi, Dumnezeu tie dinainte ce are s creeze. Dimpotriv,
comportamentul oamenilor este liber. Nu poate fi prezis cu necesitate. Sociologii
au demonstat c predicia conduitelor individuale este statistic.
Spunem: Cu siguran se va ntmpla evenimentul X, dar nu tim cnd. n
acest sens, venirea lui Hristos era n ateptare, simeam c trebuie s vin.
Pentru aceasta noi am mers cu analiza pn la ziua a aptea i am evitat s evalum
veridicitatea ntmplrilor din viaa lui Adam i Eva, Cain i Abel sau cum a salvat
Noe specia uman i speciile de animale terestre de la nec etc. Ca i celelalte date
istorice, ele au nevoie de probe i mrturii pentru a fi confirmate.
Dac punem alturi povestirile din istoria patriarhilor evrei cu revelaiile despre
facerea lumii dm ap la moar materialitilor atei, care demonstreaz tiinific c
potopul a avut loc numai ntr-o anumit regiune a Globului pmntesc n perioada
respectiv, c n corabia lui Noe nu puteau s intre toate speciile de animale terestre
etc. Mai ales la predarea religiei n coli trebuie renunat la absolutizarea
adevrului legendelor biblice.
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n lucrarea de fa ne propunem s argumentm existena lui Dumnezeu ntr-o


manier agreat de intelectuali, bazat pe diferenierea adevrurilor tiinifice de
legendele istorice, scrise de cronicari cu mai puin har divin.
Partea doua a lucrrii este consacrat criticii teoriilor neorelativiste formulate
de filosofii atei. De fapt, acest capitol este o culegere de articole critice prin care
demonstrm caracterul paradoxal al teoriilor filosofilor neorelativiti. Sperm s
dovedim astfel necesitatea unor dezbateri filosofice care s ajute tineretul neavizat
s interpreteze corect progresele stiinei.
n partea final am punctat premisele constituirii cosmogoniei ca disciplin
tiinific.
Sperm ca lucrarea de fa s se nscrie ca o contribuie la constituirea
cosmogoniei ca disciplin tiinific.
Autorul

PARTEA NTI
UNIVERSUL REALITATE OBIECTIV ETERN
I. CERUL, LUMINA I CUVNTUL
ELEMENTE ETERNE COSMICE
Dumnezeu (...) El este pretutindeni - are spaiul; El e etern - are timpul;
El este atotputernic - dispune de singura energie a Universului
M. Eminescu (Atributele divinitii, manuscris 2267)

I.1.1. Argumentarea adevrurilor din Cartea Facerii este dificil datorit


caracterului complex al problemelor dezvoltrii i, mai ales, din cauza dinamicii
termenilor vorbirii, care i schimb semnificaia cu trecerea timpului. n ultimul
caz ne referim la cuvintele cer, cuvntul, lumin ce au avut n antichitate
semnificaii diferite de cele actuale.
Prin cuvntul Cer bunoar, oamenii nelegeau, n trecut, realitatea ce se
ntinde deasupra Pmntului, cuprinznd norii, Luna, Soarele i stelele...
N-au ncercat s-i imagineze la ce distan se gsesc stelele fa de Pmnt, ct
de fierbini sunt ele etc. Afirmaia din Cartea Facerii: La nceput cre
Dumnezeu Cerul i Pmntul este concretizat prin descrierea etapelor formrii
Pmntului i nu pe cele ale evoluiei stelelor i galaxiilor. Astfel, n Genez se
vorbete despre masa de gaze iniial (cnd Pmntul nu avea form), despre
ntinsul apelor i apariia uscatului etc. Lipsete, bunoar, descrierea etapelor ce
au precedat formarea Pmntului i a evenimentelor ce vor urma dup arderea
lui.
n consecin, descoperirea de ctre astronomi, n spaiul ndeprtat evaluat la
miliarde de ani lumin, a grupelor de stele numite galaxii, a unor stele n explozie
sau n curs de formare etc., nu infirm afirmaiile din Cartea facerii referitoare la
crearea Pmntului. Dimpotriv, faptul c descrierea facerii lumii ncepe cu
prezicerea ce a fost la nceput se nscrie ca o apreciere corect a Universului
studiat astzi de astronomi.
ntr-adevr, la nceput a fost cerul adic spaiul n care exist, tot de la nceput
a fost lumina (fotonii) i cuvntul (informaia, legile ce le guverneaz particulele
elementare).
Astfel, chiar i n problema originii Universului, Cartea Facerii este
confirmat de tiin. Ea fixez particulele elementare ca nceput al ciclului
evolutiv i ncheie acest ciclu prin ardere, adic dezagregarea atomilor i
corpurilor, desfacerea lor n particulele din care au fost alctuii.
I.1.2. Reinem deci c geneza descris n Cartea Facerii are ca obiect
formarea Pmntului, a corpurilor i vieuitoarelor, n condiiile existenei
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Cerului existent de la nceput. Apariia Soarelui n cea de-a patra etap (zi) a
crerii Pmntului este confirmat de astronomie, care a dovedit c Pmntul s-a
format n snul unor particule (nebuloas) ce se ntindeau pn dincolo de spaiul
Sistemului Solar actual.
Soarele s-a nchegat din nucleul acestei nebuloase concomitent cu formarea
Pmntului i a celorlalte planete. n aceast stare iniial, spune pe bun dreptate
Biblia, Pmntul era lipsit de form i chip. Cele mai recente descoperiri
astronomice au dovedit existena n Univers a norilor de microparticule (gaze)
generatoare de stele, planete i satelii. Deci, naterea Pmntului e unic. Lumea
are un nceput, cel descris n Cartea Facerii i confirmat de astronomie,
departajat pe etape ale dezvoltrii numite zile i va avea un sfrit, Sfritul
lumii, cnd Pmntul va arde....
Reinem, deci, c n Geneza biblic este descris crearea Pmntului i a
Cerului din jurul lui (sistemului solar) i nu a Universului n totalitatea sa. Nu
ntmpltor n Cartea Facerii se folosete expresia la nceput era. Aceast
expresie indic existena primordial.
Sensul ei se edific i mai bine dac inversm formularea, construind o
ntrebare:
Ce era la nceput? Rspunsul e clar exprimat n Cartea Facerii: La nceput
era lumina adic fotonii i Cerul, spaiul n care se micau toate particulele
elementare.
I.1.3. Afirmaia biblic La nceput cre Dumnezeu Cerul i Pmntul, se
refer la ordinea schimbrilor din Univers: nti a aprut Cerul i apoi Pmntul.
Soarele i n general stelele apar naintea planetelor i sateliilor fiindc se creaz
prin desprinderea din nucleul lor central. De asemenea, desprirea apelor de uscat
este cauzat de legea formelor de agregai potrivit creia solidificarea apare
ultima. i apariia mai nti a plantelor i apoi a animalelor, este confirmat
tiinific i dedus logic din ordinea strilor de agregare.
Dar, aa cum rezult din cele relatate mai sus, n Cartea Facerii se spune
explicit c la nceput, adic nainte de crearea Pmntului, au existat: Cerul ntinderea, spaiul infinit; lumina fotonii - particulele elementare; cuvntul informaia, legile particulelor ce predestineaz dezvoltarea.
I.2. LA NCEPUT ERA CERUL - SPAIUL INFINIT
Neavnd margini, spaiul cuprinde n sine Universul, dar nu e Univers
B. P. Hadeu

I.2.1. S-a spus c spaiul e o component a realitii - ntinsul nesfrit n care


este cuprins Universul.
ntr-adevr, nu se poate imagina facerea lumii dac nu se recunoate c spaiul a
precedat-o n ipostaz de loc n care ar putea exista. n acest sens este adevrat
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afirmaia Bibliei c la nceput era Cerul, adic ntinsul nesfrit al Universului.


Aa cum se observ, avem n vedere spaiul ca ntindere infinit, cum l concepe
Titu Maiorescu n afirmaia: De ne-am nchipui c dispare Pmntul, ne-am
azvrli nchipuirea pn la cea mai ndeprt planet; ea nu se poate opri i se
afund n spaiul infinit.
Despre loc sau spaiu - spune Heliade Rdulescu - ne imaginm un punct unde
suntem i, din punct n punct, formm o linie pn la alt punct, pn la cea mai
ndeprtat stea ce o mai putem vedea n spaiu. De ne-am strmuta cu mintea n
cea mai ndeprtat stea de acolo, iar ni s-ar descoperi mprejurul nostru o
asemenea ntindere. Locul, neavnd margini, este infinit, nemrginit.
ntr-adevr, noi nu putem gndi lipsa spaiului, a locului n care sistemele
stelare, galactice, metagalactice etc., se dilat sau se contract, rotindu-se pe
traiectorii supraetajate, cu viteze ce cresc prin nsumare.
I.2.2. Unii filosofi au privit spaiul unilateral ca nsuire (form, mrime etc.) a
corpului, dei n cadrul acestei perspective nu se are n vedere locul, ci se limiteaz
analiza la suprafa, nfiarea ce delimitaz masa corpului respectiv. De fapt
avem aici doi termeni cu semnificaii diferite:
a) ambiana i locul ocupat de corp numit spaiu;
b) calitile spaiale (spaialitatea) ale acelui corp (liniile, punctele, ariile ce-l
contureaz), mrimea etc.
Cu alte cuvinte, spaiul (locul, ntinsul) este o existen real, infinit,
autonom, independent de materie, iar spaialitatea este o calitate a corpului, o
form a sa de existen fr autonomie, ce dispare i se schimb odat cu
schimbarea corpului respectiv.
I.2.3. Ideea c spaiul (locul) este mai mare dect Universul e deosebit de
semnificativ pentru demonstrarea caracterului lui obiectiv. Dac spaiul ar fi att
de mare ct Universul material, atunci el ar deveni o calitate a materiei, pierznd
caracterul de existen real, autonom. Referindu-se la acest aspect al problemei,
Mihai Eminescu afirm c materialitii spun c nu exist vid, c orice loc n
Univers e umplut cu materie. Dar aici vom aduce urmtoarea ntmpinare: la
nceputul formrii sistemului nostru solar, toat materia din care el se compunea
forma o imens nebuloas. Dac din punctul periferic pe care noi l ocupm astzi,
pn la punctul periferic corespondent la care s-ar putea trage o linie dreapt la
Soare, ea ar strbate o coloan de materie care era mult mai dens dect astzi. ntre
volumul ocupat de Soare i volumul ocupat de Pmnt, materia nu era eteric, ci
mult mai grea, mai dens. Deci n unul i acelai spaiu poate fi materie mai mult
sau mai puin. ntr-un pahar ncap atta fier, atta ap, atta abur. Deci, n unul i
acelai spaiu ncape mult sau puin materie.
De aici rezult ns c spaiul, pentru a ncpea materia, trebuie s fie mai mare
dect materia.
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I.2.4. Genialul savant romn Bogdan Petriceicu Hadeu a demonstrat


infinitatea spaiului, identificnd-o cu dumnezeirea.
Astronomia - spune Hadeu - dovedete c orict de multe ar fi lumile i orict
de mare ar fi Universul cel cuprinztor de aceste lumi, ele se afl ntr-un infinit.
Infinitul ns, n care e cuprins Universul, nu este egal sau identic cu totalitatea
prilor acestui Univers, adic cu lumile a+b+c+z, cci ele sunt toate mrginite,
fiecare avnd hotare i deci are hotare i totalitatea lor.
Din punct de vedere matematic, negreit, la orice numr concret se poate
aduga un alt numr concret, altul i iari altul, tot aa nainte, fr a mai sfri
vreodat, ca i cnd s-ar putea nchipui un infinit dintr-un ir de numere concrete,
dar acest ir, fie el orict de lung, nu va fi totalitatea acestor numere concrete, de
vreme ce o totalitate este o sum, iar suma nu se poate face dect atunci cnd se
oprete socoteala, cnd nceteaz lucrarea, cnd se pune o margine. Lumile din
Univers ntocmesc n fiecare moment sum total, i deci totalitatea lor a+b+c+z
este mrginit ca i fiecare din ele n parte: a, b, c, z. Universul, prin urmare, se
cuprinde n infinit. Mai mult dect att, tiina nu poate pricepe Universul fr a
ajunge nenlturat i neaprat la noiunea infinitului dar, ajuns acolo, Universul i
se nfieaz ca o simpl ntmplare.
n acest chip, noi toi, Pmntul nostru, Soarele nostru, milioane de milioane
de ali sori cu alte pmnturi i cu ali noi, cu alte fiine simitoare, voitoare i
cugettoare, trim, ne micm i suntem n el. (Dup zisa apostolului Pavel,
suntem n acel infinit, dar nu suntem el.). Dup cum globul pmntesc este o
bic de spun nvrtindu-se ntr-o sistem, tot aa Universul ntreg, toate
corpurile cereti, la un loc, sunt un fel de bici de spun nvrtindu-se n acel
infinit, care le mbrieaz i le strbate de pretutindeni. Numai el este tot, cci
numai afar dintr-nsul nu poate exista nimic. Numai pentru el timp i spaiu nu
exist, fiind nemrginit n timp i n spaiu. Numai el tie tot, deoarece i ajunge a se
ti pe sinei, neavnd pentru aceasta vreo trebuin de a cerceta raportul ntre eu i
non eu.
Lund ca punct de plecare infinitul astronomului i al chimistului, al celor dou
tiine care s-ar putea numi alfa i omega una nlat ct se poate mai sus i
cealalt cobort ct mai jos cu putin, noi am vzut c acel infinit e unul i
acelai: neavnd margini, fiineaz de sine i chiar dac n-ar fiina Universul:
neavnd margini nu poate avea nicio nsuire restrngtoare, niciun atribut
negativ, neavnd margini ntrunete toate atributele pozitive: binele,
frumosul, adevrul, dreptatea, tiina ntr-o singur afirmaiune; neavnd
margini, urzete totul numai de sine, prin impunerea marginilor la ceea ce voiete;
neavnd margini, nu poate fi identificat sau mcar confundat cu fptura cea
mrginit. i totui, neavnd margini, urzind prin urmare numai de sine, este
cuprins n orice fptuire a voinei sale.
Numii-L cum v place. Numele nu schimb nimic. Dar fiindc numele nu
schimb nimic i c putei niv a-L numi numai cum v place; lsai-ne pe noi a-I
zice Dumnezeu. Desigur, nu realitatea spaiului n sine este Dumnezeu, ci
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caracterul absolut necesar al calitilor sale: permanena (fr nceput i fr


sfrit), omniprezena (este prezent peste tot), nemrginirea (se ntinde la infinit n
toate direciile). (B. P. Hajdeu, Sic cogito).
I.3. LUMINA PRIMORDIAL - FOTONII,
PARTICULELE ELEMENTARE DIVINE
La nceput era lumina... Dumnezeu era lumina...
Evanghelia dup Ioan (1/5)

I.3.1. n Cartea Facerii lumina este semnalat n trei ipostaze:


- ca particule primordiale - preexistente facerii Pmntului, Soarelui i
stelelor;
- ntr-o form diluat, cu lumintorii cufundai n nori de gaze i vapori - n
prima zia formrii Pmntului;
- la artarea lumintorilor, cnd Cerul s-a nseninat - n a patra zi a
Genezei.
Revelaia la nceput era lumina, adic particulele elementare (fotonii,
quarkurile), se refer la originea Universului, la ce a fost naintea Pmntului,
Soarelui i stelelor din jur. ntr-adevr, naintea nceputului Facerii, adic
dintotdeauna, au existat particule (fotonii) de lumin. n viziunea revelaiei
biblice, lucrurile i fiinele din prezent n-au fost create din nimic, cum pretind
autorii crii Cluza ateistului (l96l, p. 405).
Traducerea cuvntului biblic lumina prin fotoni (particule elementare) este
esenial pentru combaterea ateismului. tiina a dovedit evoluia ciclic a
Universului: de la nori (vrtejuri) de particule, la stele ce lumineaz, degajnd
elementele din care s-au format.
Toate lucrurile din Univers se nscriu n acest ciclu: elementele componente se
nsumeaz n cursul dezvoltrii i se elibereaz cu moartea. Lumea terestr,
nscut din particulele elementare, va pieri prin dezagregare. Stihiile - spune
apostolul Petru - arznd se vor desface. Pmntul i lucrurile din el vor arde.
(Noul Testament; Petru, III/10).
I.3.2. Revelaia Dumnezeu era lumina exprim calitile absolute ale luminii,
situarea ei pe pragul cel mai nalt al perfeciunii, deoarece:
- particulele elementare sunt eterne, nu au nceput i nici sfrit, exist
dintotdeauna i nu vor pieri niciodat;
- numrul particulelor elementare a rmas neschimbat de un timp infinit, nu va
crete i nici nu se va micora vreodat;
- fotonii nu stopeaz, alearg continuu cu viteza absolut de 300.000 km/s pe
trasee curbe n spaiul Universului, sau se rotesc cu aceeai vitez n spaiul altor
particule, formnd atomi i corpuri, astre;

- masa particulei elementare este absolut de mic, deci indivizibil;


- particulele elementare sunt suportul realitii fizice i biopsihice. Afirmaia
unor filozofi atei c masa fotonului dispare i se transform n und (und
electromagnetic) este eronat. Micarea este o calitate a corpului ce nu poate
exista autonom, n absena obiectului mictor. Aa cum undele au nevoie de un
lichid ondulator, la fel, undele electro-magnetice sunt posibile numai ca micare a
cmpului de particule i rotirii lor axiale.
- legile ce guverneaz lumea sunt coninute de natura particulelor elementare.
nsi varietatea dezvoltrii lucrurilor i fiinelor este prezis de legile ce
guverneaz natura particulelor de lumini. Putem afirma, deci, c atomii, corpurile,
atrii, celulele, viaa i psihicul au ca suport particulele elementare, sunt construite
din lumin. ntreaga existen e lumin. Dumnezeu este lumin. Toat lumina
din Univers este Dumnezeu i altceva n afar de ea nu mai exist.
- natura fotonului este pur. n particula elementar nu mai exist altceva dect
ea nsi. n lumin nu e ntuneric; n Univers, n afar de particulele elementare
solitare sau grupate i de spaiul atotcuprinztor, nu mai exist nimic. ntuneric
nseamn lipsa luminii. Unde este lumin, nu e ntuneric. Dumnezeu este lumin
i ntr-nsul nu este niciun ntuneric.(Noul Testament, Ioan l/5).
- toate formele de micare din Univers au ca suport particulele elementare.
Micarea corpurilor poart n sine micarea particulelor din care sunt alctuite
corpurile, lucrurile, fiinele. Aa cum se observ, ne referim aici nu la lumina
concret, ntruchipat n masa fotonului, ci la calitile sale, ce se nscriu ca
atribute ale divinitii.
I.3.3. n concluzie, tiina a permis astzi oamenilor s imagineze pe Dumnezeu
nu ca pe un personaj solitar, un btrn ce locuiete n Cer sau se deplaseaz pe
Pmnt, apropiindu-se de oamenii buni i deprtndu-se de cei ri.
Cunotinele tiinifice ne ajut astzi s cunoatem natura Divinitii.
Dumnezeu este peste tot, fiindc toate cte exist, spaiu i particule elementare,
legi fizice i biopsihice sunt divine, sunt creaii ale Sale. Dumnezeu e pretutindeni
- are spaiul. El este atotputernic, dispune de singura energie a Universului. (M.
Eminescu, M.2267).
I.4. LA NCEPUT ERA CUVNTUL - IDEEA,
LEGILE PARTICULELOR ELEMENTARE
La nceput era cuvntul... i cuvntul era Dumnezeu
Ioan (l/l)

I.4.1. Precizarea nelesului termenului cuvntul din propoziia: La nceput


era cuvntul scris n Biblie, a generat discuii contradictorii. Unii reprezentani
ai religiei au identificat cuvntul cu adevrul (iubirea, dreptatea) absolut, divin.
La rndul lor, filosofii atei au reproat religiei c explicnd Facerea Lumii, din
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cuvnt - adic din nimic - neag principiul cauzalitii.


O contribuie de seam la interpretarea corect a acestui termen au adus-o
filologii i logicienii.
D. Scriban, n Dicionarul limbii romne, pune semnul egal ntre cuvnt i
idee (nainte de Facerea lumii era ideea). n logic, termenii ce denumesc obiecte
i fenomene se numesc noiuni. Altfel spus, noiunea este un cuvnt, o cunotin
care reflect nsuirile eseniale ale obiectului i clasei de obiecte. De exemplu,
cuvntul Dumnezeu denumete fiina suprem cu toate calitile sale:
omniprezen, eternitate, buntate etc.
Constituirea psihologiei ca tiin a permis interpretarea corect a cuvntului
n ipostaz de idee. S-a precizat funcia cognitiv a cuvntului, faptul c el
efectueaz o comunicare, poart n sine o informaie ce exprim realitatea
obiectiv.
Dup prerea noastr, la soluionarea problemei obiectivittii informaiei
purtat de o idee, trebuie pornit de la teoria lui Leibnitz despre raportul dintre
general i particular. Legile naturii, dup filosoful german, sunt generale adic
idei ce reflect nsuirile comune i eseniale individualelor. Legea lui Arhimede,
bunoar, nu slluiete undeva. Realitatea ei se concretizeaz n fiecare corp
scufundat ce pierde din greutate ct cntrete volumul de ap nlocuit. Coninutul
logic al primordialitii cuvntului iese foarte bine n eviden cnd analizm
atributele lui Dumnezeu, deduse din autoritatea legilor ce guverneaz realitatea
fizic, biologic i psihic. Dei Dumnezeu nu slluiete concret ntr-un anumit
loc, el se manifest real prin autoritatea (necesitatea) legilor ce guverneaz
existena lucrurilor i fiinelor din Univers. nc de la nceput, particulele
elementare conineau n natura lor legile prezicnd dezvoltarea ulterioar: crearea
Pmntului, plantelor, animalelor, omului.
Legile sunt divine, fiindc acioneaz (peste tot) cu puteri absolute (nimeni nu
le poate nclca) de un timp infinit (nu au nceput i nici sfrit). Prin ele Dumnezeu
este atottiutor, fr s predestineze aciunile individuale. Afirmaia niciun fir de
pr nu se poate mica fr tirea lui Dumnezeu este adevrat n sens negativ.
Dac lipsete cauza (vntul, pieptenele etc.), factorul determinant, prul, nu se
mic.
Este meritul lui Lucian Blaga de a fi demonstrat c legile acioneaz negativ.
Ele nu ne permit s le nclcm, dar ne las deplina libertate s le aplicm n
condiii variate.
n consecin, Dumnezeu controleaz micarea i dezvoltarea lumii, pedepsind
pe cei care ncalc legile. De exemplu, cine nu ine seama de legea cderii
corpurilor i se arunc de la etaj este pedepsit cu moartea - dac i-a sfrmat
easta, sau cu ologia - dac i-a fracturat osul piciorului etc. Astfel, Dumnezeu nu
tie cine se va arunca, ci numai ce consecine va avea o astfel de comportare
neraional. Rezult c atottiina divin nu anuleaz libertatea i rspunderea
individual. n acest spirit trebuie apreciat importana pe care o d religia
cunoaterii binelui i rului.
11

I.4.2. Afirmaia c ideea, cuvntul, legile programate n natura particulelor


elementare sunt punctul de plecare n crearea Universului (La nceput era
Cuvntul) este pe deplin adevrat.
Nicio micare (schimbare, dezvoltare etc.) nu se poate produce n Univers fr
s fie ngduit de legile realitii. Dac n particulele elementare, respectiv n
corpurile pe care ele le alctuiesc, n-ar sllui legile, lumea ar rmne
ncremenit, dezvoltarea nu s-ar mai putea produce.
Obiectivitatea informaiilor sdite n particulele elementare a fost demonstrat
tiinific prin descoperirea legilor ce guverneaz realitatea fizic, biologic i
psihic.
ntregul Univers e format din particule elementare, iar legile realitii sunt
coninute de natura acestor particule. Se explic astfel reversibilitatea legilor. Spre
pild, un corp transformat din stare solid n lichid tie s revin la starea iniial i
s repete fenomenul dac intervin aceeiai factori determinani.
La fel de semnificativ este informaia genetic nscris n natura celulei
corpului viu. Ea conserv mii de generaii programul dezvoltrii ontogenetice.
Ontogenia, spune Ernst Haeckel, repet filogenia.
I.4.3. Mai trebuie reinut c particulele elementare au n coninutul lor
prezicerea dezvoltrii n ipostaze variate. De exemplu, dei legea lui Arhimede
este o idee unic are acelai neles indiferent n ce limb ar fi pronunat, ea se
manifest concret variat. Astfel, necesitatea se cupleaz cu libertatea.
Obiectivitatea legilor mai poate fi dovedit i prin analiza relaiilor cauzale.
ntre cauz i efect exist corelaii, fapt ce face posibil reversibilitatea. Cauza
produce efectul, iar acesta redevine cauza pentru c tie ce a fost mai nainte.
De exemplu, din unirea unui atom de oxigen i doi atomi de hidrogen rezult
apa. n anumite condiii apa se descompune, transformndu-se n oxigen i
hidrogen.
Aceast reversibilitate a legilor e absolut, se repet fr excepie, ori de cte ori
sunt condiii adecvate. Molecula apei conine informaia devenirii ulterioare.
Desigur, este vorba aici de o cunoatere cauzal, structurat n calitile
particulelor (masa, viteza, fora etc.) i nu de o cunoatere a cunoaterii de tip
uman.
Se poate deci afirma, pe bun dreptate, c de la nceput au existat legile
(cuvntul) sdite n particulele elementare (lumina), ce preziceau dezvoltarea
ulterioar a lucrurilor i fiinelor. Acesta e sensul adevrat al afirmaiei: La
nceput era cuvntul i Cuvntul era Dumnezeu.
Lumina, fotonii, particulele elementare existente la nceputul Facerii Lumii,
conineau informaii (idei) care prescriau posibilile dezvolttri ulterioar a
lucrurilor i fiinelor.

12

I.5. LA NCEPUT ERA CUVNTUL - LEGILE DIVINE


ALE IUBIRII, DREPTII I ADEVRULUI
Oricine care fptuiete pcatul, fptuiete i clcarea legii
Ioan (3/4)

I.5.1. S-a spus c legile ce guverneaz lumea fizic, viaa i psihicul preexist n
natura particulelor elementare. Aceasta nu nseamn c particula n sine are suflet,
ceea ce ar echivala cu revenirea la teoriile panteiste i animiste. Particulele
elementare au caliti care, conjugate n anumite condiii, genereaz corpuri
materiale, organisme vii i procese psihosociale. De fapt, de mai bine de un secol,
biologii se strduiesc s demonstreze evoluionismul darwinist, fr ns s
explice unitar ce a fost la nceput.
Observm c i n aceast chestiune revelaia Bibliei a luat-o naintea tiinei.
Au existat de la nceput Cerul (spaiul infinit), Lumina (fotonii, particulele
elementare) i Cuvntul (legile realitii fizice, biopsihice i psihosociale).
I.5.2. Legile psihosociale semnalate de Biblie: iubirea, dreptatea i adevrul
corespund celor trei laturi ale psihicului: afectivitatea, voina i intelectul.
ntr-adevr, naterea afectivitii din calitile particulelor elementare este
dovedit de caracterul lor polar. Orice particul sau grup de particule conin cmp
electromagnetic pozitiv (electricitate pozitiv) i negativ (electricitate negativ).
(Vezi: Liviu Filimon, Psihologie cosmic).
Asemenea emoiilor care oscileaz ntre iubire i ur i particulele se atrag sau
se resping. Cu alte cuvinte, relaiile dintre afectele pozitive i cele negative,
respectiv legile afectivitii, se regsesc n lumin, i au originea n relaiile de
polarizare de dinuntrul particulelor elementare. Revelaia biblic Dumnezeu
este iubirea (Ioan, 4/12) se refer la legile afectivitii existente primordial ca idee
(La nceput era Cuvntul i Cuvntul era Dumnezeu).
Desigur, iubirea uman, bazat pe cunoaterea binelui i rului, este superioar
emoiilor ntlnite la animale i atitudinilor pozitive sau negative din viaa
plantelor, celulelor i microorganismelor. Cu ct urcm mai mult pe scara
evoluiei, se multiplic i se perfecioneaz formele de manifestare ale
afectivitii. n acest sens, nvturile Bibliei se potrivesc numai omului.
I.5.3. Prima lege psihosocial preexistent n particulele elementare se
manifest ca relaii dintre iubire i ur. Biblia ne spune c buntatea lui Dumnezeu
se exprim prin dragostea sa pentru oameni. Cine iubete oamenii are n sufletul
su lumina iubirii divine. Cine se iubete numai pe sine nu cunoate pe Dumnezeu,
triete n ntuneric.
ntr-adevr, iubirea aproapelui polarizeaz cu dragostea de sine, ce poate
finaliza cu satisfacerea nestpnit a plcerilor lumeti. Plcerile sunt ispititoare,
ele ne ndeamn bunoar s consumm alimente duntoare (buturi alcoolice),
s fumm, s ne drogm etc.
Evanghelistul Ioan a avut n vedere acest aspect cnd a spus: Nu iubii lumea,
13

nici cele ce sunt n lume. Dac cineva iubete lumea... (adic poftele trupului) i
pofta ochilor i mndria deart a vieii... iubirea Tatlui nu este ntr-nsul. (Ioan,
E. 1,2/ 16).
De fapt este unanim recunoscut c satisfacerea nelimitat a plcerilor
instinctuale are consecine negative. Toate viciile aduc suferine, boli, nenorociri.
Mai trebuie avut n vedere c iubirea i ura sunt rspltite telepatic, prin
atitudinile binevoitoare sau ostile ale altora; oricine triete sentimentul invidiei,
suspiciunii, dumniei etc. fa de o anumit persoan provoac (rezonan
telepatic) n sufletul acesteia, sentimente similare. Deci relaiile polare dintre
iubirea de sine i iubirea aproapelui au un caracter necesar, legic. Cine este stpnit
de sentimente egoiste, de invidie i rutate, triete n ntuneric, poart n sine pe
Satana. Cine iubete pe alii, cunoate pe Dumnezeu fiindc Dumnezeu este
iubirea (Ioan, E. 4/12).
Se poate afirma, pe bun dreptate, c ntre iubirea lui Dumnezeu i iubirea
noastr pentru alii sunt relaii cauzale (prima lege psihosocial). Prin iubirea de
oameni purtm n sufletul nostru pe Dumnezeu, care este iubirea cea adevrat
(Ioan 4/12).
Dac nu-i iubeti semenii, dragostea divin nu mai slluiete n tine. Iubirea
divin nu poate lumina dect sufletul celor ce iubesc pe alii. Cine zice c este n
lumin i urte pe fratele su, acela este pn acum n ntuneric(Ioan, E. 2/8).
Cine nu iubete n-a cunoscut pe Dumnezeu, pentru c Dumnezeu este iubire.
(Ioan, 4/8).
Oricine care iubete este nscut din Dumnezeu i cunoate pe Dumnezeu
(Ioan 4/8).
Desigur, nu este vorba aici despre o iubire contemplativ, ci de cea nsoit de
fapte.
S nu iubim cu vorbe i nici cu limba - spune evanghelistul Ioan - ci n fapte i
adevr. (Ioan, E. 3/18).
I.5.4. A doua lege psihosocial preexistent n particulele elementare se
manifest ca relaii dintre adevr i minciun. Adevrul i minciuna polarizeaz,
sunt contradictorii, se exclud reciproc. Dumnezeu este lumina adevrului. El nu se
dezice niciodat (Dumnezeu este lumin i ntr-nsul nu este niciun ntuneric.
Toate legile Universului acioneaz consecvent. Nu mint niciodat. Prin ele
Dumnezeu tie tot (Sunt ... Dumnezeu atottiutorul - Ioan, E. 3/4.), pentru c
toate se petrec cu ngduina legilor. n acest sens faptele noastre pctoase nu pot
fi ascunse i deci trebuie s le mrturisim. Spovedania, adic recunoaterea
adevrului, este calea mntuirii. Prin mrturisiri adevrate, lumina divin a
adevrului rmne n noi pentru totdeauna. (Adevrul ce rmne n noi va fi n
veci - Ioan, E/2.) Altfel spus, n actul mrturisirii, sufletul nostru primete lumina
adevrului (totdeauna spiritul este cel care mrturisete, fiindc spiritul este
adevrul - Ioan, E. 4/1), adic cunoaterea.
i n psihiatrie cunoaterea factorilor ce au generat traumele psihice
(psihanaliza) red bolnavului linitea sufleteasc, contribuie la nsntoirea lui.
De reinut i implicarea mrturisirii n corectarea conduitei. Nu este vorba despre
14

includerea n sfera mrturisirilor a tuturor ideilor pe care le-am gndit i


ntmplrilor la care am asistat - fapt apreciat pe bun dreptate ca duntor i
antisocial. Mrturisirea adevrului propvduit de Biblie se refer la conduita
moral. Dac ascunzi pcatul svrit i nu-l apreciezi ca atare, este greu s evii
repetarea lui. Mrturisirea (spovedania) pcatului, nlocuiete minciuna cu
adevrul, deschiznd calea mntuirii.
I.5.5. Cea de-a treia lege psihosocial, ce caracterizeaz voina, se manifest ca
relaii polare dintre dreptate i nedreptate (Dac tii c el este drept, cunoatei c
oricine care fptuiete dreptatea este nscut dintr-nsul - Ioan, E.2/2). Suferinele
persoanei nedreptite, gndurile sale negative, perturb telepatic sufletul
nedreptitorului, influeneaz contientul i subcontientul acesteia. Toi oamenii
sunt chinuii de team, suspiciune, comaruri. Tot prin telepatie se explic efectele
slujbelor, blestemelor etc., probate adesea practic. Dimpotriv, cine este drept
cucerete stima i iubirea altora, primete mesaje telepatice pozitive de la
persoanele dreptite. n acest sens este adevrat proverbul: Ru faci - ru
gseti.
I.5.6. n concluzie, legile psihosociale (cuvntul) au preexistat n natura
particulelor elementare divine. Teoria filosofilor atei care afirm c psihicul a
aprut din via, iar viaa s-a dezvoltat din materie, este eronat. Corpurile
materiale, viaa i psihicul au o origine comun, lumina divin, particulele
elementare. Deci sunt create de Dumnezeu (la nceput era lumina i lumina era
Dumnezeu).
I.6. CREAREA LUMINII PE NTINSUL CERULUI
i zise s se fac lumin pe ntinsul cerului.
Vechiul Testament (1/4)

I.6.1. Aa cum s-a spus, la nceput a fost lumina - fotonii, particulele


elementare eterne, divine. n acest stadiu de nceput al ciclului evolutiv, cnd
lipseau lumintorii, lumina nu era desprit de ntuneric dect la graniele
Universului.
Densitatea particulelor elementare era mic. (Dup calculele astronomilor
contemporani, densitatea materiei n Univers este de un nucleu la 1 cm3).
I.6.2. Iniial, fotonii alergau n toate direciile, pe trasee elipsoidale.
Distribuirea lor neuniform s-a finalizat cu crearea aglomerrilor de particule n
unele zone i rarefieri n alte zone. Apariia propriu-zis a luminii s-a produs n
urma coliziunilorde particuleiformrii vrtejurilor cu focare (nuclee) plasmatice,
n sfera crora particulele fuzionau transformnd micarea exterioar, de pe bolta
cereasc, n micare interioar, de pe orbitele atomului. (Rolul concentrrii
particulelor n naterea stelelor a fost dovedit prin crearea laserelor moderne.
Creterea intensitii luminii peste l0l5 Wcm2 duce la focalizarea asupra ei nsi).
15

S-au generat astfel forme noi de micare: caloric, transmis din aproape n
aproape, ondulatoriu i micare corporal cu deplasri i rotiri n vrtejuri stelare.
Aceste stele primitive, cufundate n nori de gaze, au nceput s elimine, n cursul
proceselor de agregare i dezagregare, cantiti enorme de fotoni, devenind, cum
spune Biblia, lumintorii cerului (Vechiul Testament 1/4). Prin aceste cuvinte
Biblia anun prima etap a facerii lumii - geneza nebuloaselor stelare. S-a dovedit
c planetele, inclusiv Pmntul, s-au format n snul nebuloasei solare dup
nchegarea nucleului Soarelui. Astronomia a confirmat aceast revelaie biblic.
Toate stelele cunoscute cu ajutorul telescoapelor moderne sunt angajate n micri
vrtejiale. Dimpotriv, norii de gaze, lipsii de micri de rotaie axial, nu emit
lumin proprie.
I.6.3. Afirmaia c Soarele i stelele s-au nscut din particule elementare,
nebuloase din descompunerea altor stele care le-au precedat. n acest sens este
eronat teoria Big Bang-ului ce afirm c Universul a luat natere din explozia
unui bo de materie.
Nu dispersarea, mprtierea, explozia au generat stelele i Soarele, ci
concentrarea colizional, crearea de vrtejuri n snul crora densitatea
particulelor elementare a atins pragul maxim necesar formrii atomilor i emiterii
fotonilor.
I.6.4. La fel de fals este i teoria filosofilor atei conform creia Soarele s-a
artat pe Terra de la nceput, n prima etap a formrii i nu dup crearea apei i
nseninarea cerului (ziua a patra a facerii), cum spune Biblia. Cum este posibil
ca lumina, se ntreab M. Alexescu, s fi aprut naintea Soarelui. Facerea
Soarelui n a patra zi este pe de-a-ntregul plsmuit.
n realitate, luminarea Pmntului de ctre Soare s-a produs n dou etape. La
nceput, cnd nebuloasa Sistemului Solar era mbcsit cu gaze i praf cosmic, ce
nu permiteau vizualizarea Soarelui i mai trziu, dup ce scoara Terrei s-a acoperit
cu lichide (ziua a doua) i solide (ziua a treia). ntr-adevr, Soarele, stelele i Luna
s-au artat n ziua a patra, adic atunci cnd condensarea i solidificarea gazelor ce
nconjurau nucleul Terrei au nseninat atmosfera.
I.6.5. De asemenea este confirmat tiinific afirmaia Bibliei c Dumnezeu a
desprit lumina de ntuneric, n ziua nti, adic nainte de a se arta Soarele (ziua a
patra.), (Aa fu sear i diminea ziua nti). Alternarea zi noapte este
caracteristic tuturor nebuloaselor planetare care se rotesc n vrtej. Prin rotire n
jurul axei proprii, ele se ndreapt cu o fa spre nucleul Soarelui dimineaa i intr
n zona ntunecat seara. Semnalizarea serii i dimineii de ctre Biblie n ziua nti
este confirmat i de astronomie, care a demonstrat c nceputul formrii
Pmntului este cauzat de rotirea axial a nebuloasei iniiale. ntr-adevr, fr
rotaie axial care, aa cum s-a spus, genereaz ponderabilitatea, corpurile (gazele,
praful cosmic) s-ar deplasa unele lng altele.

16

PARTEA A DOUA
FACEREA PMNTULUI N ASE ETAPE (ZILE)
II.1. N ZIUA NTI PMNTUL ERA O NEBULOAS
i fr form era Pmntul- ziua nti
Vechiul Testament (1/1)

II.1.1. La nceputul facerii Pmntului erau deja create: cerul - ntinderea


nelimitat; lumina - fotonii, particulele elementare i legile ce le guverneaz.
Coliziunile dintre sfrmturile rezultate din arderea, dezagregarea sistemului
stelar care a precedat sistemul solar, au dat natere norilor de gaze, iar ciocnirile
dintre norii de gaze au generat vrtejurile de materie plasmatic dttoare de
lumin. n ziua nti a Facerii Pmntul era un vrtej animat n micarea de
revoluie n jurul nucleului central al sistemului solar. n cuvintele Bibliei: fr
form i deert era Pmntul - este revelat starea de nebuloas n care se gseau
planetele sistemului solar n ziua nti.
II.1.2. Dezvoltarea astronomiei ca tiin a confirmat revelaia biblic. Este
recunoscut ca adevrat teoria lui Immanuel Kant, care demonstreaz c
sistemul solar s-a format dintr-o nebuloas, nor cosmic de gaz i praf. Forele
de atracie i de respingere fac ordine n materia neorganizat (haos). n centrul
norului se formeaz Soarele, iar la periferie, planetele. n linii mari - spune V.
Ureche - ideea lui Kant este considerat i astzi just.
Un alt cercettor, matematicianul Laplace, a dezvoltat ideea lui Kant cu privire
la formarea Sistemului Solar dintr-o nebuloas. Laplace consider c n procesul
formrii planetelor un rol important l joac rotaia nebuloasei. Sub aciunea
gravitaiei, nebuloasa se contract. Fiind izolat, momentul cinetic total al
nebuloasei se conserv, deci contractndu-se viteza ei unghiular de rotaie
crete. (V. Ureche, Astrofizica, vol. II, l987, p. 321).
II.1.3. Spre deosebire de teoria lui Kant - Laplace (completat de Jeans,
Schmidt, Hazle etc.), care confirm afirmaia din Biblie c la nceput Pmntul
era fr form, adic o mas gazoas, partizanii filosofiei ateiste au elaborat teoria
Big-Bangului care susine c Universul s-a nscut acum l5 miliarde de ani din
explozia unei mase de materie foarte dense i fierbini.
Dup prerea noastr, teoria Big Bang-ului este eronat, deoarece nu poate
explica formarea miliardelor de stele rspndite n sfera Universului. Potrivit legii
dispersiei, exploziile se soldeaz cu distribuirea particulelor n spaiul nconjurtor
pe trasee unghiulare, cu vrful n centrul exploziei... n consecin, cu ct traseul e
mai lung, particulele, care iniial erau foarte apropiate, se deprteaz continuu
unele de altele. Dac traseele ar fi rectilinii, ele s-ar deprta la infinit.
17

Ori, cum partizanii acestei teorii vor s explice aa-zisa deprtare spre rou
(supergalaxiile se deprteaz de noi cu o vitez ce crete cu distana), rezult c
particulele animate din explozie ce se deplaseaz pe trasee elipsoidale, continu s
se deprteze unele de altele, fcnd imposibile coliziunile i concentrrile de
materie necesare formrii stelelor.
Nici n partea a doua a cltoriei lor n spaiul Universului, cnd se apropie de
punctul de plecare, nu se creeaz condiiile necesare formrii stelelor, deoarece
elementele rezultate din explozie se gsesc la distane mari unele de altele.
Concentrarea lor va deveni critic abia la ncheierea traseului elipsoidal.
Totodat, pretinsa explozie e contrazis de dialectica dezvoltrii ciclice.
ntotdeauna fenomenul acumulrii, creterii etc. este anterior dezagregrii,
descompunerii. Cercetrile astronomice moderne au dovedit c n trecutul
ndeprtat, n starea de evoluie a Universului, radiaia (particulele elementare) a
fost mai important dect particulele cu mas de repaus. (V. Ureche, p. 258).
De asemenea, teoria Big-Bang-ului este contrazis i de legea ponderaiei.
Toate stelele cunoscute au ponderaie proprie cauzat de micarea de rotaie axial
i de micarea de revoluie n jurul centrului formaiunii de stele (galaxii,
supragalaxii etc.) n care sunt integrate. Ori, explozia iniial nu poate s explice
naterea acestor micri, ale cror viteze cresc proporional.
De reinut este faptul c aa-zisa dilatare a Universului se observ la
supergalaxiile uriae foarte ndeprtate, care sunt alctuite din mii de galaxii.
Numai cnd trecem dincolo de scara marilor aglomerri, de sute de mii de galaxii,
putem s observm expansiunea. (John D. Barrow, Originea Universului, l994,
p. l9).
Cu alte cuvinte, dilatarea se observ la distane unde, practic, observaia
aproape c nu este posibil. Dar deprtarea spre rou, respectiv creterea vitezei
supergalaxiilor, proporional cu creterea deprtrii are, dup prerea noastr, o cu
totul alt explicaie. La distane mari nu observm stele individuale care se mic,
ci grupuri de stele, adic supergalaxii.
Dar viteza de deplasare a supergalaxiilor este mai mare dect viteza stelelor. De
exemplu, Sistemul Solar se rotete n jurul axei galaxiei cu viteza de 29 km/s, iar
galaxia noastr noastr se deplaseaz cu 220 km/s.
II.1.4. n concluzie, afirmaia din Biblie c la nceput Pmntul era fr form
este confirmat de tiin. n prima faz a dezvoltrii ciclice, materia din care sunt
alctuite astrele sistemului solar actual fcea parte dintr-o nebuloas ce se rotea n
jurul axei nucleului central.
Ct privete teoria Bing-Bang-ului, referitoare la originea Universului,
aceasta este infirmat de informaiile tiinifice. La nceputul fiecrui ciclu
evolutiv se gsete materia, energia astrelor ciclului anterior, respectiv nebuloasa
din dezagregarea lor. Aceast nlnuire dureaz de un timp infinit i nu va dispare
niciodat. Altfel, evoluia ar stopa fiindc ex nihilo nihil, conform unui vers din
poetul latin Lucreiu, idee preluat de Parmenide, apoi de Avogadro, n Epoca
Modern.
18

II.2. N ZIUA A DOUA DUMNEZEU A DESPRIT APELE


Iar Dumnezeu a fcut un ntins i a desprit apele de pe acest ntins
De apele de deasupra acestui ntins.
Vechiul Testament (I/4).

II.2.1. Am vzut n capitolul precedent c Dumnezeu a creat, n snul


nebuloasei solare, o nebuloas terestr - un vrtej de gaze fierbini - cu micri de
nvrtire axial i rotaie central. n acest act de creaie Dumnezeu a acionat prin
legile realitii, a cror necesitate face parte din natura sa. Cu alte cuvinte, aceast
creaie divin s-a produs n cadrul unor relaii cauzale, sdite nc de la nceput n
particulele elementare. Deci, crearea apei, respectiv desprirea apei de pe scoara
Pmntului de vaporii de ap din atmosfer, nu e un act arbitrar. S-a produs cu
necesitate, guvernat de legile strilor de agregaie i legii vaselor comunicante.
Dar, necesitatea legilor Universului, pe care nimeni nu le poate nclca, este
cuprins n voina lui Dumnezeu. n consecin, cunoaterea legilor realitii ne
ajut s nelegem cum a creat Dumnezeu lumea.
.

II.2 2. Semnalm, mai nti, legea cderii corpurilor - determinat de masa i


viteza de rotaie axial i central). Datorit acestor micri, gazele de la exterior
cdeau ponderal spre zona central. Pe msur ce i schimbau temperatura, ele se
lichefiau. n contact cu scoara fierbinte, picturile se transformau din nou n
vapori. n prima faz deci, lichidele ce nconjurau ca o mantie nucleul Terrei erau
formate din substane ce se lichefiaz la un punct termic ridicat. Astfel, la nceput,
apa se gsea numai n atmosfer, n stare de vapori (nori). (Dac avem n vedere c
pe glob exist 1,1 miliarde km3 de ap, la care se adaug ghearii polari, este lesne
de neles de ce Soarele nu putea fi vzut de pe scoara Terrei acoperit de nori i
praf cosmic opac.)
2.

II. 3. Alturi de legea cderii corpurilor, la meninerea constant a unei


temperaturi medii pe Pmnt (29 K), proprice dezvoltrii vieii, au acionat legile
termodinamicii. Aa cum se tie, cldura este o micare de particule transmis din
aproape n aproape, ca valurile unei ape. Pentru a se deplasa ea are nevoie de un
intermediar care, n cazul Terrei, este apa. Spre exemplu, n ziua a doua a Facerii,
cldura lichidelor de pe sol, preluat de vapori n momentul evaporrii, era cedat
straturilor exterioare ale atmosferei. n acest fel, vaporii transformai din nou n
picturi de ploaie la contactul cu aerul rece, cdeau ponderal pe scoara fierbinte.
Treptat temperatura scoarei a sczut sub 1000C, permind acumularea apei pe
Terra. Deci crearea ntinsului de ape pe Pmnt de ctre Dumnezeu s-a produs n
conformitate cu legile realitii.
Dac ar fi lipsit cldura solar, rcirea ar fi continuat pn la nghearea apei n
totalitate, aa cum stau lucrurile la poli, luminai mai puin de Soare. Datorit
constanei temperaturii nucleului Terrei i luminozitii Soarelui, temperatura a
rmas relativ neschimbat sute de milioane de ani.

19

Mai trebuie precizat c apa a jucat rolul de moderator i n cazul trecerii de la zi la


noapte. Aa cum se tie, solul se nclzete i se rcete mai repede. Apa acumuleaz
i cedeaz cldur mai ncet, contribuind astfel la evitarea temperaturilor extreme.
Astfel, cu toat varietatea condiiilor de mediu i multitudinea factorilor
determinani (alternarea zilei cu noaptea, a iernii cu vara etc.), viaa a avut pe Terra
nc de la nceput, ap n stare lichid, necesar dezvoltrii vieuitoarelor. Pe
celelalte planete, lipsite de ap lichid, nu se dezvolt viaa.
II.2.4. Desigur i alte legi s-au implicat n crearea apei pe suprafaa Pmntului
i din atmosfer. Ne referim la distribuirea presiunii gazelor i lichidelor pe
suprafee egale cu fore egale i la legea vaselor comunicante.
Prima lege, a distribuiei uniforme a presiunii, st la baza deplasrii aerului pe
trasee i cu viteze determinate de diferenele de presiune atmosferic. Se tie c
msurarea simultan a temperaturii i presiunii atmosferice, a vitezei i direciei
vnturilor, n diferite puncte de pe glob, permite astzi meteorologilor s
pregnozeze vremea. nclzirea aerului diminueaz densitatea i antreneaz mase
de aer rece, cu densitate mare s se deplaseze i s egalizeze presiunea.
A doua lege, numit i Principiul lui Pascal, guverneaz circularea apei din
zonele nalte spre cele joase. Aciunea ei s-a soldat cu crearea izvoarelor i rurilor,
lacurilor, mrilor i oceanelor. Tot sub aciunea acestei legi s-au creat pnze de ap
freatic. Aceste dou legi au determinat deplasarea norilor i curenilor marini
dintr-un loc n altul tempernd variaiile termice, determinnd meninerea climei
n limitele necesare conservrii vieii.
II.2.5. n consecin, afirmaia Bibliei: Iar Dumnezeu a fcut un ntins i a
desprit apele de deasupra acestui ntins... (Vechiul Testament, 1/4), este
confirmat de tiin.
Mihai Eminescu a intuit genial acest proces afirmnd c mai nti au fost cderi,
ruperi de nori (fu prpastie, genun) i apoi ntins de ape (fu noian ntins de
ape). ntr-adevr, strile de agregaie ale apei sunt implicate efectiv n reglarea
temperaturii i vitezei, meninerea umiditii, programarea ploilor etc. la cote
medii.
Prezena apei n stare lichid a precedat i condiionat dezvoltarea vieii. Nu
ntmpltor corpul tuturor vieuitoarelor este format n medie din 2/3 ap (tot att
ct reprezint raportul dintre suprafaa terestr acoperit cu ap i cea a uscatului).
Pierderea a 10% din apa corpului aduce moartea. De asemenea e concludent
corelaia lipsei apei de pe planetele sistemul solar cu absena oricrei forme de
via. (De exemplu, temperatura variaz pe Mercur de la plus 4000C la minus 800C,
adic n limite ce fac imposibil viaa bazat pe ap).
Rolul termoregulator al apei este i mai evident n corpul vieuitorului ct i
chiar la nivelul celulei. Att vara ct i iarna, temperatura organismului rmne
relativ constant (360C). La nivelul celulei apa i variaz temperatura matematic
0
0
0
de la l5 C la 45 C sau la 60 C. Se presupune c ea constituie un invariant care, n
condiiile celulei primare, cnd a aprut viaa pe Pmnt, ndeplinea i rolul de
transportator (Magazin, 1608/1982).
20

II.3. DUMNEZEU A CREAT USCATUL - ZIUA A TREIA


Dumnezeu a zis: s se adune apele cele de sub cer la un loc i s arate uscatul.
Vechiul Testament (l/9)

II.3.1. S-a spus c n prima zi a Facerii Pmntul era o nebuloas ce se nvrtea


ca un ciclon n jurul nucleului nebuloasei solare. n ziua a doua, gazele fierbini sau condensat i au czut ponderal spre zona central. Desigur, datorit diferenierii
substanelor dup punctul de topire, lichefierile i solidificrile s-au produs
ealonat. Nucleul central s-a nchegat primul fiind din fier (p.t. 15380C), nichel
(p.t. 14520C), metale cu un punct de topire ridicat i cu ncrctur magnetic
mare.
Datorit diferenierii mari de temperatur dintre zona central i cea periferic,
micrile materiei terestre pe vertical au avut la nceput un caracter dominant.
Erupiile vulcanice i ploile toreniale, evaporrile la contactul picturilor de
ploaie cu solul etc., au separat gazele reci de la exterior, de cele calde de la interior.
Desigur, la nceput, nucleul central era mult mai fierbinte i mai voluminos dect
astzi, cnd msoar 6400 km n diametru i prezint o temperatur de 100 K.
II.3.2. A urmat condensarea gazelor de siliciu, magneziu (p.t. 5600C) i a altor
elemente cu punct de topire i conductibilitate magnetic mic. Procesul de rcire
a finalizat cu acoperirea nucleului cu o manta groas de 300 km. Iniial, lichidele ce
delimitau suprafaa pmntului de atmosfer, aveau temperatura de sute de grade.
Deci, apa nu s-a depozitat pe suprafaa Terrei dect paralel cu formarea scoarei
0
solide, groas astzi de 40 km i scderea temperaturii sub 100 C. Cnd Pmntul a
devenit un ntins de ape, siliciul, magneziul etc. erau deja solidificate.
Prbuirea scoarei n unele regiuni i ridicarea ei n altele a determinat artarea
uscatului. Astfel, adunarea apei n lacuri, mri i oceane a fost cauzat de legea
vaselor comunicante. Denivelrile datorate erupiilor vulcanice s-au accentuat n
urma coliziunii cu asteroizii etc.
Se confirm astfel afirmaia c viaa s-a dezvoltat dup ce temperatura apei ce
0
acoperea scoara terestr a cobort sub 100 C.
Aa cum se observ, toate aceste schimbri s-au produs n conformitate cu
legile ce guverneaz strile de agregaie. Deci, Dumnezeu a creat lumea prin legile
realitii, a cror necesitate este cuprins n atributele Sale.
ntre cantitatea de cldur asimilat la evaporare i cea degajat la lichefiere i
solidificare sunt relaii cauzale. Se explic astfel evoluia ciclic a Terrei,
determinat de dou izvoare de energie: lumina solar i temperatura nucleului
Terrei. n acest proces apa joac rolul de regulator. Ea menine pe Pmnt o
temperatur medie constant, necesar existenei vieuitoarelor. Cnd cldura
crete, gheaa se topete, apa se evapor, cerul se acoper cu nori i cldura solar

21

se diminueaz. Invers, dac scade temperatura, vaporii se lichefiaz, se formeaz


gheaa i se elimin cldura acumulat. Totul se deruleaz ca un ceasornic perfect.
Cnd se prelungete seceta n unele pri, se dezlnuie furtuni i inundaii n altele.
II.3.3. Desigur i ali factori acioneaz ca regulatori ai climei pe Pmnt. Cel
mai important dintre ei e viaa. Organismul vieuitoarelor funcioneaz prin
autoreglarea temperaturii, astfel nct apa n stare lichid s asigure efectuarea
proceselor metabolice n condiii optime. De exemplu, creterea temperaturii
corpului este diminuat prin transpiraie. Fenomenul este ntlnit i la vegetale.
Plantele absorb apa din pmnt cu ajutorul rdcinilor i o elimin prin frunze
favoriznd formarea norilor de ploaie. (i arborii se suiau pe pmnt i udau faa
pmntului Vechiul Testament, 2/6).
II.3.4. n concluzie, tiina a dovedit c uscatul s-a artat, aa cum spune Biblia,
prin adunarea apelor n unele locuri i formarea oceanului, mrilor etc. n alte
locuri. De reinut c artarea uscatului nu a fost cauzat de diminuarea apei, ci de
adunarea ei la un loc, odat cu denivelrile cauzate de erupiile vulcanice,
prbuirile de teren i coliziunii cu asteroizi. Cantitatea de ap de pe Terra fiind
relativ constant, ntinderea uscatului ntr-o parte a globului coreleaz cu
restrngerea apei n alt parte. n acest sens, sfritul lumii n totalitate nu poate fi
cauzat de un potop. Inundaiile sunt ntotdeauna zonale. (Aceasta fiind explicaia
tiinific, adevrat, urmeaz s se delimiteze i n Vechiul Testament legenda cu
proporiile potopului i corabia lui Noe).
II.4. ARTAREA LUMINTORILOR - ZIUA A PATRA
i Dumnezeu a zis: S fie lumintori pe tria cerului, ca s lumineze pe pmnt.
Vechiul Testament (l/l4)

II.4.1. S-a spus c Dumnezeu a creat, n ziua nti, nebuloasa terestr. Iniial,
Pmntul nu avea form, era o mas de gaze incandescente, opace, prin care
razele soarelui nu puteau ptrunde. Concentrarea i stratificarea gazelor a nceput o
dat cu naterea vrtejului, respectiv rotirea nebuloasei terestre n jurul axei proprii.
Concomitent cu micarea axial s-a produs i luminarea parial a globului
terestru delimitnd ziua de noapte (Era sear i diminea ziua nti). Deci, din
locul unde avea s se delimiteze partea solid (scoara) de partea gazoas
(atmosfer), Soarele nu putea fi vzut n ziua nti. Lumina era crepuscular, ca
seara i dimineaa.
II.4.2. Dar luminarea alternativ a nebuloasei terestre nu a fost un fenomen
misterios, paranormal, o creaie arbitrar. Rotirea axial a nebuloasei terestre se
nscria n micarea ntregului Univers. Aa cum s-a spus, Pmntul se nvrte n

22

jurul axei proprii i n jurul Soarelui, iar mpreun cu acesta nconjur axa
Galaxiei. La rndul ei, Galaxia se rotete n jurul axei metagalaxiei .a.m.d. pn la
graniele Universului. nsumarea acestor micri elipsoidale supraetajate
genereaz unitatea Universului. Deci, luminarea alternativ a globului terestru
(cnd o parte a emisferei e luminat, cealalt e n ntunecat) s-a derulat n
conformitate cu legile ce guverneaz realitatea. Prin necesitatea acestor legi,
Dumnezeu i manifest atotputernicia. ntr-adevr, legile au autoritate absolut.
Nimeni nu poate stopa aciunea lor. Dac Dumnezeu ar nclca legile realitii, s-ar
dezice pe sine, fiindc ele exprim puterea sa absolut.
II.4.3. Revenind la problema rotaiei axiale, semnalm c fr aceast form de
micare nu exist gravitaie, iar fr luminare alternativ (zi - noapte) i variat
(iarn - var) nu era posibil Facerea Lumii. De exemplu, microparticulele ce
alctuiesc norii de gaze, cometele etc., neangajate n rotaii axiale, sunt lipsite de
gravitaie. Se deplaseaz unele lng altele, n poziii relativ ncremenite, fr
faze evolutive.
Mai mult, micarea de rotaie a creat fora gravitaional, implicat hotrtor n
concentrarea i stratificarea materiei nebuloasei terestre. Mai nti au czut spre
centrul Pmntului fierul i nichelul - metale cu punct de topire ridicat. Pe msur
ce gazele s-au rcit, condensrile i cderile gravitaionale s-au intensificat.
Treptat, s-a nchegat nucleul Terrei cu o manta metalic (groas astzi de 300 km)
i cu o scoar (groas de 40 km), acoperite de lichide, delimitnd cea de-a doua zi a
Facerii, cnd Pmntul era un ntins de ape.
II.4.4. Au urmat desprirea apelor din atmosfer (nori) de apele de pe sol (mri,
oceane) i artarea uscatului. La sfritul zilei a treia s-a constituit atmosfera din
gaze reci (azotul, oxigenul). n urma curirii atmosferei de praf cosmic, a
reducerii erupiilor vulcanice, a rcirii scoarei i depunerii apei pe sol etc., aerul a
devenit transparent i s-au artat Soarele, Luna i stelele - ziua a patra. (Dup
anumite calcule s-a concluzionat c o singur injectare a unei cantiti infime de
pulbere - un strat de 1 mm grosime la suprafaa globului - ar reduce cu 20%, pentru
o perioad de 100.000 ani, transparena atmosferei pentru razele solare).
Astfel devine evident c este eronat critica lui Iaroslavski i a altor filosofi atei,
referitoare la apariia luminii (ziua nti) naintea lumintorilor (ziua a patra). Aa
cum s-a dovedit tiinific, mai nti nebuloasa s-a rotit i a fost luminat de Soare la
exterior i apoi gazele ferbini s-au solidificat, apa s-a depus pe scoara, atmosfera
a devenit transparent i Soarele a influenat dezvoltarea vieuitoarelor pe
suprafaa Pmntului. Totodat, tiina a mai dovedit c mai nti s-a nchegat
nucleul Soarelui i apoi s-a accelerat rotaia nucleului Pmntului.
Deci, nu Biblia e ignorant, ci teoria filosofilor atei (Basmul biblic afirm
Iaroslavski - cum c Dumnezeu a creat lumea pe Pmnt nainte ca acesta s fi fost
luminat de Soare, este o absurditate, o nscocire a omului slbatic i ignorant).
23

II.5. CREAREA VIEUITOARELOR PE PMNT


La nceput era cuvntul i printr-nsul totul fu fcut... Viaa era ntr-nsul.
Evanghelia dup Ioan (l/l5)

II.5.1. Cu toate c numeroi filosofi i biologi s-au strduit s explice geneza


vieii, ei n-au ajuns la formularea unei teorii unanim acceptate. Dimpotriv, s-au
situat pe poziii contradictorii, partizane. n timp ce reprezentanii cultelor
religioase s-au preocupat de comentarea revelaiilor biblice, afirmnd c
Dumnezeu este creatorul vieii, filosofii i biologii atei au ncercat s demonstreze
c vieuitoarele s-au nscut din reacii chimice, descrcri electrice etc., produse
ntr-un mediu acvatic anumit. Nici creatorii teoriei evoluioniste, teorie
fundamentat de Darwin, n-au izbutit s dovedeasc naterea unei specii din alt
specie i tragerea omului din maimu, dei au inventariat un numr mare de
asemnri ntre speciile ce populeaz Terra.
II.5.2. Dup prerea noastr, insuccesele semnalate se datoresc, n primul rnd,
interpretrii eronate a conceptului de via i ignorrii factorului timp. Partizanii
darwinismului n-au neles esena vieii. Ei au trecut cu vederea faptul c viaa nu e
numai un corp cu o anumit structur, compoziie etc., ci i un organism cu
capacitate de autodezvoltare bazat pe cunoateri, afecte i voin. Nicio fiin nu
devine via (vieuitor) dect dac este un individ ce-i construiete propriul corp,
se apr, procreeaz etc. Ori, savanii care experimeneaz construireavieii
proiecteaz combinaii robotizate, creaz structuri predeterminate exterior i nu
programate din interior, autodeterminate. De asemenea, darwinitii n-au luat n
seam c pentru construirea corpului unui vieuitor actual i programarea genetic
a reproducerii lui, sunt necesare transformrii ce se efectueaz n sute de milioane
de ani, n cadrul a sute de mii de generaii. Dar cel mai grav este faptul c viaa
exist n Univers de un timp infinit (de la nceput). Ea s-a nscut din lumin
(fotoni) pe baza cuvntului (informaiilor, legilor) coninut de particulele
elementare. n acest sens, struina cercettorilor de a construi viaa din nevia s-a
soldat cu un eec total.
II.5.3. n Biblie se spune c viaa era de la nceput n lumin i n cuvnt.
ntr-adevr, viaa nu s-a nscut la un moment dat din ceva, nu are un nceput. Ea a
existat dintotdeauna n lumin, n fotonii din care toate s-au fcut. Totodat viaa
era de la nceput n cuvnt (viaa era ntr-nsul), adic n legile particulelor
elementare ce prezic dezvoltarea microorganismelor, plantelor, animalelor i
omului.
Dar afirmaia Bibliei c la nceput viaa era n lumin nu trebuie apreciat ca o
identificare a vieii cu masa fotonului i echivalarea lui cu Dumnezeu. De reinut

24

c nu fotonul n sine este Dumnezeu, ci fora absolut din particulele elementare,


necesitatea etern a legilor ce prezic i genereaz dezvoltarea lucrurilor i a
fiinelor. Altfel, ar nsemna s aderm la concepia animist ce nsufleete materia.
Pentru acelai motiv nu trebuie s echivalm pe Dumnezeu cu Universul.
Dumnezeu nu are un corp format din materia atrilor i viaa indivizilor ce triesc
n Univers. Dumnezeu este voina absolut ce face posibil existena i dezvoltarea
lumii, este adevrul absolut ce slluiete n necesitatea legilor ce prezic
schimbrile posibile i imposibile din Univers, este afectivitatea, iubirea ce leag
sufletele oamenilor i vieuitoarelor i face posibil armonia universal.
II.5.4. Crearea vieii pe Pmnt a nceput ca urmare a luminrii de ctre Soare a
vrtejului nebuloasei terestre, rotirii ei axiale i despririi zilei de noapte. (i fu
sear i diminea ziua nti.) - acum 4 - 5 miliarde de ani.
Primele forme de via s-au dezvoltat n ziua a doua acum 3 - 4 miliarde de ani,
odat cu apariia ntinsului apelor- pe suprafaa Terrei. Ele erau fiine acelulare,
nu aveau membran i nici nucleu. n ziua a treia, acum 2,5 - 3 miliarde de ani, cnd
s-a artat uscatul i apele s-au adunat n mri i oceane, au aprut organismele
celulare. Ele dispuneau de membran capabil s nchid n interior un mediu
acvatic, nzestrat cu toate elementele necesare existenei individului.
n ziua a patra s-a produs al treilea mare salt n dezvoltarea vieii: crearea
organismelor pluricelulare. Ele au aprut acum dou miliarde de ani, paralel cu
purificarea atmosferei de gaze i particule opace - n momentul nseninrii cerului
i artrii Soarelui, Lunii i stelelor.
De-a lungul unei alte perioade de timp, de cca. 800 milioane de ani, n ziua a
cincea, s-au creat plantele i animalele. (i Dumnezeu zise: S produc apele
mulime de animale, vieuitoare i psri ...i Dumnezeu le binecuvnta zicnd:
Cretei i v nmulii. , Vechiul Testament 1/20).
Reinei din citatul de mai sus c Dumnezeu nu a acionat direct ca o persoan
fizic, atunci cnd a creat vieuitoarele, ci indirect (apele le-au produs). Vieuitoarele
s-au dezvoltat n anumite condiii de mediu, guvernate de legile realitii.
II.5.5. n concluzie, etapele Facerii lumii delimitate de Biblie n ase zile,
sunt confirmate de tiin. n adevr, ca i Biblia, tiina descrie formarea
Pmntului prin saltul de la starea plasmatic (nebuloas) la cea lichid i apoi
solid, conform ordinii strilor de agregaie. Att tiina, ct i religia, consider
separarea apelor de uscat i artarea Soarelui evenimente hotrtoare pentru
trecerea de la formele de via simple la cele superioare. Voina divin i
autoritatea legilor realitii nu sunt contradictorii. Atotputernicia lui Dumnezeu
const tocmai n autoritatea legilor. n acest sens, prin dezvoltarea tiinei i
cunoaterea adevrului, omul se apropie de Dumnezeu, i deschide calea
mntuirii.
25

II.6. CREAREA PLANTELOR I ANIMALELOR


A zis Dumnezeu s odrsluiasc Pmntul pajite verde,
ierburi purttoare de semine n ele.
Vechiul Testament (1/11)

II.6.1. Ca urmare a acumulrii unui mare numr de informaii despre anatomia,


fiziologia i comporta-mentul animalelor ce populeaz Terra, la sfritul secolului
trecut s-au dezvoltat tiinele biologice. Paralel cu clasificarea vieuitoarelor s-au
formulat teorii ce explic mecanismul genezei pe baza asemnrilor dintre specii.
Biologul englez Ch. Darwin are meritul de a fi elaborat o sintez a acestor teorii
ntemeiat, n mare parte, pe observaii empirice. De reinut c teoria darwinist a
evoluiei a fost elaborat n perioada cnd biologia molecular nu era constituit ca
disciplin tiinific. Abia la mijlocul secolului XX s-a descoperit spirala format
din cromozomii ce stocheaz programul dezvoltrii filiale.
n consecin, darwinismul a explicat simplist geneza omului, indicnd ca
strmo animalul cu cele mai multe asemnri. Astfel, urangutanul a fost declarat
ruda cea mai apropiat omului ntruct, chipurile, descind mpreun dintr-o specie
comun de maimue. Din pcate, coala a preluat necritic teza darwinist i a
rspndit-o n mase prin intermediul manualelor colare. S-a creat astfel o
contradicie ntre religie, care afirm c omul e o creaie unic, divin i manualele
colare, ce l consider un descendent al anumitor specii de animale.
II.6.2. n opoziie cu teoriile darwiniste, n ultimul timp s-au elaborat teorii
bazate pe biologia molecular. Ele afirm c trecerea de la o generaie la alta se
realizeaz prin intermediul embrionului creat de fecundarea unui ovul de ctre un
spermatozoid i fuziunea selectiv a genelor respective.
Dar, fiina ce ia natere n urma fecundrii nu e o creaie ad-hoc. Ea poart n
genele cromozomilor ei informaia genetic acumulat de-a lungul timpului. Ideea
aceasta a fost revelat n Evanghelia dup Ioan unde se spune c Cel ce vine
dup mine - adic fiul meu - a fost naintea mea - n cromozomii prinilor care
m-au nscut - pentru c era mai nainte n mine (Noul Testament 1/15).
ntr-adevr, n informaia genetic a unui individ sunt programai descendenii si.
Aa sum se tie, tiina modern a confirmat continuitatea filial a vieii,
relatat n Biblie i a lsat fr acoperire teoria darwinist, bazat pe observaii
empirice i inventarierea asemnrilor dintre specii. Cercettorii contemporani
i-au ntemeiat explicaiile tiinifice pe descoperirile din domeniul geneticii. Ei au
dovedit c elementul esenial ce asigur trecerea vieii de la o generaie la alta este
fecundarea de ctre spermatozoidul ejaculat de brbat, a ovulului eliminat de
femel.
De aici lipsa de identitate ntre indivizii aceleiai specii i chiar ntre fraii din
cadrul aceleiai familii.
26

II.6.3. Constituirea, n ultimul timp a biologiei moleculare, a dovedit existena,


la animale moderne, a unor gene preistorice. Astfel s-a conchis c dezvoltarea
embrionului, n prima perioad a vieii, este programat de un sistem genetic
comun. De exemplu, dezvoltarea membrelor, fie ele picioare, cleti, aripi, este
programat de un mecanism genetic comun, elaborat probabil acum 6-8 sute
milioane de ani, ce continu s fie implicat n viaa speciilor actuale.
Deja mai muli cercettori (Sean Carell, Neil Shubin, Cliff Tabin) au descoperit
gene care determin dezvoltarea acestor membre la ase dintre principalele specii
de organisme incluznd vertebratele, insectele i petii (Magazin, 20, 1997). Se
poate afirma deci, pe bun dreptate, c factorii de mediu comuni i stabili (apa,
aerul, lumina solar etc.) au determinat dezvoltarea de nsuiri asemntoare la
toate speciile ce triesc pe Terra, chiar dac nu se trag unele din altele.
Dar deosebirile, bunoar, dintre cletii insectelor, nottoarele petilor,
membrele mamiferelor etc. demonstreaz c genele s-au multiplicat n diferite
etape ale evoluiei.
n consecin, organismul unui animal actual are gene vechi, create n primele
etape ale genezei la un numr mai mare de specii, i gene noi, formate ulterior.
Intrarea lor n aciune se produce succesiv, n diferite etape ale creterii
embrionului. Ontogenia repet filogenia- spune Haeckel. (Fenomenul corelrii
se manifest difereniat la fiecare specie. Evoluia embrionului maimuei nu este
identic evoluiei embrionului uman). Programele genetice intr n aciune n
ordinea elaborrii. Organele care au suferit schimbri minore, respectiv i-au
ncheiat ciclul evolutiv timpuriu, continu i astzi s fie guvernate exclusiv de
gene create pe primele trepte ale evoluiei. Ele se maturizeaz primele. De
exemplu, se maturizeaz mai nti ochii, deoarece aciunea luminii a intervenit
prima i a rmas relativ constant, de-a lungul timpului. Dimpotriv, creierul,
implicat n adaptarea la condiiile dinamice ale mediului natural i social, se
maturizeaz ultimul. Se dovedete astfel eronat afirmaia c omul se trage din
maimu- bazat pe existena asemnrilor. Numeroase elemente comune
vieuitoarelor sunt produsul interrelaiilor dintre mediu i ereditate, n urma
evoluiei.
II.6.4. De reinut c iniial viaa s-a dezvoltat ca adaptare la condiiile de mediu
relativ comune tuturor vieuitoarelor. Aceeai compoziie chimic a apei i aerului,
aceleai lungimi de und ale particuleleor de lumin au persistat sute de milioane
de ani pe toat suprafaa Terrei. Aa se explic de ce aparatele i organele corpului,
create pe primele trepte ale evoluiei, se ntlnesc la toate speciile. Spre pild,
nmulirea prin diviziune celular este comun plantelor i animalelor, nu pentru c
animalele se trag din plante sau invers, ci pentru c toate vieuitoarele au progresat
pe drumul evoluiei, achiziionnd aceste mecanisme.

27

II.6.5. Diferenierile s-au profilat ulterior, paralel cu schimbarea mediului, cu


multiplicarea particularitilor sale. De exemplu, vieuitoarele din mediul acvatic
au evoluat pe o linie proprie dictat de nsuirile apei care, aa cum se tie, sunt
diferite de nsuirile aerului.
Alt exemplu: plantele, dependente de locul unde i nfing rdcinile, i-au
dezvoltat mecanisme destinate orientrii tulpinii i ramurilor, frunzelor i florilor
spre lumin i a rdcinilor spre umezeal etc. La rndul lor, vieuitoarele mobile
i-au creat forme specifice de deplasare, transformnd corpul ntr-un fel de bra
adecvat erpuirii sau nzestrndu-l cu aripioare pentru not, aripi de zburat,
picioare de alergat, degete de apucat, coad de agat etc.
Desigur, diferenierile n-au fost cauzate numai de aciunea comun a
elementelor unui anumit fel de mediu, ci i de legile ereditii. Ne referim, n
primul caz, la nmulirea bisexuat, benefic pentru diferenierea predispoziiilor.
n adevr, datorit amestecului informaiei genetice efectuate n momentul
cuplrii spermatozoidului cu ovulul, indivizii ce aparin aceluiai popor (trib) etc.
se profileaz cu variaiuni minore.
Rezult de aici c inventarierea asemnrilor dintre om i maimu nu este
semnificativ pentru soluionarea problemei genezei speciei umane.
II.7. CREAREA OMULUI
i Dumnezeu cre pe om dup chipul su. i brbat i femeie i cre pe ei.
Geneza l,26-28

II.7.1. S-a spus c toate lucrurile (macroparticule, corpuri i astre) i


vieuitoarele (microorganisme, plante, animale i oameni) sunt create din lumin,
adic din particule elementare numite astzi fotoni (La nceput era lumina).
Deci, calitile luminii primordiale sunt suportul materiei (pmntului) tuturor
lucrurilor i fiinelor actuale. ntr-adevr, particulele elementare, fotonii (lumina)
formeaz atomi i molecule, corpuri i astre, plante, animale i oameni, iar, prin
descompunere (ardere....) ele revin la strile iniiale ciclice (Din pmnt eti i
n pmnt te vei ntoarce spune biblia referindu-se la efemeritatea corpurilor
veuitoarelor i la originea lor comun.
Fotonii (lumina) fac parte din natura lui Dumnezeu, dar nu sunt Dumnezeu.
n acest sens trebuie explicat asemnarea lui Adam cu Divinitatea (Creat de
Dumnezeu dup chipul i asemnarea Sa).
Aa cum vom argumenta mai jos, cnd vom semnala erorile darwinismului,
combinaiile dintre fotonii care au dat natere celulelor veuitoarelor, marcate prin
elaborarea progamului genetic, constituie factorul hotrtor n crearea difereniat
de celulele iniiale.
Deci, primul om, a fost o celul, difereniat esenial de prima celul a speciei
maimuelor i a speciilor celorlalte vieuitoare.

28

II.7.2. Primele forme de via s-au dezvoltat pe Terra n ap. Ele se caracterizau
prin absorbia luminii i construirea de substane anorganice. De la nceput au
existat momente cnd apa diprea (se muta n alt parte) datorit evaporrii i
ngherii sau acunii legii vaselor comunicante. Viaa s-a adaptat la astfel de
condiii vitrige, prin dezvoltarea de veuitori individuali nzestrai cu un organism
propriu capabil s acumuleze i s conserve n interiorul su apa purttoare de
substane i energie.
Dup prerea noastr, individualizarea vieuirii i coordonarea biopsihic
autonom constituie actul de natere al tuturor speciilor, deci i al omului. Cu alte
cuvinte, apariia speciilor a fost cauzat de procesul individualizrii, al structurrii
unui organism, respectiv al crerii celulei. Fiecare specie are o origine (un nceput)
proprie. Este eronat afirmaia biologilor atei c dintr-o anumit celul mam
s-au nscut/ s-au dezvoltat toate speciile. La fel de eronat este i importul vieii din
cosmos prin intermediul unei singure celule ajuns pe Terra.
Mai trebuie reinut c de la nceput celula speciei umane a avut un statut aparte,
s-a situat pe primul prag al perfecionrii, avea nfiarea marcat prin caliti care
abia se ntrezreau la alte vieuitoare). De fapt, dac am analiza astzi comparativ
informaia genetic a celulelor tuturor vieuitoarelor, celula uman s-ar situa pe
prima treapt a perfecionrii, att ca structur fizic, ct i ca nsuiri psihofizice.
Deci, n privina perfeciunii, omul e asemntor cu Dumnezeu, care deine
atributele absolute ale existenei.
Crearea omului dup chipul i asemnarea lui Dumnezeu nu se refer la
culoarea pielii sau nlime, numrul urechilor sau culoarea ochilor, ci la calitile
fizice, biotice i psihosociale bazate pe energie maxim. De exemplu, cele 17
miliarde de neuroni reprezint o construcie fizic energizat, extraordinar de
complex, procesele fiziologice i psihice de tip uman sunt incomparabile cu cele
ntlnite la maimue etc. Aa cum se tie, omul este cel mai inteligent, iubitor i
drept dintre toate vieuitoarele pmntului.
II.7.3. Un pas hotrtor pe drumul evoluiei vieii l-a constituit crearea
organismelor celulare. Membrana acestor celule a avut, de la nceput, funcia de
filtrare a substanelor hrnitoare. Totodat, corpul celulei a devenit un depozit de
ap i substane hrnitoare i de aprare mpotriva agresorilor externi. n acest
ultim caz semnalm apariia oaselor protectoare sub membran, transformate n
coaste.
Dup prerea noastr, hominoizii au aprut ca specie distinct odat cu
structurarea organismelor celulare, difereniate prin numrul de cromozomi i
coninutul informaiei genetice. Deci, de la nceput specia uman s-a situat pe
prima treapt a dezvoltrii prin calitile sale fiziologice i biopsihice. n acest
sens, originea speciilor actuale trebuie datat din primele zile ale facerii
Pmntului - cnd s-au separat apele (ziua a doua) i s-au desprit de uscat.
Fiecare specie a mers pe un drum propriu de dezvoltare, dictat de factorii de mediu
i de legea mprtierii deosebirilor individuale.
n perioada preistoric, marcat de diferenierea mediului acvatic de cel
29

terestru, vieuitoarele erau organisme celulare. Dovad c aa stau lucrurile este i


faptul c i astzi, de exemplu, dintr-o anumit celul se dezvolt un anumit arbore.
Savantul romn Gh. Palade i genialul filosof - poet Lucian Blaga i-au adus
contribuia la descoperirea adevrurilor despre mirabila smn. Este
important de reinut c Biblia citeaz smna cnd descrie crearea vieii. (...
pmntul s odrsluiasc ierburi... purttoare de smn).
Evoluia ulterioar s-a soldat cu achiziia de caliti ce au difereniat speciile
acvatice de cele terestre... att de mult nct astzi schimbarea mediului de via nu
mai e posibil. Niciun vieuitor terestru nu poate tri n ap orict de mult s-ar
antrena.
n prezent, dezvoltarea aparatelor i organelor corpului depinde esenial de
gene formate de-a lungul a sute de milioane de ani i sunt transmise ereditar.
Experimentul cu tierea cozii cinelui la natere, succesiv de-a lungul a 10
generaii, s-a soldat cu un eec. Puiul din ultima generaie s-a nscut tot cu coad,
deoarece alctuirea corpului su nu este programat numai de genele preistorice,
ci i de cele create ulterior.
Pentru aceasta, transformarea maimuei n om este imposibil. De exemplu,
inteligena de tip uman se bazeaz pe limbaj. Ori, maimua nu a comunicat
niciodat cu ajutorul limbii pentru a i se structura aparatul fonomotor i a i se
dezvolta centrul vorbirii schimbri ce se produc de-a lungul a sute de mii de
generaii. Nici inteligena delfinului nu poate cpta caliti umane. El dispune de
32 de semnale sonore, n timp ce omul difereniaz mii de cuvinte.
Desigur, nu toate speciile au evoluat n acelai ritm. Ele au progresat paralel cu
complexitatea mediului. Pe treapa de jos a dezvoltrii se gsesc plantele. Ele i
procur substana hrnitoare cu ajutorul microorganismelor. Calitile lor sunt
determinate de compoziia solului, de clim i de felul i densitatea
microorganismelor din locul unde i-au nfipt rdcina. Animalele se situeaz pe o
treapt mai sus datorit deplasrii i efortului depus de ele pentru procurarea n
condiii variate a hranei i mijloacelor de satisfacere a trebuinelor organice.
Omul ocup primul loc pe scara dezvoltrii. El este stpnul lumii, fiindc este
mai puternic i mai inteligent dect toate vieuitoarele. Viaa omului depinde nu
numai de bacteriile din propriul su corp (implicate n digestie etc.) i de plantele i
animalele cu care se hrnete, ci i de viaa social n cadrul creia i satisface att
trebuinele organice, ct i pe cele spirituale.
II.7.4. O lung perioad de timp omul a trit fericit, fr grija zilei de mine.
Fructele, animalele i petii etc. erau tot anul la dispoziia sa. El s-a bucurat de toate
roadele Pmntului, datorit nsuirilor sale excepionale. Superioritatea omului
este nnscut, st n alctuirea sa fizic i n capacitile sale psihice. Omul
dispune de cele mai bune mijloace de deplasare (biped) i de aciune (manual).
Totodat, poziia vertical i lrgete orizontul cunoaterii ambianei. i n privina
aprrii prin lupt e superdotat. Fora omului e amplificat de capacitatea de a lovi
cu pumnul, de a arunca i prelungi braul cu ajutorul armelor etc.
Dar cea mai important nsuire uman, determinat de asemenea de factori
30

predispoziionali, o constituie conformaia anatomic a cavitii bucale, care i


permite s comunice i s acumuleze informaii folosind vorbirea articulat.
Maimuele, cinii, pisicile, nu pot comunica dect prin ipete, ltrat, mieunat,
deoarece ele au o conformaie bucal ce face imposibil vorbirea de tip uman.
II.7.5. Nu poate fi trecut cu vederea rolul hotrtor jucat de viaa social n
dezvoltarea omului modern. Fr o via de grup bine organizat, capabil s
asigure ngrijirea copiilor 15-20 ani, pn la maturitate, existena speciei umane nu
e de conceput. Erbivorul poate s-i prseasc puiul dup cteva luni. Experiena
acumulat de generaiile anterioare, fixat n mduva spinrii sub form de reflexe
i este suficient pentru satisfacerea trebuinelor.
Raportul dintre encefal i mduva spinrii la om (1/20 fa de maimu)
demonstreaz rolul experienei acumulate n cursul vieii sale individuale care
devine suficient abia dup 16-18 ani. Desigur, encefalul uman s-a dezvoltat n
sute de mii de generaii. Probabil omenirea a cunoscut organizri sociale multiple.
n urma unor cataclisme sau a altor cauze, viaa familial, tribal etc. a fost reluat
de la capt. Focul, prghia, roata etc. au fost redescoperite de societile care s-au
succedat. Aa se explic de ce copiii unor triburi primitive, care n-au cunoscut
tiina de carte, pot s nvee s scrie i s citeasc fr dificulti.
II.7.6. La fel de important pentru dezvoltarea speciei umane a fost mprtierea
deosebirilor individuale bazat pe bisexualitate. Aa cum se tie, datorit cuplrii
genelor provenite de la dou celule diferite (spermatozoid i ovul), se nate un
embrion cu caliti inedite. Cu ct cei doi prini sunt mai diferii, cu att nounscutul este mai bine nzestrat pentru adaptarea la condiii de via diferite.
Spre deosebire de animale, la care selecia se efectueaz n cadrul unei populaii
redus la numr, oamenii se conexeaz la nivel global. Migreaz dintr-o ar
(continent, zon geografic) n alta. S-a demonstrat c superioritatea genetic a
unei populaii rezult i din hibridizare. Inteligena apreciabil a poporului romn
se explic prin coabitarea cu numeroase popoare care i-au oprit expansiunea la
graniele rii noastre: grecii, romanii, barbarii, slavii, turcii, fanarioii, evreii, ruii
etc. Cele mai talentate personaliti descind, de regul, din prini ce aparin unor
etnii diferite.
ntr-adevr, bisexualitatea este factorul hotrtor n crearea speciei umane, i nu
numai. Nu ntmpltor Biblia semnaleaz apariia plantelor odat cu nmulirea lor
prin smn (iarba purtnd smn...) i crearea omului odat cu multiplicarea
celulelor prin diviziune, fenomen care st i astzi la baza dezvoltrii veuitoarelor.
Iniial, corpul celulei se mprea n dou jumti i cretea prin ntregirea fiecrei
pri cu substane asimilate din mediul acvatic. Deci, cantitatea corpului se dubla.
Primul om (Adam) a fost o celul care, la njumtire, s-a cuplat cu o alt
jumtate de celul. (i brbat i femeie i cre pe ei). ntre ele s-au desfurat
lupte de dominare. Acest proces se finalizeaz cu crearea embrionului - dominat de
caractere brbteti sau femeieti.

31

Aceste celule fecundate au constituit, prin selecie, un cod genetic unic


integrnd, de regul, genele cele mai viguroase.
Unirea a dou jumti de celul este evident astzi prin existena paralel n
corpul nostru, a cte dou elemente componente paralele (emisfere, coaste,
membre, urechi, ochi, brbii, nri, plmni, rinichi), etc. (Brbaii cu gaur n
brbie evident sunt mai virili, dominai de masculinitate. Cei cu gaura abia
vizibil sunt dominai de feminitate). Un procentaj mai redus de indivizi au
sexualitatea inversat. Homosexualii, de exemplu, iubesc brbaii i efectueaz
actele sexuale deviat, n afara vaginului feminin. Unii cercettori consider
anormalitatea homosexual o boal. Oricum, ea poate fi combtut parial, prin
tratarea psihologic a impulsurilor instinctive i legiferarea unor hotrri care s
mpiedice pervertirea prin constrngere a unor indivizi normali. La fel stau
lucrurile i n cazul nstinctului matern-filial, unele mame i resping emoional
(instinctual) copilul. Ele trebuie grevate prin lege de dreptul de a crete copii.
Cuplarea celor dou jumti celulare a fost descris n Biblie prin referirea la
coul pieptului cu cele apte perechi de coaste de fiecare parte. Desigur, procesul
unirii jumtilor toracelui a fost de la nceput dinamic. Iniiativa a aparinut, cel
mai adesea, Evei. (n timpul actului sexual uman, milione de spermatozoizi
concureaz pentru cucerirea, fecundarea unui singur ovul).
Dup prerea noastr, este timpul s se precizeze la elevi c descrierea facerii
Evei dintr-o coast a lui Adam este metaforic. n realitate Biblia se refer la
diviziunea celular ca lege a evoluiei veuitoarelor. Ei tiu deja. n realitate, Biblia
se refer la ceea ce tiina abia n ultimul timp a descoperit. Procesul formrii
speciei umane a nceput n stadiul celular i s-a bazat pe njumtirea trupului
(spiralei genetice) spermato-zoidului i a ovulului. Membrana exterioar i coul
pieptului n care este nchis corpul propriu-zis s-au divizat n dou. O parte din
coastele lui Adam s-a cuplat cu o parte din coastele Evei.
Cu alte cuvinte, Biblia se refer la nmulirea bisexuat efectuat la nivel
celular.
n concluzie, crearea anatomo-fiziologic a omului a nceput n primele zile ale
facerii i s-a finalizat n ziua a asea, cnd celelalte vieuitoare ale Terrei atinseser
treapta maxim a evoluiei.
Superioritatea omului are un caracter social. Prin comunicare verbal,
transmis prin la distan prin telefon, radio, televiziune, individul dispune astzi
de experina a cca. 6 miliarde de oameni actuali, dar i de cea acumulat de-a
lungul a mii de ani de istorie tiinific.
Omul a fost creat de Dumnezeu prin necesitatea legilor care guverneaz
Universul, de-a lungul a ase etape (zile) care au durat miliarde de ani, pentru a
guverna toate vieuitoarele de pe Terra, pn cnd dezvoltarea sa fizic i
psihosocial va atinge pragul maxim al perfecionrii, prag care, odat depit, va
semnala sfritul Lumii.
Deci destinul omenirii este dezvoltarea tiinei, tehnicii, literaturii i artei, aa
cum vom arta n continuare.

32

PARTEA A III-A
TEORII NEORELATIVISTE DESPRE GENEZA I NATURA
UNIVERSULUI
III.1. BIG-BANG-UL - TEORIE PARADOXAL A GENEZEI
1
UNIVERSULUI
Considerarea Big-Bang-ului drept o teorie paradoxal a genezei Universului
este dedus din postulatele cosmologiei, ale infinitii spaiului i ale eternitii
materiei dinamice din care Universul este alctuit. Paradoxal este descrierea
naterii unui lucru care, n realitate, nu s-a nscut. De fapt, aa cum vom vedea n
continuare, toate argumentele invocate de adepii acestei teorii sunt paradoxuri
logice, iar Universul n realitate a existat dintotdeauna, graie eternitii
Divinitii.
III.1.1. Teoria Big-Bang-ului s-a bazat pe observaia c materia este format din
particule att de mici nct se poate presupune c Universul era iniial inert i redus
ca ntindere. Este adevrat c particulele elementare sunt mici, dar n stare natural
ele ocup un spaiu mare, fr de care, rotirea lor pe orbitele sistemelor atomice
n-ar fi posibil. De exemplu, spaiul din interiorul unui atom poate fi comparat cu
un teren de fotbal n mijlocul cruia un mr (nucleul) se nvrte n jurul axei sale,
iar la tu se rotete un sistem de particule (electronii), ct o cirea de mare.
De asemenea, trebuie menionat c cele 200 miliarde de stele care se rotesc n
jurul axei galaxiei se ntind pe un spaiu enorm (100.000 ani lumin diametru), iar
n Univers sunt miliarde de miliarde de astfel de galaxii. Deci, ipoteza unui bo de
materie n care era ngrmdit tot Universul la momentul iniial, este o plsmuire
absurd, paradoxal.
III.1.2. La fel de absurd este afirmaia c boul de materie iniial, ct o
portocal de mic, (1) era inert, lipsit de micare. Desigur, aceast teorie e un
paradox n sensul c se elimin micarea din materia primordial care explodeaz,
adic energia care ar fi putut genera explozia. Se tie c spaiile din interiorul
corpului permit particulelor s alerge pe orbite (fotonii), s sar de pe o orbit pe
alta (electronii), s prseasc sistemele atomice (radiaiile). ntr-adevr, e
absurd afirmaia c poate exploda materia unui corp (masa Universului) inert,
lipsit de spaii interioare care altfel ar fi permis particulelor s alerge pe orbite
(fotonii, neutrinii), s sar de pe o orbit pe alta (electronii) sau s prseasc
sistemele atomice (radiaii). Din pcate, eliminarea celor trei forme de micare, ce
constituie de fapt energia Universului, exclude explozia presupus.
1

Articol publicat n: Studii i cercetri tiinifice, vol., 8, EDS, Bacu, 2012

33

Conform postulatului: Ex nihilo nihil, formulat de Avogadro, dar i de


Parmenides, un corp inert nu poate s se mite, s explodeze de la sine.
Astfel, aceast teorie a genezei prin explozie este infirmat prin contradicia
paradoxal dintre energizarea Universului (declanarea Big-Bang-ului) i
excluderea din pretinsul bo primordial a oricror elemente purttoare de energie
(particulele elementare fugitive).
n realitate, Universul nu are nceput, a existat din totdeauna (nu de 15 miliarde
de ani cum cred adepii acestei teorii). El are aceeai mas, e la fel de ntins i de
ncrcat energetic. S-a nvrtit de o infinitate de ani n jurul axei sale genernd
ponderabilitatea corpurilor numit impropriu atracie gravitaional (2).
III.I.3. Cel de-al treilea paradox al teoriei Big Bang-ului este legat de deplasarea
particulelor emise de explozie. Conform legilor fizicii, particulele rezultate din
explozia unui obiect static se deplaseaz spre exterior radial pe trasee rectilinii care
se distaneaz unele de altele, pe msur ce crete lungimea lor. Am putea chiar
vorbi de un raport direct proporional dintre lungimea traseului parcurs de fiecare
particul i creterea spaiului ce o separ de particulele din jur. Deci, n cazul
acestei ipostaze, explozia nu ar fi putut nchega materia i forma sistemele de stele,
galaxii actuale fiindc particulele care se deplaseaz pe trasee rectilinii ntr-un
spaiu infinit sunt ireversibile. Numai exploziile declanate de pe un corp n rotaie
axial fac posibil deplasarea sfrmturilor pe trasee curbe care se pot ntoarce, pe
un plan sau altul, n zona de unde ele au plecat genernd prin coliziuni sistemele de
particule i corpuri.
n concluzie, teoria genezei Universului prin explozie este un paradox deoarece
se bazeaz pe dou metode contradictorii: deplasarea spre infinit a materiei
explodate i unirea (nchegarea) ei ntr-un anumit spaiu sub form de sisteme
planetare, stelare, galactice Acest paradox al apropierii prin ndeprtare, al
nchegrii prin frmiare, ne amintete de caragelienele anonime isclite.
III.1.4. Ultimul paradox la care ne referim aici este legat de teoria transformrii
micrii n materie (3). Dup prerea noastr, pentru a rezolva problema relaiilor
dintre masa corpului i micare trebuie s pornim de la postulatul cosmologic al
ineriei, adic de la adevrul c toate componentele Universului i menin starea
de micare pn intervine un factor schimbtor.
Deci, dac de-a lungul trecutului infinit n-a fost micare, nu avea cum s apar
micarea (energia Universului) acum 15 miliarde de ani la momentul exploziei,
fr intervenia unui factor determinant. Acest factor determinant lipsete din
mecanismul exploziei primordiale.
n consecin, este eronat teoria Big Bang-ului, care consider c explozia
boului de materie primordial a fost declanat de particulele lipsite de mas, dar
cu potenial energetic ridicat. Aceast ipotez, neconfirmat tiinific, este
34

contrazis de postulatul materialitii lumii, care spune c, ntotdeauna cineva,


masa cuiva se mic. Nu exist micare fr obiect mictor. Mai mult, s-a
dovedit c toate particulele elementare au mas. Chiar i afirmaia masa fotonului
n stare de repaus este zero (sursa: Wikipedia) i-a gsit rspuns prin
demonstrarea faptului c fotonii sunt particule fugitive. Nu au mas n stare de
repaus fiindc ei alearg continuu rotindu-se inerial n jurul axei Universului sau
nuntrul sistemelor de microparticule n care sunt integrai.
De asemenea, s-a explicat natura ondulatorie a fotonilor din timpul deplasrii.
Undele electromagnetice sunt cauzate de rotirea axial a ghemelor de fotoni care
alterneaz poziiile celor doi poli. Astfel, lumina se legitimeaz ca mas att la
emisie (cum s-a demonstrat stiinific) i pe parcurs (ghemele de fotoni care se
rotesc), ct i la recepie cnd masa fotonilor este absorbit sau este respins
difereniat conform lungimilor de und: total (lumin alb); sau parial (lumin
cromatic). Deci, masa fotonului emis nu se transform n micare, nclcnd
postulatele cosmice. Undele electromagnetice iau natere fiindc ghemele de
particule au mas cu polaritate pozitiv i negativ.
Deosebit de important pentru infirmarea teoriei Big Bang-ului este ceea ce
credem c va fi eecul experimentului LHC (Acceleratorul de Particule) operat
de CERN lng Geneva (3).
Descoperirea particulei suprancrcat energetic (generatoare de materie) prin
accelerarea i ciocnirea protonilor este contrazis de legile fizicii potrivit crora,
coliziunile genereaz lucrul mecanic (sfrmarea) i nu creterea vitezei. Cu viteza
particulelor existente (respectiv ciocnirea protonilor n accelerator) nu se pot crea
viteze superioare, deci nu se pot gsi noi particule cu asemenea proprieti.
(1) Stephen Hawking, Universul ntr-o coaj de nuc, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti,
2004.
(2) Lucian Blaga, Despre contiina filosofic, Editura, Facla, Bucureti, 1974.
(3) Liviu Filimon, Acceleratorul de particule (LHC) un experiment apocaliptic (!?).
n: Studii de specialitate, vol. 6, p. 197, Editura Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2010.

III.2. ACCELERATORUL DE PARTICULE (LHC)


2
- UN EXPERIMENT APOCALIPTIC (?!)
La 21 august 2008 s-a inaugurat Acceleratorul de Particule (Large Hadron
Collider - LHC) de lng Geneva, a crui construire a durat 14 ani i a costat 8
miliarde de dolari. Experimentul va realiza ciocniri ntre protoni la temperaturi
foarte mari pentru a verifica ipoteza crerii Universului printr-o explozie (Big Bang) i a dovedi c lumea e construit din multiplicarea unei particule elementare
simple, indivizibile, eterne.
2

Revista Magazin i Studii de specialitate, vol. 6, EDS, Bacu, 2009

35

Tunelul circular, cu circumferina de 27 km, spat n munte la 100 m.


adncime, este cptuit cu 5000 de magnei supraconductori rcii la minus
271,250 C, cu care vor fi propulsai protoni (particule subatomice cu sarcin
electric pozitiv) cu viteze uriae. Asemenea particule vor fi eliberate n fiecare
secund. Pentru c protonii vor fi lansai (sau accelerai) simultan din ambele
sensuri, va avea loc i ciocnirea la o vitez aproape egal cu cea a luminii (mai
precis 99,9999991 % din aceasta). n aceste momente (care nu vor dura dect
cteva fraciuni de secund) se va degaja o cldur imens (apreciat a fi de circa
100.000 ori mai mare dect cea din interiorul Soarelui). Astfel, se vor creea
condiiile apariiei unor noi particule. Se sper s se gseasc bosonul Higgs, o
particul instabil numit i a lui Dumnezeu pe care muli au studiat-o fr s-o fi
vzut vreodat. (Dup prerea noastr, cele mai mici particule care intr n
compoziia luminii trebuie numite n continuare fotoni. Ei sunt eterni, alearg
continu cu vitez absolut i nu-i schimb identitatea. La ei se refer afirmaia
biblic: la nceput era lumina, fotonii, particulele elementare, prin care se
ncheie i cu care ncep dezvoltrile ciclice ce au loc din eternitate n Univers).
Ideea construirii LHC-ului a fost sugerat de adepii teoriei Big-Bang, care, la
rndul lor, au fost influenai de ipoteza lui Einstein referitoare la unitatea celor trei
forme de energie. Astfel, o ipotez incert, pe care, cum spune (1) genialul fizician
n-a putut-o soluiona, a devenit premis a proiectrii unui accelerator cu riscuri
nc neevaluate.
Inaugurarea acceleratorului de particule a fost ntmpinat prin numeroase
proteste. Unii au invocat suma de dolari cheltuii (8 miliarde), mare n condiiile
srciei mondiale. Alii au exprimat teama c scnteile produse prin ciocnirea
protonilor accelerai la temperaturi mai mari dect cele din centrul Soarelui, ar
putea s aprind Pmntul - ndeplinind astfel Apocalipsa Biblic (sfritul
lumii prin foc). Fizicianul Walter Wagner i omul de tiin Luis Sancio au mers i
mai departe cu protestele, dnd n judecat Laboratorul European pentru Fizica
Particulelor Elementare sub acuzaia c ridicarea temperaturii la milioane de grade
va aprinde Pmntul.
Dup prerea noastr, iniierea experimentului LHC este motivat eronat, n
sensul c se pornete de la premise filosofice incerte i se acioneaz cu metode
fizicale neconfirmate practic. Punctm, mai jos, cteva dintre aceste premise,
contrazise de postulatele filosofice ale infinitii.
Ideea c Universul s-a nscut n urma unei explozii (Big-Bang) acum 15
miliarde de ani, este calificat ca eronat de tot mai muli cercettori. Ea e
contrazis de informaiile acumulate cu telescoapele moderne despre diferenierea
evoluiei stelelor. Unele sunt n curs de formare, altele n faze de dezagregare.
Deci, nu s-a produs simultan o explozie a ntregului Univers (care conine miliarde
de miliarde de galaxii distanate la miliarde de ani lumin), ci mai multe, n
locuri i momente diferite, repetate de-a lungul timpului infinit.
36

La fel de eronat este i teoria c Universul e format dintr-un singur fel de


particule numite bosoni. Faptul c lumea e variat dovedete c ea e constituit din
elemente difereniate. Deci, ipoteza eisteinean a unitii formelor de energie pe
care vor s-o experimenteze CHL-itii nu poate fi confirmat experimental pentru
simplul motiv c aceast unitate lipsete cu desvrire. Pentru ca amestecul
particulelor elementare s genereze corpuri difereniate trebuie ca ele s fie la
rndul lor diferite. Aceast idee o ntlnim la Leibniz, care, n lucrarea
Monadologia, le denumete monade (substane simple, care intr n tot ce e
compus, simple, adic fr pri) (2).
i atunci, dac avem aa de multe incertitudini cu privire la unitatea formelor de
energie, de ce s ntreprindem experimente costisitoare, cu riscuri apocaliptice
(?!).
Dup prerea noastr, faptul c s-a construit acceleratorul CHL fr s se aib n
vedere c acesta poate s prezinte un pericol grav pentru ntreaga omenire,
costituie, cum afirm fizicianul Walter Wagner, un delict juridic i moral. Era
firesc s se soluioneze, mai nti filosofic, incertitudinile legate de natura
particulelor elementare i apoi s se treac la crearea de temperaturi de milioane de
grade ce pot aprinde aerul i chiar solul Terrei. De exemplu, mai nainte de
proiectarea acceleratorului, fizicenii experimentatori trebuiau s se ntrebe: dac
particulele elementare sunt numai materie, numai energie, numai psihic sau o
entitate care le cuprinde simultan pe toate; dac micarea, respectiv acceleraia,
are realitate n sine, sau ntotdeauna este cineva sau ceva care se mic; dac este
posibil trecerea prin simple ciocniri de la micarea orbital a particulelor electrice
(de pe orbita unui atom, pe orbita altui atom) la micarea liniar fotonic, radial
etc.
Vom puncta, n continuare, cteva observaii filosofice tratate de noi pe larg n
cartea Psihologie cosmic (4) pentru a dovedi c premisele experimentului LHC
sunt incerte.
O prim observaie se refer la postulatul ineriei potrivit cruia, pentru a se
schimba dinamica unui corp, trebuie s intervin factori cauzali, respectiv - s-l
ciocneasc un alt corp care s-i preia sau s-i cedeze din viteza sa. De exemplu, un
asteroid (planet, stea) care se rotete n jurul Soarelui i nconjoar axa galaxiei
mpreun cu planetele sistemului solar nu poate accelera fr s fie mpins de un
alt astru, mai rapid i mai mare dect el. Invers, dac atrii se ciocnesc venind din
direcii opuse, vitezele lor se reduc, masele se frmieaz... ntr-adevr, datorit
ineriei, rotirea a
trilor ce alctuiesc Universul este etern. n acest sens este eronat
afirmaia adepilor teoriei Big-Bang-ului c Universul s-a nscut acum 15 miliarde
de ani dintr-o explozie nainte de care n-a mai existat nimic. Ori, prin negarea
existenei atrilor n micare naintea oricrei explozii se ignor legea ineriei i
obiectivitatea infinitii lumii. Exploziile ce au avut loc n Univers nu s-au produs de
la sine. Au fost cauzate de acumulrile de particule i ciocnirile dintre atri,
37

derulate fr ntrerupere de-a lungul timpului infinit. Filosoful romn Vasile Conta a
descris magistral acest fenomen n Teoria ondulaiei universale (5).
De altfel, ultimele descoperiri astronomice au pus n eviden existena unor
schimbri ciclice soldate cu moartea unor stele i naterea altora noi.
Aceste adevruri au fost revelate n textele biblice consacrate Genezei i
Apocalipsei.
A doua observaie privete legea conservrii materiei i energiei corpurilor care
se ciocnesc. Iniiatorii experimentului LHC au ignorat aceast lege pretinznd c
se poate accelera viteza protonilor prin aglomerarea i ciocnirea lor n canalul
acceleratorului. Aceast presupunere este infirmat de legile mecanicii potrivit
crora, coliziionarea nu cauzeaz creterea masei sau energiei corpurilor care se
cicnesc venind din direcii opuse. De exemplu, ciocnirea a dou vehicule care se
deplaseaz din direcii opuse, se soldeaz cu turtirea tablei i chiar a caroseriei,
aruncarea unor buci cu viteze diminuate... Situaia s-a repetat i n cazul
desprinderii Lunii i plasrii ei pe o circumferin ca satelit al Terrei. Dac am
totaliza masele i energiile celor 10 satelii ai Terrei creai prin ciocnire am
constata, potrivit legii conservrii, c mrimile maselor i energiilor Pmntului i
asteroidului agresor, existente nainte de coliziune, au rmas neschimbate.
Revenind la protonii din accelerator, direcionai cu ajutorul unor magnei
pentru a se ciocni venind din sens opus, precizm c ei nu-i pot schimba viteza. Ca
i corpurile menionate mai sus, vitezele lor se diminueaz n urma coliziunii.
Nici cmpurile create de cei 5000 de magnei cu care sunt cptuii pereii
tunelului nu-i pot accelera pentru simplul motiv c vitezele particulelor electrice
care creaz cmpul magnetic nu sunt mai mari dect vitezele protonilor.
Mai mult, statutul protonului de particul elementar (simpl, necompus), i
confer stabilitate n specificitate. Ei rmn neschimbai, viteza cu care se
deplaseaz este o caracteristic etern a naturii lor. Aceeai remarc o putem face
i despre oricare alt particul elementar cunoscut sau care va fi descoperit n
viitor. Fotonii bunoar, nu pot fi ncetinii, accelerai sau oprii. Numai ceea ce
este compus (atomi, corpuri, atri), i poate divide masa i energia, n condiiile
dictate de legea conservrii.
O ultim observaie privete ipoteza einsteinean a unitii celor trei forme de
energie ale Universului: fotonic, electric i caloric. Se pornete de la premisa
incert c particula primar intr n compoziia tuturor felurilor de energie. Altfel
spus, se pretinde c toate formele de energie ar avea ca suport comun particula
primar divin. (De aici i obiectivul CHL-ului de a o descoperi). Dar, aceast
ipotez, este contrazis de legea amestecurilor, semnalat de M. Eminescu (6) n
urm cu un secol. Potrivit acestei legi, creterea variantelor rezultate din amestec
este proporional cu numrul elementelor amestecate. (Din amestecul a 2
elemente diferite rezult 4 variante; din 3 - 9; din 4 16 .a.m.d.). Deci, numrul
variantelor rezultate din amestec este fix. Dac iniial ar fi existat un singur fel de
38

particule elementare (adic dac ele ar fi identice, nedifereniate), nu s-ar fi putut


crea corpuri compuse variate.
Acesta este cazul protonilor, particule simple, care au un fel propriu de a fi. Ei nu
se pot transforma n fotoni (bosoni ?), orict de mult i-am aglomera, fiindc
felul de a fi este ireductibil, etern. Se tie c particulele electrice se deplaseaz
srind de pe elipsa unui atom pe elipsa altui atom; circul prin conductori situai pe
Terra i se rotesc mpreun cu ei n jurul Soarelui... Fotonii dimpotriv, se
deplaseaz autonom, fr s fie integrai n rotirea axial a Pmntului. La fel de
diferit este i micarea caloric a microparticulelor compuse, marcat prin
dispersia continu n toate direciile. Ea e autonom fa de gravitaia dat de
nvrtirea Pmntului n jurul axei. Se deplaseaz n toate direciile.
Astfel, unitatea formelor de energie nu se realizeaz genetic, prin dezvoltarea
lor dintr-un singur fel de particul. Stabilitatea formelor de energie este dictat de
autoritatea legilor ce guverneaz naterea de corpuri compuse i`moartea lor prin
descompunere - fenomen repetat ciclic din eternitate.
n concluzie, unitatea i eternitatea Universului nu pot fi studiate numai prin
metode fizicale, ci i prin metode filosofice, dar mai ales prin cele religioase,
fiindc esena existenei const din autoritatea absolut a legilor prin care
Dumnezeu guverneaz lumea.
(1) Stephen Hawking ,,Scurt istorie a timpului (Wikipedia)
(2) W. Leibniz, Opere complete, Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1972
(3) Lucian Blaga, Despre contiina filosofic, Fundaia pentru Literatur i Art, 1974
(4) Liviu Filimon, Psihologie filosofic, EDS, Bacu, 2008
(5) Vasile Conta, Opere complete, Editura C. Statea, Bucureti, 1914
(6) Mihai Eminescu, Documente, n Antologie de filosofie romneasc, vol. 1, Editura
Minerva, Bucureti, 1985
(7) R. P. Faymman, Fizica modern, Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1969

III. 3. PARADOXUL DILATRII UNIVERSULUI 3


III.3.1. Ideea dilatrii Universului a fost dedus din teoria Big-Bang-ului care
susine c Universul s-a nscut dintr-o explozie care ar fi avut loc acum 15 miliarde
de ani. n viziunea acestei teorii Universul era la nceput inert, lipsit de micare i
ngrmdit ntr-un spaiu ct o portocal de mic. n clipa exploziei particulele
emise s-au rspndit n jur, alergnd continuu, pe trasee radiale rectilinii. Astfel,
ghemele de fotoni s-au ndeprtat unele de altele ca razele unui cerc care se
prelungesc paralel cu creterea lungimii cercului. Ori, dac la aceste condiii
adugm faptul c n spaiul vid n-au existat corpuri care s provoace ciocniri i s
ntoarc din drum particulele fugitive, ideea constituirii de corpuri, planete,
stele este exclus.
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Studii de specialitate, vol. 9, EDS, Bacu, 2013

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Situaia devine i mai imposibil dac ne imaginm c materia emis prin


explozie ar fi trebuit s genereze, de-a lungul celor 15 miliarde de ani ce
s-au scurs de la data pretinsei geneze, un gol imens, lat de 26 miliarde de ani
lumin. Ori, realitatea e invers. Spaiul din centrul Universului e populat cu
miliarde de miliarde de stele integrate n sisteme care se rotesc supraetajat n jurul
axei Universului, iar golul lipsete n totalitate.
Deci, la nceput, Universul nu era nici mic i nici nemicat. El era ct astzi de
mare i n micare de rotaie n jurul axei centrale. Se poate chiar afirma, pe bun
dreptate, c e un paradox s spui cum era Universul la nceput, cnd, el nu are nici
nceput i nici sfrit, exist dintotdeauna.
III.3.2. Paradoxul Efectului Doppler
Demonstrarea adevrului c teoria dilatrii Universului e un paradox ne oblig
s explicm mecanismul Fenomenului Doppler, invocat eronat de ctre
neorelativiti ca metod a demonstrrii dilatrii sistemelor de stele.
Aa cum se tie, efectul Doppler, demonstrat la sfritul sec. al IX-lea de
fizicianul Christian Doppler, se refer la mecanismul percepiei undelor sonore
difereniat n relaie cu poziia observatorului. De exemplu, uierul locomotivei
este perceput din ce n ce mai tare pn cnd trenul ajunge la observator i scade n
intensitate dup ce a trecut de el. Unda emis de un obiect ce se ndreapt spre
observator devine tot mai comprimat astfel crete frecvena n timp ce se apropie
de acesta. Frecvena msurat crete atunci cnd sursa se apropie de receptor i
scade cnd sursa se deprteaz de el. Un observator aflat n faa sursei va
percepe unde cu frecven mai ridicat dect unul aflat n spatele sursei (1).
Aa cum se observ, citatele reproduse mai sus explic confuz noiunile
frecvena percepiei undelor i frecvena deplasrii undelor, echivalndu-le,
dei termenii au semnificaii diferite.
ntr-adevr, frecvena percepiei undelor este programat genetic i
perfecionat n cursul vieii individuale. Toate componentele analizatorului
auditiv (receptori, ci centripede, neuroni corticali, reflectare psihic) au o laten
specific, un ritm de lucru care mpiedic recepia i reflectarea perceptual a
tuturor undelor sonore sosite la timpanele urechilor. Sunetele cu intensitate mai
mic de 20 db nu sunt percepute. De asemenea, nu provoac senzaii undele care
sosesc la timpan nainte ca acesta s ncheie recepia undei precedente. Deci,
frecvena percepiei undelor nu coincide cu frecvena deplasrii undelor. Uneori
sunt reflectate senzorial toate undele sosite la subiect, alteori parial, pe srite.
Aceast ultim situaie o ntlnim la uierul locomotivei care se apropie de gar.
Astfel, creterea frecvenei undelor e determinat, nu de presiunea i comprimarea
undelor, cum s-a spus, ci de recepia lor cursiv sau selectiv, pe srite.
Frecvena deplasrii undelor depinde de mediul n care ele se propag i de
numrul de reproduceri. Cu ct locomotiva se apropie mai mult de observator,

40

acesta recepioneaz unde care au suferit un numr din ce n ce mai mic de


reproduceri.
Astfel, intensitatea fluierului crete paralel cu reducerea distanei dintre
locomotiv i subiect. Din contra, cnd locomotiva trece dincolo de observator,
intensitatea sunetului descrete paralel cu deprtarea de locul de unde sunt emise
undele.
Pn aici nu exist contradicii ntre fizic i psihologie. Nenelegerile intervin
n legtur cu afirmaia eronat c undele emise de la distan au vitez mai mare
dect sunetele precedente. Se pierde astfel din vedere adevrul, consemnat i n
manualele colare, c mobilele care alearg cu aceeai vitez (sunetul are vitez
constant) nu se pot ciocni (presa) orict de scurt ar fi distana dintre ele. n
consecin, utilizarea metodei Efectul Doppler n cosmologie e un paradox,
tocmai fiindc se bazeaz pe afirmaia absurd c undele cu aceeai vitez se ajung
din urm, se preseaz i i schimb frecvena.
n concluzie, perceperea frecvenei undelor nu constituie o metod tiinific de
demonstrare a dilatrii Universului. Creterea frecvenei percepiei undelor nu
coreleaz cu creterea vitezei undelor. Viteza undelor rmne neschimbat,
indiferent de distana de unde sunt emise. Eroarea este generat aici de confuzia
dintre apropierea trenului i creterea vitezei sunetului. Dac mobilul are aceeai
vitez, orict de apropiate ar fi undele pe care le emite, ele nu se ajung din urm
niciodat. Contactarea, creterea frecvenei prin presare invocat lipsete din
realitate. Consecinele negative ale acestui paradox ies n eviden la pretinsa
apreciere perceptual a deprtrii atrilor. Situaia se repet i n cazul undelor
electromagnetice care au aceeai vitez pe tot parcursul deplasrii ghemelor de
fotoni.
III.3.3. Paradoxul deplasrii spre rou
Deplasarea spre rou e definit ca fiind o cretere a lungimii de und i a
radiaiei electromagnetice care corespunde unei scderi a frecvenei undelor
electromagnetice.
Iniial, fenomenul a fost experimentat de inginerul Doppler la undele sonore
emise de uierul unei locomotive. Cnd vehiculul se apropie de observator,
sunetul devine mai acut (frecvent, nalt), iar dup ce trece de el, devine mai grav
(frecvene joase). (1/1)
Din pcate, utilizarea efectului Doppler n cosmologie este un paradox n sensul
c schimbarea lungimii de und n cursul deplasrii, ntlnit la sunet, lipsete cu
desvrsire de la deplasarea luminii.
ntr-adevr, este absurd s pretinzi c se schimb lungimea undelor luminii pe
parcursul deplasrii dac masa i energia fotonilor din momentul emisiei sosesc
neschimbate la recepie. Spre deosebire de undele din aer, ap care se transmit
din aproape n aproape, pierznd din for (aplitudine) dup fiecare reproducere,
undele luminii rmn relativ neschimbate chiar i dup milioane de ani de

41

cltorie.
i mai grav este afirmaia c observatorul apreciaz ndeprtarea sau
apropierea atrilor dup culoare. De exemplu, Soarele este rou i mai mare la
orizont fiindc, pretind adepii dilatrii, este mai aproape de noi. El i schimb
coloraia pe msur ce se urc pe bolta cereasc. Aa cum se observ, avem aici o
explicaie eronat care dovedete lipsa cunotinelor psihologice.
Se tie, din manualul de psihologie, c roul, verdele i oricare alt culoare nu
exist n realitate. Cnd o raz de lumin este receptat de un obiect, ghemele de
fotoni din care e alctuit sunt sfrmate i ghemuleele rezultate sunt absorbite
sau respinse de acesta n raport cu lungimea lor de und (egal cu diametrul orbitei
pe care se rotesc). Fotonii care ajung astfel la retin, sunt tradui n unde de
excitaie i contientizai psihic sub form de culoare. De exemplu, dac fotonii
respini fac o turaie pe o circumferin a ghemuleelor lung de 700 mm. sunt
contientizai subiectiv prin culoarea roie. Corpul care respinge fotonii situai pe
alte orbite (lungi de 610, 590, 500, 450, 430, 400 mm) sunt percepui ca alte culori
(oranj, galben, verde, albastru, indigo, violet). Fenomenul este demonstrat la elevi
cu ajutorul prismei din sticl. Cnd o raz de lumin cade pe o latur a unei prisme,
datorit nclinaiei oblice a suprafeei sale, ghemele de fotoni sunt sfrmate
variat, rezultnd ghemulee cu cele apte feluri de lungimi de und (feluri de
culori), numite spectru cromatic.
n concluzie, deplasarea spre rou e un paradox. Obiectele percepute roii
rmn cum sunt i cnd se apropie sau se deprteaz de noi. Lungimea de und,
mai lung la rou (700 mm.) dect la violet (400 mm.) exprim proprietatea
corpului de a absorbi sau respinge anumite ghemulee de fotoni i nu deprtarea
sau apropierea lor de noi.
III.4. DE CE NU SE DILAT UNIVERSUL
Universul nu se dilat fiindc:
- nu s-a nscut din Big Bang, dei este incalculabil numrul Big Bang-urilor
care au existat n diferite galaxii, de-a lungul timpului infinit;
- a existat dintotdeauna i nu va disprea niciodat, este etern graie eternitii
Divinitii.
Dilatarea Universului e contrazis de postulatele cosmice conform crora toate
particulele emise prin explozia unui corp imobil se rtcesc n spaiul infinit
fiindc se deplaseaz radial pe trasee rectilinii care se deprteaz exponenial
unele de altele. Rotirea inerial a tuturor corpurilor i particulelor materiale n
jurul axei centrale este fora care asigur integritatea masei Universului, constana
energiei i ntinderii sale spaiale.
n final, afirmm cu toat certitudinea c nici o cercetare tiinific, efectuat
pn n prezent, nu a constatat creterea masei particulelor elementare, mrirea

42

spaiului dintre atomii i moleculele corpurilor, deprtarea dintre orbitele pe care


se rotesc sateliii, planetele
Ori, este paradoxal afirmaia c se dilat un corp fr s se mreasc masa,
spaialitatea (volumul) elementelor sale componente, dimensiunile spaiilor dintre ele.
III.5. PARADOXURILE RELATIVIZRII MICRII

III.5.1. Paradoxul negrii obiectivitii micrii


Sunt cunoscute, nc din Antichitate, paradoxurile formulate de sofiti. Ne
referim la confruntrile dintre filosofii sceptici, autorii paradoxelor micrii i
adepii psihlogiei aristotelice, propvduitorii cunoaterii adevrului absolut.
Anton Dumitriu, autorul crii Paradoxe logice (1), a descris magistral
paradoxele consacrate relativizrii micrii. El citeaz, referindu-se la sofiti, pe
Zenon, care afirm c sgeata care pleac din arc spre o int, n realitate st pe loc
fiindc distana pn la destinaie e format dintr-un numr infinit de segmente. De
exemplu, sgeata trebuie s parcurg mai nti jumtatea distanei, apoi jumtatea
jumtii, i tot aa, jumtatea altei i altei jumti, pn la infinit. Ori, este absurd
s admitem c un mobil poate s parcurg un numr infinit de distane. Deci,
micarea nu exist obiectiv.
Dar, aa cum se observ, n primul rnd se vorbete despre divizarea spaiului
iar n al doilea rnd despre parcurgerea acelui spaiu. Rezult c dac definim
micarea: deplasarea ntr-un spaiu, se exclude identificarea celor dou noiuni,
iar paradoxul e eliminat de legile logicii. ntr-adevr, fiindc micarea este
continu, mobilul nu se oprete ntre segmentele imaginate c se divid la infinit.
Totodat, cele dou premise (numrul infinit de pri rezultate din divizare i
micimea infinit a ultimei diviziuni), nu pot fi relaionate fiindc fac parte din sfere
diferite. Prima sfer vizeaz mprirea infinit a unei pri, cea de a doua vizeaz
mrimea infinit de mic a ultimilor dou pri.
n concluzie, teoria relativizrii micrii demonstrat de sofiti este un paradox,
adic o construcie eronat care ncalc principiile logicii. De fapt, infinitile
invocate nu privesc micarea, ci spaialitatea drumului parcurs.
III.5.2. Fuga timpului fr oprire relativizeaz durata prezentului
Un alt aspect al relativizrii micrii a fost demonstrat de ctre Henri-Louis
Bergson n legtur cu durata activitii orientat spre viitor i evaluat ca trecut,
deci lipsit de prezent. ntr-adevr, ntre trecut i viitor nu exist un zid despritor
care s aib o anumit grosime. Cnd terminm de pronunat cuvntul prezent,
deja vorbirea respectiv a devenit trecut. Nu putem delimita trecutul de viitor,
spune filosoful francez, nici nuntrul cuvntului prezent, fiindc, dup
pronunia silabei pre, aceasta a devenit trecut, iar silaba zent a rmas n viitor.
Situaia se repet i n cazul duratei pronuniei unei litere sau fraciuni de liter.
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43

Desigur, aa cum se observ, relativizarea nu rezult aici din incapacitatea


noastr de a cunoate realitatea, ci din viziunea eronat asupra timpului, care, de
fapt, este o msur a micrii sau odihnei i nu un fel de micare n sine. Dup
prerea noastr, timpul nu este un element autonom, de sine stttor. El exist
numai ca msur a micrii. Ori, cum micarea este continu, nu putem gsi timpul
prezent ca moment static pe parcursul micrii. Faptul c Universul e format din
particule elementare fugitive, care se rotesc integrate n corpuri sau solidar, n jurul
axei centrale, ne ndreptesc s atribuim timpului o existen obiectiv absolut,
nu relativist.
n realitate corpul nu se mic stnd nemicat dect cnd se deplaseaz,
eventual, mpreun cu vehiculul n care este aezat. Dar, n acest caz, nu avem o
incertitudine cognitiv, ci o substituire a obiectelor n discuie. Dac vorbim
despre cltorul din tren, acesta, eventual, st nemicat pe banc. Astfel, pentru
evitarea substituirii este important s rspundem la ntrebarea: Cine se mic,
trenul sau cltorul ? Ambele elemente sunt realiti distincte. Cltorul se mic
atunci cnd, eventual, el intr n compartiment, cheltuind o anumit cantitate de
energie fiziologic produs de organismul su. Trenul merge consumnd un alt fel
de energie, conbustibilul utilizat de locomotiv.
n concluzie, paradoxul lui Bergson rezult din contrazicerea dintre realitate,
unde micarea este perceput corect ca un proces continuu, i demonstaia
sofistic, n care existena timpului ca prezent e condiionat de stoparea micrii
(pronunrii cuvntului prezent). Astfel, teoria relativizrii curgerii timpului
este un paradox, care pune semnul egal ntre termenii contradictorii repaus i
micare, nclcnd principiul logic al noncontradiciei. Altfel spus, nu micarea
este relativ, ci evaluarea sau msurarea ei. Ca realitate obiectiv micarea
depinde de cantitatea i calitatea de energie consumat de-a lungul drumului
parcurs. Chiar dac se scurteaz sau se lungete traseul, cantitatea de micare nu
este cea perceput, ci cea derulat efectiv n realitate.
III.5.3. Paradoxul perceperii relativiste a traseului micrii
Problema relativizrii perceperii traseului micrii obiectelor a atras atenia
cercettorilor odat cu descoperirea integrrii sistemelor planetare, stelare,
galactice etc. prin rotaii supraetajate. nsui Albert Einstein a trimis, n anul 1905,
la revista german Annalen un articol consacrat relativitii perceperii traseului
micrii (2, p. 39). La 16 ani - afirm Brian Greene - Einstein s-a ntrebat ce se
ntmpl dac alergm dup o raz de lumin cu viteza luminii. O judecat
intuitiv bazat pe legile micrii enunate de Newton ne spune c vom ajunge din
urm raza de lumin care ne va prea atunci staionar, lumina va rmne
nemicat (2, p. 40). (ntrebarea tnrului Einstein era eronat n dou privine;
prima: nu poi ajunge din urm lumina dect dac alergi mai repede dect ea,
pentru c dou vehicule care au aceeai vitez, nu se apropie i nici nu se

44

deprteaz unul de altul. A doua eroare: raza de lumin nu poate deveni


observator n micarea relativist deoarece fotonii nu-i schimb viteza).
De fapt, aceast idee a dependenei obiectivitii micrii de poziia i
deplasarea observatorului, care st la baza teoriei relativitii, a fost sugerat
fizicienilor adepi ai teoriei relativitii de experiena cltorului din tren. Acesta
privete prin geamul vagonului i vede micndu-se cellalt tren din staie, dei n
realitate trenul su a plecat. Alt exempu: dac observatorul din tren privete pomii
de pe falez raportndu-i la poziia sa de odihn, are iluzia c ei alearg n sens
invers mersului trenului. Dimpotriv, dac el se deplaseaz cu o drezin i privete
n fa, percepe cum se apropie de copacii de pe falez.
Din nefericire, adepii teoriei neorelativitii micrii contemporani numesc
ambele percepii relativiste, dei, ntr-un caz observatorul percepe iluzionat
ndeprtarea (copacii alearg), iar n al doilea percepia e corect (observatorul din
drezin se apropie de pomi). Dup prerea noastr este eronat afirmaia lui Brian
Greene c observatorii aflai n micare relativ vor avea percepii diferite asupra
spaiului i timpului (2, p. 41). n realitate, nu spaiul (distana) este perceput eronat,
ci direcia micrii. Aceast iluzie este un fenomen psihic normal, guvernat de legile
percepiei. Astfel de iluzii pot fi corectate mintal. De exemplu, cnd percepem
micarea Soarelui, raportat la starea noastr de odihn pe Terra, l percepem iluzionat
cum alearg de la rsrit la apus n jurul Pmntului. Dac ne imaginm situaia real
c Pmntul se rotete n jurul Soarelui, eliminm iluzia cu ajutorul gndirii.
Ideea combaterii relativizrii micrii nu ne aparine. Ea ne-a fost sugerat de
Mihai Eminescu. Genialul poet romn a definit corect termenul relativitate
nainte de a se nate Albert Einstein: Dac privim la micarea unui tren, afirm
Eminescu, atunci o raportm la suprafaa Pmntului. Dar, fiindc Pmntul nsui
se mic n jurul axei sale i nainteaz n calea lui mprejurul Soarelui, repausul
trenului care st locului nu este un repaus absolut, ci un repaus relativ la Pmnt,
Pmnt care l credem n repaus pentru c ne ia pe toi cu el. (3)
III.5.4. Adevr absolut i cunoatere relativ
1. Ultimul paradox pe care l semnalm aici a fost promovat de partizanii
partidelor din opoziie, interesai n lupta mpotriva adevrurilor absolute care
consacrau puterea acaparat. n cartea Materialism i empiriocriticism se afirm
c nu exist adevruri absolute. Toate adevrurile sunt relative fiindc realitatea e
deosebit de dinamic i complicat, iar cunoaterea ei nu se ncheie niciodat.
Dar, aa cum se observ, n aceast motivaie se echivaleaz semnificaiile
termenilor: cunoatere (care denumete o activitate uman), i adevr (care
precizeaz o anumit calitate a cunotinelor, aceea de a reflecta corespunztor
realitatea). Paradoxul rezult aici din substituirea unei activiti (cunoaterea
uman), cu calitatea informaiilor (cunotine adevrate sau eronate). Pentru a
stopa astfel de confuzie, trebuie evitat materializarea celor doi termeni.
Att cunoaterea, ct i adevrul, nu exist n realitate dect atunci cnd

45

sunt reflectate mintal ca act psihic. Numai metaforic spunem: exist adevruri
absolute, n loc de aceste cunotine sunt absolut adevrate Deci,
cunoaterea este relativ, adic dinamic, n sensul c nu se epuizeaz, la un
moment dat, posibilitatea acumulrii de noi informaii sau n sensul c o teorie e
aproximativ, parial edificatoare pentru nelegerea unor procese, aplicaii practice
de un anumit fel Cunotinele sunt absolut, complet adevrate sau eronate n
sensul c ceea ce se afirm sau se neag corespunde realitii.
Tot prin utilizarea incorect a termenilor se explic i paradoxul mincinosului
(Mincinosul care minte cnd spune c minte e mincinos ?). Mincinosul minte cnd
spune o informaie invers dect o tie ca adevrat. Minciuna sa se raporteaz la
contiina sa i nu la evaluarea obiectiv a adevrului prin raportare la realitate.
Deci i aici, ca n toate paradoxele, se ncalc cerinele principiilor logicii.
(1) Anton Dumitriu, Paradoxe logice, Editura Academiei, Bucureti, 1944
(2) Brian Greene, Universul elegant, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 2008
(3) Mihai Eminescu, Manuscrise , no.2267, p. 34
(4) Liviu Filimon, Psihologie cosmic, Editura Didactic i tiintific, Bacu, 2009

III.6. PARADOXURILE RELATIVIZRII TIMPULUI 5


III.6.1. Timpul - component a realitii cosmice
Adepii teoriei neorelativitii denumesc eronat timp ceea ce msoar
ceasurile. Scopul nostru afirm Brian Greene - este s nelegem modul n care
micarea influeneaz trecerea timpului i cum am definit timpul ntr-un mod
operaional, ca fiind determinat de ceasuri, putem reformula ntrebarea: cum este
influenat <ticitul> ceasurilor de micarea observatorului? (1, p. 50). Ne
intereseaz afim filosoful neorelativist felul n care influeneaz micarea
trecerea timpului, deci de felul n care afecteaz n mod fundamental ticitul
oricrui ceas i tuturor ceasurilor indiferent de proiectarea sau construcia lor (1,
p. 51).
Dup prerea noastr, afirmaia: timpul e ceea ce msoar ceasul e un
paradox n sensul c neag realitatea pe care o afirm. ntr-adevr, e absurd s spui
c un obiect real (ceasul) msoar ceva (timpul) i concomitent s-i negi
autonomia (recunoscnd dependena sa de observator).
Aceast definiie neorelativist a timpului devine i mai confuz dac avem n
vedere c msurabilitatea e o calitate a psihicului omului i nu a ceasului.
Instrumentele de msurare, orict de sofisticate ar fi ele, nu au nici cele mai simple
procese de contientizare pentru a efectua msurtori. Vorbind la propriu, nu
ceasul msoar timpul, ci omul cnd percepe cifrele, poziia limbilor de pe cadran
i afl ct e ceasul (nu ct e timpul).
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i mai absurd este relativizarea timpului prin afirmaia c ritmul ticitului se


schimb cu poziiia i viteza observatorului (Micarea afecteaz n mod
fundamantal ticitul oricrui ceas), ca i cum procesele psihice ar intra n relaii
cauzale cu corpurile fizice. n realitate, din orice poziie am privi un ceas, orict de
repede s-ar deplasa vehiculul n care ne-am urcat, ceasul va continua s ticie n
acelai ritm n buzunarul n care l-am aezat. Chiar dac admitem c n anumite
condiii de ponderabilitate se modific energia arcului care nvrte rotiele.
Aceast operaie privete schimbarea materiei, viteza micrii rotielor i nu nsi
timpul.
n final, mai semnalm c aceast definiia dat de Greene timpului, ncalc
regulile logice ale definiiei, deoarece nu se precizeaz genul proxim i nici
diferena specific.
Definit tiinific, timpul este o component a realitii obiective manifestat ca
durat a cosmosului i msurare a vitezei de rotaie i deplasare, ritm de dezvoltare
i dezagregare...
Dificultile ntmpinate n definirea timpului se datoresc interdependenei
componentelor cosmosului ntre care se nscrie timpul alturi de spaiu, materie i
micare.
Spaiul nemrginit se conjug cu timpul prin durata infinit a existenei sale. S-a
spus c spaiul este locul ntins la infinit n toate direciile, loc n care pot s
triasc, s se mite sau s se odihneasc obiectele realitii. Calitile sale
temporale constau n delimitarea duratei pe dou coordonate negative: timpul nu
are nceput i timpul nu are sfrit - cci durata cosmosului este infinit de lung.
Astfel, existena etern a spaiului confirm eternitatea timpului.
Ca i spaiul, materia se conjug cu timpul prin durata infinit a trecutului i
viitorului Universului. Numim materie coninutul masei corpurilor i
particulelor care populeaz ntinsul spaiului.
De reinut c dinamica timpului, caracterul lui fugitiv (alearg fr oprire)
coreleaz cu continuitatea existenei fr ntrerupere a spaiului i materiei.
n dependen total de spaiu i materie, micarea se legitimeaz prin
schimbarea poziiei sau a locului unui obiect efectuat ntr-un spaiu i pentru o
anumit durat de timp. i n aceast ipostaz se confirm infinitatea timpului,
caracterul lui absolut, legat de micarea de rotaie etern a Universului. Totodat,
timpul intervine n derularea micrii ca msur a vitezei - cu aplicaii practice
incalculabil de variate.
De aici, delimitarea convenional a unitilor de msur etalon i
perfecionarea unor activiti fizice, bionice i psihice.
Reinem, n concluzie, c timpul este o component cosmic obiectiv prin care
se exprim durata i viteza micrii schimbrii obiectelor.
Timpul este o noiune ce reflect calitatea obectelor i fenomenelor realitii
de a-i manifesta dinamica prin momente i durate succesive.

47

Prin temporalitate se nelege mrimea duratei, ritmul i simultaneitatea


concret ce caracterizeaz micarea i schimbarea unui anumit obiect (2).
III.6.2. Paradoxul negrii simultaneitii
Adepii teoriei neorelativiste consider eronat c timpul depinde de micarea
ceasului observatorului. De pe aceast poziie ei neag obiectivitatea timpului i
existena simultanietii. Valoarea constant a vitezei luminii - afirm Brian
Greene - impune renunarea la concepia nvechit conform creia simultaneitatea
este universal valabil indiferent de micarea observatorilor. Ceasul universal
despre care n trecut credeam c ticie imperturbabil secunde identice pe Pmnt i
pe Martie, pe Jupiter, n galaxia Andromeda i n fiecare unghi al cosmosului, nu
exist de fapt. Dimpotriv, observatorii n micare relativ nu vor putea decide
care evenimente se petrec n acelai timp (1, p. 50).
Aa cum se vede n citatul reprodus mai sus, Greene condiioneaz existena
obiectiv a simultanietii de percepia evenimentelor simultane. Ori, percepia
este un proces psihic subiectiv care nu intr n relaii cauzale cu obiectul perceput
pentru a-i dicta statutul de realitate.
Se tie c numeroase evenimente simultane, mai ales cele cunoscute prin
stimuli senzoriali diferii, le percepem ca nesimultane, dei sunt simultane.
De exemplu, dac observm de la distan un fierar care lovete cu ciocanul
nicovala, vom percepe mai nti ciocanul fiindc lumina cltorete cu 300.000
km/s. Sunetul loviturii l vom percepe mai trziu deoarece undele sonore alearg
cu 343 m/s. Astfel, dei avem doi stimuli (sonor i de lumin) emii simultan, ei nu
sunt recepionai concomitent.
Desigur, nu intr aici n discuie evaluarea practic a simultaneitii. Orice
msurare a duratei cuprinde o anumit fraciune de timp care rmne neluat n
seam datorit siturii ei sub unitatea de msur. Orict de mic ar fi unitatea
etalon ea las n afara calcului subuniti neglijabile.
III.6.3. Particularitile ncetinirii ticitului ceasului aflat n micare
Ideea c micarea obiectelor este influenat de viteza curgerii timpului, este un
paradox formulat de adepii teoriei neorelativitii. Un ceas cu lumin aflat n
micare - afirm Greene ticie mai rar dect un ceas cu lumin aflat n odihn (1,
p. 56).
Sentimentul ncetinirii curgerii timpului este trit n viaa de fiecare zi. De
exemplu, cnd ateptm s se produc un eveniment, bunoar sosirea unui tren
care ntrzie, ne uitm repetat la ceas i n final, de regul, gndim c timpul a
mers mai ncet. Dac o perioad egal de timp suntem antrenai, bunoar, ntr-o
discuie interesant, la sfritul ei trim sentimentul c timpul a trecut repede
fiindc nu ne-am gndit repetat la el.
n realitate curgerea timpului este constant, e aceeai pentru obiecte n micare

48

sau n odihn, evenimente vesele sau triste, activiti plictisitoare sau antrenante...
De aici i preocuparea oamenilor de a evalua timpul nu numai subiectiv, ci mai ales
obiectiv, pe baza unor intervale stabilite convenional, dimensionate de ceasuri.
Dac msurarea duratei evenimentelor a finalizat cu generalizarea utilizrii
ceasurilor i perfecionarea metodelor de msurare a unor durate din ce n ce mai
scurte, explicarea naturii timpului a generat discuii contradictorii purtate ntre
reprezentanii disciplinelor tiinifice i partizanii teoriilor sceptice neorelativiste
care afirm, c ceasurile n micare merg mai ncet dect cesurile n odihn.
Dup prerea noastr, afirmaia c timpul nsui depinde de micarea
ceasului care l msoar e un paradox, fiindc e contrazis de realitatea obiectiv.
Pentru a evita asemenea eroare trebuie luate n seam, la explicarea naturii
timpului, deosebirile dintre corpurile materiale i calitile lor. Micarea corpurilor
materiale e determinat cauzal. Un corp material intr n relaii cauzale cu alte
corpuri care l pot pune n micare sau opri, accelera sau ncetini, nchega sau
sfrma Dimpotriv, n ipostaz de component a cosmosului, respectiv ca
durat a spaiului i corpurilor ce alctuiesc Universul, timpul este autonom, nu
depinde de micare, ci de corpurile care se mic sau se odihnesc.
Mai precis, timpul nu e un corp material, ci o calitate a materiei ce alctuiete
Universul existent de un timp infinit. Timpul ntruchipeaz nsi durata micrii
Universului, micare inerial autonom, imposibil de a fi oprit, repornit,
ncetinit i reaccelerat altfel dect cauzal.
Timpul are o singur calitate, exprim durata continu a existenei Universului
n micare inerial etern (nvrtirea astrelor n jurul axei Universului), i
micare temporal variat (a obiectelor de pe Terra bunoar).
O anumit influen a micrii asupra vitezei rotirii limbilor ceasului este
generat cauzal de schimbrile intervenite n mecanismul, compoziia ceasului,
i nu de ctre viteza deplasrii lui, cum pretind fizicenii neorelativitii.
De exemplu, cnd posesorul ceasului se urc n vrful unui munte i constat o
uoar rmnere n urm a rotirii limbilor el explic aceast ncetinire cauzal,
referindu-se la deosebirele de ponderabilitate accentuate n raport cu deprtarea de
axul de rotaie al Terrei i la influena ponderabilitii asupra elasticitii arcului
ceasului.
Aa cum s-a spus (3) greutatea corpurilor situate pe o planet, deci i fora
efecturii lucrului mecanic, scad proporional cu creterea distanei pn la axa de
rotaie a astrului respectiv. Altfel spus, experimenta-torul tie c ponderabilitatea
determin fora arcului ceasului cu att mai mult, cu ct distana pn la centrul de
rotaie axial crete (respectiv, cu ct braul prghiei e mai lung, cu att se reduce
ponderabilitatea i se ampific fora).
Din pcate, adepii teoriei neorelativitii ignor explicaiile tiinifice i
atribuie micrii ceasului capacitatea de a influena timpul, invocnd experimente
fictive i formulnd explicaii absurde, paradoxale.

49

De exemplu, Brianne descrie experimente cu ceasuri la care:


a/ un foton msoar timpul deplasndu-se ntre dou oglinzi (fotonul strbate
un drum dus-ntors n aproximativ o miliardime de secund);
b/ alearg pe trase oblice (ignornd legile refleciei, cci o raz care cade oblic
pe un plan nu se ntoarce pe acelai drum pentru a rmne n cursa dintre oglinzi);
c/ ceasul alearg, n vehiculul experimentatorului, cu viteza de 225.000 Km/s
(trei sferturi din viteza luminii, dei un astfel de vehicul e imposibil de
construit);
d/ drumul fotonului se lungete (Din punctul de vedere al unui observator
staionar, cu ct ceasul alearg mai repede, cu att fotonul parcurge un drum mai
lung - 1, p. 57);
e/ timpul ncetinete la ceasul n micare (Curgerea timpului e ncetinit pentru
ceasul aflat n micare -1, p. 56) etc.
n concluzie, faptul c demonstrarea relativitii timpului se bazeaz pe
exemple fictive contrazise de realitate constituie o dovad n plus c viziunea
neorelativist asupra timpului e eronat, absurd, paradoxal.
III.6.4. Paradoxul schimbrii ritmului activitii organismului prin ncetinirea
trecerii timpului
Afirmaia ntlnit n vorbirea de fiecare zi, c timpul trece mai ncet cnd
n-avem ce face se refer la starea subiectiv de plictiseal. Dar semnalele
instinctive ajut individul s efectueze activiti suficente pentru meninerea
sntii i dezvoltarea optim. Lipsa de odihn este de asemenea semnalizat
instinctiv.
Cercetrile efectuate la animalele care hiberneaz au demonstrat c ritmul
ncetinit al proceselor fiziologice este util vieii n sensul c individul consum mai
puin din depozitul de substane nutritive acumulat n perioada activ a strii de
veghe Unele semine, depozitate ntr-un mediu cu un anumit microclimat, pot
ncoli dup mii de ani de via latent. Numeroase specii de microorganisme pot
conserva viaa de-a lungul a milioane de ani, cltorind n interiorul asteroizilor ce
se rotesc n spaiul interplanetar. n toate aceste cazuri avem ca element comun nu
ncetinirea timpului, cum s-a spus, ci diminuarea ritmului fenomenelor
biopsihice, cauzat de reducerea activitii organismului Prezena timpului ca
durat e remarcat colateral, cnd cineva evalueaz raportul dintre activitatea
individului i ritmul fenomenelor biotice corespunztoare.
Din pcate, adepii teoriei neorelativitii au explicat eronat relaiile dintre
activitatea individului i ritmul fenomenelor sale biotice atribuind timpului, ca
entitate autonom, capacitatea de a schimba ritmul activitii organismului i chiar
de a prelungi viaa.
Timpul - afirm fizicianul Greene - trece mai ncet pentru un individ aflat n
micare dect pentru un individ n repaus. Aceast discrepan nu se aplic, spune

50

acelai autor, doar la timpul msurat de ceas, ci i la ritmul btilor inimii i al


degradrii diverselor pri ale corpului uman.
n loc s triasc 70 de ani, oamenii ar ajunge s triasc 700 de ani (1, p.
58). Timpul apare n aceast concepie (neorelativist) ca o for capabil s
influeneze instrumentele de msur (ceasornicile fizice) ca i organismele
biologice .
Dup prerea noastr, analiza felului cum trece timpul pentru un individ aflat
n micare se poate face n dou modaliti: ca micare a vehiculului n care corpul
acestuia este n odihn, i ca activitate fizic i biopsihic efectuat direct de el.
Semnalm c teoria neorelativist nu trateaz difereniat aceste dou ipostaze de
evaluare a micrii. n consecin se genereaz confuzii n nelegerea implicrii
activitii n evaluarea ritmului trecerii timpului.
n cazul deplasrii prin intermediul vehiculelor, schimbrile organismului sunt
minore datorit strii de odihn a cltorului i a vitezei, relativ reduse, cu care se
deplaseaz astzi mijloacele de transport. Datele acumulate din experiena
persoanelor care au cltorit mult timp n vehicule (oferi, mecanici de
locomotiv) nu au dovedit creterea duratei vieii acestora. Dimpotriv, viaa
neregulat implicat de cltoriile cu durate variabile genereaz adesea neadaptri
finalizate cu scurtarea vieii.
Nici activitatea indivizilor a cror profesii se bazeaz pe munca fizic
(agricultur, construcii, sport) nu a dovedit existena efectelor organice ale
ncetinirii timpului, susinut de neorelativiti.
n concluzie, teoria neorelativist care consider activitatea un factor de
ncetinire a timpului i de prelungire a vieii e un paradox, n sensul c astfel de
fenomene lipsesc cu desvrire din realitate.
n ncheiere, citm cteva versuri din poezia lui Lamartine intitulat Le Lac, din
care se pot inspira neorelativitii timpului contemporani:
O temps,
Suspends ton vol, et vous, heures proprices
Suspendez votre cours:
Laissez-nous savourer les rapides delices
Des plus beaux de nos jours !
(1) Brian Greene, Universul elegant, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 2008.
(2) Filimon Liviu, Psihologia timpului, n: Psihologia percepiei, Editura Didactic
i tiintific, Bacu, 1993.
(3) Filimon Liviu, O abordare filosofic a problemei gravitaiei, Studii i cercetri
tiinifice, vol. 5, Editura Didactic i tiintific, Bacu, 2007

51

III.7. FORMULA ENERGIEI (E= mc2) N VIZIUNEA TEORIEI


NEORELATIVISTE, UN PARADOX (?) 6
III.7.1. Dei formula E=mc2, descoperit de genialul Einstein, a fost confirmat
ca adevrat prin numeroase experimente tiinifice i aplicaii practice, ea
continu s genereze discuii filozofice contradictorii. Mai ales adepii teoriei
fizicii noi neorelativiste s-au confruntat, de pe poziii partizane, cu aprtorii
teoriei fizicii clasice absolutiste, pentru a dovedi c teoriile neorelativiste
despre spaiu i timp sunt confirmate de formula energiei einsteinean.
i mai grav este faptul c neorelativitii pretind c formula E=mc2 se aplic la
toate obiectele din Univers, dei ea a fost confirmat practic numai la particulele
elementare. De exemplu, fizicianul Brian Greene afirm c: Einstein nu a
pledat pentru numele de<teoria relativitii> (sugernd n schimb numele de teoria
<invariaiei> pentru a reflecta, ntre altele, caracterul neschimbat al vitezei
luminii)... Prin formula sa, Einstein a artat c energia (E) i masa (m) unui obiect
nu sunt concepte independente, putem determina energia cunoscnd masa sau
putem determina masa cunoscnd energia (1, p. 69).
Aa cum se observ, Brian Greene explic formula E=mc2 subliniind raportul
constant dintre energie i mas, fr s precizeze c prin expresia invariaia
vitezei Einstein s-a referit la caracterul constant, invariabil al vitezei particulelor
elementare i nu la relativitatea spaiului i timpului. Struina neorelativitilor
contemporani de a demonstra c formula einsteinean se aplic la evaluarea
tuturor felurilor de obiecte e contrazis de realitate. Titlul articolului nostru
denumete paradox tocmai aceast mistificare a semnificaiei formulei E=mc2. Cu
alte cuvinte, nu formula einsteinean e un paradox, ci nscrierea ei n lista
conceptelor neorelativiste.
Se tie c n Univers sunt numeroase feluri de obiecte ale cror energie
coreleaz variat cu masa i viteza. De exemplu, este variabil viteza i masa
astrelor care se rotesc n sisteme supraetajate, n jurul axei Universului. Luna,
bunoar, nconjoar Terra cu 1,022 km/s, i mpreun cu ea alearg n jurul
Soarelui cu 30 km/s. La rndul lui, ntregul sistem solar se deplaseaz pe o orbit a
galaxiei cu 223 km/s. Calea Lactee se deplaseaz cu 600 km/s n continuare,
sistemele de galaxii, metagalaxii se rotesc inerial n jurul axei Universului
constituind astfel un organism unic, nchegat prin legea ponderabilitii (2).
(Faptul c vitezele cresc progresiv cu fiecare etaj ne permit s calculm
dimensiunile Universului, limitate de legea ponderabilitii).
n cazul coliziunii, bunoar, a unui asteroid cu oricare dintre planetele
sistemului solar se produc distrugeri, se formeaz cratere de o amploare
energetic diferit, dependent att de mrimea maselor, ct i de vitezele lor.
Reinem de aici c evaluarea efectelor energetice provocate de coliziune nu
necesit luarea n calcul a vitezei luminii (c2).
6

Liviu Filimon, Studii i cercetri tiinifice, vol. 9, EDS, Bacu, 2013

52

De asemenea, formula E=mc2 nu are aplicaii directe la evaluarea energiei


obiectelor situate pe astre (satelii, planete) care se nvrt n jurul axei proprii.
Ponderabilitatea lor variaz cu distana pn la axul de rotaie i cu viteza rotirii.
De exemplu, un corp care cntrete 10 kg. la nlime, pe vrful unui munte, va
cntri mai mult la nivelul mrii.
Tot sub influena ponderabilitii cheltuim mai mult energie cnd mpingem
un vehicul la deal, dect atunci cnd l coborm la vale, chiar dac viteza rmne
constant.
La fel de semnificativ este i faptul c n vid toate obiectele mari sau mici, cad n
acelai timp, adic au aceeai vitez cu toate c au mase diferite.
Din aceste exemple se desprind dou cerine legate de tratarea n continuare a
problemei evalurii energiei. Prima cerin - s definim mai precis termenii
implicai direct n nelegerea formulei E=mc2 (mas, energie, for, micare,
vitez, acceleraie); i a doua cerin - s delimitm precis aria aplicaiilor ei
practice.
III.7.2. Numim MATERIE compoziia masei tuturor obiectelor (particule,
corpuri, astre) integrate n sfera Universului prin micri de rotaie generatoare
de ponderabilitate (2). Materia este suportul tuturor felurilor de particule
elementare care, de fapt, sunt crmizile la baza substanei Universului. Ea este
limitat cantitativ, localizat spaial, nelimitat temporal. Materia Universului
exist dintotdeauna i nu va muri niciodat.
III.7.3. MICAREA e o calitate a materiei obiectului, care nu poate exista
autonom, de sine stttoare. Nu ntlnim micare fr ceva care se mic. Micarea
se manifest spaial prin schimbarea locului, poziiei i ntinderii masei obiectului.
Clasificate din perspectiv cosmic difereniem: obiecte care alearg continuu,
fr ntreruperi; i obiecte micate alternativ, cu treceri de la odihn la micare.
Clasificate din privina locului unde se mic i a mecanismului deplasrii,
obiectele fizice se mpart n:
a/ particule care se deplaseaz n spaiul cosmic locuit de Univers. De exemplu,
fotonii alearg continuu n sfera Universului cu viteza constant de 300.000 km/s;
b/ particule care se deplaseaz n sfera Terrei pe conductori buni conductori de
electricitate. De exemplu, electronii merg srind de pe orbita ghemului de particule
n care sunt integrai, pe orbitele altor gheme contactate;
c/ particule dintr-o anumit zon care trec de la un obiect la altul. De exemplu,
radiaiile rezultate din dezagregarea substanelor radioactive. Ele ncarc
radioactiv obiectele care intr n zona lor de influen;
d/ particule emise prin arderea (fierberea) unui obiect situat ntr-un anumit
loc. De exemplu, caloriile se distribuie exercitnd presiune n toate direciile
pentru uniformizarea densitii etc.

53

III.7.4. VITEZA este calitatea obiectului de a se mica ncet sau repede,


schimbndu-i poziia i locul ocupat. Particulele elementare au viteze constante,
un loc propriu de alergat i un fel inedit de a se mica. Ele nu se pot influena
transferndu-i viteza prin npingere sau ciocnire. De exemplu, electronii nu pot
ajunge din urm fotonii deoarece lumina alearg mai repede i mai departe dect
curentul electric nchis n sfera Terrei i n masa conductorilor de electri-citate.
Experiena acumulat la acceleratorul de particule de lng Geneva a dovedit c
prin coliziunile dintre protoni nu se poate crete viteza acestora.
ntr-adevr, coliziunile cauzeaz sfrmri, turtiri, nvrtiri (lucrul mecanic) i nu
acceleraii (3).
Creterea vitezei nu e posibil nici n macro-cosmos, unde, n conformitate cu
postulatele cosmosului, ntinderea, masa i energia Universului sunt constante.
III.7.5. ACCELERAIA este o micare a crei vitez crete n trepte, paralel cu
cantitatea de combustibil adugat. Spre deosebire de vitez, care se caracterizeaz
prin mrimea spaiului parcurs ntr-un timp dat, acceleraia se evalueaz prin
micimea duratei trecerii la o vitez superioar. Ea se bazeaz pe perfecionarea
mecanismelor care transform energia combustibilului n lucrul mecanic. De aici
rezult adevrul c niciodat o nav cosmic nu va putea depi viteza particulelor
elementare utilizate ca material energetic. Pierderile cauzate de trecerea de la
lucrul mecanic la vitez nu pot fi eliminate n totalitate. Pentru aceasta, viteza
fotonului nu va putea fi depit dect dac particulele elementare fugitive folosite
ca material energetic vor avea o vitez mai mare dect lumina.
Cele mai variate forme de micare i accelerare a vitezei se petrec n lumea
obiectelor compuse: fizice i biotice; animale i umane, tratate de noi n alt parte (4).
III.7.6. ENERGIA e o calitate a micrii manifestat prin schimbri efectuate de
ctre masa i viteza obiectelor cnd se contacteaz. Definit filozofic, energia este
ineria micrii, schimbrii i transformrii continue a obiectelor a cror substan
etern e alctuit din particule fugitive, cu mas i substan constant.
Acest aspect l-a avut n vedere Lavoisier cnd a afirmat c Nimic nu se pierde,
nimic nu se ctig, totul se transform.
Caracterul dinamic al Universului l-a demonstrat i Vasile Conta n Teoria
ondulaiei universale (5).
III.7.7. Einstein are meritul de a fi rezolvat problema aplicaiei n practic a
energiei particulelor elementare. El a pornit de la premisa c energia particulelor
simple se manifest ntr-un mod specific, deosebit de energia corpurilor compuse.
De exemplu, creterea masei particulelor, respectiv concentrarea lor ntr-un punct,
nu stopeaz micarea fotonilor n acel punct. Ei continu s se deplaseze cu aceeai
vitez i mas.

54

Dimpotriv, apsarea pe acceleraie, mrete explozia din carburator i crete


viteza vehiculului, iar materialul explozibil utilizat se descompune ireversibil.
n consecin, este paradoxal ncercarea neorelativitilor de a aplica formula
2
E = mc la evaluarea energiei obiectelor compuse. Si totui, Brian Greene afirm cu
senintate: Cu ct ceva se mic mai rapid, cu att energia lui crete, iar din
formula lui Einstein vedem c pe msur ce energia crete, i masa lui crete) (1,
p. 69) (Noi am demonstrat c micarea n sine, nu are un coninut real, capabil s
genereze cauzal substan, respectiv particule elementare, crmizi cu care sunt
construite toate obiectele din Univers).
Mai trebuie semnalat c afirmaia: ceva care se mic mai rapid din textul
citat mai sus, dovedete c autorul aplic formula einsteinian la micarea
obiectelor compuse. ntr-adevr, numai corpurile integrate ponderal accelereaz.
Viteza i masa particulelor elementare sunt constante. Rezult de aici c Greene
2
generalizeaz aplicarea formuleiE=mc la toate obiectele, denaturnd semnificaia
dat de Einstein vitezei.
2
(Astfel, formula E=mc a devenit, pentru populaia colar, i nu numai, ceva de
neneles, iar energia un concept indefinibil. Cu adevrat, este imposibil de
explicat ce implicaie are ptratul vitezei luminii (c^2) n accelerarea
autovehiculelor, cnd ele funcioneaz cu benzin
Dup prerea noastr, mistificarea formulei einsteiniene nu e ntmpltoare. Ea
e utilizat, de adepii fizicii noi la acceptarea, de ctre publicul larg, a ideilor
idealiste promovate n teoria fizicii noi cum sunt: Fotonii nu au mas; Materia
crete cantitativ cnd se deplaseaz cu vitez; Universul se dilat,
Micarea, Spaiul, Timpul sunt relative etc). De fapt, aceast situaie
paradoxal ne-a determinat s scriem o serie de articole intitulate: Paradoxele
conceptelor fizicii noi neorelativiste).
III.7.8. Ct privete creterea propriu-zis a masei la care se refer formula lui
Einstein, ea se bazeaz pe concentrarea ghemelor de particule. Cnd, bunoar,
numrul fotonilor trimii spre un punct atinge pragul maxim n acel loc, materia
luminat astfel i schimb starea de agregaie, arde, atomii explodeaz
Ideea genial a lui Einstein a fost stabilirea cantitii (masei critice) de material
energetic format din particule fugitive cu mas i vitez constant necesar
producerii exploziei. (Bomba atomic explodeaz cnd dou pri ale sale se
apropie i constituiesc o mas critic de material explodabil).
De fapt, Brian Greene descrie corect schema formulelor semnalate mai sus cnd
afirm c: energia (E) i masa (m) nu sunt concepte indepedente; putem
determina energia cunoscnd masa (nmulind-o pe ultima cu ptratul vitezei
2
luminii, c ) sau putem determina masa cunoscnd energia (prin mprirea ultimei
la viteza luminii ridicat la ptrat) (1, p. 68).

55

De exemplu, dac la formula E= mc2 notm masa cu 2 i viteza luminii (adic


constanta c2) cu 3 avem:
2
2
E = mc = 2 x (3 x 3) = 18
=>
m = E/c = 18 : (3 x3) = 2
2
=>
c = E/m = 18 : 2 = 9
Alt exemplu: dac m = 5 i c = 300.000 avem:
E = mc2 = 5 x 90.000.000.000 = 450.000.000.000
m = E/c2= 450.000.000.000 : 900.000.000.000 = 5
2
c = E/m = 450.000.000.000 : 5 = 90.000.000.000.
(Deci, pe baza acestei formule, dac tim ct e masa, aflm ct e energia sau
dac tim ct e energia, aflm ct e masa).
Aa cum se observ din exemplele de mai sus, formula energiei (E=mc2) se
aseamn cu formula forei (F=mv), cu deosebirea c v (viteza, acceleraia),
variabil la obiectele compuse, e nlocuit cu c (viteza luminii), invariabil,
constant la particulele elementare.
Spre deosebire de energia obiectelor din macrocosmos la care masa crete prin
acumularea de substan integrat omogen, la particulele elementare creterea
masei se realizeaz prin gruparea unor elemente autonome. Fiecare ghem de fotoni
care este trimis spre un punct constituie o mas de o anumit mrime n punctul
respectiv. Dar cum fotonii care sunt concentrai astfel nu rmn n punctul n care
au fost proiectai, ei merg mai departe fiindc sunt fugitivi, efectele energetice sunt
manifestate treptat cnd cantitatea a atins un anumit prag. n consecin, masa nu
se nmulete cu viteza, ca la formula forei, ci cu o constant fiindc viteza
fotonilor, electronilor nu accelereaz, e constant.
2
n concluzie, formula ensteinean E = mc e o relaie genial, iar formula
explicat de neorelativiti e un paradox contrazis de realitatea obiectiv.
Genilitatea creaiei lui Einstein e confirmat de descoperirea bombelor
termonucleare, uzinelor termoatomice, laserului Paradoxul teoriei
neorelativiste este dovedit de teoriile paradoxale referitoare la natura materiei,
timpului, spaiului
Einstein a descoperit c la particulele elementare creterea energiei nu se
bazeaz pe creterea cantitativ a masei, luat ca substan total omogen, ci pe
centrarea trecerii simultane a particulelor printr-un anumit punct. Formula
energiei ajut la descoperirea acestui prag critic, deoarece ne permite s cunoatem
energia cnd tim masa i invers, s cunoatem masa cnd tim energia. Cei doi
termeni (energia i masa) sunt n relaii asemntoare cu termenii operaiilor
aritmetice:
Suma = Denmulitul x nmulitorul (S=D x ; D=S : ; = S : D).
Genialitatea lui Einstein st n faptul c a descoperit metoda prin care se
construiete astzi bomba atomic, adic precizarea masei critice la care energia se
dezlnuie maxim, n condiiile n care particulele elementare au masa i viteza
constante.

56

III.7.9. n concluzie, formula E = mc are aplicaii numai la energia particulelor


elementare fugitive cu mas i vitez constante.
2
Afirmaia c E = mc se aplic la toate felurile de energii, deci i la micarea
obiectelor din macrocosmos, este un paradox contrazis de realitatea obiectiv.
III.7.10. n concluzie, adepii teoriei neorelativist au explicat eronat formula
energiei afirmnd paradoxal c ea poate fi utilizat la evaluarea tuturor formelor de
energie i trecnd cu vederea c genialul Einstein a destinat-o evalurii energiei
particulelor elementare.
mplicarea acestei formule n explicarea naturii concepiilor de spaiu i
timp neorelativist este un paradox, contrazis de legile care guverneaz realitatea
obiectiv.
Mecanismul aplicrii n practic a formulei energiei const n delimitarea
pragului critic la care se produce explozia, dezagregarea n lan
Prin introducerea n formul a coeficientului c2, Einstein a dovedit c nu se pot
crea viteze mai mari dect energia combustibilului utilizat. ntotdeauna exloziile,
coliziunile (3) genereaz lucrul mecanic, dezagregrile i nu creterea vitezei
obiectelor energizate.
(1) Brian Greene, Universul elegant, Humanitas, Bucureti, 2008.
(2) Liviu Filimon, O abordare filozofic a existenei gravitaiei, n Studii i cercetri
tiinifice, vol. 5, EDS, Bacau , 2007.
(3) Liviu Filimon, Acceleratorul de particule (LHC) un experiment apocaliptic (?!), n
Studii de specialitate, vol. 6, p. 197, EDS, Bacu, 2007.
(4) Liviu Filimon, Psihologia percepiei, EDP, Bacu, 1993.
(5) Vasile Conta, Opere complete, Editura C. State, Bucureti, 1914

III.8. O ABORDARE FILOSOFIC A EXISTENEI GRAVITAIEI


III.8.1. Unii cercettori au nscris gravitaia n lista problemelor nerezolvate. Ei
au semnalat, mai ales, lipsa dovezilor referitoare la natura elementelor prin care se
efectueaz legtura dintre corpul atras i cel care l atrage. Infirmarea
presupunerilor c aceast legtur s-ar realiza prin intermediul eterului sau al
gravitonilor - elemente dovedite c lipsesc cu desvrire - a accentuat i mai
mult incertitudinea tiinific. De asemenea, diferenierea atraciei gravitaionale
de electromagnetism a infirmat i soluiile propuse de adepii teoriilor relativiste.
n articolul de fa ne-am propus s abordm problema gravitaiei, nu ntr-un
limbaj matematic, ca pn acum, ci filosofic, adic pornind de la premise teoretice
i bazndu-ne pe analiza logic a puinelor informaii pe care le deine astzi tiina
despre Cosmos.
Mai precis, am avut n vedere infinitatea duratei Cosmosului i nemrginirea
ntinderii spaiului, eternitea materiei i constana cantitii de energie considerate unanim concepte nematematice.

57

n acest spirit am pornit n cercetarea naturii gravitaiei de la premisa c


Universul se rotete inerial n jurul axei sale de un timp infinit.
III.8.2. Savantul englez Isaac Newton a demonstrat, n lucrarea Principiile
matematice ale filosofiei naturii (1687), c Soarele atrage planetele cu o for
direct proporional cu masa i invers proporional cu ptratul distanei.
Din pcate Newton a pornit n demonstrarea atraciei gravitaionale de la un
fapt particular, anume cderea unui mr din copac i nu de la premisa nvrtirii
eterne a Universului n jurul axei sale - enunat de noi mai sus. Desigur, acum
patru secole, cnd Newton a definit gravitaia, nu existau informaii certe despre
nvrtirea Pmntului, rotirea sistemului solar, galactic, metagalactic...
Astfel se explic de ce nu a luat n considerare, la demonstrarea existenei
gravitaiei, deosebirile dintre micrile de nvrtire axial, guvernate de legea
prghiilor i cele de rotire orbital, bazate pe legea inerial, legi care, n opinia
noastr, genereaz fenomenele numite inpropriu atracii gravitaionale.
De asemenea, nu erau suficient elucidate nici diferenierea atraciei
electromagnetice dintre corpurile bune conductoare de electricitate i rotirile
corpurilor cereti integrate n sisteme de rotaie inerial supraetajate.
A doua insuficien, ntlnit n demonstrarea existenei atraciei gavitaionale,
este definirea eronat a legii ineriei: o micare rectilinie i uniform (...). n
viziunea noastr, rotirea inerial etern a tuturor corpurilor din Univers exclude
existena micrilor rectilinii.
Dac ar fi existat micri rectilinii corpurile respective ar fi cltorit dispersate
n spaiul nemrginit de un timp infinit, iar Universul nu s-ar fi constituit ca un
sistem unitar nchegat.
Dealtfel, dac privim din afara spaiului sistemului solar micarea unui vehicul
ce se deplaseaz pe suprafaa Terrei, vom constata c din combinarea nvrtirii n
jurul axei i rotirii n jurul Soarelui, rezult c vehiculul respectiv se deplaseaz n
realitate pe un traseu ondulatoriu i nu rectiliniu.
III.8.3. Dar insuficiena cea mai grav n abordarea problemei gravitaiei o
constituie pierderea din vedere a faptului c pmntul are statutul unei sfere care
se nvrte n jurul axei asemenea unei roi.
Pmntul, n ipostaz de roat (sfer), este o prghie de gradul I cu braele
(razele) egal deprtate de punctul de sprijin, situat n centrul masei sale. ntre
micarea de nvrtire a Pmntului i rotirea sa n jurul Soarelui nu sunt relaii
gravitaionale. n condiii de echilibru se poate declana micarea de translaie,
fr s se schimbe circumferina de rotire n jurul Soarelui. Dei au trecut cteva
miliarde de ani de cnd s-au format planetele sistemului solar, ele continu s se
roteasc inerial relativ pe aceleai circumferine n jurul Soarelui. n plus, n jurul
Soarelui se rotesc i corpuri (comete, unii astereroizi...) care nu se nvrt axial.

58

III.8.4. Dup prerea noastr, emiterea unui corp de pe Terra echivaleaz cu


transformarea lui dintr-un element component al ei, integrat prin nvrtire axial
mpreun cu ea, ntr-unul care se rotete autonom. n consecin, viteza i traseul
imprimat la emisie l vor determina s se deplaseze n trei ipostaze:
a) s se ndrepte spre zona central (cdere accelerat);
b) s se roteasc pe o orbit circumterestr, cnd viteza sa depete 11,2 km/s
(imponderabilitate);
c) s nconjoare solitar Soarele.
Dar, aa cum se observ, niciuna dintre aceste posibiliti nu este cauzat de aa
zisa atracie gravitaional (direct proporional cu masa i invers proporional
cu ptratul distanei), dei corpul emis nu i-a schimbat masa i poziia. nvrtirea
n jurul axei Terrei nu afecteaz, n sine, rotirea mpreun cu ea n jurul Soarelui. i
praful cosmic, cometele, astereroizii, care eventual nu se nvrt axial, continu s
se roteasc n spaiul sistemului solar, dac sunt integrate n acest sistem prin vitez
comun. (Situaia poate fi ilustrat prin aerul, mobilierul, cltorii etc. dintr-un
vagon de tren care se deplaseaz cu aceeai vitez, dei au mrimi i poziii
diferite).
Rmne de explicat, n ipostaza c negm existena n centrul Pmntului a ceva
care ne atrage, de ce corpurile n cdere liber accelereaz, la ecuator, cu 9,78 m/s.
Noi considerm c mecanismul acestui fenomen se bazeaz pe raportul dintre
vitez i mas n constituirea forei guvernate de legea prghiilor. De exemplu,
dac nvrtim roata fntnii cu lan de la captul exterior al spielor, utilizm o for
mai mic dect dac le apucm dintr-un loc apropiat axului de sprijin. Paralel cu
creterea vitezei captului spielor se amplific fora minii. Sportivul arunc mai
departe discul dac prin nvrtirea corpului i sporete viteza la lansare.
n plus, legea prghiilor face ca un corp care se rotete s acumuleze mai mult
for dac n acelai timp se nvrte n jurul axei sale. Rezult c fora implicat n
cdere nu vine de undeva din exterior. Ea este nmagazinat n fiecare element
component al Terrei i o preia cu el n momentul cnd acesta este desprins. Deci,
pentru a nelege mecanismul cderii corpului, trebuie s ne informm cu ce
vitez a fost lansat, pe ce traseu i n ce direcie se deruleaz micarea sa... Vom
constata, bunoar, c pe msur ce se apropie de zona central, viteza de nvrtire
ncetinete treptat, iar trecerea corpului dintr-o zon n alta e marcat de un avans
egal cu diferena vitezelor celor dou zone.
Acum suntem ndreptii s ne ntrebm pn unde se produc cderi cu
acceleraii amplificate treptat Rspunsul e simplu. Accelerarea nceteaz n
momentul cnd viteza corpului emis ajunge la egalizare cu viteza zonei pe care o
traverseaz, adic atunci cnd lungimea celor dou brae este egal.
n consecin, un corp emis de pe Pmnt se va deplasa inerial pe un traseu curb
n spaiul dinuntrul sau dinafara circumferinei sale, n funcie de viteza ce i-a fost
imprimat la lansare. Eventual, el ar putea nconjura inerial zona central dac
spaiul ar fi gol, pe acolo unde raportul dintre lungimea braelor prghiei se
egalizeaz.

59

Dac atracia ar exista cu adevrat, corpurile cu mas mai mare ar trebui sa cad
mai repede. Faptul c n vid corpurile cad cu aceeai vitez dovedete c atracia
proporional cu masa i invers proporional cu distana lipsete cu desvrire.
Mai trebuie luat n seam corelarea mrimii razei cu creterea acceleraiei. De
exemplu, Soarele are acceleraia de 26 de ori mai mare dect acceleraia
Pmntului, fiindc are raza mai mare.
O ultim observaie care contrazice teoria atraciei corpurilor, neluat n seam
de adepii teoriei gravitaiei, este diferenierea micrilor de nvrtire i rotaie. Ct
timp corpul e plasat pe suprafaa Terrei, el se nvrte cu aceasta n jurul axei cu o
vitez amplificat de legea prghiilor. n momentul cnd este desprins i lsat s
cad liber el i-a schimbat statutul, devenind un corp care se rotete pe un traseu
propriu, cu vitez dictat de legea ineriei.
III.8.5. Spre deosebire de nvrtiri, la care corpul se mic unitar n jurul axei
sale, rotirile sunt micri circulare derulate n jurul altor corpuri, la o anumit
deprtare de ele. De exemplu, se rotesc:
- electronii, n jurul nucleului;
- fotonii, n jurul axei pachetului de fotoni;
- planetele, n jurul Soarelui;
- stelele, n jurul axei galaxiei;
- galaxiile, n jurul axei metagalaxiei.
i, n final, aceste particule i corpuri se rotesc n jurul axei Universului.
Prima abordare tiinific a rotirii planetelor o face matematicianul astronom
german Kepler, care public n 1609 legea I: Toate planetele se mic n jurul
Soarelui pe orbite (traiectorii) eliptice, n focarul comun fiind Soarele.
Din pcate Kepler se refer doar la Soare, trecnd cu vederea c i n jurul
planetelor se rotesc alte corpuri cereti (satelii, comete, astereroizi...). Rezult c
legea I a lui Kepler este implicat mai mult n explicarea originii sistemului solar, a
formrii planetelor din masa Soarelui, dect n rezolvarea problemei atraciei
gravitaionale.
ntr-adevr, extinderea analizei rotirii la alte corpuri cereti sugereaz ideea c
ele au luat natere i s-au delimitat spaial, nu numai n perioada coliziunii
(exploziei...) Soarelui care a generat planetele, ci i ulterior, cnd s-au curat
spaiile interplanetare de sfrmturile ale cror traiectorii s-au interferat (praful
cosmic, asteroizii...).
Revenind la tema noastr, natura gravitaiei, remarcm c rotaia n sine a luat
natere la corpurile ncrcate cu for n urma coliziunilor... Deci, fiecare planet,
satelit, comet... poart n sine micarea preluat de la un corp din care s-a
desprins, care de regul e mai mare i mai ncrcat energetic dect el.
n consecin, punctul de plecare n geneza galaxiilor, sistemelor solare sau
planetare... l constituie Universul n totalitatea sa.

60

Faptul c acest Univers exist de un timp infinit dovedete caracterul su


autonom. De reinut c sistemele integrate etajat n masa Universului se
difereniaz prin creterea treptat a vitezei i mrirea treptat a distanei de la un
etaj la altul (de exemplu: Luna se rotete n jurul Terrei n 27,3 zile, Terra se rotete
n jurul axei sistemului solar n 365 zile, Soarele se rotete n jurul axei galaxiei n
200 milioane de ani).
Diferene remarcabile ntlnim i n privina mrimii: Luna are raza de patru ori
mai mic dect raza Pmntului, diametrul Soarelui este de 109 ori mai mare dect
diametrul Pmntului, galaxia are axa mare de 100.000 ani lumin. Dac lum n
consideraie i spaiile enorme care separ sistemele integrate etajat n rotaia
Universului, devine i mai evident implicarea legii ineriei n fenomenele
gravitaionale.
n concluzie, unitatea i integrarea (echilibrul...) obiectelor n Univers e
guvernat de legea rotirii ineriale i eterne n jurul axei i nu de pretinsa lege a
atraciei.
Nici a II-a lege a lui Kepler, denumit legea perioadelor, nu este edificatoare
pentru demonstrarea existenei atraciei gravitaionale. Afirmaia: Ptratul
perioadei de revoluie a unei planete n jurul Soarelui este direct proporional cu
cubul distanei medii a planetei pn la Soare se refer de fapt la relaia dintre
diametrul i circumferina cercului (exprimat astzi prin formula 2R). Ori,
relaiile dintre lungimea cercului i diametrul su (p
= 3,14), nu pot fi calificate ca
fiind legea atraciei gravitaionale.
Cea de a III-a lege, publicat de Kepler n 1619, potrivit creia raza vectoare
care unete Soarele cu o planet mtur (descrie) arii egale n intervale de timp
egale, este cel mai mult legat de existena gravitaiei, dei n sens deviat.
Se tie c rotaia Terrei n jurul Soarelui se deruleaz n patru etape:
- n prima etap - Soarele i Terra se deplaseaz paralel spre axa sistemului
galaxic (fig. 1/A);
- n etapa a II-a, planeta devanseaz Soarele apropiindu-se mai mult dect el
de axa galaxiei (Fig. 1/B);
- n faza a III-a, Terra nconjoar Soarele n sens invers (Fig.l/C);
- etapa a IV-a se ncheie cu poziia Soarelui avansat fa de Terra (Fig. 1/D).
Rezult c traseul Pmntului n jurul Soarelui nu se transform, datorit
atraciei Soarelui, dintr-un cerc ntr-o elips, astfel nct raza vectoare, pornind de
la Soare la planet, s mture (descrie) arii egale n intervale de timp egale.
Traseul elipsoid este de fapt ondulatoriu, fiind generat din corelarea celor dou
micri: ale Terrei n jurul Soarelui i ale Terrei i Soarelui n jurul axei galaxiei.
Observaia este deosebit de important fiindc ne ajut s nelegem c schimbarea
traseului este inerial i nu gravitaional.

61

Fig. 1
S
Soarele n drum spre axa galaxiei
P Pmntul rotindu-se n jurul Soarelui
III.8.6. Cea de-a doua form de micare a corpurilor, rotaia inerial, poate fi
ntlnit numai la sistemele cosmice etajate, integrate n trepte prin viteze
accelerate i delimitri spaiale amplificate de la un sistem la altul. De exemplu,
sistemul terestru (cu Luna care se rotete n jurul Pmntului), integrat n sistemul
solar, prin rotirea n jurul Soarelui cu viteza dc 29,78 km/s. La rndul lui, sistemul
solar se integreaz rotindu-se n jurul axei galaxiei n 200 milioane de ani cu viteza
de 300 km/s. Pe al patrulea plan de integrare, sistemul galaxic se rotete n jurul
axei metagalaxiei cu 600 km/s. Lanul integrrilor prin supraetajare continu cu
metagalaxii din ce n ce mai cuprinztore i mai accelerate. Totui, creterea
numrului planurilor supraetajate e limitat de viteza de 300.000 km/s de la
margine Universului, care nu poate fi depit. Rezult de aici c Universul e
limitat ca mrime i ca valoare energetic.
Aa cum se deduce, cauza integrrii i n general a interrelaionrii corpurilor
cereti o constituie legea ineriei micrii i nu atraciile newtoniene. Mai putem
meniona, n sprijinul acestei concluzii, fptul c cercettorii care s-au strduit dea lungul secolelor s creeze perpetum mobile, pe baza legii lui Newton, n-au
avut succes. Rotirile autonome sunt ineriale, deci eterne.
Se dovedete astfel indirect c teoria noastr despre natura inerial a gravitaiei
este adevrat. La rndul ei, demonstrarea crerii strii de imponderabilitate pe
Terra prin accelerarea vitezei peste limita de 11,2 km/s, dovedete de asemenea c
pretinsa atracie gravitaional este, n realitate, o micare inerial. Pragurile
nalte dintre vitezele sistemelor integrate etajat, nu pretinsele atracii
gravitaionale, fac posibil meninerea echilibrului dintre stele, galaxii i
metagalaxii.
Se tie c sistemul terestru este format din Terra, Lun, comete, asteroizi.
Principala component, Terra, cu raza de 6.370 km (de patru ori mai mare dect
raza Lunii) - are viteza pe orbit de 29,78 km/s. i masa cea mai mare (5973 19/34). Luna nconjoar Pmntul n 27,3 zile la distana de 38.000 km, n acelai
ritm, dar pe trasee i cu viteze specifice. Totodat sistemul terestru, n ansamblu, se
rotete inerial n jurul Soarelui situat la 150 milioane kilometri de el, cu viteza
constant de 462,77 m/s.

62

Astfel, dei fiecare component i schimb poziia fa de axul de rotaie


comun n cadrul rotirilor individuale, dup ncheierea rotirii ntregului sistem se
repet identic traseele parcurse n rotirile anterioare.
De exemplu, dei Luna ocup diferite poziii n timpul rotirii n jurul
Pmntului, n sensul c uneori este mai aproape, uneori mai departe de Soare
dect Pmntul (n timpul eclipselor bunoar), formeaz mpreun un sistem
autonom integrat prin viteza comun, constant. Noi vedem aici o dovad c
schimbarea distanei fa de Pmnt i de Soare, n diferite etape ale eclipselor,
depinde de ineria micrii i nu de atracia mai mare sau mai mic venit de la
pretinsa gravitaie (Se tie c, n conformitate cu legea ineriei, nu se pot schimba
traseul i viteza unui mobil fr intervenia unei fore exterioare suficente). Nu ne
referim aici la atracia electromagnetic implicat n formarea fluxului i
refluxului, ci la pretinsa atracie gravitaional care, chipurile, ar opri Luna s
prseasc Pmntul.
n realitate poziia Lunei n sistemul terestru ar putea fi schimbat, n sensul
mririi orbitei pe care se rotete, numai dac ar fi impulsionat primind de la un alt
corp o anumit cantitate de micare. Aceasta i va permite, bunoar, s se roteasc
n jurul axei galaxiei, mpreun cu Soarele i planetele. Deci, trecerea dintr-un
sistem de rotaie n alt sistem de rotaie depinde exclusiv de energia asimilat sau
pierdut n urma unor coliziuni solare sau a altor cauze obiective.
Se mai poate concluziona c poziia subordonat a sistemului terestru fa de
sistemul solar demonstreaz c planetele au luat natere n urma unor coliziuni
soldate cu integrarea energiei primite de la corpul agresor. Astfel, n micrile de
rotaie i nvrtire a corpurilor desprinse din masa Soarelui la formarea
Pmntului, se regsete ntreaga energie pe care a cedat-o eventualul astereoid
agresor.
34
Faptul c Pmntul (cu masa de 597.310 kg) reprezint, cu aproximaie a 3336
a mia parte din masa Soarelui (masa Soarelui este de 1.989.110 kg) dovedete c
masa materiei asimilate la coliziune a fost relativ mic. Observaia e important
pentru c foarte muli astronomi vorbesc despre coliziuni ntre sisteme galactice,
pierznd din vedere c transferul de energie se efectueaz ntre corpuri concrete
(asteroizi, planete, stele), i nu ntre sisteme ce se ntind pe spaii enorme n care
stelele se gsesc la distane msurate n ani lumin.
La ntrebarea: Ce poziie ocup Terra n sfera Universului?, rspunsul este cel
dat de Biblie care afirm c: Dumnezeu a construit la nceput cerul, stelele i
Soarele pentru a lumina Pmntul, a se dezvolta plantele i animalele i a crea
omului o planet plin de bunti.
ntr-adevr, n ordinea vitezei de rotaie, sistemul terestru are viteza cea mai
mic (nconjoar axa Soarelui n 365 zile, cu viteza de 29,78 km/s). Urmeaz
rotaia sistemului solar, format din Pmnt i celelalte planete, care nconjoar axa
galaxiei cu viteza de 300 km./s. Integrrile se repet succesiv ntr-un ir de

63

metagalaxii din ce n ce mai cuprinztoare i cu viteze de rotaie accelerate


progresiv. Limita acestor integrri etajate este viteza de la marginea Universului,
care se situeaz sub limita absolut de 300.000 km/s.
Cnd afirmm c Pmntul se gsete n centrul Universului atribuim acest
statut tuturor stelelor care au planete.
Problema poziiei centrale a Pmntului n sfera Universului i-a preocupat pe
filosofi nc din Antichitate. Filosoful grec Ptolomeu a presupus c Pmntul este
n repaus n centrul Universului, iar Soarele i Luna sunt planete care se nvrt n
jurul Pmntului. Apoi Copernic a contrazis acea ipotez n lucrarea De
revolutionibus aprut n 1542, demonstrnd c Soarele este n centrul
Universului.
n epoca modern s-a susinut c planetele, Soarele, stelele ... sunt integrate pe
baz de atracie gravitaional n galaxie i metagalaxie. Articolul de fa vine cu
ipoteza c ntregul Univers formeaz un sistem unic, integrat prin rotaii ineriale
ale tuturor particulelor i corpurilor.
III.8.7. n concluzie, precizarea naturii gravitaiei nu const exclusiv n
demonstraii efectuate de matematiceni, fiindc problema gravitaiei vizeaz
Cosmosul n totalitatea sa, numeroase aspecte nu pot fi exprimate prin calcule
matematice, ci prin argumente logice i ipoteze filosofice. Ne referim la eternitatea
Cosmosului, adic la eternitatea echilibrului dintre componentele materiale ale
Universului, la nemrginirea spaiului i infinitatea timpului, la constana cantitii
materiei i energiei, la caracterul absolut al Adevrului i Divinitii.
Astfel se motiveaz abordarea filosofic a naturii gravitaiei pe care noi am
ntreprins-o aici. Rugm cititorii s tolereze ndrzneala de a ne ndoi de
veridicitatea unor teorii formulate n trecut - Ptolomeu, Copernic, Newton, Kepler
- elogiai de autorii manualelor colare i a respinge ipotezele adepilor actuali ai
neorelativismului.
Dei subcapitolul de fa pare, la prima lectur a titlului, o speculaie filosofic,
mrturisim cu sinceritate c l-am scris cu convingerea ferm c inovaiile noastre
exprim adevrul.
n final semnalm c viziunea noastr despre natura inerial a gravitaiei nu
este contrazis de viziunea genialului Einstein care a afirmat c ineria i
gravitaia au aceeai natur (conf. Stephen Hawking Scurt istorie a timpului,
pag. 113).

64

III.9. O ABORDARE FILOSOFIC A PARADOXULUI GRAVITAIEI


III.9.1. Teoria gravitaiei e un paradox n sensul c descrie cum se atrag
corpurile dei, n realitate, ele nu se atrag gravitaional, ci se resping coliziional.
ntr-adevr, cnd mobilele se ntlnesc, sfrmturile rezultate din coliziionare
sunt aruncate cu o for determinat de viteze i nu de atracii. Faptul c aceast
for atrgtoare lipsete din realitate ne explic de ce un numr mare de
cercettori au nscris atracia gravitaional n lista problemelor nerezolvabile (5).
Ei au semnalat, mai ales, lipsa dovezilor referitoare la existena elementelor
(liantului) prin care un corp atrage spre sine alt corp. Infirmarea ipotezei c aceast
tragere s-ar realiza prin intermediul eterului sau al gravitonilor, elemente
dovedite c lipsesc cu desvrire a accentuat i mai mult incertitudinea
cercettorilor.
De asemenea, demonstrarea deosebirilor dintre atracia electromagnetic i cea
atribuit cderii corpurilor a infirmat i soluiile propuse de adepii teoriilor
neorelativiste (2).
n acest subcapitol ne-am propus s abordm problema gravitaiei, nu ntr-un
limbaj matematic fizical, ca pn acum, ci filosofic, adic pornind de la premise
teoretice i bazndu-ne pe analiza logic a puinelor informaii pe care le deine
astzi tiina despre Cosmos. Mai precis, am avut n vedere urmtoarele postulate,
absolut adevrate: infinitatea duratei Cosmosului; nemrginirea ntinderii
spaiului; eternitatea existenei materiei; i constana cantitii de energie
postulate considerate unanim concepte nematematice. n acest spirit am pornit, n
cercetarea obiectivitii gravitaiei, de la postulatul c UNIVERSUL SE
ROTETE INERIAL n jurul axei sale de un timp infinit de lung, adic din
totdeauna. (Aceasta nseamn c la un astru care se rotete inerial pe o elips,
traseul parcurs de el devine un plan de sprijin, un drum stabil ca acela pe care se
deplaseaz o bil aruncat la jocul de popice. Totodat, astrul respectiv se nvrte
n jurul axei transformnd traseul n ax de sprijin caracteristic prgiilor de gradul
trei.)
Isaac Newton a demonstrat, n lucrarea Principiile matematice ale filosofiei
naturii (1687), c Soarele atrage planetele cu o for direct proporional cu
masa i invers proporional cu ptratul distanei. Din pcate, matematicianul
englez a pornit n demonstrarea gravitaiei de la un fapt particular, anume cderea
unui mr din copac i nu de la postulatul rotirii eterne a Universului enunat de noi
mai sus.
Desigur c acum patru secole, cnd Newton a definit gravitaia, nu existau
informaii certe despre nvrtirea Pmntului, rotirea sistemului solar, galactic,
metagalactic etc. Astfel se explic de ce nu a luat n considerare, la explicarea
cderii corpurilor, deosebirile dintre micrile de nvrtire axial, guvernate de

65

legea prghiilor, i cele de rotire orbital, bazate pe legea ineriei, legi care, n
viziunea noastr, genereaz fenomenele numite impropriu atracii
gravitaionale.
Desigur, cea mai grav insuficien n dovedirea existenei gravitaiei a
constituit-o definirea eronat a legii ineriei ca o micare rectilinie i
uniform, definiie care a exclus traseele curbe din sfera noiunii de micare
inerial. n viziunea noastr, rotirea inerial, etern a tuturor componentelor
Universului exclude existena micrilor rectilinii. Orict de mare ar fi Universul,
de-a lungul trecutului su infinit particulele sale rectilinii au prsit definitiv sfera
sa.
n Fig. 2 este reprezentat Pmntul (P) care se rotete n jurul Soarelui (S) n
patru perioade (A, B, C, D) descriind ondule.

Fig. 2
III.9.2. nvrtirea inerial a astrelor suportul micrilor gravitaionale
Este important de reinut c principala insuficien n abordarea problemei
gravitaiei st n pierderea din vedere c Pmntul are statutul unei bile de la jocul
de popice care alunec pe traseu nvrtindu-se n jurul axei sale asemenea unei roi,
iar roile sunt guvernate de legea prghiilor.
Aa cum se tie, prghia este o bar rigid care se poate roti n jurul unui punct
fix, numit punct de sprijin. Avem trei tipuri de prghii:
- prghia de gradul I, cnd punctul de sprijin se afl ntre punctele de aplicare a
forelor;
- prghia de gradul al II-lea, cnd punctul de sprijin se afl la un capt, iar la
cellalt capt se afl punctul de aplicaie al forei active;
- prghia de gradul al III-lea, cnd punctul de sprijin se afl la un capt, iar la
cellalt capt se afl punctul de aplicare a forei de rezisten.
Pmntul se rotete pe o anumit elips n jurul Soarelui nvrtindu-se n jurul
axei sale. Rotirea pe elipsa solar i nvrtirea axal sunt cauzate de fora (energia)
primit n momentul coliziunii Pmntului cu un meteorit. (Fenomenul
energizrii poate fi ilustrat la jocul de popice prin bila aruncat de juctor. Ea se
deplaseaz nvrtindu-se i se oprete n urma ciocnirii popicelor. Dac fora
primit la aruncare e minor, bila nu ajunge la popice, se oprete pe parcurs).
Reinem deci, c energizarea bilei st n creterea puterii de coliziionare i nu
n crearea mistic a unei aa zise for de atracie ascuns n punctul central.

66

ntr-adevr, nu ntlnim atracii gravitaionale nici n relaiile dintre micarea


de nvrtire a Pmntului i de rotire n jurul Soarelui. (Ne referim la faptul c
deplasrile pe Terra se efectueaz cu aceeai cheltuial de energie, indiferent dac,
bunoar, vehiculul alearg spre est sau vest). i mai semnificativ este exemplul cu
cltorii din trenurile rapide i personale, care se mic n compartiment fr s-i
dea seama c ele au viteze diferite.
Este important de precizat c elementele ce alctuiesc masa Pmntului sunt
dotate cu fore specifice, determinate de viteza de nvrtire variat cu distana pn
la axul central. Astfel, un corp desprins de pe sol la nivelul mrii va avea o for de
coliziune mai mic dect un alt corp identic desprins din vrful muntelui.
Explicaia acestui fenomen o gsim n legile prghilor. Situaia poate fi ilustrat
prin cazuri simple.
Cu ct spiele unei roi/ braele unei mori de vnt sunt mai lungi, cu att crete
fora lor. De exemplu, la Scrnciobul din lemn, fora de nvrtire este dat de
lungirea barelor care unesc dou scaune opuse.

Fig. nr. 3
A: Axul central (de sprijin orizontal)
B: Bara care fixeaz scaunul la axul de sprijin, vertical jos
C: Scaun de jos
D: Stlp de susinere
E. Scaun sus
F: bara vertical sus
n Fig. 3 bara vertical de jos (B), cu scaunul (C), mai ndeprtat de axul de
sprijin (A), are o for mai mare dect bara vertical de sus (F) cu scaunul (E) mai

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apropiat de axul de sprijin (A). La rndul ei, fora lucrtorului care nvrte
scrnciobul este amplificat cnd mpinge scaunul situat jos (C), deci mai
ndeprtat de axul de sprijin.
Mutnd analiza la Pmnt, observm c un corp lsat s cad de la nlime va
avea o vitez mai mare dect dac va fi desprins dintr-un loc mai apropiat de
centrul Pmntului.
n concluzie, viteza i traseul date corpului la emitere l vor determina s se
deplaseze n trei ipostaze:
a) s se ndrepte spre zona central (cdere accelerat) cnd are viteza mai mic
dect viteza de nvrtire aTerrei la punctul de lansare;
b) s se roteasc pe o orbit circumterestr, cnd viteza sa este egal cu viteza de
rotire a Pmntului la punctul de lansare (imponderabilitate);
c) s nconjoare solitar Soarele (satelit).

Fig. 4
Fntna cu lan (5)
Dup prerea noastr, acest fenomen se explic prin legea prghiilor, ilustrat
n Fig. nr. 4. Dac nvrtim roata fntnii apucnd-o de la captul exterior al spiei,
utilizm o for mai mic dect dac am apuca-o dintr-un loc apropiat axului de
sprijin, fiindc braul (bara) e mai lung.
Dac atracia ar exista cu adevrat, corpurile cu mas mai mare ar trebui s cad
mai repede. Faptul c n vid corpurile cad cu aceeai vitez dovedete c atracia
proporional cu masa i invers proporional cu distana lipsete cu desvrire,
motiv pentru care noi am nscris legea gravitaiei newtoniene pe lista paradoxelor
cosmice.

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III.9.3. Rotirea inerial a astrelor suportul integrrii universului


n conformitate cu postulatele cosmice, toate corpurile materiale (particule,
astre) sunt fugitive, alearg continuu pe trasee curbe, se rotesc n jurul axei
Universului, integrate n sisteme de rotaie supraetajate. Sateliii se rotesc n jurul
planetelor, sistemele planetare se rotesc n jurul sistemelor stelare, sistemele
stelare se rotesc n jurul sistemelor galactice, sistemele galactice se rotesc n jurul
sistemelor metagalactice Toate corpurile se rotesc n jurul axei Universului.
Aprecierea vitezei marginale n viziunea cercettorilor satelitului CERES este
eronat, fiindc se raporteaz la Big - Bang, eveniment care, dup prerea noastr,
nu a avut loc la scara Universului (4). Viteza fiecrui corp, masa i traseul lui, stau
la baza forei de coliziionare (3), care se schimb la nivelul ficrui sistem
supraetajat. n Fig. 1 se ilustreaz felul cum se nsumeaz vitezele de nvrtire cu
vitezele de rotaie, prin faptul c se construiete un traseu ondulatoriu.
Aa cum a demonstrat Vasile Conta n Teoria ondulaiei universale (6), prin
rotirea pe orbite circulare se asigur fiecrui corp un loc stabil n spaiul
Universului. Aceast stabilitate spaial este determinat de vitezele astrelor i nu
de atraciile forelor magnetice newtoniene, de undele gravitonice, de cmpurile
eterice, cum s-a spus. Mobilele care se contacteaz nu genereaz lipiri,
nchegri, ci separri, descompuneri (3). Sfrmturile rezultate din ciocniri
sunt, mai nti ndeprtate, mprtiate i apoi nchegate prin nvrtiri n jurul axei.
Astfel, din coliziuni se genereaz noi sisteme de rotaie, care de fapt, se nscriu n
lanul infinit al etapelor evoluiei descris de genialul filosof romn Vasile Conta
(6). Deci, motorul dezvoltrii Universului l constituie coliziunile soldate cu
transferuri de energie asimilate prin nvrtiri axiale. Luna, bunoar, are nu numai
energia necesar rotirii n jurul Soarelui mpreun cu Pmntul, dar i rotirea n
jurul Pmntului i nvrtirea n jurul axei proprii, preluate n momentul coliziunii
Pmntului cu un meteorit Aceast explicaie e confirmat de postulatul
conservrii formulat de Parmenides n Antichitate i de Avogadro n Epoca
Modern.
n consecin, echilibrul astrelor e asigurat de viteza cu care ele se rotesc n jurul
axei Universului integrate n sisteme supraetajate. De exemplu, un corp n micare
sau n odihn ntr-un anumit loc se rotete cu 460 m/s prin nvrtirea Terrei n 24 de
ore; nconjoar axa sistemului solar cu 29,8 km/s; axa galaxiei cu 220 km/s,
metagalaxiei cu 390 km/s cptnd astfel o fora de colizionare care devine
maxim pe planul exterior al rotaiei n jurul axei Universului. Scoaterea unei
navete cosmice din planul orbitei terestre i nscrierea ei pe orbita din jurul
Soarelui este posibil prin creterea vitezei, adic printr-o acumulare de for
calculabil prin raportarea la energia asimilat n momentul genezei nvrtirii
declanat de coliziune Deci, corpurile au for de coliziionare (bazat pe vitez,
mas i traseu) i nu for de atracie (ascuns ocult n punctul central), care de
fapt lipsete cu totul. Nici distanele dintre corpuri i mrimile maselor lor nu sunt

69

semnificative pentru motivarea atraciei newtoniene. Faptul c pe aceeai elips se


rotesc alturi roiuri de asterezoizi de diferite mrimi, fr s se schimbe distanele
dintre ei dovedete nc odat c teoria gravitaiei e un paradox.
Mai trebuie semnalat c pe aceeai elips se rotesc cu aceeai vitez corpuri
mari sau mici (asteroizi) ceea ce infirm existena gravitaiei bazat pe mrimea
masei (direct proporional cu masa). Astfel, cele dou elemente invocate de
legea gravitiei (masa i distana) lipsesc cu totul, deci teoria gravitaiei
newtoniano-einsteinean e un paradox.
Noi considerm, pornind de la observaiile punctate mai sus, c ntre rotaile
supraetajate ale corpurilor i spaiile n care locuiesc sunt relaii obiective, legice.
Ciocnirea corpurilor, sfrmarea maselor lor, mprtierea i integrarea n sisteme
noi de rotaie supraetajat, constituie motorul dezvoltrii Universului de-a lungul
timpului infinit.
(1) Liviu Filimon, O abordare filosofic a existenei gravitaiei, Studii de specialitate,
vol. 5, Editura Didactic i tiinific, Bacu, 2007
(2) Liviu Filimon, Formula energiei (E=mc2) n viziunea teoriilor neorelativiste un
paradox, Studii de specialitate, vol. 8, Editura Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2012
(3) Liviu Filimon, Acceleratorul de particule, Studii de specialitate, vol. 6, Editura
Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2009.
(4) Liviu Filimon, Big Bang teorie paradoxal a genezei Universului, Studii de
specialitate, vol. 8, Editura Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2010
(5) Wikipedia
(6) Vasile Conta, Opere complete, Editura C. StateaBucureti, 1914.

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PARTEA A PATRA
IV. DESPRE GENEZA I NATURA UNIVERSULUI N VIZIUNEA
COSMOLOGIEI
IV.1. OBIECTUL COSMOLOGIEI
Spre deosebire de astronomie, al crei obiect de cercetare l constituie astrele
cunoscute senzorial (telescopic), sau deduse prin calcule matematice i alte
metode tiinifice, cosmologia are ca obiect de cercetare Cosmosul infinit, etern i
dinamic.
Dar, infinitatea spaiului, eternitatea timpului i necesitatea dinamicii
(stabilitatea legilor) nu intr n sfera tiinelor clasice, motiv pentru care sunt
excluse perspectivele devenirii cosmologiei drept o disciplin tiinific obinuit.
ntr-adevr, este absurd s pretinzi c poi s evaluezi matematic sau s probezi
experimental, aa cum opereaz cercettorii disciplenelor clasice, cnd obiectele
studiate nu se cuprind n dimensiunile minii tale. Omul nu va cunoate niciodat
infinitul tocmai fiindc e limitat ca dimensiune fizic, durat a vieii i nelegere a
naturii divinitii.
Eminescu precizeaz magistral calitile Divinitii: El este pretutindeni - are
spaiul. El este etern - are timpul. El este atotputernic - dispune de singura energie a
Universului. De exemplu, paradoxul cunoaterii spaiului infinit echivaleaz cu
msurarea apei rsturnnd n aceeai fntn ntreaga cantitate cntrit. Un alt
exemplu paradoxal este trasarea n imaginaie a dou linii infinite din dou puncte
situate la distane diferite de noi. Dei conform calculelor comune matematice ele
ar trebui s fie neegale ca lunghime, n realitate sunt egale fiindc toate infinitele
sunt egal de lungi, adic infinite. n acest sens, n lumea infinitelor, operaiile
aritmetice lipsesc cu desvrire. Nici caracterul curb sau drept al traseului liniilor
nu poate fi evaluat prin calcule matematice. Orict de mult am ndrepta curbura
unui segment de cerc, curbura lui nu dispare niciodat, se reproduce la infinit din
ce n ce mai mare, infinit de mare. La fel de paradoxal este i particularitatea
divizrii unui segment de linie n pri egale. Numrul lor crete la infinit dei,
practic, ele ar trebui s devin infinit de mici, ceea ce e imposibil n tiina clasic.
n consecin, Cosmogonia nu este o tiin, ci o ramur a filosofiei. Definit pe
scurt, cosmogonia este disciplina filosofic care studiaz legile-postulate ce
guverneaz dezvoltarea (geneza, evoluia) cosmosului i explic natura realobiectiv a Universului.Totui, faptul c adevrurile descoperite de cosmologi
sunt la fel de absolute ca celelalte adevruri ale tiinelor clasice (fapt demonstrat
de noi prin critica paradoxelor din partea a treia a lucrii) ne ndreptete s
nscriem cosmologia n lista disciplinelor tiinifice. Cosmologia se difereniaz
de astronomie nu numai n privina obiectului, ci i al metodelor de cercetare.
Fiindc tema lucrrii de fa nu ne permite s acordm un spaiu suficient
analizei stratutului cosmologiei ca disciplin tinific, punctm n continuare

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principalele metode utilizate de cosmologi:


a/. Revelaia religioas, analizat de noi n primele dou capitole ale lucrrii de
fa. S-a dovedit c nscrisurile din Cartea Facerii sunt confirmate de tiinele
contemporane;
b/. Intuiia incontient, bazat pe experiena i abilitile acumulate de codul
genetic de-a lungul evoluiei filiale, ontogenetice i filogenetice.
Exemple: postulatul conservrii ineriale formulat de Parmenide i Avogadro;
teoria mecanismul ideilor nnscute explicat de Platon; teoria ondulaiei
universale descoperit de V. Conta i teoria rotaiei supraetajat i global eterne,
ca suport al gravitaiei.
IV.2. NATURA UNIVERSULUI SUBIECT DE DISCUII
CONTRADICTORII
Discuiile despre natura elementelor ce alctuiesc Universul dateaz din cele
mai vechi timpuri. Din Antichitate sunt cunoscute confruntrile contradictorii
dintre gnditorii ncreztori n capacitatea omului de a descoperi adevrul despre
esena materiei i atitudinile opuse, ale scepticilor, care se ndoiau i chiar negau
cognoscibilitatea realitii. Situaia poate fi ilustrat, n Grecia Antic, prin
disputele dintre filosofii materialiti i sofitii idealiti. De exemplu, n timp ce
filosoful materialist Democrit afirma c obiectele realitii sunt alctuite din
particule dinamice elementare indivizibile (atomi), Zenon i ali sofiti greci le
negau existena obiectiv. Este cunoscut Paradoxul Sgeii prin care Zenon
demonstra c micarea nu exist obiectiv.
n Evul Mediu, progresul cunoaterii s-a remarcat mai mult pe latura
moralizrii religioase. Din pcate, tocmai n aceast perioad au existat cele mai
numeroase cazuri de intoleran fa de atitudinile indepente negativiste. Situaia
este ilustrat prin arderea pe rug a filosofului Giordano Bruno i condamnarea
astronomului Galileo Galilei, care a demonstrat tiinific rotaia Pmntul n jurul
Soarelui. Dezvoltarea economiei capitaliste bazat pe proprietatea privat i pe
conducere democratic, s-a finalizat cu progresul tiinei, tehnicii, artei i
literaturii. La constituirea astronomiei ca tiin i-au adus aportul matematiceni
(Newton, Kepler), filosofi (Kant) etc., care au demonstrat raional relaiile dintre
planetele i sateliii sistemului solar. Menionm aici contribuia lui Einstein la
precizare rolului energiei n geneza Universului i la crearea teoriei relativitii.
n ultimul timp a crescut numrul informaiilor astronomice, mai ales n urma
perfecionrii telescoapelor (Humbble, Ceres) i a cltoriilor n spaiul
extraterestru. Totui, n comparaie cu celelalte discipline, astronomii au obinut
mai puine succese n cercetarea tiinific, datorit dimensiunilor enorme ale
cosmosului. Cea mai apropiat stea (Sirius) se gsete la 6 ani lumin, iar cele mai
ndeprtate galaxii (Corsarii) la 4 miliarde ani lumin. n plus, fenomenele
cosmice sunt inaccesibile cunoaterii directe senzoriale. Aa cum se tie,
reflectarea mintal a obiectelor necesit contactarea stimulilor cu receptorii
organelor de sim, care lipsete cu desvrire n cazul obiectelor ntunecate, dar i
a subparticulelor.

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Din pcate, incertitudinile din astronomie au permis filosofilor neorelativiti s


nege natura obiectiv a Universului. Ei au interpretat eronat teoria relativitii
einsteinene, invocnd-o ca dovad c teoriile lor cosmogonice sunt adevrate. De
exemplu, neorelativitii neag obiectivitatea timpului i pretind c sunt posibile
cltorii n trecut i viitor. Totodat, afirm eronat posibilitatea transformrii
materiei n energie i creterea cantitii de materie prin accelerarea micrii etc.
i mai semnificativ este teoria paradoxal a genezei Universului din explozia
unui bo de materie ct o portocal de mic, teorie contrazis de imposi-bilitatea
deplasrii particulelor rezultate n cteva fraciuni de secund ntr-un spaiu de
milioane ani lumin - cnd s-a demonstrat c viteza de 300.000 km/s nu poate fi
depit.
IV.3. SCIENTOLOGIA - TEORIE COSMOLOGIC PARADOXAL

1. n ultimul timp, unii partizani ai teoriilor cosmice, autointitulai scientologi,


au constituit secte religioase nregistrate n 1954, de ctre Ron Hubbard cu numele
de Biseric Scientologic. Doctrinarii acestei secte au construit o teorie
paradoxal care identific Universul cu Divinitatea tuturor religiilor. Un singur
Dumnezeu i acesta este nsui Universul ca totalitate, format din materie, via,
energie i contiin de sine. Acest Univers Divin guverneaz destinul oamenilor
de pretutindeni, teretri i extrateretri. Cu fondurile acumulate din donaiile
adepilor creduli, liderul Hubbard iniiaz construirea n pustiu a unui buncr
antiatomic destinat contactrii extrateretilor, nfiineaz reviste, tiprete cri,
organizeaz echipe de misionari care izbutesc s nfiineze Biserici Scientologice
n numeroase ri.
Doctrinarul cel mai de seam al Bisericii Scientologice, Amit Glaswani, autorul
crii Universul Contient de Sine, afirm c Universul este un organism unic,
viu, contient.
Contiina cosmic afirm Gaswani - este fora creatoare a ntregului Univers,
creia i s-a dat numele de Dumnezeu, Natur, Alah, Kri
na, Cmpul, Divinitatea.
Aa cum se observ, Glaswani se situeaz pe poziia eronat a partizanilor teoriei
holtiste care deduc unitatea nu din micarea inerial a astrelor, ci din contiina
cosmic. n realitate, unitatea dintre obiectele care compun masa Universului se
realizeaz structural i dinamic prin formaiunile de particule, corpuri, astre ce l
compun. S-a spus c Pmntul se nvrte n jurul axei i, mpreun cu celelalte
planete, se rotete n jurul Soarelui. Sistemul solar, mpreun cu alte un miliard de
sisteme stelare, se rotesc inerial pe anumite elipse n jurul axei centrale. La rndul
ei, galaxia se integreaz n metagalaxii prin rotiri supraetajate care, n final,
nconjoar axa Universului.
Dei, aceast descriere a integrrii Universului se bazeaz exlusiv pe observaii
astronomice, holditii afirm nejustificat, fr dovezi tiinifice, c Universul este
un organism viu i contient de sine. n felul acesta ei trec cu vederea c materia,
viaa i contiina sunt elemente diferite ale realitii care nu se pot substitui. Ele
sunt guvernate de legi specifice, studiate de astronomie, fizic, biologie,
psihologie i sociologie.

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n concluzie, este eronat teoria holtist adoptat de sectele scientologice, care


afirm c Universul e un corp viu cu contiin de sine, contiin care face ca
astrele s constituie un tot unitar. Aa cum se observ, doctrinarii scientologi
folosesc eronat termenul de contiin.
2. Contiina e un concept psihologic i nu cosmic. Cu termenul contin
denumim activitatea psihicului manifestat prin procese intelectuale (senzaii,
percepii, imaginaie, memorie, gndire, atenie), procese afective (emoii,
sentimente, pasiuni) i procese voliionale (capacitatea de a lua hotrri, de a
aciona, de a persevera). Contiina nu exist autonom, este dependent de un corp
viu, nzestrat cu organe, aparate, sisteme nervoase celulare i superioare. Lipsa
acestor componente determin degradarea i chiar dispariia contiinei. n acest
sens, noi am denumit dependena psihicului de corp, de via i sistemul nervos
Legea fundamental a psihologiei. Contiina se manifest orizontal
concomitent pe trei laturi: intelectual, afectiv i voliional. De exemplu, cel mai
simplu act intelectual este nsoit de o atitudine afectiv i un impuls acional. n
consecin, noi am denumit Corelarea laturilor psihicului a doua lege
fundamental a psihologiei.
Contiina se manifest i pe vertical, ca acte psihice autonome, rezolutorii
adaptive i ca acte psihice integrate temporal prin construcii verbale logice
(noiuni, judeci, raionamente).
Astfel, Autonomia i integrarea actelor psihice se nscrie ca a treia lege
fundamental a psihicului. Contiina are i un sens adjectival, este considerat
calitatea individului de a se identifica pe sine de nesinele, de a delimita propriul
corp prin contactarea altor corpuri; de a autoevalua fore prin msurarea energiei
cu uniti etalon etc.
n aceast ipostaz se delimiteaz trei planuri de manifestare suprapuse:
contient, subcontient i incontient. n concluzie, termenul contiin este definit
de psihologie i nu de cosmogonie, cum au ncercat s-o fac doctrinarii sectelor
scientologice. ntr-adevr, nu se poate vorbi de contiin cosmic deoarece
Universul nu este un corp viu. Dimpotriv, masa Universului e alctuit n mare
parte din stele cu temperaturi de milioane de grade, lipsite de apa fr de care viaa
nu e posibil. De asemenea viaa nu se dezvolt n spaiile interstelare unde
temperatura se apropie de zero absolut.
3. Dup prerea noastr, contiina de sine cosmic e o component a naturii
particulelor elementare i nu factorul care le genereaz. Aa cum s-a spus, adepii
sectelor au elaborat teorii eronate despre existena unor particule miraculoase
primordiale, implicate n geneza Universului (Particule Dumnezeu). Pentru
descoperirea acestor particule, presupuse miraculoase, s-au construit
acceleratoare de particule cu cheltuieli enorme. De exemplu, n acceleratorul de
lng Geneva (CHL) s-au nvestit fr succes miliarde de dolari.
Noi am demonstrat ntr-o carte intitulat Psihologie cosmic existena, n
masa particulelor elementare, a unei componente primar de psihic. De exemplu,
relaiile de respingere, neutralitate i atracie ntre particulele elementare

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(electroni, protoni, neutron) sunt manifestri psihice bazate pe:


a/ reflectarea sinelui i diferenierea de altul (procese intelectuale);
B/ semnalarea valorilor - pozitiv i negativ (proceselor afective) i a atitudinii
dinamice - de deliberare i aciune, de ndeprtare (voin). De reinut c aceste
elemente psihice nu genereaz materie, ci coexist cu ea. La ele se refer Biblia
cnd afirm existena cuvntului i luminii la nceputul ciclurilor evolutive.
IV.4. LEGILE GENERALE ALE COSMOLOGIEI
a/ Legea unitii Universului manifestat prin rotirea obiectelor componente n
jurul axei centrale situate n centrul spaiului infinit. Existena acestei legi nu poate
fi demonstrat senzorial fiindc graniele Universului sunt ntinse la miliarde de
ani lumin i cuprind cantiti enorme de particule ntunecate, adic invizibile.
Nici micarea tuturor obiectelor nu poate fi perceput vizual, deoarece particulele
elementare au viteza absolut de mare i masa invizibil de mic. De exemplu, fizica
studiaz particule subatomice pe care nu le-a vzut nimeni - nici chiar savanii care
le-au descoperit.
Totui, legile cosmologiei sunt cognoscibile prin metode specifice - punctate de
noi mai sus. Legea rotaiei masei Universului, bunoar, este dovedit adevrat
de existena particulelor elementare fugitive ineriale i eterne. Fiindc toate
obiectele sunt construite din particule elementare care alearg fr oprire, de un
timp infinit, se poate afirma, cu certitudine absolut, c i obiectele construite de
ele sunt dinamice. Cu alte cuvinte, este absurd s presupui c din coliziunile
obiectelor n micare se pot nate obiecte fr micare.
Aceast absurditate a fost dovedit de Avogadro n postulatul conservrii masei
i energiei obiectelor transformate.
Tot logic se deduce c toate obiectele se deplaseaz pe trasee curbe, deoarece
de-a lungul timpului infinit toate mobilele presupuse c ar avea trasee rectilinii ar fi
depit, fr ntoarcere, cele mai ndeprtate granie ale masei Universului.
n consecin, e paradoxal teoria newtonian care demonstreaz eronat c
echilibrul, unitatea i nchegarea astrelor e asigurat de atracia gravitaional.
b/ Aceeai motivaie se potrivete i pentru demonstrarea obiectivitii legii
integrrii obiectelor Universului prin rotaii supraetajate planetare, stelare,
galaxice De exemplu, Luna se rotete n jurul Terrei i, n cadrul sistemului
solar, nconjoar axa galaxiei, metagalaxiei
c/ Legea nchegrii masei astrelor prin nvrtiri n jurul axei propri. nelegerea
aciunii acestei legi este dedus logic din legiile prgiilor, potrivit crora fora
acionat la captul exterior al braului e cu att mai mare cu ct braul e mai lung.
Deci, obiectele situate la distan mai mare de axul de rotaie au o vitez mai mare
dect cele apropiate. Aceast lege ne ajut s nelegem de ce viteza planetelor
sistemului solar se micoreaz cu creterea distanei pn la Soare, iar viteza
obiectelor situate pe Terra crete cu distana pn la axa de rotaie. Acest fapt
dovedete c nu exist atracie gravitaional. Pentru acelai fapt n vid corpurile
cad cu aceeai vitez, indiferent de mrime. Desigur i alte legi merit formulate
ntr-un tratat de cosmologie, ceea ce nu e cazul lucrrii de fa, tratat pe care,
probabil, vom reui s-l redactm n viitor.

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Citm, ca exemplu, legile generale ale Universului din lucrarea Psihologia


consonantist a lui t. Odobleja:
Legea echivalenei; Legea adaptrii; Legea compensaiei; Legea reaciei;
Legea oscilaiei; Legea reversibilitii; Legea ineriei; Legea antrenamentului;
Legea automatizrii; Legea sensibilizrii; Legea exerciiului (exersrii); Legea
succesiunii; Legea succesiunii genetice; Legea minimului; Legea efectelor
latente; Legea consonanei; Legea transformrii.

76

CUPRINS
CUVNT NAINTE ....................................................................

PARTEA NTI
Universul realitate obiectiv etern
I.1. Cerul, lumina i cuvntul - Elemente eterne cosmice ................... 5
I.2. La nceput era cerul - spaiul infinit ......................................................... 6
I.3. Lumina primordial - fotonii, particulele elementare divine .................... 9
I.4. La nceput era cuvntul - ideea, legile particulelor elementare ................. 10
I.5. La nceput era cuvntul - legile divine ale iubirii, dreptii i adevrului.. 13
I.6. Crearea luminii pe ntinsul cerului ............................................................. 15

PARTEA A DOUA
Facerea pmntului n ase etape (zile)
II.1.
II.2.
II.3.
II.4.
II.5.
II.6
II.7.

n ziua nti pmntul era o nebuloas ......................................................


n ziua a doua Dumnezeu a desprit apele ...............................................
Dumnezeu a creat uscatul n ziua a treia ...................................................
Artarea lumintorilor - ziua a patra ........................................................
Crearea vieuitoarelor pe pmnt ..............................................................
Crearea plantelor i animalelor ................................................................
Crearea omului ..........................................................................................

17
19
21
22
24
26
28

PARTEA A TREIA
Teorii neorelativiste despre geneza i natura universului
III.1. Big-Bang-ul - teorie paradoxal a genezei universului ......................... 33
III.2. Acceleratorul de particule (LHC) un experiment apocaliptic (?!) .........
III.3. Paradoxul dilatrii universului ................................................
III.4. De ce nu se dilat universal .......................................................
III.5. Paradoxurile relativizrii micrii ...............................................
III.6. Paradoxurile relativizrii timpului ..................................................
III.7 Formula energiei (E= mc2) n viziunea teoriei neorelativiste,
un paradox (?) .........................................................................................
III.8. O abordare filosofic a existenei gravitaiei .............................................
III.9. O abordare filosofic a paradoxului gravitaiei ..............................

35
39
42
43
46
52
57
65

PARTEA A PATRA
Despre geneza i natura universului n viziunea cosmologiei
IV.1. Obiectul cosmologiei ................................................
IV.2. Natura universului - subiect de discuii contradictorii ...........
IV.3. Scientologia - teorie cosmologic paradoxal ...................................
IV.4. Legile generale ale cosmologiei ......................................................

77

71
72
73
75

Professor LIVIU FILIMON

THE SCIENTIFIC BASES


OF
COSMOLOGY

EDITURA DIDACTIC I TIINIFIC


BACU - 2013

FOREWORD
The present work proposes to deal with the existence of God, demonstrating
that the biblical ideas about the creation of the world are confirmed by the
scientific discoveries. As it is known, the authority of science increased very much
because of the generalization of education and because of the technical progress,
based on the knowledge of the laws of reality.
The astrologers' and biologists' discoveries cannot be ignored anymore. They
have to be used while explaining the religious texts which tell about the creation of
the Universe and the formation of the Earth, about the development of life and
man's origin.
Even if the methods of finding out the truth differ from science to religion, the
authenticity of veracity and its objectivity are absolute. For example, the religious
revelation can be an efficient method of finding out the truth. We noticed that the
affirmations we had found inside the Book of Creation proved to be true,
respectively they corresponded to reality.
We mention, from the very beginning, that the limitation of the present work to
the description analysis of the creation of the world inside the Old Testament is not
by a fluke. The ideas from these texts help us know God in his full greatness.
Obviously, there wasn't any eye to see - like Eminescu said what was at the
beginning and what was created first. Anyway, because the statements from the
Book of Creation are confirmed by science, this shows the value of revelation as an
unconscious method of finding out the truth.
This justifies why we haven't extended the analysis beyond the sixth day, which
ended with Sabbath (The Old Testament II/ I-3). We took into account the fact that
revelations suppose knowing the events which are predetermined by the laws of
reality. Through the necessity of these laws, God knows what he has to create. On
the contrary, the people's behaviour is free. It can't be predicted by necessity.
Sociologists proved that the prediction of individual conduits is statistical.
We say: It's sure that the x event will take place, but we don't know when.
Thus, the Christ's coming was expected,we felt he would come. That is why
we continued our analysis until the seventh day and we avoided to evaluate the
veracity of the facts in Adam and Eve's life, Cain and Abel's life or how Noe saved
human and terrestrial animal species from drowning, etc. Like other historical
events, they need proofs and evidences to be confirmed.
If we put together the stories from the history of Jewish patriarchs and the
revelations about the creation of the world, it would look like we agree with the
materialist atheists, who demonstrate scientifically that the great flood took place
only in a certain region of the globe at that period, because Noe's boat couldn't
gather all the species of terrestrial animals, etc. It is not recommended to generalize
the truth of biblical legends while teaching Religion at school.

In this work we want to argue the existence of God in a manner which is


accepted by intellectuals, based on the difference between the scientific truths and
the historical legends, which were written by chroniclers with a little divine gift.
The second part of the work is dedicated to the critics against neo-relativist
theories generated by the atheist philosophers. As a matter of fact, this chapter is a
collection of critical articles by which we demonstrate the paradoxical side of neorelativist philosophers' theories.
We hope to prove this way the necessity of some philosophical debates which to
help youngsters understand better the progresses of science.
In the last part we dealt with the premises of defining cosmogony as a science
subject.
We hope that the present work should be seen as a contribution of considering
cosmogony as a science subject.
The author

THE FIRST PART


I. UNIVERSE ETERNAL OBJECTIVE REALITY
I.1. THE SKY, THE LIGHT AND THE WORD
ETERNAL COSMIC ELEMENTS
God (...) He is everywhere - he has the space;
He is eternal - he has the time; He is almighty - he has the only energy of Universe
M. Eminescu - ( The atributes of divinity, manuscript 2267)

I.1.1. The argumentation of the truths from the Book of creation is difficult
because of the complex character of development problems and, mainly, because
of the dynamics of the talking terms, which change the significance by the passing
time. At last we refer to the words sky, word, light which had different
meanings in Antiquity.
For example, when they used the word Sky people referred at the reality
which appeared above the earth, respectively the clouds, the moon, the sun and the
stars...
They didn't try to imagine the distance between the stars and the Earth, how hot
they are, etc. The affirmation from the Book of creation: At first God created
the Sky and the Earth is concretized by the description of the stages of creating the
Earth and not by those of the evolution of stars and galaxies. That is why, in
Genesis it is told about the initial mass of gases (when the Earth didn't have a
shape), about the surface of water and the appearance of land etc. So, the
description, of the stages which preceded the formation of the Earth and of the
events which will happen after its burning is missing.
Thereby, the astronomers' discovery, in the far space evaluated at milliards light
years, of the groups of stars called galaxies, of some stars in exploision or during
their formation process, etc, doesn't disprove the statements from the Book of
creation referring to the creation of the Earth. On the contrary, the fact that the
description of the world's creation starts with the prediction that what was at the
beginning is like a correct appreciation of the Universe studied by astronomers
today.
Obviously, first it was the sky meaning the space in which there are, also
from the beginning, the light (the photons) and the word (the piece of information,
the laws which rule the elementary particles).
This way, even in the problem of the origin of Universe, The Book of
Creation is confirmed by science. It establishes the elementary particles as the
starting point of the evolutive cycle and it ends this cycle through BURNING,

meaning the desagregation of atoms and bodies, their separation into the particles
from which they were made.
I.1.2 So we keep in our minds the fact that the genesis described in The Book of
Creation means the formation of the Earth, of bodies and beings, under the
conditions of the existence of The Sky present from the very beginning. The
presence of the Sun in the fourth stage (day) of creation of the Earth is confirmed
by astronomy, which proved that the Earth was formed inside some particles
(nebula) which covered over the actual space of the Solar System.
The Sun was built up from the nucleus of this nebula simultaneously with the
formation of the other planets. In this initial state, says truly the Bible, the Earth
didn't have any shape. The most recent astronomical discoveries proved that the
presence of the clouds of microparticles (gases) in Universe which form stars,
planets and sattelits. So, the birth of the Earth is unique. The world has a beginning,
that described in The Book of Creation and confirmed by astronomy, divided
into stages of development called days and it will have an ending, The end of
the world, when the Earth will burn....
So, we have to keep in our minds, the fact that in the Biblical Genesis it is
described the creation of the Earth and of the Sky around it (the solar system) and
not that of the Universe as a whole. That's why the expression at the beginning
there was from The Book of Creation isn't accidental. This expression shows
primordial existence.
Its meaning clarifies everything if we reverse the statement, making a question:
What was at the beginning? The answer is clearly expressed inside The
Book of Creation: At the beginning there was light meaning photons and The
Sky, the space in which all the elementary particles moved.
I.1.3. The biblical statement At first God created the Sky and the Earth , refers
to the order of changes from Universe: first the Sky appeared and then the Earth.
The sun and stars in general appear before planets and sattelits because they form
themselves through the separation from their central nucleus. Moreover, the
separation between waters and land is caused by the law of aggregate shapes
according to which solidification appears at last, and the apparition of planets and
then of animals, is scientifically confirmed and logically concluded from the order
of the states of aggregation.
But, as it can be concluded from the above lines, inside The Book of Creation
it is clearly explained that at the beginning, meaning before the creation of the
Earth, there were: the Sky - the expanse, the infinite space; the light - the photons
the elementary particles; the word - the piece of information, the laws of the
particles which predestinate development.

I.2. AT THE BEGINNING THERE WAS THE SKY THE INFINITE


SPACE
Not having margins, the space covers the Universe, but it isn't Universe
B. P. Hadeu

II.2.1. It was said that space is a component of reality the endless expanse in
which is included the Universe.Actually, the creation of the world cannot be
imagined if it isn't admitted the fact that space preceded it in the hypostasis of a
place in which it could exist. In this way the statement from the Bible that at the
beginning there was the Sky is true, meaning the endless expanse of the Universe.
As it can be seen, we refer to the space as an endless expanse, like it is thought by
Titu Maiorescu in his statement: If we could imagine that Earth disappears, we
would send our imagination to the farthest planet; it cannot stop and it loses inside
the infinite space.
About place or space - says Heliade Rdulescu we imagine a point where we
are and, from one point to another, we create a line towards other point, to the
farthest star we can see in space. If we could move with our minds to the farthest
star from there, it will appear again such an extent around us. Without any
margin, the place, is infinite, boundless.
Indeed, we cannot imagine the absence of space, of the place where the stellar,
galactic, metagalactic, etc. systems, expand or contract, spinning around in multitiered trajectories, with speeds which increase by summation.
I.2.2. Some philosophers saw the unilateral space like a peculiarity (shape, size,
etc.) of the body, although through this perspective it isn't about the place, but it
limits the surface analysis, description which defines the weight of the body itself.
In fact we have two terms with different meanings here:
a) the background and the place taken by the body which is called space;
b) the spatial qualities (spatiality) of that body (the lines, the points, the areas
which contour it), the size, etc.
In other words, the space (the place, the surface) is a real, infinite, autonomous
existence, independent of matter, and spatiality is a quality of the body, one of its
forms of existence without autonomy, which disappears and changes at the same
time with the change of the body itself.
I.2.3. The idea that space (the place) is bigger than the Universe is extremely
important in demonstrating its objective character. If space were as big as the
material Universe, then it would become a quality of the matter, losing the
character of real, autonomous existence. Referring to this aspect of the problem,
Mihai Eminescu states that materialists say that there isn't void, that each place on

Universe is filled with matter. But we will bring here the following problem: at the
beginning of our solar system, the whole matter from which it was created formed
a huge nebula. If from the peripheral point which we occupy today, to the
peripherical correspondent point to a straight line it could take to the Sun, it would
go through a column of matter which was thicker than today. Between the volume
occupied by the Sun and the volume taken by the Earth, the matter wasn't ethereal,
but harder and thicker. So in the same space it can be more or less matter. In a glass
we can put iron , water or steam. So, in the same space it can be put a lot or a little
matter. From this we conclude that space must be larger than matter in order to get
the matter.
I.2.4. The genius Romanian scientist Bogdan Petriceicu Hadeu demonstrated
the infinity of space, identifying it with divinity.
Astronomy - says Hadeu proves that no matter how many worlds would be
and no matter how large would be this Universe which takes them all, they are parts
of an infinite. But the infinity, in which the Universe is, isn't equal or identical with
the total parts of this Universe, namely with the worlds a+b+c+z, because all of
them are bordered, each one having borders so their totality has borders, too.
Undoubtedly, from a mathematical point of view, to each concrete number we
can add another concrete number, another and another, and so on, endlessly, as if
one may imagine an infinite from a series of concrete numbers, but this series, no
matter how long it could be, won't be the total of these concrete numbers, as long as
a total is a sum, and the sum cannot be done until the calculation is over, when the
work stops, when a margin is added. The worlds from the Universe make every
moment a total sum, so they all are bordered as a whole a+b+c+z or individually: a,
b, c, z. This way, the Universe, is more than this a part of infinite, science cannot
understand the Universe without getting to the notion of infinite but, being there,
the Universe is presented like a pure happening.
This way, all of us, our Earth, our Sun, millions and millions of other suns and
other earths and other us, with other beings having senses, wishes and thinkings,
live, move, and are part of it. (According to apostle Pavel, we are in that infinite,
but we aren't it.). Like the globe is a bubble of soap spinning in a system, in the
same way the whole Universe, all the celestial bodies, together, are a kind of soap
bubbles rotating inside that infinite, which embraces and crosses them from
everywhere. Only it is everything, because outside it nothing could exist. Only for
it there aren't time and space, being boundless in time and space. Only it knows
everything, because it's enough to know itself, without any reason for analysing
the balance between ego and non ego.
Having as a starting point the astronomers' and the chemists' infinite, of the two
sciences which could be called alfa i omega one situated as high as possible and
the other one positioned as low as possible, we noticed that infinite is one and the

same: not having borders, it exists on its own and even if the Universe wouldn't
exist on its own: because without borders it cannot have any limited peculiarity, no
negative atribute, without borders it has all the positive atributes: good,
beautiful, true, right, science in one statement; without borders, it carries
on everything concerning itself, by imposing borders at everything it wants;
without borders, it cannot be identified or at least confused with the bordered
being, but all the same: without borders, carrying on everything concerning itself,
it is present in everything about its volition.
Name HIM as you like. The name doesn't mean anything. But because the
name doesn't change anything and you can name HIM as you like; let us call HIM
God. Obviously, not the reality of the space itself is God, but the extremely
important nature of his qualities: the permanence (without a beginning and an
ending), omnipresence (he is present everywhere), the infinity (it extends to
infinite in all directions). (B.P. Hajdeu, Sic cogito).
I.3. PRIMORDIAL LIGHT - PHOTONS, ELEMENTARY DIVINE
PARTICLES
At first there was light...God was light...
The Gospel of John (1/5)

I.3.1. In The Book of Creation light is found in three poses:


- As primordial particles preexisting to the creation of the Earth, of the Sun
and of the stars;
- In a diluted form, with luminaries immersed in clouds of gases and
vapours - in the first day of the formation of the Earth;
- At the appearence of luminaries, when the Sky lightened - in the fourth
day of Genesis.
The revelation at first there was light, meaning the elementary particles
(photons, quarks) refers to the origin of the Universe, at what was before the Earth,
Sun and stars around them. Obviously, before the beginning of Creation,
meaning since always, there were particles (photons) of light. According to the
biblical revelation, the present day things and beings weren't created from nothing,
like the authors of the book The atheist's guide use to say (l96l, p. 405).
The translation of the biblical word light through photons (elementary
particles) is essential for disproving atheism. Science demonstrated the cyclic
evolution of the Universe: from clouds (twirls) of particles, to stars which lighten,
disengaging the elements they were made of.
All the things from Universe are in this cycle: the constituent elements are
totalled during their development and they are released upon death. The terrestrial
world, formed by the elementary particles, will disappear through desegregation.
The elements - says apostle Peter will be taken apart by fire. The Earth and the
things inside it will burn. (The New Testament; Peter, III/10).

I.3.2. The revelation God was light expresses the absolute qualities of the
world, its location on the highest level of perfection, because:
- the elementary particles are eternal, they haven't started or finished, they
always existed and they will never disappear;
- the number of the elementary particles is the same for an infinite time, it will
never increase or diminish;
- the photons don't stop, they run continuously with the absolute speed of
300.000 km/s on curved tracks inside the Universe, or they rotate with the same
speed inside other particles, forming atoms and bodies, celestial bodies;
- the mass of the elementary particle is extremely small, meaning indivisible;
- the elementary particles are the support of the physical and biopsychic reality.
The opinion of some atheist philosophers according to which the mass of the
photon disappears and transforms in wave (electromagnetic wave) is wrong.
Movement is a quality of the body which cannot exist autonomously, in the
absence of the moving object. As waves need an undulatory liquid, in the same
way, electromagnetic waves are possible only like a movement of the field of
particles and their axial rotation.
- the laws which govern the world are included in the nature of the elementary
particles. The variety itself of developing things and beings, is foreboded by the laws
which govern the nature of light particles. That's way we may say that atoms, bodies,
celestial bodies, cells, life and psychic have as a support elementary particles, they are
created from light. The whole existence is light. God is light. All the light in the
Universe is God and nothing else beside it exists;
- the nature of the photon is pure. Inside the elementary particle there isn't anything
else beside it. In light there isn't darkness; in Universe, besides the elementary
particles which are solitary or grouped by the all-in space, there is nothing else.
Darkness means the lack of light. Where there is light, there isn't darkness. God is
light and in Him there is no darkness.(The New Testament John l/5)
- all the movement forms from the Universe have as support the elementary
particles. The movement of bodies carries the movement of the particles which
form bodies, things, beings. As it can be seen, we do not refer here to the concrete
light, found in the mass of the photon, but to its qualities, which seem to be
attributes of divinity.
I.3.3. As a conclusion, today, science allowed people to imagine God not like a
solitary character, an old man who lives in Heaven or moves on Earth, getting
closer to good people and farther to the bad ones.
Today, scientific knowledge helps us know the nature of Divinity. God is
everywhere, because all the existing things, space and elementary particles,
physical and biopsychic laws are divine, they are His creations. God is
everywhere - He has the space. He is almighty - He has the only source of energy of
Universe. (M. Eminescu, M. 2267).

10

I.4. IN THE BEGINNING THERE WAS THE WORD


THE IDEA, THE LAWS OF THE ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
In the beginning there was the word... and the word was God
John (l/l)

I.4. 1. The definition of the term word from the sentence: In the beginning
there was the word written in the Bible, generated contradictory discussions.
Some interpreters of Religion identified the word with the absolute, divine truth
(love, justice). In their turn, the atheist philosophers reproached Religion that by
explaining The Creation of the World from word, meaning from nothing, it
disclaims the causality principle.
A remarkable contribution for the correct interpretation of this term was given
by philologists and logicians.
D. Scriban, in Dictionary of Romanian language, puts the equal symbol
between word and idea (before The Creation of the World it was the idea). In
logic, the terms which designate objects and phenomena are called concepts. In
other words, concept is a word, an awareness which reflects the essential
characteristics of the object and the class of objects. For example, the word God
names the supreme being with all His qualities: omnipresence, eternity , kindness
etc.
The becoming of psychology as a science permitted the correct interpretation of
the word in depiction of idea. It was determined the cognitive function of the
word, the fact that it enables communication, it carries a piece of information
which expresses the objective reality.
In our opinion, when solving the problem of objectivity for the piece of
information which is taken in an idea, we have to take into account Leibnitz's
theory about the proportion between general and particular. The laws of nature,
according to the German philosopher, are general meaning ideas which reflect
common and essential particularities of individuals. Archimedes' law, for
example, doesn't stay somewhere. Its reality materializes in each sunk body which
loses from its weight as much as the replaced volume of water weights. The logical
content of the word primordiality stands out when we analyze God's attributes,
deduced from the authority of the laws that govern the physical, biological and
psychic reality. Although God is not in a certain place, He really envinces through
the authority (necessity) of the laws that govern the existence of things and beings
in Universe. Since the beginning, the elementary particles included the laws in
their nature predicting the subsequent development: the creation of the Earth,
plants, animals, man.
The laws are divine, because they function (everywhere) with absolute powers
(no one can trespass them) of an infinite time (they have no beginning or end).

11

Through them God is omniscient, without predestinating individual actions. The


affirmation no hair's breadth can move without God's knowledge is real in a
negative way. If cause is missing (wind, comb, etc.), the determinant fact, the hair,
doesn't move.
It's Lucian Blaga's merit to have proved that laws action negatively. They don't
permit us to break them, but they offer us the complete liberty to apply them in
different conditions.
As a consequence, God controls the world's movement and development,
punishing those who break the laws. For example, those who don't take into
account the law of falling bodies and throw themselves off the upper floors are
punished with death if they fractured their skulls, or with their bones if they broke
their legs etc. So, God doesn't know who will throw himself off, but only the
consequences of such an irrational behaviour. It results that the divine omniscience
doesn't annihilate liberty and individual accountability. In this way we have to
appreciate the importance given by religion to the knowledge of good and evil.
I.4.2. The affirmation that the idea, the word, the laws programmed in the
nature of the elementary particles are the starting point in the creation of the
Universe (In the beginning there was the Word) is completely true.
No movement (change, development, etc.) can be produced in Universe
without being accepted by the laws of reality. If in the elementary particles,
respectively, in the bodies they form, wouldn't be laws, the world would remain
motionless, development wouldn't happen.
The objectivity of the information from the elementary particles was
scientifically demonstrated through the discovery of the laws that govern the
physical, biological and psychic reality.
The whole Universe is formed by elementary particles, and the reality laws are
included in the nature of these particles. This is how the reversibility of the laws is
explained. For example, a body transformed from a solid state in a liquid knows
how to come back at its initial state and to repeat the phenomenon if the same
determinants interfere.
As important is the genetic information listed in the nature of the living body. It
preserves the programme of ontogenesis development thousands of generations.
Ontogenesis, says Ernst Haeckel, repeats phylogeny.
I.4.3. We also have to keep in mind the fact that the elementary particles contain
the prediction of development in different poses. For example, although the
Archimedes' law is an unique idea having the same meaning in every pronounced
language, it manifests itself differently. So, necessity couples with liberty. The
objectivity of laws can be demonstrated by analyzing the causative relations.
Between cause and effect there are correlations, which make possible
reversibility. The cause produces the effect, and this returns to being cause again

12

because it knows what was before.


For example, from the union between an atom of oxygen and two atoms of
hydrogen it results water. Under certain conditions water decomposes,
transforming itself in to oxygen and hydrogen.
This reversability of laws is absolute, it repeats without any exception,
whenever there are adequate conditions. Water molecule contains the information
of the subsequent becoming. Obviously, this is about a causative knowledge,
structured in the qualities of particles (mass, speed, force etc.) and not about a
knowledge of the knowledge of human type.
So we can say, properly, that laws existed from the beginning (word) planted in
the elementary particles (light), which predicted the subsequent development of
things and beings. This is the true meaning of the affirmation: In the beginning
there was the word and The Word was God.
The light, the photons, the elementary particles which existed in the beginning
of The Creation of the World, contained information (ideas) which prescribed
the subsequent possible development of things and beings.
I.5. IN THE BEGINNING THERE WAS THE WORD THE DIVINE
LAWS OF LOVE, JUSTICE AND TRUTH
Everyone who commits sin, also sins breaking the law
John (3/4)

I.5.1. It was said that the laws which govern the physical world, life and psyche
preexist in the nature of elementary particles. This doesn't mean that the particle
itself has a soul, which would be the same with the returning to pantheist and
animist theories. The elementary particles have qualities which, conjugated
under certain conditions, generate material bodies, living organisms and
psychosocial processes. In fact, for more than a century, biologists have been
trying to demonstrate the Darwinian evolution, without explaining what was in
the beginning.
We notice that also in this problem the revelation of Bible got it before science.
From the beginning there were the sky (the infinite space), the light (the
photons, the elementary particles) and the word (the laws of physical, biopsychic
and psychosocial reality).
I.5.2. The psychosocial laws mentioned in the Bible: love, justice and truth
correspond to the three sides of the psychic: affectivity, volition and intelect.
Indeed, the appearance of affectivity from the qualities of the elementary
particles is proved by their polar character. Each particle or group of particles
contains positive electromagnetic field (positive electricity) and negative
electromagnetic field (negative electricity). (See: Liviu Filimon,Cosmic
psychology).

13

Like emotions oscilate between love and hate, the particles attract or reject
themselves. In other words, the relations between the positive and negative affects,
respectively the laws of affectivity, are found in light, they have their origin in the
polarization relations from inside the elementary particles. The biblical revelation
God is the Love (John, 4/12) refers to the affectivity laws primordially existing
as an idea (In the beginning there was the Word and the Word was God).
Of course, human love, based on the knowledge of good and evil, is superior to
animal emotions and to the positive or negative attitudes from the life of plants,
cells and microorganisms. The higher we climb the evolutionary ladder, the more
and more perfect are the manifestations forms of affectivity. In this way, the
lessons from the Bible are specific only to man.
I.5.3. The first psychosocial law pre-existent in the elementary particles
manifests as relations between love and hate. The Bible tells us that God's
kindness is expressed by His love for people. Those who love people have inside
their souls the light of divine love. Those who love only themselves don't know
God, they live in darkness.Indeed, the love for the nearby person polarizes with
self-love, which can finalize with the craving for worldly pleasures. Pleasures are
tempting, for example they impel us to eat harmful food (alcoholic drinks), to
smoke, to drug ourselves, etc.
John the Evangelist took this into account when he said: Do not love the world
or anything in the world. If anyone loves the world(meaning the bodily desires)
and the lust of the eyes and the vain pride of lifelove for the Father is not in him.
(John, E. 1,2/ 16).
In fact it's widely recognized that the unlimited satisfaction of instinctual
pleasures has negative consequences. All vices bring sufferings, diseases,
misfortunes.
It should be borne in mind the fact that love and hate are telepathically
rewarded, through their benevolent or hostile attitudes; everybody who lives the
feeling of envy, suspicion, hate, etc. for a certain person provoques (telepathic
resonance) in his soul, similar feelings. So the polar relations between self-love
and love for the nearby person have a necessary, lawlike character. Those who are
dominated by selfish feelings, envy and rancour, live in darkness, have the Devil in
them. Those who love others, know God because God is love (John, E. 4/12).
It can be asserted, properly, that between God's love and our love for others
there are causative relations (the first psychosocial law). Loving people we have
God in our hearts, who is the true love (John 4/12).
If you don't love your fellows, there isn't divine love in you. Divine love can
only enlighten the heart of those who love others. He who says he is in the light,
and hates his brother, is in the darkness until now.(John, E. 2/8). He who doesn't
love doesn't know God, for God is love. (John, 4/8).
Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God (John 4/8).

14

Obviously, it isn't about a contemplative love here, but about that sustained by
facts.
Let us not love with words or speech says John the Evangelist - but with
actions and in truth.. (John, E. 3/18).
I.5.4. The second psychosocial law preexistent in the elementary particles
manifests itself like relations between truth and lie. The truth and the lie polarize,
they are contradictory, they exclude each other. God is the light of the truth. It never
denies himself (God is light and in Him there is no darkness). All the laws of the
Universe take actions consequently. They never lie. Through them Godknows
everything (They are ... Almighty God - John, E. 3/4.), because all happen with the
compliance of the laws. This way our sinful deeds cannot be hidden so we have to
confess them. Confession, meaning the admission of the truth, is the path to
salvation. Through true confessions, the divine light of truth stays in us forever.
(The truth which remains in us will be with us forever: - John, E/2.) In other words,
during confession, our soul gets the light of truth (The spirit is always that which
confesses, because the spirit is the truth - John, E. 4/1), namely the knowledge.
Also in psychiatry knowing the facts that generated psychic traumas
(psychoanalysis) gives the illner back the peace of mind, and contributes to his
recovery. We have also to note the involvement of confession in correcting the
conduct. It's not about the inclusion in the confessions group of all the ideas we
have had and the happenings we have lived - fact which is actually rightly
appreciated as being harmful and antisocial. The confession of the truth which is
encouraged by the Bible refers to the moral conduct. If you hide the committed sin
and you don't appreciate it as such, it's difficult to avoid its repetition. Telling
(confessing) the sin, replaces lie with the truth, paving the way to salvation.
I.5.5. The third psychosocial law, that characterizes will, manifests like polar
relations between justice and injustice ( If you know that he is righteous, you
know that everyone who does what is right has been born of him (John, E.2/2).
The sufferings of the misjudged person, his negative thoughts, telepathically
disrupt his soul, influence his conscious and subconscious sides. All the people are
tortured by fear, suspicion, nightmares. Also through telepathy are explained the
effects of curses, maledictions, etc., ofen practically proved. On the contrary, those
who are right have others' respect and love, get positive telepathic messages from
sincere people. This way the proverb: Bad do-harm find proves to be true.
I.5.6. In conclusion, psychosocial laws (the word) preexisted in the divine
nature of elementary particles. The atheist philosophers' theory which states that
psychic appeared from life, and life developed from substance, is flawed. Material
bodies, life and psychic have a common origin, divine light, elementary particles.
So they are created by God (in the beginning there was light and the light was
God).

15

I.6. THE CREATION OF LIGHT ON THE VAST SKY


And told to be light on the vast sky.
Old Testament (1/4)

I.6.1. As it has been said, in the beginning there was the light the photons, the
ethernal, divine elementary particles. At this stage of starting the evolutionary
cycle, when the lighteners were missing, the light was separated from the dark
only at the boundaries of the Universe.
The density of the elementary particles was small. (According to the
contemporary astronomical calculations, the density of the matter in Universe is
that of a nucleus/1 cm3).
I.6.2. Initially, photons were moving in all directions, on ellipsoidal paths. Their
uneven distribution was completed with the creation of particle agglomerations in
some areas and rarely in others. The actual appearance of light was produced as a
result of the collisions of particles and of the formation of swirls with plasmatic
hotbeds (nuclei), within which particles coalesced transforming the exterior
moving, from the sky, in interior moving, on the orbits of the atom. (The role of
concentrating the particles in the birth of stars was proved by the creation of
l5
2
modern lasers. Increasing the light intensity to over l0 Wcm leads to focus on
itself).
Thus, there were generated new forms of movement: caloric, sent step-by-step,
undulatory and bodily movement with displacements and swirlings in stellar
rotations. These primitive stars, immersed in clouds of gases, started to eliminate,
during the processes of aggregation and broke, huge quantities of photons,
becoming, as the Bible says, the sky lighteners (The Old Testament 1/4). With
these words, the Bible announces the first stage in the creation of the world - the
genesis of the stellar nebulae. It was proved that the planets, including the Earth,
were formed in the solar nebula after the organization of the Sun nucleus.
Astronomy confirmed this biblical revelation. All the stars known with the help of
the modern telescopes are arranged in swirling movements. On the contrary, the
clouds of gases, deprived of axial rotation movements, don't emit their own light.
I.6.3. The affirmation that the Sun and the stars were born from elementary
particles, nebulae from the decay of other stars which preceded them. This way, the
theory of Big Bang which sustain that the Universe was born by the explosion of a
ball of matter, is abberant.
The stars and the Sun were not generated by the dispersal, dissipation, and
explosion, but by the collision, the creation of swirlings in which the density of the
elementary particles got the maximum threshold necessary for the formation of
atoms and for the issuance of the photons.

16

I.6.4. As false is the theory of atheist philosophers according to which the Sun
appeared on the Earth from the very beginning, in the first stage of formation and
not after the formation of water and the clearness of the sky (the fourth day of
creation), as the Bible says. How is it possible that light, is wondering M.
Alexescu, to have appeared before the Sun. The creation of the Sun in the fourth
day is entirely produced.
In reality, the illumination of the Earth by the Sun took place in two steps. At
first, when the nebula of the Solar System was full of gases and cosmic dust, which
didn't permit the visualization of the Sun and later, after the Earth's crust was
covered with liquids (in the second day) and solids (in the third day).Indeed, the
Sun, the stars and the Moon appeared in the fourth day, that is when the
condensation and solidification of the gases which surrounded the nucleus of the
Earth cleared the atmosphere.
I.6.5. The Bible affirmation, that God separated the light from the dark, in the
first day, that is before the Sun appeared (in the fourth day), (That's how it was
evening and morning in the first day), is also scientifically confirmed. The
alternation of day and night is common to all the planetary nebulae which rotate in
a swirl. Through rotation around its own axis, they bound with one side to the core
of the Sun in the morning and enter the dark one in the evening. The presence of
evening and morning in the Bible in the first day is also confirmed by astronomy,
which demonstrated that the beginning of the Earth creation is caused by the axial
rotation of the initial nebula. Indeed, without the axial rotation which, like it was
said, generates ponderability, the bodies (gases, cosmic dust) would move near
each other.

17

THE SECOND PART


THE CREATION OF THE EARTH IN SIX STAGES (DAYS)
II.1. IN THE FIRST DAY THE EARTH WAS A NEBULA
And the Earth didn't have any shape- the first day
The Old Testament (1/1)

II.1.1. In the beginning of the creation of the Earth there have already been
created: the sky - the endless expanse; the light - the photons, the elementary
particles and the laws which govern them. The collisions of the fragments which
resulted from the burning, desaggregation of the stellar system which preceded the
solar system, gave birth to the clouds of gases, and the collisions of the gas clouds
generated vortexes of light-giving plasma matter. In the first day of Creation the
Earth was a vortex animated in the revolution movement around the central
nucleus of the solar system. In the words of the Bible: The Earth had no shape and
was a desert it is revealed the nebulous state in which existed the planets of the
solar system in the first day.
II.1.2. The development of astronomy as a science confirmed the biblical
revelation. Immanuel Kant's theory, which demonstrates that the solar system
appeared from a nebula, a cosmic cloud of gas and dust, is considered to be true.
The attraction and rejection forces order the unorganized matter (chaos). The Sun
forms in the centre of the cloud, and the planets form at the periphery. Broadly says V. Ureche Kant's idea is considered right even today.
Another researcher, mathematician Laplace, developed Kant's idea of the
formation of the solar system from a nebula. Laplace considers that in the process
of the planets formation the rotation of the nebula has an important role. Under the
action of gravity, nebula contracts. Being isolated, the total kinetic momentum of
the nebula preserves, so contracting its angular rotation speed increases(V.
Ureche, Astrofizica, vol. II, l987, p. 321).
II.1.3. Unlike Kant - Laplace's theory (completed by Jeans, Schmidt, Hazle
etc.), which confirms the affirmation from the Bible that in the beginning The
Earth didn't have any shape, meaning a gas mass, the partisans of the atheist
philosophy elaborated the theory of Big-Bang which sustains that the Universe
appeared l5 milliards years ago from the explosion of a very dense and hot mass of
matter.
In our opinion, the theory of Big-Bang is wrong, because it cannot explain the

18

formation of milliards of stars which are spread in the sphere of the Universe.
According to the dispersion law, the explosions finalize with the distribution of
particles in the surrounding space on angular trails, with the apex in the centre of
the explosion.
Therefore, the longer is the route, the particles, which were initially very close,
depart continuously from each other. If the routes were linear, they would depart to
infinite. Or, like the partisans of this theory want to explain this so-called distance
towards red (the supergalaxies get farther away from us with a speed which
increases with distance), it results that the animate particles from explosion which
move on ellipsoidal routes, continue to get farther away from each other, making
impossible the collisions and the concentrations of matter that are necessary for the
formation of stars.
Not even in the second part of their travel in the space of the Universe, when
they are close to the starting point, there are necessary conditions to form stars,
because the elements resulted from explosion are at long distances from each
other. Their concentration will come to a head only at the end of the ellipsoidal
route.
At the same time, the alleged explosion is contradicted by the dialectic cyclic
development. The phenomenon of accumulation, growing etc. is always anterior to
disaggregation, decomposition. Modern astronomical researches proved that in the
distant past, in the evolution state of the Universe, radiation (elementary particles)
was more important than the particles with rest mass . (V. Ureche, p. 258).
The theory of Big-Bang is also contradicted by the law of ponderation. All the
known stars have their own ponderation caused by the axial rotation movement
and by the revolution movement around the centre of the star formation (galaxies,
supragalaxies etc.) in which they are integrated. Or, the initial explosion cannot
explain the birth of these movements, whose speeds increase proportionally.
Of note is the fact that the so-called dilation of the Universe can be seen at the
faraway huge supergalaxies, which are formed of thousands of galaxies. Only
when we pass over the scale of the huge congestions, of hundreds of thousands of
galaxies, we can notice the expansion.. (John D. Barrow, Originea Universului,
l994, p. l9).
In other words, the dilation is noticed at distances where, practically,
observation is almost impossible. But the remoteness towards red, respectively the
speed increase of the supergalaxies, proportionally with the increase of its
remoteness has, in our opinion, a completely different explanation. At long
distances we don't observe individual moving stars, but groups of stars, meaning
supergalaxies.
But the running speed of the supergalaxies is bigger than that of the stars.For
example, the Solar System rotates around the galaxy axis with a speed of 29 km/s,
and our galaxy moves with 220 km/s.

19

II.1.4. As a conclusion, the assertion from the Bible that in the beginning the
Earth didn't have any shape is confirmed by science. In the first phase of the cyclic
development, the matter from which are formed the luminaries of the present solar
system was part of a nebula which used to rotate around the axis of the central
nucleus.
As for the theory of Bing-Bang, referring to the origin of the Universe, this is
discredited by scientific information. In the beginning of each evolutive cycle
there is matter, the energy of the luminaries from the previous cycle, respectively
the nebula from their disaggregation. This series lasts for an infinite time and will
never disappear. Otherwise, evolution would stop because ex nihilo nihil,
according to Lavoisier's postulate: Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything
is transformed.
II.2. ON THE SECOND DAY GOD SEPARATED THE WATERS
And God made an expanse and divided the waters which were under the expanse
from the waters which were above the expanse, and it was so.
The Old Testament (I/4).

II.2.1. We saw in the previous chapter that God created, inside the solar nebula,
a terrestrial nebula a vortex of hot gases with movements of axial revolving and
central rotation. In this creation act God performed through the laws of reality,
whose necessity is part of His nature. In other words, this divine creation was
produced by means of some causative relations, planted from the very beginning in
elementary particles. Thus, the creation of water, respectively the separation of
water on the Earth's crust by the water vapours in the atmosphere, is not an
arbitrary act. It was produced by necessity, governed by the laws of the
disaggregation states and by the laws of communicating vases.
But, the necessity of the laws of the Universe, which nobody can contravene, is
part of God's wish. As a consequence, knowing the reality laws helps us understand
how God created the world.
II.2.2. First, we mention the law of falling bodies determinated by mass and
axial and central rotation speed). Due to these movements, the gases from outside
were falling mainly towards the central zone. As they changed their temperature,
they became liquids. In contact with the hot crust, the drops transformed again in
vapours. So, in the first phase, the liquids that surrounded the Earth's core like a
cloak were formed by substances that become liquids at a high heat point. So, in the
beginning, water was only in atmosphere, in vapour state (clouds). (If we take into
account the fact that there are 1,1 milliards km3 of water on the Earth, plus the polar
glaciers, it's easy to understand why the Sun couldn't be seen from the Earth's crust
which was covered by clouds and opaque cosmic dust.)

20

II.2.3. Close to the law of falling bodies, at the constant maintenance of a


medium temperature on Earth (29 K), conducive to life development, actioned the
laws of thermodynamics. As it is known, heat is a movement of particles
transmitted step by step, like the waves of a water. In order to move, it needs an
intermediary which, in the Earth's case is water. For example, on the second day of
Creation, the warmth of the liquids on the ground, taken by vapours during
evaporation, was transferred to the outer layers of the atmosphere.This way, the
vapours transformed again in raindrops at the contact with cold air, were
ponderally falling down the hot crust. Gradually, the crust temperature fell below
1000C, allowing the accumulation of water on Earth. So God's creation of an
expanse of water on Earth was produced according to the laws of reality.
If the solar heat had missed, the cooling would have continued till the total
freezing of water, like at the poles, which are less luminated by the Sun. Due to the
constant temperature of the nucleus of the Earth and to the brightness of the Sun,
temperature remained relatively unchanged for hundreds of millions of years.
It should be also noted that water played the role of moderator in the transition
of day to night. As it is known, soil warms and cools faster. Water accumulates and
succumbs to the heat more slowly, contributing this way to the avoidance of
extreme temperatures. So, with all the variety of environmental conditions and the
myriad determinants (alternating day with night, of winter with summer etc.),
since the beginning life on Earth has had, water in liquid state necessary for the
development of every living creature. On the other planets, without liquid water,
life cannot develop.
II.2.4. Of course there are also other laws that have implied in the formation of
water on Earth and from atmosphere. We refer to the pressure distribution of gases
and liquids on equal surfaces with equal forces and to the law of communicating
vassels.
The first law, of uniform pressure distribution, is at the basis of the air
movement on routes and with speeds determinated by the differences of
atmospheric pressure. It is known that the simultaneous measurements of
temperature and atmospheric pressure, of wind speed and direction, in different
points on the globe, allow meteorologists to forecast weather today. Air heating
reduces the density and trains the masses of cold air, with big density to move and
equalize pressure.
The second law, also called Pascal's Principle, govern the water circulation
from high to low areas. Its action caused the formation of springs and rivers, lakes,
seas and oceans. Also, under the action of this law there were created webs of
underground water. These two laws determined the movement of the clouds and
marine currents from one place to another tempering the thermal variations,
determining the maintaining of the climate within the limits necessary to preserve
life.

21

II.2.5. As a consequence, the Bible assertion: And God made an expanse and
separated the waters from above it... (The Old Testament, 1/4), is confirmed by
science.
Mihai Eminescu intuited genially this process stating that at first there were
falls, cloud breaks (it was chasm, abyss) and then water expanse (it was a large
throng of waters). Obviously, the aggregation states of water are actually
involved in the regulation of temperature and speed, maintaining humidity,
programming of rains, etc. at average rates.
The presence of water in liquid state preceded and conditioned life
development. Not by chance the body of all the living creatures is formed on
average of 2/3 water (as much as it represents the proportion between Earth's
surface covered by water and the land). The loss of 10% from the body water
brings death. Likewise conclusive is the correlation between the lack of water on
the planets from the solar system with the absence of any form of life. (For
example, temperature varies on Mercury from +4000C to -800C, that is in the limits
which make impossible life based on water).
The thermoregulatory role of water is even more evident in the body of the
living creature and also at the cell level. Both in summer and winter, the body
temperature remains relatively constant (360C). At the cell level water varies its
0
0
0
temperature mathematically from l5 C to 45 C or to 60 C. It is assumed that it is an
invariant which, under the conditions of the primary cell, when life appeared on
Earth, it also fulfilled the role of a carrier (Magazin, 1608/1982).
II.3. GOD CREATED THE LAND - THE THIRD DAY
God said: let all the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place,
and let the dry land appear.
The Old Testament (l/9)

II.3.1. It was said that in the first day of Creation the Earth was a nebula which
rotated like a cyclon around the solar nebula's core. In the second day, the hot
gases condensed and fell ponderally towards the central area. Obviously, because
of the substance differentiation of the melting point, the liquefactions and
solidifications were produced gradually. The central nucleus resulted the first
being iron (m.p. 15350C), nichel (m.p. 14520C), metals with a high melting point
and with a big magnetic load.
Due to the high temperature differentiation between the central and peripherical
area, the vertical movements of the terrestrial matter had a dominant character in
the beginning.
The volcanic eruptions and the torrential rains, the evaporations of the
raindrops at the soil contact, etc., separated the cold gases from outside, by the
warm ones from inside. Of course, in the beginning, the central nucleus was much

22

hotter and bigger than today, when it has a diameter of 6400 km and has a
temperature of 100 K.
II.3.2. This was followed by the condensation of silicon gases, magnesium
0
(m.p. 560 C) and of other elements with small melting point and magnetic
conductibility. The cooling process ended with the nucleus covering with a thick
cloak of 300 km. Initially, the liquids which delimitated the Earth's surface of the
atmosphere, had a temperature of hundreds degrees. So, water wasn't deposited on
the Earth's surface but only at the same time with the formation of the solid crust,
having today 40 km thickness and lowering the temperature below 1000C. When
Earth became an expanse of water, the silicon, the magnesium, etc. were already
solidified. The collapse of the crust in some regions and its raisin in other places
determinated the land's appearance. So, the stocking of water in lakes, seas and
oceans was caused by the law of communicating vessels. The oscillations of levels
caused by the volcanic eruptions became more prominent after the collision with
asteroids, etc. It is confirmed the assertion that life developed after the temperature
0
of the water which covered the terrestrial crust got down under 100 C.
As it can be noticed, all these changes happened in accordance with the laws
governing the aggregation states. So, God created the world through the laws of
reality, whose necessity is contained in His attributes.
Between the quantity of heat assimilated during evaporation and that liberated
during liquefaction and solidification there are causative relations. This way is
explained the cyclic evolution of the Earth, which is determined by two sources of
energy: the solar light and the temperature of the Earth's nucleus. In this process
water plays the role of regulator. It maintains a constant medium temperature on
Earth, necessary for the existence of the living creatures. When the heat increases,
the ice melts, the water evaporates, the sky covers with clouds the solar heat
diminishes, too. Inversely, if the temperature decreases, the vapours liquefy, ice is
formed and accumulated heat is eliminated. Everything runs like a perfect clock.
When drought is prolonged in some places, storms and floods appear in others.
II.3.3. Of course there are also other factors that act like regulators for the
climate on Earth. The most important of them is life. The organisms of the living
things work by regulating their own body temperature, so that water in solid state
to make metabolic processes work in optimal conditions. For example, the
increasing of the body temperature is diminished through perspiration. The
phenomenon is also met at plants. The plants absorb water from soil with the help
of the roots and eliminate it through leaves encouraging the rain clouds formation.
(And the trees climbed the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground.
The Old Testament, 2/6)

23

II.3.4. In conclusion, science demonstrated that the land evinced, like The Bible
says, through the gathering of waters in some places and the formation of the
oceans, seas, etc. in other places. Note that the appearance of the earth wasn't
caused by the decrease of water, but by its gathering, at the same time with the
unevennesses caused by the volcanic eruptions, ground falling-in and collision
with asteroids. Because the quantity of water on Earth is relatively constant, the
extend of land in one part of the globe is related to the restriction of water in another
part. This way, the complete end of the world cannot be caused by a flood. Floods
are always zonal. (This being the scientific, true explanation, it will be also
distinguished in The Old Testament the legend with the impacts of flood and
Noah's Ark).
II.4. THE APPEARANCE OF THE LUMINARIES
- THE FOURTH DAY
And God said: Let luminaries be on the strength of heaven,
To give light upon the Earth.
The Old Testament (l/l4)

II.4.1. It was said that God created, in the first day, the terrestrial nebula.
Initially, The Earth didn't have any shape, it was a mass of incandescent, opaque
gases, through which the sun rays couldn't pass. The concentration and
stratification of gases started at the same time with the birth of the vortex,
respectively the rotation of the terrestrial nebula around its own axis.
Concomitantly with the axial movement there was also produced the partial
illumination of the terrestrial globe delimiting the day by night (And there was
night and there was morning, the first day). So, from the place where the solid part
(the crust) separated from the gaseous part (atmosphere), the Sun couldn't be seen
in the first day. The light was crepuscular, like night and morning.
II.4.2. But the alternative illumination of the terrestrial nebula was not a
mysterious, paranormal phenomenon, an arbitrary creation. The axial rotation of
the terrestrial nebula was part of the movement of the whole Universe. Like it was
mentioned before, the Earth rotates around its own axis and around the Sun, and
together with this it surrounds the Galaxy's axis. In its turn, the Galaxy rotates
around the metagalaxy's axis and so on to the boundaries of the Universe. The
summatiom of these super tiered ellipsoidal movements generates the unity of the
Universe. So, the alternative illumination of the terrestrial globe (when a part of the
emisphere is illuminated, the other one is dark) took place according to the laws
that govern reality. By the necesity of these laws, God manifests his omnipotence.
Indeed, laws have absolute authority. Nobody can stop their action. If God
contravened the laws of reality, he would deny himself, because they express his
absolute power.

24

II.4.3. Returning to the problem of the axial rotation, we point out that without
this kind of movement gravity doesn't exist, and without any alternative
illumination (day night) and different (winter summer) The Creation of the
World couldn't be possible. For example, the microparticles that form the gas
clouds, comets, etc., which aren't implied in the axial rotations, don't have
gravity. They move near each other, in relatively fixed positions, without any
evolutive phase.
Moreover, the rotation movement created the gravitational force, implied
decisively in the matter concentration and stratification of the terrestrial nebula. At
first the iron and the nickel metals with high melting points fell towards the centre
of the Earth. While the gases got colder, the condensations and the gravitational
fallings intensified. Gradually, the nucleus of the Earth was covered by a metallic
cloak (having today a 300 km thickness) and with a crust (of 40 km thickness),
invaded by liquids, separating the second day of Creation, when The Earth was an
expanse of waters.
II.4.4. There followed the separation of the waters from atmosphere (clouds)
and the waters on the earth (seas, oceans) and the appearance of the land. At the end
of the third day there was formed the atmosphere from cold gases (nitrogen,
oxygen). As a result of eradicating atmosphere of cosmic dust, reducing the
volcanic erruptions, cooling the crust and gathering water on the ground, etc., the
air became transparent and The Sun, The Moon and the stars came in sight - on the
fourth day. (After some calculations it was concluded that only one injection of an
insignificant quantity of powder a layer of 1 mm thickness at the surface of the
globe would reduce the transparency of the atmosphere for the solar radii with
20%, for a period of 100.000 years).
Thus it becomes evident that Iaroslavski's and other atheist philosophers'
criticism, referring to the appearance of light (on the first day) before the
luminaries (on the fourth day), is erroneous. Like it was scientifically proved, first
the nebula rotated and it was luminated by the Sun at the exterior and then the hot
gases solidified, water stored on the crust, the atmosphere became transparent and
the Sun influenced the development of creatures on Earth. At the same time,
science also proved that first the nucleus of the Sun thickened and then the rotation
of the Earth's nucleus accelerated.
So, it is not the Bible which is ignorant, but the atheist philosophers' theory
(The biblical fairytale says Iaroslavski - that God created life on Earth before this
one being illuminated by the Sun, is an absurdity, an invention of the wild and
ignorant man.)

25

II.5. THE CREATION OF THE LIVING THINGS ON EARTH


In the beginning it was the word and everything was made through it...life was in it.
The Gospel of John (l/l5)

II.5.1. Although a lot of philosophers and biologists tried to explain the genesis
of life, they didn't succeed to establish a widly accepted theory. On the contrary,
there were conflicting, partisan positions between them. While the representatives
of the religious denominations were interested in commenting the biblical
revelations, stating that God was the creator of life, the atheist philosophers and
biologists tried to demonstrate that the living organisms were born from chemical
reactions, thunderstorms, etc., produced in a certain aquatic environment. Not
even the creators of the evolutionary theory, theory set up by Darwin, succeeded to
demonstrate the birth of a species from another species and the the origin of man
being a monkey, although they gathered a huge number of similarities between
the species that populate the Earth.
II.5.2. In our opinion the registred failures are, firstly, due to the erroneous
interpretation of the life concept and to the ignorance of the time factor. The
Darwinist partisans didn't understand the essence of life. They neglected the fact
that life is not only a body having a certain structure, composition, etc., but also an
organism having a capacity of self-development based on knowledge, affects and
volition. A creature becomes life (living body) only if it is an individual who builds
his own body, defends himself, procreates, etc. Or, the scientists who experiment
the building of life design robotic combinations, create predetermined outdoor
structures not programmed from the inside, self-determined. Moreover, the
Darwinists didn't took into account the fact that for building the body of an actual
living creature and the genetic programming of his reproduction, there are
necessary transformations which last hundreds of millions of years, inside
hundreds of thousands of generations. But the worst is the fact that life exists in the
Universe for an infinite time (from the very beginning). It was born from light
(photons) on the basis of the word (information, laws) inside the elementary
particles. In this sense, the researchers' hard work of building life from nothing
ended in a complete failure.
II.5.3. In the Bible it is said that life was in light and in word from the
beginning. Indeed, life wasn't born at a certain moment from something, it doesn't
have a beginning. It has always existed in the light, in the photons which all the
things are made of. At the same time life was from the beginning in word (life was
inside it), that is in the laws of the elementary particles which predict the
development of microorganisms, plants, animals and human being.
But the claim of the Bible that in the beginning life was inside light doesn't
have to be interpreted like an identification of the life with the mass of the photon

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and its equatability with God. Note that not the photon itself is God, but the
absolute force from the elementary particles, the eternal need of the laws that
predict and generate the development of things and living souls. This way, it would
mean to join the animist concept that enlivens matter.
For the same reason we don't have to equate God with the Universe. God doesn't
have a body created from the matter of the celestial bodies and the life of the
individuals that live inside the Universe. God is the absolute willingness that
makes possible the existence and development of the world, he is the absolute truth
that dwells in the necessity of the laws that predict the possible and impossible
changes from the Universe, he is the affectivity, the love that bounds the humans'
and living creatures'souls and makes possible the universal harmony.
II.5.4. The creation of life on the Earth started as a result of the Sun illumination
of the vortex of the terrestrial nebula, its axial rotation and the separation between
day and night. (And it was evening and morning on the first day.) - 4 - 5 milliards
years ago.
The first life forms developed on the second day 3 - 4 milliards years ago, at the
same time with the appearance of the water expanse- on the surface of the Earth.
They were acellular beings, they didn't have membrane or nucleus. On the third
day, 2,5 - 3 milliards years ago, when the land appeared and the waters created seas
and oceans, there appeared the cellular organisms. They possessed a membrane
which was capable of closing inside an aquatic medium, endowed with all the
necessary elements for the individual's existence.
On the fourth day, the third important start in developing life happened: the
creation of pluricellular organisms. They appeared two milliards years ago, at the
same time with the purification of the atmosphere of gases and opaque particles at
the moment of the breakthrough of the sky and show up of the Sun, Moon and stars.
Throughout another period of time, of about 800 million years, on the fifth day,
there were created the plants and the animals. (And God said: Shall waters make
a lot of animals, living things and birds...And God blessed them all saying: Be
fruitful and multiply., The Old Testament 1/20).
Keep in mind from the above quote that God didn't act directly like a person,
when he created the living things, but indirectly (waters produced them). The
living things developed under certain environmental conditions, governed by the
laws of reality.
II.5.5. As a conclusion, the stages of the Creation of the world delimited by
the Bible in six days, are confirmed by science. Indeed, like The Bible, science
describes the formation of the Earth through the transformation from the plasma
state (nebula) to the liquid and then solid one, according to the order of the
aggregation states. Both science, and religion, consider the separation of waters
from land and the appearance of the Sun decisive events for the transition from

27

simple forms of life to the superior ones. The divine will and the authority of the
reality laws are contradictory. God's omnipotence consists precisely in the
authority of law. This way, by developing science and knowing the truth, man is
closer to God, he opens the way towards salvation.
II.6. THE CREATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
God said: Let Earth give green lawns, herbs bearing seeds in them.
The Old Testament (1/11)

II.6.1. As a result of the accumulation of a great number of information about


the anatomy, phisiology and behaviour of the animals that populate the Earth, at
the end of the previous century there developed the biological sciences. At the
same time with the clasification of the living creatures there were formulated
theories that explain the mechanism of genesis on the basis of the similarities
between species.
The English biologist Charles Darwin has the merit of having elaborated a
synthesis of these theories based, largely, on empiric observations. Note that the
Darwinist theory of evolution was elaborated when the molecular biology wasn't
established like a scientific discipline. Only at the middle of the XX century it was
discovered the spiral made up of the chromosomes which stores the program
development branch.
As a consequence, Darwinism explained simplistically the genesis of man,
indicating as ancestor the animal with the most similarities. In this way, the
orangoutang was declared the closest human relative because, the faces, descend
together from a common species of monkeys. Unfortunately, school took the
Darwinist thesis uncritically and spread it to the masses through the textbooks. It
was created a contradiction between Religion, which states that man is a unique,
divine creation and the textbooks, which consider him a descendant of certain
animal species.
II.6.2. In opposition to Darwinian theory, lately, there were elaborated theories
based on molecular biology. They state that the transition from one species to
another is realised through the medium of the embryo created by the fertilization of
an ovum by a spermatozoon and the selective fusion of the genes in question.
But, the being that is born as a result of fecundation isn't an ad hoc creation. It
bears inside the chromosomes genes the genetic information acquired along the
time. This idea was revealed in the Gospel of John where it is says that That one
who comes after me I mean my son was before me in the chromosomes of the
parents that I was born from because this was in me before (The New Testament
1/15). Indeed, in a person's genetic information his descendants are scheduled.
Like it is known, modern science confirmed the filial continuity of life, related

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in the Bible and let uncovered the Darwinist, based on empirical observations and
the inventory of the similarities between species. Contemporary researchers
founded their scientific explanations on the discoveries in genetics. They
demonstrated that the essential element that ensure the passage of life from one
generation to another is the fertilization of the spermatozoon ejaculated by the
man, of the ovum eliminated by the female. Hence the lack of identity between the
individuals of the same species or even between the siblings of the same family.
II.6.3. The recent establishment of the molecular biology, proved the existence,
at the modern animals, of some prehistoric genes. This way it was concluded that
the development of the embryo, in the first period of life, is scheduled by a
common genetic system. For example, the limbs development, be they feet, jaws,
wings, is programmed by a common genetic mechanism, elaborated probably 6-8
hundred million years ago, which continues to be implied in the life of actual
species.
Several researchers (Sean Carell, Neil Shubin, Cliff Tabin) have already
discovered genes that determine the development of these limbs at six of the main
species of organisms including the vertebrates, insects and fish (Magazine, 20,
1997). So it may be stated, properly, that the common and stable medium factors
(water, air, solar light, etc.) determined the development of same features for all the
species living on the Earth, even if they don't appear one from another.
But the differences, for instance, between the nippers of insects, fish fins,
mammal limbs etc. demonstrate that the genes multiplied in different stages of
evolution.
As a consequence, the organism of an actual animal has got old genes, created in
the first stages of genesis at a larger number of species, and new genes, formed
subsequently. Their entry into action produces successively, in different stages of
the embryo growth. Ontogeny repeats phylogeny- says Haechel. (The
phenomenon of correlation manifests differently at each species. The evolution of
the monkey embryo is not identical with the evolution of the human embryo). The
genetic programs action in the order of their elaboration. The organs that suffered
minor changes, respectively ended their early evolutionary cycle, continue even
today to be governed exclusively by genes created on the first steps of evolution.
They grow up first. For example, the eyes mature first, because the action of light
intervened the first and it remained relatively constant, along the time. On the
contrary, the brain, implied in the adaptation of dynamic conditions of the natural
and social environment, matures the last. It turns out the erroneous assertion that
man is descended from ape based on the existence of similarities. Numerous
elements common to living creatures are the product of the relationships between
environment and heredity, as a result of evolution.

29

II.6.4. Note that initially life developed like an adaptation to the environmental
conditions relatively common to all living. The same chemical composition of
water and air, the same wavelengths of the light particles persisted hundreds of
millions of years on the whole surface of the Earth. That explains why the systems
and body organs, created on the first steps of evolution, are common to all the
species. For example, the breeding through cell division is common to plants and
animals, not because animals come from plants or inversely, but because all the
living creatures progressed on the evolution road, aquiring these mechanisms.
II.6.5. Differences were subsequently profiled, at the same time with the
changing of environment, with the multiplication of its peculiarities. For example,
the living creatures from the aquatic environment evolved on a proper line dictated
by the characteristics of water which, like it is known, are different from the
characteristics of the air.
Another example: the plants, dependent on the place where they stick their
roots, developed mechanisms intended for the orientation of the stems and
branches, leaves and flowers toward light and of roots toward humidity, etc. In
turn, the mobile living creatures created specific forms of movement:
transforming the body in a kind of arm suitable for twisting and turning, or
possessing it with fins for swimming, wings for flying, legs for running, fingers for
grabbing, tail for hanging, etc.
Obviously, the differences weren't caused only by the common impact of the
elements from a certain kind of environment, but also by the laws of heredity. We
refer, firstly, at the bisexual breeding, beneficial to the differentiations of
predispositions. Indeed, due to the mixture of genetic information realised in the
moment of coupling the spermatozoon with the egg cell, individuals that belong to
the same people (tribe) etc., loom with minor variations.
It follows from this that the inventary of the similarities between man and ape is
not significant for solving the problem of the genesis of the human species.
II.7. THE CREATION OF MAN
And God created the man after his appearance.
He created both man and woman.
Genesis l,26-28

II.7.1. It was said that all the things (macroparticles, bodies and luminaries) and
living creatures (microorganisms, plants, animals and humans) are created from
light, that is from elementary particles called photons today (At first it was the
light). So, the qualities of primordial light are the support for the matter (of the
Earth) of all the actual things and beings. Indeed, the elementary particles,
photons (light) form atoms and molecules, bodies and luminaries, plants, animals

30

and human beings, and, through decomposition (burning....) they return to the
initial cyclic states (From ground you are made of and in the ground you will
return says the Bible referring to the impermanence of the living creatures'bodies
and to their common origin.
The photons (the light) take part of God's nature, but they are not God. In this
sense we have to explain the Adam's resemblance with Divinity (Created by God
after his image and resemblance). Like we will argue later, when we will point out
the Darwinist errors, the combinations between the photons that gave birth to the
cells of the living creatures, marked by the developing of the genetic schedule,
represents the decisive factor in creating the initial cells differently. So, the first
man, was a cell, completely different from the first cell of the ape species or the
other species of living creatures.
II.7.2. The first forms of life on Earth were in water. They were charecterized by
the absorption of light and by the construction of inorganic substances. From the
beginning there were moments when water disappeared (it moved elsewhere)
because of the evaporation and freezing or the law of vessels' action. Life adapted
to such unfriendly conditions, through the development of individual survivors
gifted with a proper organism able to acquire and preserve inside it the water
bearing substances and energy.
In our opinion, the individualization of life and the autonomous bio-psychic
coordination represents the birth certificate of all the species, man's too. In other
words, the appearance of the species was caused by the individualization process,
of structuring an organism, respectively of creating the cell. Each species has its
own origin (start). The atheists biologists'claim that from a certain mother-cell
were born and developed all the species is wrong. Equally wrong is the import life
from the outer space through a single cell that came on Earth.
It should be also noted that the human cell had a special status from the
beginning, it was located on the first level of perfection, it had its appearanced
marked by qualities hardly seen at other living bodies). In fact, if today we could
analize comparatively the genetic information of all the living bodies'cells, the
human cell would be situated on the first step of perfection, both as physical
structure, and as psychophysical qualities. Thus, in terms of perfection, man is
similar to God, who holds the absolute attributes of existence.
The man's creation after God's image and resemblance does not refer to the
skin colour or height, the number of ears or the colour of the eyes, but to the
physical, biotic and psychosocial qualities based on maximum of energy. For
example, the 17 milliards of neurons represent a physical construction energized,
extremely complex, physiological and psychological processes of human type are
nothing comparable to those encountered at apes, etc. As it is known, man is the
most intelligent, loving and fair of all the living creatures on Earth.

31

II.7.3. A critical step on the way of life evolution was the creation of celullar
organisms. The membrane of these cells had, from the beginning, the filtering
function of nourishing substances. At the same time, the cell body became a
storage of water and nutrients and defense substances against the external
aggressors. In the latter case we point out the appearance of the protective bones,
transformed into ribs, under the membrane.
In our opinion, hominoids appeared like a distinct species once with the
structuring of celullar organisms, differentiated by the number of chromosomes
and the content of genetic information. Thus, from the beginning human species
was situated on the first step of development through its physiological and
biopsychic qualities. This way, the origin of actual species must be dated from the
first days of creation of the Earth when waters separated (the second day) and left
the land. Each species went on a proper road of development dictated by
environmental factors and by the law of scattering of individual differences. In
prehistoric times, marked by differentiation of the aquatic environment from the
terrestrial one, the living creatures were cellular organisms. As an instance that
things work this way is the fact that even today, for example,from a certain cell
develops a certain tree. The Romanian scientist Gh. Palade and the brilliant
philosopher the poet Lucian Blaga brought their contribution to the discovery of
truths about the wonder seed. It is important to keep in mind the fact that the
Bible quotes the seed when it describes the creation of life. (...shall Earth give
herbs... with seeds in them).
Later evolution resulted in the aquisitions of qualities which separated the
aquatic species from the terrestrial ones... so much that today it is not possible to
change the environment anymore. No terrestrial living creature can live in water as
hard as it would try.
Presently, the development of apparatus and body organs depend esentially on
genes formed hundreds of millions of years and are propagated hereditarily. The
experiment with the cutting of a dog's tail at its birth, successively along 10
generations, resulted in a failure. The cub from the last generation was born with a
tail too, because its body constitution is not programmed only by the prehistoric
genes, but also by those created afterwards.
That's why, the transformation of the ape into man is impossible. For example,
human-like intelligence is based on language. Or, the ape never communicated
with the help of the tongue in order to develop its phonomotor apparatus and to
develop its speech centre changes that are prodeced along hundreds of thousands
of generations. Not even the dolphin's intelligence can get human qualities. It has
32 sound signals, while man distinguish thousands of words.
Obviously, not all the species evolved at the same rate. They have progressed
parallely with the complexity of the environment. On the lower step of
development there are plants. They procure nutritious substance with the help of
micro-organisms.

32

Their qualities are determined by the soil composition, climate and by the type,
and density of the microorganisms from the place where they sticked the root.
Animals are situated on a higher step because of their movement and effort to get
food in different conditions and means to satisfy organic needs.
Man takes the first step on the ladder of development. He is the master of the
world, because he is stronger and more intelligent than all the living creatures.
Man's life depends not only on the bacteria in his own body (involved in digestion,
etc.) and the plants and animals which he feeds with, but also on the social life
within which he satisfies both his organic needs and the spiritual ones.
II.7.4. For a long period of time man has lived happily, without thinking about
the next day. Fruit, animals and fish, etc. were at his disposal all the year. He
enjoyed all the fruit on Earth, due to his exceptional characteristics. Man's
superiority is inbred, it is in his physical composition and in his psychic abilities.
Man has the best means of moving (biped) and of action (manual). At the same
time, the vertical position broadens the horizon of knowing the environment. And
in his defence through struggle he is very endowed. Man's force is enhanced by his
ability of punching, of throwing and prolonging the arm with the help of weapons,
etc.
But the most important human particularity, determined by such positioning
factors, is represented by the anatomical conformation of the oral cavity, that
allows him to communicate and to acquire information using the articulated
speech. Monkeys, dogs, cats can communicate only by screams, barking, miaows,
because they have an oral conformation which makes impossible human-like
speaking.
II.7.5. We cannot forget the decisive role of the social life in the development of
the modern man. Without a well-organised group-life, able to provide the 15-20
years old children's care, until maturity, the existence of the human species it is not
conceivable. The herbivore can leave its baby after a few months. The experience
accumulated from the previous generations, fixed in the spinal cord in the form of
reflexes is sufficient for the satisfaction of needs.
The ratio between the encephalon and the spinal cord in humans (1/20 in
monkey) demonstrates the role of the experience gained during his individual life
that becomes sufficient only after 16-18 years. Of course, the human encephalon
developed during hundreds of thousands of generations. Probably humanity has
known multiple social organisations. As a result of cataclysms or other causes, the
family, tribal life, etc. resumed from the end. Fire, lever, wheel, etc. were
rediscovered by the succeeded societies. This explains why the children of some
primitive tribes, who have never found out about the knowledge of books, can
learn how to write and read without any difficulties.

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II.7.6. As important for the development of the human species was the
scattering of the individual differences based on bisexuality. Like it is known, due
to the pairing of genes derived from two different cells (spermatozoon and
ovulum), an embryo is born with unique qualities. The more different are the two
parents, the better equipped is the newborn for the adaptation of different living
conditions.
Unlike animals, to which the selection is made within a population reduced in
number, people are connected at a global level. They migrate from one country
(continent, geographical area) to another. It has been shown that the genetic
superiority of a population results also from crossbreeding. The appreciable
intelligence of the Romanian people is explained by the cohabitation with
numerous peoples that stopped their expansion at the borders of our country: the
Greeks, the Romans, the Barbarians, the Slavs, the Turks, the Phanariotes, the
Jews, the Russians etc. The most talented personalities come, usually, from parents
that belong to different ethnic groups.
Indeed, the bisexuality is the decisive factor in creating the human species, and
not only. Not by chance the Bible correlates the appearance of plants with their
propagation by seed (the grass bearing seed...) and man's creation with the
multiplication of cells through division, phenomenon that stands today at the base
of developing living creatures. Initially, the body cell was divided in two halves
and grew through the completion of each part with substances assimilated in the
aquatic environment. This is why, the quantity of the body doubled. The first man
(Adam) was a cell that, at its half-life, coupled with another half of cell. (And he
created them man and woman). Between them there were conducted domination
fights. This process ends with the creation of the embryo dominated by male or
female particularities. These fertilized cells represented, by selection, a unique
genetic code integrating, usually, the most vigorous genes.
Merging the two halves of the cell is obvious today by the parallel existence in
our body, of two parallel components (hemispheres, ribs, membres, ears, eyes,
chins, nostrils, lungs, kidneys), etc. (Men having an obvious dimp in their chins are
more virile, dominated by masculinity. Those with a barely visible dimple are
dominated by feminity). A lower percentage of individuals have reversed
sexuality. Homosexuals, for example, love the men and perform sexual acts
wrongly, outside the female vagina. Some researchers consider the sexual
abnormalness a disease. Anyway, it can be partly treated, through the
psychological treatment of the instinctive impulses and the legislation of some
decisions which should prevent the warp through coercion of some normal
individuals. The same are the things in the case of the maternal-filial instinct, some
mothers reject their babies emotionally (instinctually). Their right of growing
children must be taken.
The coupling of the two celullar halves was described in the Bible by the
reference to the chest with the seven pairs of ribs on each part.

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Of course, the process of uniting the haves of the thorax was a dynamic one at
the beginning. It was, most ofen, Eve's initiative. (During the human sexual act,
millions of spermatozoons compete for the conquest, fertilization, of a single
ovum).
In our opinion, it is time to explain students that the description of creating Eve
from one of the Adam's rib is a metaphorical one. In reality the Bible refers to the
celullar division as a law of the living creatures' evolution. They have already
known about it. In reality, the Bible refers to what science has discovered lately.
The process of creating the human species started at a celullar level and it was
based on the halving of the body (the genetic spiral) of the spermatozoon and of the
ovum. The outer membrane and the chest in which the body is closed has divided
into two parts. A part of the Adam's ribs coupled with a part of Eve's ribs.
In other words, the Bible refers to the bisexual multiplication which was
realized at a celullar level. As a conclusion, the man's anatomical-physiological
creation started on the first days of creation and ended on the sixth day, when the
other living creatures of the Earth reached the maximum step of evolution.
Man's superiority has a social particularity. By the verbal communication
transmitted at distance through the telephone, radio, television, individual has
today the experience of about 6 milliards of actual people, and that assimilated
along thousands of years of scientific history.
Man was created by God through the necessity of the laws that govern the
Universe, throughout six stages (days) that lasted milliards of years, in order to rule
all the living creatures on Earth, until his physical and psychosocial development
will reach the maximum threshold of perfection, threshold that, once overreached,
will point out the end of the world.
That's way, the destiny of mankind is the development of science,
technique,literature and art, in the way will show next.

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THE THIRD PART


III. NEORELATIVIST THEORIES ABOUT THE GENESIS
AND THE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE
III.1. BIG BANG A PARADOXAL THEORY OF THE GENESIS OF
THE UNIVERSE
Considering Big Bang a paradoxal theory of the Universe's genesis is an idea
concluded from the cosmology postulates, on the infinity of space and the eternity
of the dynamic matter from which the Universe is formed. The description of the
birth of one thing that, in reality, is not born is paradoxical. In fact, like we will
notice later, all the arguments adduced by the advocates of this theory are logical
paradoxes, and the Universe always existed in reality, thanks to the eternity of
Divinity.
1. The theory of Big Bang was based on the observation that matter is formed by
such small particles that it may be supposed that initially the Universe was inert
and it covered a small place. It is true that the elementary particles are small, but in
a natural state they occupy a large space, without which, their rotation on the orbits
of atomic systems would not be possible. For example, the space from the inside of
an atom can be compared with a football pitch in the middle of which an apple (the
nucleus) rotates around its axes, and at the sideline a system of particles (electrons)
rotates, as big as a cherry.
We also have to mention the fact that the 200 milliards of stars which rotate
around the galaxy's axes cover a huge space (with a diameter of 100.000 light
years), and inside the Universe there are milliards of milliards of such galaxies. So,
the hypothesis of a bundle of matter in which the whole Universe was clustered at
the initial moment, is an absurd, paradoxal invention. Equally absurd is the
assertion that the initial bundle of matter, as small as an orange, (1) was inert,
deprived of movement. Obviously, this theory is a paradox in the sense in which it
is removed the movement from the primordial matter that explodes, that is the
energy which could have generated the explosion. It is known that the spaces
inside a body allow the particles to run on orbits (the photons), to jump from one
orbit to another (electrons), to leave the atomic systems (radiations).
Indeed, the assertion that the matter of a body can explode is absurd (the mass of
the Universe) inert, devoid of interior spaces which otherwise would have allowed
the particles to run on orbits (photons, neutri), to jump from one orbit to another
(electrons) or to leave the atomic systems (radiations). Unfortunately, the removal
of the three forms of movement, which in fact represents the energy of the
Universe, excludes the supposed explosion.

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According to the postulate: Ex nihilo nihil, formulated by Avogadro and also


by Parmenides, an inert body cannot move, explodeby itself. This way, this
theory of genesis through explosion is disproved by the paradoxal contradiction
between the energization of the Universe (the trigger of Big Bang) and the
exclusion from the postulated primordial bundle of any energy carrier elements
(fugitive elementary particles).
In reality, the Universe does not have a beginning, it always existed (not for 15
milliard years like this theory partisans believe). It has the same mass, it is as broad
and energetically loaded as ever. It has been rotating around its axes for an infinity
of years generating the ponderability of bodies improbably called gravitational
attraction (2).
2. The second paradox of the Big Bang theory is about the moving of the
particles emitted by explosion. According to the laws of Physics, the particles that
resulted from the explosion of a static object moves radially towards the exterior
on rectilinear routes distancing from each other, while their lengths increase. We
could even talk about a directly proportional ratio between the length of the route
made by each particle and the increasing of the space that separates it by the
particles around. Thus, in the case of this hypothesis, the explosion couldn't have
thicken the matter and form the actual systems of stars, galaxiesbecause the
particles that move on rectilinear paths in an infinite space are irreversible. Only
the explosions triggered from a body during its axial rotation make possible the
moving of the small parts on curved tracks that can return, on a plane or other, in the
area where they have gone from generating systems of particles and bodies during
their collisions.
As a conclusion, the theory of the Universe's genesis through explosion is a
paradox because it is based on two contradictory methods: the displacement of the
exploded matter towards infinite and its union (clotting) in a certain space in the
form of planetary, stellar, galactic systemsThis paradox of approaching through
removing, of clotting through fragmentation, remembers us of the Caragiale's
anonymous letters.
3. The last paradox, to which we refer here, is connected to the theory of
transforming movement into matter (3). In our opinion, in order to solve the
problem of the relations between the mass of the body and movement we have to
begin with the cosmological postulate of inertia, namely from the truth that all the
components of the Universe maintain the state of movement until a changing
factor intervenes.
Therefore, if throughout the past infinity there was no movement, it was
impossible to appear movement (the energy of the Universe) 15 milliard years at

37

the moment of explosion, without the intervention of a determining factor. This


determining factor is missing from the mechanism of the primordial explosion.
As a consequence, the theory of Big Bang is flawed, which considers that the
explosion of the bundle of primordial matter was triggered by massless particles,
but with high energy potential. This hypothesis, scientifically unconfirmed, is
contradicted by the postulate of the materiality of the world, which says that,
somebody, someone's tablealways moves. There is no movement without a
moving object. Moreover, it was demonstrated that all elementary particles have
mass. Even the assertion the mass of the photon in standby is zero (source:
Wikipedia) found an answer by the demonstration of the fact that photons are
fugitive particles. They have no mass in standby because they run continuously
rotating inertially around the axis of the Universe or inside the systems of
microparticles in which they are integrated. It was also explained the undulatory
nature of photons during their moving. The electromagnetic waves are caused by
the axial rotation of the balls of photons which alternates the positions of the two
poles. So, light legitimizes itself as mass both at its emission (like it was
scientifically demonstrated) and ongoing (the ball of photons that rotate), and at
reception when the mass of photons is absorbed or rejected differentiated
according to the wavelengths: totally (white light); or partially (chromatic light).
Thus, the mass of the emitted photon doesn't turn into moving, violating the
cosmic postulates. The electromagnetic waves arise because the balls of particles
have mass with positive or negative polarity.
Extremely important for refuting the theory of Big Bang is what we believe that
will be the failure of the LHC (Energy Particle Accelerator) experiment operated
by CERN near Geneva (3).
The discovery of the energy overloaded particle (that generates matter) by
accelerating and colliding the protons is contradicted by the laws of Physics
according to which, collisions generate the work (the crushing) and not the speed
increasing. With the speed of the existent particles (respectively the colliding of
protons in the accelerator) there cannot be created superior speeds, so new
particles with such properties cannot be found.
(1) Stephen Hawking, Universul ntr-o coaj de nuc, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti,
2004.
(2) Lucian Blaga, Despre contiina filosofic, Editura, Facla, Bucureti, 1974.
(3) Liviu Filimon, Acceleratorul de particule (LHC) un experiment apocaliptic (!?).
n: Studii de specialitate, vol. 6, p. 197, Editura Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2010.

38

III.2. THE ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR (LHC)


- AN APOCALYPTIC EXPERIMENT (?!)
st

On the 21 of August 2008 The energy particle accelerator (Large Hadron


Collider - LHC) was inaugurated near Geneva, whose building lasted 14 years and
costed 8 milliard of dollars. The experiment will achieve collisions between
protons at very high temperatures to verify the hypothesis on the creation of the
Universe by an explosion (Big - Bang) and proved that the world is built from the
multiplication of a simple elementary particle, indivisible, eternal.
The circular tunnel, having the circumference of 27 km, dug into the mountain
at 100 m depth, is lined with 5000 superconducting magnets cooled to minus
0
271,25 C, which the protons (subatomic particles having positive electric charge)
will be propelled with huge speeds. Such particles will be relised every second.
Because the protons will be launched (or accelerated) simultaneously from both
directions, the collision will also take place at about the speed of light (more
precisely 99,9999991 % from this). During these moments (which will last only
few fractions of a second) it will be released a huge heat (estimated to be about
100.000 times bigger than that inside the Sun). Thus, conditions for the appearance
of some new particles will be created. The hope is to find the Higgs boson, an
unstable particle also called of God's which many have studied without having
ever seen it. (In our opinion, the smallest particles that are contained in the light
must be called hereinafter. They are eternal, run continuously with an absolute
speed and do not change their identity. The biblical assertion: at first it was light
refers to them, the photons, the elementary particles, through which they end
and with which the cyclical developments begin and they take place in the
Universe from eternity).
The idea of building LHC was suggested by the supporters of the Big-Bang
theory, who, on their turn, were influenced by Einstein's hypothsis referring to the
unity of the three forms of energy. So, an uncertain hypothesis, which, like (1) the
brilliant physicist says he couldn't solve, became a premise for designing an
accelerator with still unrated risks.
The inauguration of the particle accelerator was greeted by numerous protests.
Some rose the amount of dollars spent (8 milliards), a large amount under the
conditions of the global poverty. Others expressed concern that the sparks
produced during the collision of the accelerated protons at higher temperatures
than those inside the Sun, could ignite the Earth - thus fulfilling The Biblical
Apocalypse (the end of the world in fire). The physicist Walter Wagner and the
scientist Luis Sancio went ahead with the suing protests against the European
Laboratory for Particle Physics under the accusation that raising the temperature to
millions of degrees will light up Earth.
In our opinion, the initiation of the LHC experiment is motivated erroneously,

39

in the sense that it starts from uncertain philosophical premises and acts with
physical methods practically unconfirmed. We point, below, some of these
assumptions, contradicted by the philosophical postulates of infinity.
The idea that the Universe originated in an explosion (Big Bang) 15 milliards
years ago, is considered erroneous by more and more researchers. It is contradicted
by the information gathered with modern telescopes about the differentiation of
the evolution of stars. Some are still forming; others are in phases of
disaggregation. Thus, it didn't occur simultaneously an explosion in the entire
universe (containing billions and billions of galaxies at a distance of billions
years), but even more, in different places and moments, repeated infinitely
along the time.
Equally erroneous is the theory that the Universe is formed from a single type of
particles called bosons. The fact that the world is diversified proves that it is
constituted of differentiated elements. So, Einstein's hypothesis of the unit forms
of energy which the CHL's partisans want to test cannot be confirmed
experimentally for the simple reason that this unity is completely missing. For
the particle mixture to produce differentiated bodies they must be different in their
turn. We meet this idea at Leibniz, who, in his work Monadologia, he calls them
monads (simple substances, falling within everything compound, simple, that is
free of any parts) (2).
And then, if we have so much uncertainty about the unit forms of energy, why to
undertake costly experiments with "apocalyptic" risks (?!).
In our opinion, the fact that the CHL accelerator was built without considering
the fact that this can be a serious danger for the whole humanity, represents, like the
physicist Walter Wagner states, a legal and moral crime. It was natural to solve,
firstly philosophically, uncertainty about the nature of elementary particles and
then proceed to create temperatures of millions of degrees which may ignite the air
and even the ground of the Earth. For example, before designing the accelerator the
experimental physicists had to wonder: if the elementary particles are only matter,
only energy, only psychic or an entity that simultaneously includes them all; if
the movement, respectively the acceleration, is reality itself, or there is always
someone or something that moves; if it is possible to pass through simple collisions
from the orbital motion of electric particles (from the orbit of an atom on the orbit
of another atom) at the photonic linear, radial motion etc.
We will point out, further, some philosophical observations treated by us in
detail in the book Cosmic Psychology (4) to prove that the premises of LHC
experiment are uncertain.
A first observation relates to the inertia assumption according to which, to
change the dynamics of a body, there must be casual factors, namely to crash into
another body, which to take over or cede from its speed. For example, an asteroid
(planet, star) which rotates around the Sun and encircles the axes of the galaxy

40

and planets of the solar systemcannot accelerate without being pushed by


another celestial body faster and bigger than it. Conversely, if the celestial bodies
coming from opposite directions collide, their speeds are reduced, the masses
crumble...Indeed, due to the inertia, the rotation of the stars that make up the
Universe is eternal.This way, the assertion of the Big-Bang theory partisans that
the Universe appeared 15 milliards years ago after an explosion before which
nothing ever existed. Or, by denying the existence of the stars in motion before any
explosions the law of inertia and the objectivity of the world's infinity is ignored.
The explosions that took place in the Universe didn't happen by themselves. They
were caused by the accumulations of particles and the collisionsbetween the
celestial bodies, carried out continuously throughout the infinite time. The
Romanian philosopher Vasile Conta described brilliantly this phenomenon in
Theory of Universal Undulation (5).
Moreover, recent astronomical discoveries revealed the existence of some
cyclic changes that resulted in the death of some stars and the birth of some new
ones. These truths were revealed in the biblical texts devoted to 'Genesis' and
'Apocalypse'.
The second observation concerns the law of conservation of matter and energy
of the colliding bodies.
LHC initiators ignored this law claiming that it can accelerate the speed of
protons by crowding and colliding them in their accelerator channel. This
assumption is invalidated by the laws of mechanics according to which, collision
does not cause increasing of the bodies' mass or energy that are colliding while
coming from opposite directions. For example, the collision of two vehicles that
move from opposite directions, results in the flatting of the sheet and even of the
car body, throwing of some pieces with diminished speeds...The situation also
repeated in the case of the detachment of the Moon and its placing on a
circumference as a satellite of the Earth.
If we totalled the masses and energies of the 10 satellites of the Earth created by
collision we would notice, according to the law of conservation, that the masses
and energies of the Earth and of the aggresor asteroid that existed before the
collision remained unchanged.
Returning to the protons in the accelerator, directed using some magnets to
collide coming from the opposite direction, we mention that they can not change
their speed. As the above-mentioned bodies, their speeds are diminished as a result
of collision.
No fields created by the 5000 magnets which the tunnel walls are padded with
can accelerate only because the speeds of the electric particles that create the
magnetic field are not bigger than the speeds of the protons.
Moreover, the status of the elementary particle proton (simple, uncompounded)
gives specific stability. They remain the same, the speed of moving is an eternal
feature of their nature. The same remark we can make about any other elementary

41

particle known or which will be discovered in the future. Photons for example, can
not be slow down, speed up or stop. Only what is composed (atoms, bodies,
luminaries), can divide their mass and energy, in terms of the conditions dictated
by the conservation law.
A final observation concerns Einstein's assumption on the unit of the three
forms of energy in the Universe: photonics, electrical and thermal. It starts from
the uncertain premise that the primary particle is found in the composition of all
kinds of energy. In other words, it is claimed that all forms of energy would jointly
support the "divine" primary particle. (Hence the CHL's objective of discovering
it). But, this assumption, is contradicted by the "law of mixtures", signaled by M.
Eminescu (6), a century ago. According to this law, the increase of the variants
resulting from the mixture is proportional to the number of the mixed elements. (
From the mixture of two different elements result four variants from 3-9, from 416, etc.). So, the number of the variants resulting from the mixture is fixed. If
initially there was only one kind of elementary particles (ie if they were identical,
undifferentiated), it could not create various compound objects.
This is the case of protons, single particles which have a particular way of
being. They cannot transform into photons ("bosons ..."?), no matter how much we
would "crowd" them, because the way of being, is irreducible, eternal. We know
that electrical particles move jumping from the ellipse of one atom to the ellipse of
another atom; they flow through conductors situated on Earth and they rotate
together around the sun ... Photons on the contrary, move autonomously, without
being integrated into the axial rotation of the Earth. Equally different is the thermal
motion of the compound microparticles, marked by continuous scattering in all
directions. It is independent of the gravity given by the rotation of the Earth around
its axis. It moves in all directions.
Thus, the unit of the forms of energy is not achieved genetically, by their
development of a single type of particle. The stability of the forms of energy is
dictated by the authority of the laws governing the birth of compound bodies and
their death `through decomposition phenomenon repeated cyclically from eternity.
In conclusion, the unity and eternity of the Universe can not be studied, only by
physical but also by philosophical methods, especially by the religious ones,
because the essence of existence is from absolute authority of the laws by which
God rules the world.
(1) Stephen Hawking ,,Scurt istorie a timpului (Wikipedia)
(2) W. Leibniz, Opere complete, Editura iinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1972
(3) Lucian Blaga, Despre contiina filosofic, Fundaia pentru Literatur i Art, 1974
(4) Liviu Filimon, Psihologie filosofic, EDS, Bacu, 2008
(5) Vasile Conta, Opere complete, Editura C. Statea, Bucureti, 1914
(6) Mihai Eminescu, Documente, n Antologie de filosofie romneasc, vol. 1,
Editura Minerva, Bucureti, 1985
(7) R. P. Faymman, Fizica modern, Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti,
1969

42

III.3. THE PARADOX OF THE UNIVERSE'S EXPANSION


III.3.1. The paradox of Big Bang Expansion
The Universe expansion idea was advanced by the Big Bang theory proponents
interested to bring further evidence that the Universe was born in an explosion.
According to the Big Bang theory the Universe was still at first, crowded into a
small place as an orange. During the explosion, the particles scattered running
continuously, on radial straight paths. Thus, the photon balls were removed from
each other as the rays of a circle which extend parallel to the increased length of the
circle. If to these conditions we add the fact that in the void there were no bodies
that might have caused collisions and to turn back the fugitive particles, the idea of
constitution of bodies, planets and starsis excluded. The situation becomes
even more impossible if we imagine that the matter emitted by explosion should
have generated over 13 billion years from the moment of the alleged genesis a huge
26 billion years wide void. Or, the reality is the reverse. The space in the centre of
the Universe is filled with billions of stars embedded in systems which rotate in a
superposed way around the axis of the Universe, and the void misses completely.
So, in the beginning, the Universe was neither small nor still. It was as large as
today and in eternal rotation around the central axis. It can, therefore be said justly
that it is a paradox to say how the Universe was at the beginning as long as it has no
beginning or end, it has always existed.
III.3.2. The Doppler Effect paradox
The fact that the Universe expansion theory is a paradox obliges us to take into
consideration the arguments at the basis of The Doppler Effect and The Red
Shifting.
The Doppler Effect demonstrated at the end of the ninth century by the physicist
Christian Doppler, refers to the sound wave perception mechanism which differs
in the relation to the observer's position. For example, the sound of the engine is
perceived increasingly harder until it reaches the observer and it decreases in
intensity when it passes by it. Defined by the relativity advocates, The Doppler
Effect modifies the perceived sound waves frequency. In this effect, the wave
released by an object approaching the observer becomes more and more
compressed-thus the frequency increases- while approaching it. The measured
frequency increases when the source approaches the receptor and decreases when
the source moves away from it. Thus, an observer in front of the source will
perceive higher frequency waves than another behind the source (Wikipedia). As
noticed, the definitions mentioned above give a confusing concept of the notions:
wave frequency perception; and the traveling wave frequency making them
equal, although the notions have different meanings.
Wave frequency perception is genetically programmed and perfected during an

43

individual's life. All components of the auditory analyzer (receptors, centripetal


ways, cortical neurons, psychic reflection) have a specific latency, a working
rhythm that prevents the reception and perceptual reflection of all coming sound
waves to the ear drums. Sound intensity of 20 db below is not perceived at all. Also,
the waves coming to the ear drum before it ends the previous wave reception do not
cause sensations. So, the perception of wave frequency does not coincide with the
frequency wave departure. Sometimes all the sounds approaching the subject are
sensory reflected, sometimes partially. The latter situation is encountered at the
sound of the engine approaching the station. Thus, the increase of the wave
frequency is determined not by the wave pressure and compression, as it was said,
but by their running or selective reception. The wave movement frequency depends
on the medium of propagation and the number of replicas. The more the engine
approaches the observer it receives waves with a number of increasingly smaller
replicas. Thus, the sound intensity increases parallel with the reduction of distance
between the engine and the subject. On the contrary, when the engine passes beyond
the observer, the sound intensity decreases parallel with the place of wave emission.
So far, there are no contradictions between physics and psychology.
Misunderstandings appear as a cause of the inaccurate statement that waves emitted
from distance have a higher speed than the previous sounds. Thus, it is lost sight of
the truth also noted in school books that moving objects that run with the same
speed (the sound has constant speed) cannot collide (press) no matter how short
the distance would be among them. Consequently, the use of Doppler Effect
method is a paradox in cosmology just because it is based on the absurd statement
that waves having the same speed reach one another, press and change frequency.
As a conclusion, wave frequency perception is not a scientific method of
demonstrating the Universe expansion. The increase of wave perception
frequency does not link with the increase of speed wave. The wave speed remains
the same no matter the distance of emission. The error is generated by the
confusion between the train approaching and the increase of sound speed. If the
moving object has the same speed, no matter how close the emitted waves would
be, they never come closer to one another. The contact, the increase of frequency
by pressure are missing from reality. Negative consequences of this paradox stand
out at the alleged perception of star remoteness. Or, it is a paradox to pretend that
one perceives the frequency of electromagnetic waves which, in fact, are the same
during the journey from the source to reception.
III.3.3. The red-shift paradox
Red-shift is defined as an increase of the wave length and of electromagnetic
radiation which corresponds to a decrease of electromagnetic wave frequency.
Initially, the phenomenon was experienced by engineer Doppler at the sound
waves emitted by the sound of an engine hiss. When the vehicle approaches the

44

observer, the sound becomes stronger (frequent, high), and after is passes, it turns
acute (low frequency) (Wikipedia).
Unfortunately, the use of Doppler Effect in cosmology is a paradox in the sense
that the change of wave length during movement, found with the sound, lacks
completely from light movement. Indeed it is absurd to say that the length of light
waves changes during movement if the mass and the photon energy from emission
are the same as in reception. Unlike air, water waveswhich transmit losing force
(amplitude) after each replica, light waves remain almost the same even after
billions of years of travel.
Even more serious is the statement that the observer perceives the remoteness
or approach of stars according to color.
For example, the Sun is red and bigger at the horizon because, as the expansion
advocates admit, is closer to us. It changes color as it rises on the sky. As one can
see, there is an inaccurate explanation that proves the lack of psychological
knowledge.
It is known from the psychology manual that red and green colour, and any
other color does not really exist. When a ray of light is received by an object, the
photon balls which compose it are shattered and the resulted balls are absorbed or
rejected by them according to their wave length (equal to the orbit diameter where
they rotate). Photons thus reaching the retina are translated into excitation and
mentally acknowledged as colour. For example, if the rejected photons make a
speed along the ball circles 700 mm long, they are subjectively acknowledged as
red. The body rejecting the photons placed on other orbits 610, 590, 500, 450,
430,400 mm long) are perceived as different colours (orange, yellow, green, blue,
indigo, violet). The phenomenon is demonstrated in students with prismatic glass.
When a ray of light falls on a side of the prism, because of the oblique inclination of
its surface, the shattered photon balls are varied resulting balls with seven different
wave lengths (kinds of colors), called chromatic spectrum.
As a conclusion, Red-shift is a paradox. The red, perceived objects remain as
they are even when approaching or moving away from us. The wave lengths longer
to red (700 mm.) than to violet (400 mm.) express the ability of the body to absorb
or reject certain photon balls and not their approach or remoteness.

45

III.4. WHY DOES NOT THE UNIVERSE EXPAND?


The Universe does not expand because:
- it was not born in the Big Bang- although there is an incalculable number of
Big Bangs which existed in different galaxies over infinite time;
- it has always existed and will never disappear- it is eternal due to the Divine
will.
The universe expansion is contradicted by the cosmic postulates according to
which all the particles caused by the explosion of a still body are lost in infinite
space because of radial movement on rectilinear trajectories which depart
exponentially from each other.
The inertial rotation of all bodies and matter particles around the central axis is
the force that ensures the integrity of Universe mass, energy constancy and spatial
extent.
Finally, we claim with all certainty that no scientific research made up to the
present, has found no increase in the basic, mass particles, the extension of the
space between atoms and body molecules, the remoteness from the rotation orbits
of satellites and planetsOr, it is a paradoxical statement to say that a body can
expand without increasing its mass, the volume of its component elements, or the
size of gap among them.
III.5. MOVEMENT RELATIVIZATION PARADOXES
III.5.1. The paradox of denying the objectivity of movement
The paradoxes formulated by the Sophists are known since Antiquity. We refer
to confrontations between skeptical philosophers, authors of movement paradoxes
and advocates of Aristotel's psychology, people that preach for the knowledge of
absolute truth. Anton Dumitriu, author of "Logical paradoxes" (1), described
masterly the paradoxes devoted to movement relativization. He quotes, referring
to the Sophists, Zeno who says that arrow leaving the bow at a target, in reality
stands still because the distance to destination is composed of an infinite number of
segments. For example, the arrow must first travel half the distance, then half of the
half, and so on, and the other half of another half to infinity. Or, it is absurd to
assume that an impulse can go through an infinite number of distances. So there is
no target movement.
But, as it can be seen, firstly it is about the division of space, secondly about
crossing that space. It follows that if we define movement "movement in a space",
the identification of the two terms is excluded, and the paradox is removed by the
laws of logic. Indeed, because the movement is continuous, the mobile doesn't stop
between the imagined segments that divide indefinitely. Moreover, the two

46

assumptions (the infinite number of parts resulting from splitting and the infinite
smallness of the division), cannot be related because they are parts of different
spheres. The first sphere concerns the infinite division of a part, the second aims at
the infinitely small size of the last two parts.
In conclusion, the theory of movement relativization demonstrated by sophists
is a paradox, that means an erroneous construction that violates the principles of
logic. In fact, the invoked infinities do not relate to the movement, but the
spaciousness of the taken road.
III.5.2. Running time without stopping - relativises the duration of present
Another aspect of relativization of the movement was demonstrated by HenriLouis Bergson in relation to the duration of future-oriented activity and evaluated
as past, so lacking the present time. In fact, between past and future, there is no wall
of separation having a certain thickness. When we finish pronunciating the word
"present", that speech has already become past. We cannot delimit the past from
the future, says the French philosopher, not even within the word "present"
because, after the syllable pronunciation "pre", it became the past, and "zent"
remained in the future. The situation is repeated for the duration of pronunciation
of a letter or of a fraction of letter.
Of course, as it can be noticed, "relativization" does not appear here from our
inability to know reality, but the erroneous vision of time, which, in fact, is a
measure of the movement or rest, and not the kind of movement itself. In our
opinion, time is not an autonomous, independent element. It exists only as a
measure of movement. Or, as the movement is continuous, we cannot find the
present tense as a static moment during movement. The fact that the Universe is
composed of fugitive elementary particles, which revolve integrated into bodies or
individually, around the central axis, allow us to attribute time an absolute
objective existence, not "relativistic".
In actual fact, the body does not move when standing still but moves possibly
together with the vehicle in which it is placed. But, in this case, we have not a
cognitive uncertainty, but a substitution of the objects in question. If we talk about
the traveller from the train, he, eventually, stands still on the bench. Thus, to avoid
substitution is important to answer the question: "Who moves, the train or the
traveller?" Both elements are distinct realities. The traveller eventually moves
when he enters the compartment, spending a certain amount of physiological
energy produced by his body. The train goes consuming another kind of energy, the
fuel used by the locomotive.
In conclusion, Bergson's paradox results from the contradiction between
reality, where the movement is correctly perceived as an ongoing process, and the
sophistical demonstration, in which the existence of the present time is
conditioned by the stopping of the movement (of pronouncing the word "present").

47

Thus, the relativization theory of the flowing time is a paradox that equates the
contradictory terms "rest" and "movement", violatiing the logical principle of noncontradiction. In other words, not the movement is relative, but its assessing or
measuring. As objective reality the movement depends on the amount and quality
of the consumed energy along the travelled path. Even if it shortens or lengthens
the route, the amount of movement is not that perceived, but that carried out in
reality.
III.5.3. The relativist perception paradox of the movement route
The relativization problem of percepting the route of the objects movement
attracted the researchers' attention at the same time with the discovery of
integrating the planetary, stellar, galactic, etc. systems through multilevel
rotations. Albert Einstein himself sent, in 1905, at the German magazine
"Annalen" an article devoted to relativity perceived movement path (2, p 39). "At
the age of 16 years old - says Brian Greene - Einstein asked himself what happens if
we run after a ray of light with the speed of light. An intuitive judgment based on
Newton's laws of motion set tells us that we catch the beam of light that will appear
stationary to us, the light will remain motionless" (2, p 40). (Young Einstein's
question was incorrect in two respects: first you can catch light only if you run
faster than it, because two vehicles having the same speed, does not get closer or
farther from each other. The second error light beam cannot become anobserver
in relativist motion because photons do not change their speed). In fact, this idea
of objectivity dependence of the position and movement of the observer,
underlying the theory of relativity, was suggested to the physicists who agreed on
the theory of relativity with the train traveller's experience". He looks through the
window wagon and sees the other train from station moving, although, in reality
his train left. Another example, if the observer in the train watches the trees on the
cliff, relating them to his position of rest, he has the illusion that they run in the
opposite direction of the train. On the contrary, if he moves on a draisine and looks
ahead, he perceives how he gets closer to the trees on the cliff.
Unfortunately, contemporary supporters of movement neorelativity call both
perceptions "relativistic", although in one case the observer perceives deludingly
the carrying-off (trees running), and in second the perception is correct (the
observer in the dresine approaches the trees). In our opinion, Brian Greene's
statement that "the observers in relative motion will have different perceptions of
space and time" (2, p 41) is erroneous. In reality, not the space (distance) is
perceived erroneously, but the direction of movement. This illlusion is a normal
psychological phenomenon, governed by the laws of perception. Such illusions
can be corrected mentally.
For example, when we perceive the motion of the Sun, reported to our state of
rest on the Earth, we perceive illusionarily how it runs from east to west around the

48

Earth. If we imagine the real situation that the Earth rotates around the Sun, we
eliminate illusion by thinking.
The idea of fighting "relativization movement" is not ours. It was suggested to
us by Mihai Eminescu. The genius Romanian poet defined correctly the term
"relativity" before Albert Einstein was born: "If we look at the movement of a train,
says Eminescu, then we report it to the Earth's surface. But, because the Earth itself
moves around its axis and around the Sun in its path forward, the pause of the train
which is remaining still is not an absolute rest, but a relative rest to the Earth, the
Earth that we believe it is resting because it takes us all with it "(3).
III.5.4. Absolute truth and relative knowledge
1. The last paradox we report here was promoted by the supporters of
opposition parties, who were interested in the fight against absolute truths which
consecrates taken power. In the book "Materialism and Empirio-criticism" it is
stated that there are not absolute truths. All the truths are relative because the
reality is very dynamic and complicated, and its knowledge never ends.
But, as it can be seen in this motivation the meanings of the words: "knowledge"
(which denotes human activity), and "truth" (which specifies a certain quality of
knowledge that of reflecting reality properly) are equalized. The paradox results
here from substituting an activity (human knowledge), with the quality of
information (true or false knowledge). To stop such confusion, the materialization
of the two terms should be avoided. Both "knowledge" and "truth" exist in reality
only when they are mentally reflected as a psychic act. We say only
metaphorically: "there are absolute truths" instead of "this knowledge is absolutely
true"...So, knowledge is relative, that is dynamic, meaning that it is not exhausted,
at some point, the possibility of accumulating new information or in the sense that
a theory is about partly revealing for the understanding of processes, practical
applications of some sort ... Knowledge is absolutely completely true or false in the
sense that what is affirmed or denied corresponds to reality.
Through the incorrect use of terms the paradox of the liar (The liar who lies
when he says he lies is a liar?) is also explained. The liar lies when he says a
reversed piece of information that he knows to be true. His lie relates to his
consciesness and not to the objective assessment of the truth in relation to reality.
So here, as in all paradoxes, the requirements of the principles of logic are violated.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Anton Dumitriu, Paradoxe logice, Editura Academiei, Bucureti, 1944


Brian Greene, Universul elegant, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 2008
Mihai Eminescu, Manuscrise, no.2267, p. 34
Liviu Filimon, Psihologie cosmic, Editura Didactic i tiinific, Bacu, 2009

49

III.6. TIME RELATIVIZATION PARADOXES


III.6.1. Time the component of cosmic reality
Neorelativistic theory advocates fallaciously call time what clocks measure.
Our purpose says Brian Greene - is to understand the way in which movement
affects the passage of time and how we defined an operational time as determined
by clock, we can rephrase the question: how is the ticking influenced by the
observers' movement? (1, p. 50). We are concerned the neorelativistic
phylosopher states with the way movement influences the passage of time, so the
way in which the ticking fundamentally affects any clock ticking and all clocks
regardless of their design or construction. (1, p. 51).
In our opinion, the statement: time is what the clock measures is a paradox in
the sense that it denies the reality stated. Indeed, it is absurd to say that a real object
(the clock) measures anything (time) and also to deny its autonomy
(acknowledging its dependece on the observer).
This neorelativistic definition of time becomes more confusing if we take into
consideration that measurability is an attribute of the human psyche and not of the
clock. Measuring instruments, however sophisticated they may be, have not the
most basic processes to perform measurements. Literally speaking, it is not the
clock that measures time, but the human that perceives figures, the position of the
flies on the clock-face and learns what time it is (not how time is).
Even more absurd is time relativization by stating that ticking rhythm
changes with the observer's position and speed (Movement fundamentally affects
the ticking of any clock), as if the psychic processes would have causal relations
with the physical bodies. In fact, no matter the position of looking at a clock, no
matter how fast the vehicle would go, the clock would continue ticking in the same
rhythm in the pocket where we placed it. Even if we admit under certain weight
conditions the energy of the arc spinning the wheels changes... This process is
concerned with the matter change, wheel movement speed and not time itself.
Finally we note that the deffinition attributed to time by Greene, violates the
logical deffinition rules because it mentions neither the specific distance nor the
proximate genus.
Defined scientifically, time is a component of objective reality in the form of the
cosmic duration and speed rotation movement and measurement, rate of
development and disintegration...
The difficulties in defining time are caused by the interdependece of the cosmic
components which involve time, as well as space, matter and movement.
Endless space conjugates with time through its infinite existence. It was said
that space extended infinitely in all directions, where objects of reality can live,
move or rest. Its temporal attributes consist of two negative lines delimitating

50

duration: time has no beginning or ending- as cosmos duration is infinitely long.


Thus, eternal space existence confirms the eternity of time.
Like space, matter conjugates with time through infinite duration of the past and
future of the Universe. We call matter the content of body and particle mass...that
inhabit the space. Note that time dynamics, its transient nature (passes without a
stop) is related to the endless existence of space and matter.
In total dependence of space and matter, movement identifies through changing
place or position...of an object, made in a certain space and time. And in this aspect
the infinity of time is confirmed, its absolute nature , related to the endless rotation
movement of the Universe. Also, time occurs during movement as a measure- with
incalculable, varied, practical applications.
Hence, the conventional demarcation of measurement standard units and
perfecting some physical, bionic and mental activities.
We note as a conclusion that time is an objective, cosmic component expressing
duration and the movement speed of object change. Time is a notion that reflects
the quality of objects and phenomena from reality by changing dynamics in
successive duration. Temporality means duration size, rhythm and simultaneity
that defines movement and change of a certain object (2).
III.6.2. The simultaneity negation paradox
Neorelativistic theory advocates fallaciously state that time depends on the
observer's clock movement. From this position they negate time objectivity and
the existence of simultaneity. Constant light speed- says Brian Greene requires
giving up to the outdated concept that simultaneity is universally valid regardless
of the observers' movement. The universal clock thought of ticking unperturbed
identical seconds on Earth and Mars, on Jupiter, the Andromeda galaxy and every
angle of the cosmos, does not really exist. On the contrary, observers in relative
movement will not be able to decide what events happen at the same time. (1, p.
50).
As shown in the quotation above, Greene conditions objective existence of
simultaneity on the simultaneous perception of events. Or, perception is a
subjective, mental process which has no causal relations with the perceived object
to dictate the reality status.
It is known that many, simultaneous events, especially the ones known by
different, sensory stimuli are perceived as not being simultaneous although they
are. For example, if we observe, from distance that a blacksmith with hammer
striking anvil, we first perceive the hammer as light travels 300000 km/s. The blow
sound will be later perceived because the sound waves run with 343 m/s. Thus,
although there are two stimuli (of sound and light) emitted simultaneously, they
are not received concurrently.
Certainly, it is no question of practical evaluation of simultaneity. Any duration

51

measurement comprises a certain time fraction that remains unnoticed due to its
location in the unit. No matter how small the standard unit would be it leaves out
the negligible calculation unit.
III.6.3. The features of clock slow ticking in motion
The idea that object movement is influenced by the speed of the passage of time,
is a paradox stated by neorelativistic theory advocates. A moving light clock says Greene ticks less than a light clock at rest. (1, p. 56).
The feeling of the slow passage of time is experienced every day. For example,
when we wait for something to happen, as a train's arrival that is in delay, we glance
at the clock repeatedly, and finally, usually, we think that time went slowly. If we
are involved in an interesting conversation for an equal period of time, at the end
we notice that time passed quickly because we did not think of it repeatedly.
In reality the passage of time is constant, it is the same for objects in movement
or at rest, sad or happy events, exciting or boring activities...Hence, people's
concern to evaluate time not only subjectively, but mostly objectively, based on
fixed conventional intervals, measured by clocks.
If duration measurement of events ended with a general use of clocks and
perfecting the measurement methods of shorter time spans, explanations for the
nature of time produced contradictory arguments between the representatives of
scientific disciplines and the supporters of the skeptical neorelativstic theories
stating that clocks in movement go slower than the rest.
In our opinion, the statement that time itself depends on the movement of the
clock that measures it is a paradox because it is contradicted by reality. To avoid
such error one has to consider, when explaining the nature of time, the differences
between material bodies and their qualities. The movement of material bodies is
causally determined. A material body is in causal relations with other bodies that
can move or stop it, accelerate or slow it down, curdle or break it On the
contrary, as a cosmic component, as a duration of the space and bodies that form
the Universe, time is autonomous, not dependent on movement, but on the bodies
that move or rest.
More precisely, time is not a material body, but a quality of the matter that forms
the Universe with an infinite existence. Time embodies movement duration of the
Universe, an autonomous, inertial movement, impossible to be stopped, to be
restarted, to be slowed and accelerated other than causal.
Time has one quality, expressed by the continuous duration of the Universe
existence in eternal, inertial movement (the spinning of stars...around the axis of
the Universe and varied, temporal movement (of Terestrial objects for example).
A certain influence on the speed of the clock fly rotation is caused by changes
that occured in the mechanism... of the clock, and not by the speed of its
movement- as some neorelativistic physicists state. For example, when the clock

52

owner climbs the top of a mountain and observes a slight slow down of the clock,
he explains it referring to: the differences of weight emphasized by the remoteness
of rotation axis of the Earth; and to the influence of weight upon the flexibility of
clock spring.
As stated, (3) the weight of bodies, located on a planet, also the force of
mechanical work performance, decrease with increasing distance to the respective
rotation axis of the star. In other words, the experimenter knows that weight
determins the force of the clock spring more as the distance to the axial centre of
rotation increases (Respectively, as the arm of the lever is longer, the weight is
reduced and the force is amplified).
Unfortunately, the neorelativistic advocates ignore scientific explanations and
attribute to clock movement the ability to influence time, citing fictitious
experiments and making absurd, paradoxical explanations.
For example, Brianne describes clock experiments to which: a photon measures
time moving between two mirrors (the photon makes a return way in about a
billionth part from a second ); b/ it runs on diagonal paths (ignoring the laws of
reflection as a ray which falls diagonally on a plane does not return on the same path
to stay in the race between the mirrors); c/ the clock runs in the experimenter's
vehicle, with the speed of 225.000 Km/s (three quarters of the speed of light,
though this kind of vehicle is impossible to build); d/ the photon path lengthens
(From the point of view of a stationary observer, as the clock runs faster, the photon
goes a longer path - 1, p. 57); e/ time slows down when the clock is in motion (The
flow of time is slowed down for the clock that is in motion -1, p. 56) etc.
In conclusion, the demonstration of time relativity based on fictitious examples
contradicted by reality is an additional proof that neorelativistic perspective upon
time is inaccurate, absurd and paradoxical.
III.6.4. The paradox of changing the pace of the body activity by slowing the
passage of time
The statement found in everyday speech, that time passes more slowly when
we have nothing to do refers to the subjective state of boredom. But instinctive
signals help the individual to perform activities that are sufficient to maintain
health and optimal development. Lack of rest is also indicated instinctively.
Research conducted on animals which hibernate have shown that the slow pace
of physiological processes is useful to life in that the individual consumes less
nutrients gained during the active period while awake Some seeds stored in an
environment with a specific microclimate, can germinate after thousands of years
of latent life. Many species of microorganisms can preserve life over millions of
years traveling in asteroids which rotate in the interplanetary space. In all these
cases there is not a common element the slowing of time, as said, but the
decrease of the biopsychic phenomena caused by reduced body activity
The presence of time as duration is noticed collaterally when somebody

53

evaluates the relationship between the individual's activity and the pace
appropriate to biotic phenomena.
Unfortunately, the neorelativist advocates inaccurately fallaciously explained
the relationship between the individual's activity and the pace of his biotic
phenomena attributing to time, as an autonomous entity, the ability to change the
pace of body activity and prolong life. Time physicist Greene says passes slower
for an individual moving than one who stands still. This discrepancy does not
apply, as he says, only to clock time, but also to the pace of heartbeats and
degradation of various body parts. Instead of living up to 70 years, people would
get to live 700 years...(1, p. 58). From this neorelativistic perspective, time
appears as a force incapable of influencing measurement instruments (physical
clocks) also biological organisms .
In our opinion, the analysis of how time passes for a moving individual can be
done in two ways: as movement of the vehicle where the body rests, and as
physical and biopsychic activity directly performed by him. We note that the
neorelativistic theory does not address to these two movement evaluation aspects
separately. Therefore it generates confusion in understanding the work in
evaluating the pace of time passage.
When traveling by vehicle, there are minor body changes due to the state of rest
of the traveler and the speed, relatively low for present-day vehicles. Data
accumulated from experienced vehicle travelers (drivers, mechanics, engine
drivers) showed no increase of their life length. On the contrary, chaotic life caused
by variable length travels often triggers inadaptability that makes life shorter.
Neither the work of individuals whose profession is based on physical work
(agriculture, constructions, sports) proved the existence of organic effects of
slowing of time supported by neorelativistic advocates.
Therefore the neorelativistic theory that treats activity as a slowdown agent of
time thus making life longer is a paradox in that such phenomena are completely
missing from reality.
In conclusion we quote a few lines from Lamartine's poem Le Lac (The
Lake), which can inspire present-day neorelativistic advocates:
Oh time,
Suspend your flight, and you, benefic hours
Suspend your hearts:
Let us savor the fast delights
Of our best days !
(1) Brian Greene, Universul elegant, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 2008.
(2) Filimon Liviu, Psihologia timpului, n: Psihologia percepiei, Editura Didactic
i tiintific, Bacu, 1993.
(3) Filimon Liviu, O abordare filosofic a problemei gravitaiei, Studii i cercetri
tiinifice, vol. 5, Editura Didactic i Stiintific, Bacu, 2007

54

III.7. ENERGY FORMULA (E= mc2) IN THE VISION


OF NEO-RELATIVIST THEORY - A PARADOX (?)
III.7.1. Although the formula E=mc2 discovered by the genius Einstein was
confirmed as true by many scientific experiments and practical applications, it
continues to generate contradictory philosophical discussions. Especially the
theorists of the neo-relativist "new physics" faced, from partisan positions, with
the defenders of absolutistic theory for "classical physics", to prove that neorelativiste theories about space and time are confirmed by Einstein 's energy
formula.
2
Even worse is the fact that neorelativists claim that the formula E=mc applies to
all objects in the Universe, although it was confirmed practically only for the
elementary particles. For example, the physicist Brian Greene states that: "...
Einstein didn't pleade for the name of <relativity theory> (suggesting instead the
name of <invariability> theory in order to reflect, among other things, the
unchangeable character of the speed of light) ... By his formula, Einstein showed
that energy (E) and mass (m) of an object are not independent concepts, we can
determine the energy knowing the mass...or we can determine the mass knowing
the energy "(1, p 69).
2
As it can be seen, Brian Greene explains the formula E=mc emphasizing the
constant ratio between energy and mass, without specifying that Einstein's
expression "speed invariability" refers to the constant, invariable particle velocity
and not the "relativity of space and time ". The contemporary neo-relativists'
persistence to demonstrate that Einstein's formula applies to all kinds of objects
assessment is contradicted by reality. The title of our article calls paradox this
2
significance mystification of the formula E=mc . In other words, not Einstein's
formula is a paradox, but its inclusion in the list of neo-relativist concepts.
We know that in the Universe there are many kinds of objects whose power
correlates differently with mass and velocity. For example, the speed and the mass
of the celestial bodies, which rotate in bunk systems, around the axis of the
Universe are variable.The Moon, for example, surrounds Terra with 1.022 km / s,
and with it runs around the Sun with 30 km/s. In its turn, the entire solar system
moves in an orbit of the galaxy with 223 km / s. The Milky Way moves at 600
km/s...The systems of galaxies, metagalaxies...rotate inertially around the axis of
the Universe thus constituting a single body, coagulated by the law of
ponderability (2).
(The fact that speeds increase progressively by each level allow us to calculate
the size of the Universe, limited by the law of ponderability).
In the case of a collision, for example, of an asteroid to any of the planets from
the solar system, damage occur, craters are formed of a different energy
magnitude, dependent on both the size of the mass, as well as their speeds. We note,

55

here, that the assessment of the energy effects caused by collision does not require
2
consideration of the speed of light (c ).
2
Also, the formula E=mc does not have direct applications on the assessment of
the energy of objects located on celestial bodies (satellites, planets...) that revolve
around their own axis. Their ponderability, vary with distance from the axis of
rotation and with the speed of rotation. For example, a body weighing 10 kilos
high, on a mountain top, will weigh more at the sea level.
Also under the influence of ponderability we spend more energy when pushing
a vehicle uphill than downhill, even if the speed remains constant.
Equally significant is the fact that all objects large or small, are the same as, or
have the same speed, although different masses.
From these examples, two requirements highlight the further treatment with
the assessment of energy. The first requirement - to define more precisely the terms
2
directly involved in understanding the formula E=mc (mass, energy, force,
motion, velocity, acceleration); and the second requirement - to delineate precisely
the area of its practical applications.
III.7.2. We call MATTER the mass composition of all objects (particles, bodies,
stars...) integrated within the Universe using rotation movements generating
ponderability (2). Matter is the support of all kinds of elementary particles, which,
in fact, are the bricks on the substance of the Universe. It is limited quantitatively,
spatially localized, temporally unlimited. The matter of the Universe always
existed and will never die.
III.7.3. MOVEMENT is a quality of the object matter, that can not exist
independently, on its own. We cannot meet movement without something that
moves. The movement occurs satially by changing its place, location and extent of
the mass object. Classified from a cosmic perspective we distinguish: objects that
run continuously, without interruptions, and objects moved alternatively, having
transitions from rest to motion. Classified by the place where they move and the
mechanism driving, the physical objects are divided into:
a) particles moving in the cosmic space inhabited by the Universe. For example,
the photon run continuously with a constant speed within the universe 300,000 km/s;
b) particles moving within the Earth's best conductor of electricity conductors.
For example, the electrons go, jumping ball of orbiting particles are integrated on
the orbits of other balls contacted;
c) particles of an area changing from one object to another. For example, the
radiation resulting from the disintegration of radioactive substances. They charge
radioactively objects that are in their area of influence;
d) particles emitted by burning (boiling ...) of an object located in a particular
place. For example, the calories spread exerting pressure in all directions, for the
density uniformity etc.

56

III.7.4. SPEED is the quality of the object to move slowly or quickly, changing
position and taken place. Elementary particles have constant speeds, their own
running place and an unique way of moving. They cannot influence themselves
tranferring the speed by pushing or collision. For example, electrons can not catch
photons as light runs faster and further than electricity eclosed inside the Earth and in
the mass of the electricity conductors. The experience assimilated at the particle
accelerator near Geneva established that through the collisions between protons their
speed cannot increase.
Indeed, collisions cause crushes, spins (mechanical work) and no accelerations (3).
Increasing speed is not possible in any macro-cosmos, where, according to the
postulates of the cosmos extent, the mass and energy of the Universe are constant.
III.7.5. Acceleration is a movement whose speed increases gradually, in parallel
with the amount of fuel added. Unlike speed, which is characterized by the amount
of space covered in a given time period, acceleration is evaluated by the smallness
of the transition to a higher speed. It is based on improving the mechanisms that
convert fuel energy into mechanical work. Hence the truth that a spaceship will
never exceed the speed particle used as material energy. Losses caused by the
transition from the mechanic work to speed can not be eliminated entirely. For this
photon speed may not be exceeded unless the fugitive elementary particles used as
energy material will have a higher speed than light.
The most various forms of movement and speed acceleration happen in the
world of composed objects: physical and biotic, human and animal, treated by us
elsewhere (4).
III.7.6. ENERGY is a quality of motion manifested by changes made by the
mass and velocity of objects when contacting. Defined philosophically, energy is
the inertia of movement, changing and continuously transformation of eternal
objects whose substance is composed of fugitive particles with constant mass and
substance.
Lavoisier had in mind this when he said "Nothing is lost, nothing is gained,
everything is transformed."
The dynamic nature of the Universe was demonstrated by Vasile Conta in the
Universal undulation theory(5).
III.7.7. Einstein is credited to have solved the problem in practical application
of particle energy. He assumed that single particles energy is manifested in a
specific way, different from the energy of composite bodies.
For example, increasing the mass of the particles, or their concentration at a
point, it stops the motion of photons at that point. They continue to move at the
same speed and mass. Conversely, pressing the accelerator increases the explosion

57

of fuel and increases the vehicle's speed and the explosive material used is under
irreversible decomposition.
2
Therefore, neo-relativists' attempt to apply the formula E = mc for the energy
assessment of the composed objects, is paradoxical. And yet, Brian Greene says
serenely: "The faster something moves, the more its energy increases, and from
Einstein's formula we see that as the energy increases, the mass increases, too") (1,
page 69) (We have shown that the movement itself has no real content, capable to
generate the causal substance, ie elementary particles, bricks which all the objects
in the Universe are made of).
It should also be noted that the statement, "something that moves faster" from
the text quoted above, proves that the author applies Einstein's formula to the
movement of the composite objects. Indeed, only ponderally integrated bodies
accelerate. Speed and particles' mass are constant. It follows from here that Greene
2
generalizes the application of the formula E = mc to all objects, distorting the
meaning given by Einstein to velocity.
(So, the formula E=mc2 became, for the school population, and not only,
something incomprehensible, and energy - an indefinable concept. Truly, it is
impossible to explain the implication of the squared speed of light (c ^ 2) for the
acceleration of a car ... when they work with petrol
In our opinion, the mystification of Einstein's formula is not coincidental. It is
used, by the followers of "New Physics", to the acceptance, by the public, of the
idealistic ideas promoted in the theory of "new physics" such as: Photons have no
mass...; Matter increases its quantity when moving with speed ...; The Universe
expands ... Movement ... Space ... Time ... are relative ... etc). In fact, this
paradoxical situation determined us to write a series of articles entitled: "Concept
paradoxes of the "New neo-relativist physics").
III.7.8. As for the proper growth of mass that Einstein's formula refers to, it
relies on the concentration of the particle balls. When, for instance, the number of
photons sent to a point reaches a maximum there, the matter illuminated this way
changes its state of aggregation, it burns, and the atoms explode...
Einstein's brilliant idea was to establish the quantity (critical mass) of energetic
material consisting of fugitive particles with mass and constant speed needed to
produce explosion. (The atomic bomb explodes when two parts of it approach and
form a critical mass of explosive material).
In fact, Brian Greene describes correctly the scheme of the formulas reported
above when he states that "energy (E) and mass (m) are not independent concepts;
we can determine energy knowing its mass (by multiplying the last one twice the
2
speed of light c ) or, we can determine the mass knowing its energy (by dividing the
last one, two times the speed of light)" (1, p 68).
2
For example, if in the formula E= mc we note the mass with 2 and the speed of
the light (ie the constant c2) with 3 we have:

58

E = mc2= 2 x (3 x 3) = 18

=>
m = E/c2= 18 : (3 x3) = 2
2
=>
c = E/m = 18 : 2 = 9
Another example: if m = 5 and c = 300.000 we have:
2
E = mc = 5 x 90.000.000.000 = 450.000.000.000
2
m = E/c = 450.000.000.000 : 900.000.000.000 = 5
2
c = E/m = 450.000.000.000 : 5 = 90.000.000.000.
(So, according to this formula, if we know the mass, we find out the energy or if
we know the energy, we find out the mass).
2
As can be seen from the above examples, the formula of energy (E=mc ) is
similar to the formula of force (F = mv), with the difference that the "v" (speed,
acceleration), variable for the compound objects is replaced by "c "(speed of light),
unchanging, constant for the elementary particles.
Unlike the energy of the objects from macrocosmos to which the mass
increases through the accumulation of homogeneously integrated substance, at the
elementary particles, the mass increase is achieved by grouping some of the
autonomous elements. Each bundle of photons that is sent to a point is the mass of a
certain size at the respective point. But as the photons that are concentrated this
way do not remain in the point at which they were designed, they continue because
they are fugitive, the energy effects are gradually manifested when quantity
reached a certain level.
Consequently, the mass does not multiply by speed, as in the force formula, but
with a constant because the velocity of photons, electrons does not accelerate, it is
constant.
2
In conclusion, Einstein's formula E = mc is a brilliant relationship, and the
formula explained by neo-relativists is a paradox contradicted by the objective
reality.
Einstein's genius creation is confirmed by the discovery of thermonuclear
bombs, thermoatomic factories, laser ... The paradox of neo-relativist theory is
proven by the paradoxical theories about the nature of matter, time, space ...
Einstein discovered that for the elementary particles, energy increase is not
based on quantitative growth of total substance taken as a homogeneous mass, but
centering simultaneous passage of particles through a certain point. Energy
formula helps to discover this critical threshold, because it allows us to know mass
when we know energy and vice versa, to know energy when we know the mass.
The two terms (energy and mass) are in alike relationship terms arithmetic
operations: Sum=Multiplied x Multiplier (S = M x M; M= S:M ).
Einstein's genius is that he has found the method to build the atomic bomb
today, stating the critical mass at which maximum power is unleashed, under the
conditions in which elementary particles have constant mass and velocity.

59

III.7.9. In conclusion, the formula E = mc2 has applications only for the energy
of fugitive elementary particles with constant mass and speed.
2
The assertion that E = mc applies to all kinds of energy, and thus the movement
of objects in the macrocosms is a paradox contradicted by objective reality.
III.7.10. Finally, the neo-relativist theorists explained wrongly the energy
formula saying paradoxically that it can be used to measure all forms of energy not
taking into consideration the fact that the genius Einstein destined it for the
particles' energy evaluation.
The involvement of this formula in explaining the nature of the concepts of
space and neo-relativist time is a paradox contradicted by the laws governing
objective reality.
The practical application mechanism of the energy formula consists in
delimiting the critical threshold at which explosion occurs, chain disaggregation...
By introducing the coefficient c2 in the formula, Einstein proved that you can not
create higher speeds than the used fuel energy. Always explosions, collisions (3) ...
generate mechanical work, disintegration ... and speeding energized objects.
(1) Brian Greene, Universul elegant, Humanitas, Bucureti, 2008.
(2) Liviu Filimon, O abordare filozofic a existenei gravitaiei, n : Studii i cercetri
tiinifice, vol. 5, EDS, Bacu , 2007.
(3) Liviu Filimon, Acceleratorul de particule (LHC) un experiment apocaliptic (?!), In:
Studii de specialitate, vol. 6, p. 197, EDS, Bacu, 2007.
(4) Liviu Filimon, Psihologia percepiei, EDP, Bacu, 1993.
(5) Vasile Conta, Opere complete, Editura C. State, Bucureti, 1914

60

III.8. A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH OF THE EXISTENCE OF


GRAVITY
III.8.1. A large number of researchers included gravity on the list of unsolved
problems. Moreover, they pointed out the lack of demonstrations referring to the
nature of elements, through which the link between the attracted body and the one
which attracts it is realized. The invalidation of all suppositions according to which
this connection might be realized through the instrumentality of the ether or of
the gravitons elements which are proved to be completely missing
emphasized even more the scientific uncertainty. Besides the differentiation of the
gravitational attraction from electro-magnetism, invalidated also the solutions
proposed by the advocates of relativist theories.
In this work, we decided to discuss about gravity, not from a mathematical point
of view, as usually, but from a philosophical one, beginning with theoretical
premises and relying on the logical analysis of the few information which science
has today about macro space.
More exactly, I took into account the infinity of the duration of space and the
vastness of space, the eternity of matter and the constancy of the quantity of energy
considered, unanimously nonmathematical concepts. This is how I started
explaining the gravity mechanism, apart from the premise that the Universe turns
inertially around its axis for an infinite time.
III.8.2. The English scientist Isaac Newton demonstrated, in his work
Mathematical principles of natural philosophy (1687) that the Sun attracts
planets with a force with is directly proportional to its mass and conversely
proportional with its square distance.
Unfortunately, Newton started to demonstrate the gravitational attraction from
a particular case, the falling down of an apple from a tree and not from the eternal
premise of eternal turning of the Universe around its axis, which we have already
mentioned. Obviously, four centuries ago, when Newton defined gravity, there
weren't any sure/ doubtless information about the turning round of the Earth, about
the turning round of the solar, galactic, super-galactic system This is why he
didn't take into account, while demonstrating the existence of gravity, the
differences between the axial turning movements ruled by the law of levers and
those of the orbital turning based on inertial rolling down.
Also, there weren't clearly explained either the differentiation of the
electromagnetic attraction among good conductors of electricity bodies or the sky
bodies which are integrated into superposed systems of inertial rotation.
The second insufficiency, which is met while proving the existence of
gravitational attraction, is erroneous defining of the inertness law: a linear and
uniform moving (). According to us, the eternal inertial rotation of all the things

61

from Universe, excludes the existence of linear motions. If there had existed linear
motions, the respective bodies would have traveled scattered inside the infinite
space of an infinite time, and the Universe wouldn't have constituted itself as an
unitary system. Moreover, if we look from the outer space of the solar system, at a
vehicle while moving linearly on the Earth surface, we will notice that by
combining both the turning around its axis and around the Sun, in reality, the
respective vehicle moves away on an undulatory route and not on a linear one.
III.8.3. Yet, the most serious insufficiency while dealing with the gravity
problem is about the fact that we forget about the spherical status of the Earth,
which spins around its axis like a wheel.
The Earth, in a spherical like hypostasis is a first degree lever, having its arms
(radii) equally removed from the support point, which is situated in the middle of
its mass. Between the rotation moving of the Earth and its rotation around the Sun,
there are not any gravitational links. In equilibrium conditions, there may be
released the translation moving, without changing the rotation circumference
around the Sun. Although there passed billions of years since the planets of the
solar system formed themselves, they are still spinning inertially, on almost the
same circumferences, around the Sun. Moreover, around the Sun there are also
bodies (asteroids, comets) which don't rotate axially.
III.8.4. In our opinion, the emission of a body from Terra equalizes with its
transformation from a constitutive element which is integrated through axial
rotation together with it, in one which rotates individually/independently.
Therefore, the speed and the route which are linked at their emission will
determine it to move in three hypostases:
- to point towards the central area (accelerated fall);
- to rotate on a circumterrestrial orbit, when its speed overtakes 11,2 km/s
(imponderability); or
- to spin solitarily around the Sun.
But, as we can notice, none of these possibilities is caused by the so called
gravitational attraction which is directly proportional with its mass and inversely
proportional with the square of distance. The rotation around the Terra axis
doesn't affect the turning together with it around the Sun. And the cosmic dust,
comets, asteroids, which possibly don't rotate axially continue to spin around the
space of the solar system, if they are integrated in this system through common
speed (This situation may be illustrated by the air, furniture, travelersfrom a
carriage, which moves with the same speed, although they have different sizes and
positions).
It remains to explain, following the hypostasis that we deny the existence, in the
center of the Earth, of something which attracts us to it: why the free falling bodies

62

speed up with 9,8 We consider that the mechanism of this phenomenon is based
on the ratio between speed and mass in constituting the force governed by the law
of levers. For example, if we rotate well the wheel of a chain, from the external end
of the spokes, we use a smaller force than if we would rotate it from a place which is
closer to the supporting axis. Simultaneously with the increasing of the speed from
the end of the spokes, the force of hand is amplified. A sportsman throws further
the disk if he increases its launching speed by its rotation.
Besides, the law of levers determines a turning body to assimilate much force, if
at the same time it is rotating around its axis. It results that the force implied during
the falling down doesn't come from exterior. It is stored in each constitutive
element of the Earth and it is carried by it when this is taken off. That's why for
understanding the falling down mechanism of the body, we have to inform
ourselves about its launching speed, route and direction of its movingwe will
notice, for example, that as it gets closer to the central area, the rotation speed
slows down gradually, and the passing of the body from one part to another is
marked by an advance which is equal to the speed difference of the two areas.
Now we may ask ourselves about the limit of these fallings down with
accelerations which are gradually amplified. The answer is simple. The
acceleration stops when the emitted body lose its speed pulse which is transferred
by the law of levers, namely when the length of the two arms is equal.
Therefore, an emitted body from the Earth, will move inertially on a curved
route in the space from inside or outside its circumference according to the speed
which was imposed to it from its launch. It might turn inertially around the central
area if the space would be empty, in that place where the ratio between the length of
the lever arms equalizes it.
If the attraction would really exist, the bodies with bigger mass should fall down
faster. The reason why the bodies fall down with the same speed in void proves that
the attraction which is directly proportional to the mass and inversely proportional
to the distance is completely missing.
We have also to take into account, as anti gravitational argument, the correlation
between the radius size and the increasing of acceleration. At the Equator the
acceleration is of 9,780 m/s. The Sun has for 26 times the acceleration of the Earth.
A last observation which contradicts the attraction theory of bodies is connected
to the lack of differences of spinning around and rotation movement. As long as the
body is on the Earth surface, it spins with this around the axis with a speed
amplified by the law of levers. When it is separated and let to fall freely down, it
has changed its nature, becoming a body which spins around a route on its own
having a speed dictated by the law of inertness.
III.8.5. Unlike rotations, during which the body moves unitarily around its axis,
the rotations are circular movements which take place around other bodies, at a

63

certain distance of them. For example there may turn around:


- the electrons around the nucleus,
- the photons around the axis of the packet of photons, -the planets around the
Sun,
- the stars around the galaxy axis,
- the galaxies around the meta galaxy axis
And finally, the whole Universe spins around the Universe axis.
The first scientific approach about the rotation of planets is made by the German
astronomer and mathematician Kepler, who publishes in 1609 the law: All
planets spin around on elliptical orbits (trajectories), the Sun being in their
common focus.
Unfortunately, Kepler refers only to the Sun, forgetting to say that around the
planets rotate other celestial bodies (satellites, comets, asteroids). It results that
Kepler's first law is implied more in explaining the origin of the solar system, in the
formation of planets from the Sun's mass, than in solving the problem of
gravitational attraction.
It is true that the extension of the rotation analysis of other celestial bodies
suggests the idea that they appeared and delimited themselves into space not only
during the collision (explosion) of the Sun which generated the planets, but also
subsequently, when the interplanetary spaces cleaned themselves of the debris/
fragments (cosmic dust, asteroids) whose trajectories interfered inertially.
Returning to our topic, the nature of gravity, we may notice that the rotation
itself appeared at the bodies which were overloaded by force, after collisionsSo,
each planet, satellite, cometcarries over the moving of the body it comes from,
which is usually bigger and more energetic than it.
As a result, the starting point in the geneses of galaxies, solar planetary
systemsis represented entirely by the Universe. The reason for what this
universe exists for an infinite time, demonstrates its independent feature. We have
to keep in mind that the integrated systems which are ranged in tiers in the mass of
the Universe, are differentiated by the gradual increasing of the speed and of the
distance from one layer to another. For example, the Moon spins around the Earth
in 27,3 days , the Earth spins around the axis of the solar system in 365 days, the
Sun rotates around the galaxy axis in 200 million years.
Remarkable differences are noticed at their sizes: the Moon has its radius 4
times shorter than the Earth radius, the Sun has its mass 330000times heavier than
the mass of the Earth, the galaxy has the long axis of 100000 light-years. If we take
into account the enormous spaces which separate the integrated systems, which are
arranged in tiers in the rotation of the Universe, the implication of the inertial law
becomes more evident in the life of the Universe.
As a conclusion, the spinning around moving of all particles and bodies which
form the Universe, is ruled by the inertness law and not by the claimed law of
attraction.

64

Not even the second law of Kepler, called the law of periods, is edificatory for
demonstrating the existence of the gravitational attraction. The assertion/
affirmation that: The square of the revolution period of a planet around the Sun is
directly proportional with the cube of the average distance of the planet as far as the
Sun, refers in fact to the relation between the diameter and the circumference of
the circle which is expressed today by the formula 2IIR. Or the relations between
the length of the circle and its diameter cannot be considered as a law of the
gravitational gravity.
The third law, published by Kepler in 1619, according to which the radius
vector which unites the Sun with a sweep-like planet (describes) equal areas in
equal lapses of time, is most of all related to the existence of gravity, although in a
deviated sense.
It is known that the rotation of the Earth around the Sun follows 4 phases:
- during the first phase the Sun and the Earth move away parallel towards the
axis of the galactic system (figure 1/A);
- during the second phase, the planet outruns the Sun getting closer than it, the
galaxy axis having the length of a radius (figure 1/ B);
- during the third phase, the Earth surrounds the Sun, conversely (figure 1/C)
and
th
- during the 4 phase, which ends up with the position of the Sun before that of
the Terra (figure 1/ D).

Fig. 1
S - The Sun on its way towards the axis of galaxy
P - The Earth spinning around the Sun
It results that the route of Earth around the Sun doesn't transform itself, because
of the attraction of the sun, from one circle in a ellipsis, so that the radius vector ,
which starts from the Sun towards the planet, to sweep (describe) equal areas in
equal lapses of time. The ellipsoid route is in fact undulatory, being generated by
the correlation of the two movements: of the Earth around the Sun and of the Earth
and of the Sun around the galaxy axis. The observation is very important because it
helps us understand that the change of the route is inertial, not gravitational.

65

III.8.6. The second type of bodies moving, the inertial rotation, may be seen
only at the superposed cosmic systems, integrated in steps/ levels of accelerated
speeds and spatial delimitations which are amplified from one system to another.
For example, the terrestrial system (with the Moon which spins around the Earth
with , integrated in the solar system by the rotation around the Sun with 29,78
km/s together with other planets. On its turn, the solar system integrates itself
turning around the galaxy axis, in 200 million years with a speed of 300 km/s. On
th
the 4 integration plan, the galactic system rotates around the meta galaxy axis
with 600 km/s. The chain of superposed integrations continues with more and
more comprehensive and accelerated metagalaxies. There were discovered
corsairs which include billions of galaxies and spin around with However, the
increasing of the number of the superposed plans is limited by the speed of 300000
km/s, from the border of the Universe - which cannot be overtaken. It results from
here that the universe is limited both as size as power/ energetic value.
As we can notice, the cause of integration and generally speaking that of interrelation between celestial bodies, is represented by the inertial moving law and not
by the Newtonian attractions. We may also mention, in order to emphasize this
conclusion, the fact that the researchers who kept on trying, throughout the
centuries to create perpetuum mobile, according to Newton's law didn't have
success. Cosmic rotations are inertial, therefore eternal.
This way it is inversely proved that our theory about the inertial nature/feature
of gravity is true. On its turn, the demonstration of creating a state of
weightlessness on Earth by accelerating the speed over the limit of 11,2 km/s,
proves, also, that the claimed gravitational attraction is, in fact, an inertial
moving.The high limits from among the speeds of the superposed integrated
systems and not the claimed gravitational attractions, make possible the
maintaining of equilibrium between stars, galaxies and metagalaxies.
It is known that the terrestrial system contains the Terra, the Moon, comets,
asteroids The main component the Earth, with the radius of 6370 km ( 4 times
the radius of the Moon) has the heaviest mass. The Moon surrounds the Earth in
27,3 days at the distance of 38000 km in the same rhythm , but on scientific routes
and speeds. Besides, the terrestrial system, as a whole, rotates inertially around the
Sun, which is situated at 150 million km far, with the constant speed of 462, 77 m/s.
So, although each component changes its position from the common rotation axis,
inside individual rotations, after the end of the whole turning round, the routes
done on previous rotations, repeat themselves identically.
For example, although the Moon takes different positions during its rotation
around the Earth, sometimes being closer, other times being further the Sun than
the Earth (during ellipses), it forms together with it an autonomic system
integrated by the common, constant speed. We may notice here a proof that
changing the distance from the Earth and the Sun during different stages of

66

eclipses depends on the moving inertness and not on the bigger or smaller
attraction which derives from the so-claimed gravity. (It is known that according to
the inertness law, the route and the speed of a mobile cannot change, without the
intervention of sufficient exterior forces). We don't refer here to the
electromagnetic attraction which is implied in forming the high tide and the low
tide, but to the claimed gravitational attraction, which is supposed to stop the Moon
from leaving the Earth. In fact, the position of the Moon inside the terrestrial
system could be changed , in the sense of increasing the orbit it is surrounding on,
only if it would be impelled , getting a certain quantity of moving from another
body. For instance, this enables it to turn round the galaxy axis, together with the
Sun and planets. Therefore, the passing from one rotation system to another one,
depends, exclusively on the assimilated or lost energy during some solar collisions
or other objective causes.
We may also conclude that the subordinated position of the terrestrial system
towards the solar system demonstrates that planetsappeared after some
collisions which got the energy from the aggressor body. This way, during the
rotation movements of the bodies derived from the Sun mass during the formation
of the Earth, the whole given energy is found again, eventually from the aggressor
asteroid. The reason for which the Earth (having its mass of 5973*19/34 kg)
represents the thousandth part from the mass of the Sun (the mass of the Sun is of 1,
9891* 10/36 kg) 5973 proves that the quantity of the assimilated material during
collision was relatively small. The observation is important because many
astronomers talk about collisions between galactic systems forgetting about the
fact that the energy transfer is realized between concrete bodies (asteroids, planets,
stars) and not between systems which cover enormous areas in which stars are
found at distances measured in light-years.
When we ask ourselves: What is the Terra's position in Universe?, we get an
answer from the Bible which sustains that At the very beginning, God created the
sky, the stars and the Sun in order to lighten the Earth, to grow plants and animals
and to create a planet, full of good and useful things, for human beings.
It is true that according to the rotation speed, the solar system has the slowest
speed (it surrounds the Sun's axis in 365 days). Then comes the rotation of the solar
system, formed by the Earth and the other planets which surround the axis of
galaxy with a speed of 300 km/s. Then follows repeated integrations in a series of
more and more complex metagalaxies, with rotation speeds which are gradually
accelerated. The limit of these superposed integrations is represented by the speed
from the margin of Universe, which is under the absolute limit of 300000km/s.
When we sustain that the Earth is situated in the center of Universe, we attribute
this state to all stars which have planets. Apart from the approximations done by
some researchers, the number of the stars which have planets on which live beings
is small, so that , today, under the conditions of using some perfected/ improved

67

telescopes, nobody noticed the existence of some stars with planets.


The problem of the central position of Earth in Universe interested philosophers
since Ancient times. Ptolemeu supposed that the Earth rests in the middle of
Universe, and, the Sun, the Moon are planets which turn round the Earth. Then,
Copernic contradicted this hypothesis in his work De revolutionibus which
appeared in 1542 demonstrating that the Sun is in the center of the Universe. In
Modern times, there was demonstrated that planets, the Sun, the stars, the asteroids
are integrated, according to the gravitational attraction, in galaxies and
metagalaxies.
The photons and other micro particles are excluded from the gravitational
Universe. The present work comes with the hypothesis that the whole Universe
forms a unique system, which is integrated through inertial rotations of all the
particles and bodies.
III.8.7. As a conclusion, the explanation of the nature of gravitation, doesn't
consist exclusively in demonstrations done by mathematicians. That because
gravitation is about outer space, as a whole, a huge number of aspects cannot be
expressed by mathematical calculations, but by logical arguments and
philosophical hypotheses. We refer to the eternity of the (Outer) space, meaning
the eternity of equilibrium between material components of Universe, we refer to
the vastness of space and the infinity of time, to the constancy of matter and energy,
to the absolute particularity of Truth and Divinity.
So that, the philosophical interpretation of the nature of gravitation is
motivated/ demonstrated in this work. (this work is a chapter from the book:
Elements of philosophical and cosmic psychology, which is in working.
We would like our readers to tolerate our daring/ impudence to contradict the
veracity of some theories from the past (Ptolemeu, Copernic, Newton, Kepler)
who are extolled by the authors of some textbooks and our trying of rejecting the
hypotheses of the present day advocates of einsteinium relativism.
Even though this work may appear, at a first look, a philosophical speculation,
we have to admit frankly that we wrote it being convinced that our innovations
express the truth.
Finally, we have to signal that our vision about the inertial nature of gravitation
is not contradicted by the vision of the genius Einstein who said that both
inertness and gravitation have the same nature. (Cf. Stephen Harwing, A short
history of tome, page 113).

68

III.9. A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH TO THE PARADOX


OF GRAVITATION
III.9.1. The theory of gravitation is a paradox in that it describes the way in
which celestial bodies attract each other although, in reality, they do not attract
each other gravitationally, but they reject each other collisionally.
Actually, when the moving bodies meet, the debris from collision are pushed
with a force caused by speeds and not by attractions. The fact that this
attractive force is absent from reality explains why a large number of researchers
have placed gravitation in the list of unsolvable problems (5). They pointed out
especially the lack of evidence concearning the existence of elements (the binder)
which attracts a body to another body. The negation of the hypothesis that this
attraction would be achieved through the ether or gravitons elements proven
to lack completely has stressed even more the uncertainty of the researchers.
Also, the demonstration of the differences between the electro-magnetic
attraction and that attributed to falling bodies also negated the solutions proposed
by the neorelativist followers (2).
In the present article we have intended to approach the matter of gravitation, not
in a physical-mathematic language, as before, but philosophically, based on
theoretical assumptions relying on logical analysis of the little information that
cosmological science has at its disposal. More precisely, we have considered the
following postulates absolutely true: the infinite Cosmos duration; the endlessness
space length; the eternity of matter existence; and the constancy of energy
postulates widely considered mathematical concepts. Having this into
consideration we have started the research of the gravitation objectivity from the
postulate that the UNIVERSE HAS ROTATED INERTIALLY around its axis for
an infinitely long time, since forever. (This means that to a star that made rotates
inertially on an ellipse, the route becomes a support plan, a stable way as the one
made by a moving ball thrown to the bowling alley. At once, the star revolves
around its axis turning the route into a support axis characteristic of the
threedegree levers.)
Isaac Newton in his work The Mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy
(1687) has demonstrated that the Sun attracts the planets with a force directly
proportional to the mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance.
Unfortunately, the English mathematician started in demonstrating gravitation
from a particular fact, namely the fall of an apple from a tree, and not from the
postulate of eternal rotation of the Universe mentioned above.
Four centuries ago, when Newton defined gravitation, there were no reliable
data concerning the rotation of the Earth, the rotation of the solar, galactic system
and meta-galactic systems and so on. Thus, it explaines why when explaining the
fall of the bodies he did not take into consideration the defferences between axial

69

rotation movements governed by the law of levers and the orbital rotation based on
the law of inertia, laws which in our view generate phenomena improperly called
gravitational attractions.
Certainly, the most serious failure in proving the existence of gravitation was
the incorrect definition of the law of inertia as a rectilinear and uniform
motion, definition which excluded curved paths from the notion of inertial
motion. In our view, the inertial rotation, eternal to all Universe components
excludes the existence of rectilinear motion. No matter how large the Universe
would be along its infinite past, its rectilinear particles have definitely left its area.
In fact, if we look outside our solar system we see as the Earth moves along a
wavy path.
In Fig. 2 is the Earth (E) that revolves around the Sun (S) in four periods (A, B,
C, D) describing waves.

Fig. 2
III.9.2. The inertial spinning of stars the support of the gravitational motion
It is important to note that the main failure in addressing the gravitational matter
lies in not taking into account the fact that the Earth has the role of a bowling ball
which slips spinning on its axis like a wheel, and the wheels are governed by the
law of levers.
As it is well known, the lever is a rigid bar that can rotate around a fixed point,
called a fulcrum. We have three types of levers:
- the first-degree lever, when the fulcrum is between the application points of
forces;
- the second-degree lever, when the fulcrum is at one end and at the other end
lies the point of application of the active force;
- the third-degree lever, the fulcrum lies at one end, and at the other end is the
point of application of resistance force.
The Earth revolves on a certain ellipse around the Sun spinning on its axis.
Rotation on the Solar ellipse and axle rotation are due to the force (energy)
received when a meteorite collided with the Earth (The energizing phenomenon
can be illustrated playing bowling with the ball thrown by the player. It moves
spinning and stops after pin collision. If the shot's power is minor, the ball does not
reach the pin it stops along the way).

70

So remember that the energizing of the ball means increasing power and not a
so-called mystical force of attraction hidden in the central point.
In fact, one does not find gravitational attraction in the relations between the
movement, rotation of the Earth and the revolving around the Sun. (We mean that
Earth movements are performed with the same energy expenditure, no matter if the
vehicle moves to East or West). Even more significant is the example with the
travelers from fast and personal trains that move into compartment without
realizing that they have different speeds.
It is important to note that the elements that make up the mass of the Earth are
equipped with specific forces caused by the speed of rotation varied with distance
from the central axis. Thus, a loose body from the ground at the sea level will have
a lower collision speed than another identical body detached from the mountain
top. Explanation of this phenomenon is found in the laws of levers. The situation
can be illustrated by simple cases.
The longer the spokes of a wheel, the arms of a windmill are, the greater their
strength is.

Fig. 3
A: the supporting shaft B: Vertical bar below
C: Chair below D: Stanchion
E. Chair F: Vertical bar above

71

For example, the spinning force of the wooden swing is given by the length of
the bars that connect two opposite chairs.
In Fig. 3 vertical bar below (B), with chair (C) further from the supporting shaft
(A) has a greater force than the vertical bar above (F) with the chair (E) closer to the
support shaft (A). In its turn, the force of the worker that spins the swing is
amplified when it pushes the chair below (C), so further from the supporting shaft.
Moving the analysis to Earth, one can notice that a body dropped from a height
will be faster than if it is detached from a place closer to the centre of the Earth.
In conclusion, the speed and the route in issuing body will cause it to move in
three ways:
a) to move towards the centre (falling fast) when it is slower than the speed of
rotation of Terra at the launch point;
b) to rotate on a circum-terrestrial orbit when its speed is equal to the speed of
rotation of the Earth at launch point (weightlessness);
c) to circle the Sun solitarily (satellite).

Fig. 4
The chain fountain (5)
In our opinion, this phenomenon is explained by the law of the levers,
illustrated in Fig. no 4.
If we spin the wheel of the fountain by holding the outer end of the spokes, we
use less force than if we grab it from a place near the supporting shaft since the arm
(bar) is longer.
If gravitational attraction really existed, the bodies with greater weight would
fall faster. The fact that in the vacuum bodies fall with the same speed proves that
attraction directly proportional to the mass and inversely proportional to
distance lacks completely, which is why we have included Newtonian gravitation
on the list of cosmic paradoxes.

72

III.9.3. Inertial rotation of stars the support of the Universe integration


In accordance with the cosmic postulates, all material bodies (particles, stars)
are fugitive running continuously on curved tracks, rotating around the axis of the
Universe, integrated in bunk rotation systems. Satellites rotate around planets,
planetary systems revolve around stellar systems that revolve around galactic
systems which revolve around meta-galactic systemsAll bodies rotate around
the axis of the Universe.
Marginal spin rate from satellite CERES researchers' view is wrong because it
relates to Big Bang event which in our opinion has not occurred in the Universe
(4). The speed of each body, its mass and route are at the basis of the collisional
force (3) which changes with every bunk system. Figure 1 illustrates how spin
needs aggregate with the speeds of rotation, in that it builds a wave trail. As Vasile
Conta has shown in the Universal wave theory (6), by rotating on circular orbits
each body is ensured a stable place in space.
This spatial stability is caused by stars' speed and not by Newtonian magnetic
forces attraction, by gravitation waves, or ethereal fields, as it has been said. The
moving bodies that contact each other do not generate bonding contacts, clot,
but separation, decomposition (3). The debris resulted from collisions are first
removed, scattered and then knitted by spins around its axis. Thus collisions
generate new rotation systems that actually belong to the infinite chain of
evolution stages described by the brilliant Romanian philosopher Vasile Conta (6).
So, the engine of Universe development consists in collisions resulting in energy
transfers assimilated by axial spins. Therefore the Moon has not only the energy
necessary to revolve around the Sun along with the Earth, but also to revolve
around the Earth and around its own axis, taken when a meteor collided with the
EarthThis explanation is confirmed by the postulate of conservation formulated
by Parmenides in Antiquity and by Avogadro in Modern Era.
Consequently, the balance of stars is provided by the speed at which they rotate
around the axis of the Universe integrated in the bunk systems. For example, a
body in motion or at rest in a specific place rotates at 460 m/s by Earth rotation in
24 hours; it circles the solar system axis 29,8 km/s; the galaxy axis at 220 km/s, the
meta-galaxy axis at 390 km/s thereby gaining a collision force that becomes
maximum in the outer plane rotation around the axis of the Universe. Removing a
space shuttle from the Earth orbit plane is possible by increasing the speed, by an
accumulation of a calculable force in reference to the energy assimilated when spin
starts triggered by collision So bodies have a collision force (based on the speed,
mass and route) and not a force attraction (hidden in an occult way in the central
point) which in fact lacks completely. Neither the distances between bodies, nor
the mass sizes are significant to motivate Newtonian attraction. The fact that on the
same ellipse asteroid clusters of various sizes rotate without changing distances
proves once again that the theory of gravitation is a paradox.
It should be also noted that on the same ellipse bigger or smaller bodies
(asteroids) rotate with the same speed which excludes the existence of gravitation

73

based on mass size (directly proportional to mass). Thus the two elements
invoked by the law of gravitation (mass and distance) lack completely, so the
theory of Einstein-Newtonian gravitation is a paradox.
Based on the observations mentioned above that, we believe that there are
objective law-like relations between the bunk rotations of the celestial bodies and
the spaces where they reside. Body collisions, the crush of their masses, the
scattering and reintegration in new, bulk rotation systems constitute the engine of
the Universe development for an infinite time.
(1) Liviu Filimon, O abordare filosofic a existenei gravitaiei, Studii de specialitate,
vol. 5, Editura Didactic i tiinific, Bacu, 2007
2
(2) Liviu Filimon, Formula energiei (E=mc ) n viziunea teoriilor neorelativiste un
paradox, Studii de specialitate, vol. 8, Editura Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2012
(3) Liviu Filimon, Acceleratorul de particule, Studii de specialitate, vol. 6, Editura
Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2009.
(4) Liviu Filimon, Big Bang teorie paradoxal a genezei Universului, Studii de
specialitate, vol. 8, Editura Didactic i Stiinific, Bacu, 2010
(5) Wikipedia
(6) Vasile Conta, Opere complete, Editura C. Statea Bucureti, 1914.

74

THE FOURTH PART


IV. ABOUT THE GENESIS AND THE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE
IN THE VISION OF COSMOLOGY
IV.1. THE OBJECT OF STUDY FOR COSMOLOGY
Unlike astronomy, whose focus of research is given by the sensory stars
(telescopic), or deduced by mathematical calculations and other scientific
methods of research, cosmology aims the infinite, eternal and dynamic Cosmos.
But the infinity of space, time eternity and dynamics need (stability of laws) do
not fall within the classical sciences, therefore prospects of cosmology becoming a
common scientific discipline are excluded. Indeed, it is absurd to pretend that you
can evaluate mathematical or take experimental samples, as the researchers of
classical disciplines operate, when studied items are not included in the
dimensions of your mind. Man will never know the infinite precisely because he is
limited in physical size, duration of life and in understanding the nature of divinity.
Eminescu presents masterly the qualities of God: "He is everywhere. He has
space. He is eternal. He has the time. He is all-powerful. He has the only energy of
the universe.
For example, the paradox of knowing the infinite space equivaletes to the water
measuring pouring in the same fountain the total amount weighed before. Another
paradoxical example is drawing into our imagination two infinite lines from two
points at different distances from us. Although from the common mathematical
calculations they should be unequal as lengths in reality they are equal because all
infinite lengths are equal, ie infinite. In this sense, in the infinite world, arithmetic
operations are lacking. Neither the character of the route given by curved or
straight lines cannot be assessed by mathematical calculations. As much as we
would straighten the curvature of a circle segment, the curvature never disappears,
it reproduces infinitely, increasing larger, infinitely larger. Equally paradoxical is
the particular division of a line segment into equal parts. Their number increases to
infinity although, basically, they should be infinitely small, which is impossible in
classical science. Consequently cosmogony is not a science, but a branch of
philosophy. Defined shortly, cosmogony is the philosophical discipline that
studies the postulated-laws governing the development (genesis, evolution) of the
Cosmos and it explains the real-objective nature of the Universe. Anyway, the fact
that the truths discovered by cosmologists are as absolute as the other truths of the
classical sciences (fact that has demonstrated by criticism the paradoxes from the
third part of this work) enables us to enlist cosmology near scientific disciplines.
Cosmology differs from astronomy not only with respect to the object, but also for

75

the research methods. Because the theme of this work does not allow us to give
enough space for the status of cosmology as a scientific discipline, we point out the
main methods used by cosmologists.
a/. Religious revelation, analized by us in the first two chapters of this work. It
was demonstrated how the things written in the Book of Creation are confirmed by
contemporary sciences;
b/. Unconscious intuition, based on experience and skills accumulated by the
genetic code along filial ontogenetic and phylogenetic evolution. Examples: the
inertial conservation postulate formulated by Parmenides and Avogadro; the
theory of the innate ideas mechanism explained by Plato; the universal undulation
theory discovered by V.Conta and the theory of multilevel and global eternal
rotation, as gravitation support.
IV.2. THE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE SUBJECT OF
CONTRADICTORY DISCUSSIONS
Discussions about the nature of the elements that make up the Universe dates
back to Ancient times. Since Antiquity there are known the conflicting
confrontations between thinkers confident in man's ability to discover the truth
about "the essence of matter" and the opposite attitudes of skeptics, who doubted
and even denied reality cognoscibility. The situation can be illustrated, from
Ancient Greece through the disputes between the materialist philosophers and
idealistic sophists. For example, while the materialist philosopher Democritus said
that reality objects consist of dynamic elementary indivisible particles (atoms),
Zenon and other Greek sophists denied their objective existence.
It is known the "Paradox of the Arrow" which Zenon demonstrated that
movement did not exist objectively.
In the Middle Ages, the progress of knowledge developed more the moralizing
religious side. Unfortunately, just at this time there were the most numerous
instances of intolerance towards the independent negative attitudes. The situation
is illustrated by the burning of the philosopher Giordano Bruno and the conviction
of the astronomer Galileo Galilei, who proved scientifically the Earth's rotation
around the sun. The development of the capitalist economy based on private
ownership and democratic management, ended with the advancement of science,
technology, art and literature. When setting up astronomy as a science some people
contributed: mathematicians (Newton, Kepler), philosophers (Kant) and so on,
which demonstrated rationally the relationship between the planets and satellites
of the solar system. Notably, Einstein's contribution to the clarification of the role
of energy in the genesis of the Universe and the creation of the theory of relativity.
Lately it has increased the number of astronomical information, especially after
improving telescopes (Humbble, Ceres) and travelling to outer space.

76

However, compared to other disciplines, astronomers have obtained fewer


successes in scientific research due to the enormous size of the cosmos. The
nearest star (Sirius) is at 6 light years, and the most distant galaxies (Corsairs) at 4
billion light years. In addition, cosmic phenomena are inaccessible for the direct
sensory knowledge. As is known, the mental reflection of objects requires
contacting stimuli with the receptors of the sense organs that are completely
lacking when talking about dark objects, but also about subparticles.
Unfortunately, the uncertainties in astronomy enabled neo-relativist
philosophers to deny the objective nature of the Universe. They misinterpreted
Einstein's relativity theory citing it as evidence that their cosmological theories are
true. For example, the neo-relativists deny the objectivity of time and pretend to be
possible to travel into past and future. Also, they incorrectly state the possibility of
transforming matter into energy and increasing the amount of matter by speeding
up the movement etc.
Even more significant is the paradoxical theory of the genesis of the Universe
from the explosion of a bundle of matter, as small as an orange, theory contradicted
by the impossible movement of the particles resulted in fractions of a second in a
space of millions light years - when it has been shown that the rate of 300,000 km /
sec cannot be exceeded.
IV.3. SCIENTOLOGY PARADOXAL COSMOLOGICAL THEORY
1. Lately, some partizans of cosmic theories that called themselves
scientologists, organized religious sects that were recorded in 1954 by Ron
Hubbard with the name "Church of Scientology". Ideologists of this sect built a
paradoxical theory that identifies the Universe with all Divine religions. One God
and He is the Universe itself as a whole, composed of matter, life, energy and selfconsciousness. This Divine Universe governs human destiny everywhere,
terrestrial and extraterrestrial. With the funds accumulated from donations made
by credulous followers, the leader Hubbard initiated a deserted building in fallout
bunker for contacting aliens, established magazines, printed books, organized
teams of missionaries who managed to establish the Church of Scientology in
many countries.
The most prominent doctrinal of the Church of Scientology, Amit Glaswani, the
author of "The Self-Aware Universe", says that the Universe is a "single organism,
living consciously".
"Cosmic Consciousness - Gaswani states - is the creative force of the Universe,
which was given the name of God, Nature, Allah, Krishna, Field, Divinity". As
shown, Glaswani ranks the holtiste erroneous theory that partisans of inertial
motion unit do not infer the stars, but of "cosmic consciousness." In reality, the unit
of the objects that make up the mass of the Universe are formed structurally and

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dynamically by formations of particles, bodies, stars that compose it. It was said
that the Earth revolves around the axis and along with other planets, revolves
around it. The solar system, together with other billion of stellar systems, are
rotating inertially in certain ellipses around the central axis. In turn, the galaxy is
included in metagalaxies by turning bunks which, finally, surround the axis of the
Universe.
Although this description of the integration of the Universe is based exclusively
on astronomical observations, holists claim unjustifiedly without any scientific
evidence that the Universe is a "living and self-conscious organism." Thus they
overlook that matter, life and consciousness are different elements of reality that
can not be substituted. They are governed by specific laws, and they are studied by
astronomy, physics, biology, psychology and sociology.
In conclusion, the holist theory is erroneously adopted by the Scientology sects
which state that "the Universe is a living body with self-consciousness,"
consciousness that makes stars to be a "whole". As shown, Scientologists of the
doctrine mistakenly use the term consciousness.
2. Consciousness is a psychological concept and not a cosmic one. The term
conscience we call the psychic activity manifested by intellectual processes
(sensations, perceptions, imagination, memory, thinking, attention), affective
processes (emotions, feelings, passions) and volitional processes (the ability to
make decisions, to act, to persevere). No self-consciousness is dependent on a
living body endowed with organs, cellular and higher nervous systems. The lack of
these components causes the degradation and disappearance of consciousness. In
this regard, we called psychic dependence of body, life and nervous system the
"Fundamental law of psychology". Consciousness manifests horizontally
simultaneously on three sides: the intellectual side, the emotional side and the
volitional side. For example, the simplest mental act is accompanied by affective
attitude and momentum action. Therefore, we called the "Linking sides of psyche"
as second fundamental law of psychology .
Consciousness manifests itself vertically, as autonomous mental acts,
resolutary adaptive as psychic acts integrated temporally by verbal-logical
constructions (concepts, judgments, reasonings).
The "Autonomy and integration of mental acts" are part of the third
fundamental law of the psyche. Consciousness has an adjectival sense it is the
quality of the individual to identify himself by no-self, to delimit his body by
contacting other bodies; to self-assess forces by the measurement of standard
energy units, etc.
In this position it defines three superimposed levels of manifestation:
consciousness, subconsciousness and unconsciousness. In conclusion, the term
consciousness is defined by psychology, not cosmology, as the adepts from

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scientology sects tried to do. Indeed, one can not speak of cosmic consciousness as
the Universe is not a living body. On the contrary, the mass of the Universe is made
up mostly of stars with temperatures of millions of degrees without water without
which life is not possible. Moreover, life does not develop into interstellar space
where the temperature approaches to absolute zero.
3. In our opinion, "cosmic self-consciousness" is part of the nature of
elementary particles and not the factor that generates it. As said, the followers of
sects developed erroneous theories about the existence of miraculous primordial
particles, involved in the genesis of the Universe ("God particles"). For the
discovery of these alleged miraculous particles there were built particle
accelerators with enormous amounts of money. For example, for the accelerator
near Geneva (CHL), there were invested billions of dollars unsuccessfully.
We have demonstrated in a book entitled "Cosmic Psychology" the existence,
in the mass of elementary particles, of a primary mental component. For example,
rejecting relations, neutrality and attraction between elementary particles
(electrons, protons, neutrons) are psychiatric manifestations based on:
a / reflection of the self and other differentiation (mental processes);
b/ alert values - positive and negative (affective processes) and dynamic
attitude - of deliberation and action of removing (will). Note that these elements do
not generate mental matter, but coexist with it. The Bible refers to them when it
states there is a "word" and "light" at the beginning of the evolutionary cycles.
IV.4. THE GENERAL LAWS OF COSMOLOGY
a/ Law of the unity of the Universe manifested by the rotation of the component
objects around the central axis located in the centre of the infinite space. The
existence of this law cannot be sensorially demonstrated because the boundaries of
the Universe are stretched billions of light years and contain huge amounts of dark
particles, ie invisible. No even the movement of all objects can be perceived
visually as the elementary particles have quite high speed and invisibly small
mass. For example, physics studies subatomic particles that were not seen by
anyone - not even the scientists who discovered them.
However, cosmology laws are known by specific methods - pointed above by
us. The law of rotating the mass of the Universe, for instance, is proven true by the
existence of inertial and eternal fugitive elementary particles. Because all objects
are made of elementary particles running nonstop for an infinite time, one can say
with absolute certainty that they also constructed dynamic objects. In other words,
it is absurd to suppose that the collisions of moving objects can arise objects
without motion. This absurdity has been proven by Avogadro in the postulate of
conservation of mass and energy inside the transformed objects.

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Also logic is deduced the fact that all objects move on curved tracks, because
throughout the infinite time all mobile things supposed to follow straight paths
would be exceeded, without any return, the farthest borders of the mass of the
Universe.
Consequently, the Newtonian theory, that demonstrates incorrectly that
balance, unity and curdling of the stars is provided by the "gravitational
attraction", is paradoxical.
b / The same motivation appears to demonstrate the objectivity of the law of
integrating the objects of the Universe through planetary, stellar, galactical
rotation bunksfor example, the Moon revolves around the Earth and, in the solar
system, around the axis of the galaxy, metagalaxy...
c / The law of curdling the mass of the celestial bodies by turning around its own
axis. The understanding of this law's action is partially derived from the laws of
logic, that the force was acting on the outer end of the arm is greater as the arm is
longer. So, the objects situated at a bigger distance from their axis of rotation have
a higher speed than the closer ones. This law helps us understand why planetary
velocity decreases with increasing distance to the Sun, and the velocity of objects
located on Earth increases with the distance to the axis of rotation. This proves that
there is no gravitational attraction. For the same reason bodies fall at the same rate
in vacuum, regardless of their size. Of course, other laws deserve also to be
formulated in a cosmology treaty, which will be elaborated, in future, with other
researchers' contribution.
We cite, as example, the general laws of the Universe, described by tefan
Odobleja, the author of the book Psihologia consonantist/ Consonantal
Psychology:
The equivalency law, The adaptation law, The compensation law, The reaction
law, The oscilation law, The reversal law, The inertia law, The training law, The
automation law, The sensibility law, The exercise law, The succession law, The
genetic succession law, The minimum law, The law of latent effects, The
consonant law, The transformation law.

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CONTENT
FOREWORD......................................................................................................

THE FIRST PART


UNIVERSE ETERNAL OBJECTIVE REALITY
I.1. The sky, The light and the wordeternal cosmic elements .................. 5
I.2. At the beginning there was the sky the infinite space .................................. 7
I.3. Primordial light photons, elementary divine particles ................................ 9
I.4. At the beginning there was the word the idea, the laws of the
elementary particles ........................................................................................... 11
I.5. In the beginning there was the word the divine laws of love,
Justice and truth .................................................................................................. 13
I.6. The creation of light on the vast sky ......................................................... 16
THE SECOND PART
THE CREATION OF THE EARTH IN SIX STAGES (DAYS)
II.1. On the first day the Earth was a nebula ........................................................
II.2. In the second day God separated the waters.................................................
II.3. God created the land on the third day ...........................................................
II.4. The appearance of luminaries on the fourth day...........................................
II.5. The creation of the living things on the Earth...............................................
II.6. The creation of plants and animals...............................................................
II.7. The creation of man.....................................................................................
THE THIRD PART
NEORELATIVIST THEORIES ABOUT THE GENESIS
AND THE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE
III.1. Big Bang a paradoxal theory on the genesis of the Universe...
III.2. The energy particle accelerator (LHC) an apocalyptic (?!).....
III.3. The paradox of the Universe's expansion ..................
III.4. Why does not the Universe expand?............................................................
III.5. Movement relativization paradoxes.................................................
III.6. Time relativization paradoxes.................................................
2
III.7. Energy formula (E= mc ) in the vision of neo-relativist theory
- a paradox (?)...........................................................................
III.8. A philosophical approach of the existence of gravity...................................
III.9. A philosophical approach to the paradox of gravitation...........
THE FOURTH PART
ABOUT THE GENESIS AND NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE
IN THE VISION OF COSMOLOGY
IV.1. The object of study for cosmology...............................................
IV.2. The nature of the Universe subject of contradictory discussions ................
IV.3. Scientology paradoxal cosmological theory . .....................
IV.4. The general laws of cosmology.......................................................

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