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ARHITECTURA LOC-UIRII (II)

[Opera arhitectonic deschide o lume - 1] Formele artistice ce reprezint cazuri periferice din perspectiva unei estetici a tririi se
deplaseaz n centru: i anume toate acelea al cror coninut propriu trimite dincolo de sine ctre totalitatea unei conexiuni determinate de
ctre ele i menit lor. Cea mai nobil form artistic ce se ncadreaz n aceast perspectiv este arhitectura. O opera arhitectonic
trimite dincolo de sine n dou moduri. Ea este n aceeai msur determinat de scopul pe care trebuie s-l slujeasc, ct i de locul pe care
urmeaz s-l ocupe n ntregul unui context spaial. Orice arhitect trebuie s le ia n considerare pe ambele. Proiectul su este el nsui
determinat de faptul c opera arhitectonic trebuie s serveasc unui stil de via i se nscrie ntr-un complex de date naturale i
arhitectonice pre- existente. Numim astfel o oper de art reuit o soluie fericit i ne referim astfel att la faptul c aceasta i
ndeplinete n mod desvrit rolul ce i-a fost consacrat, ct i la faptul c aduce prin cldirea sa ceva nou ansamblului spaial natural sau
urbanistic. Opera arhitectural reprezint la rndul ei prin aceast dubl nscriere un spor autentic de fiin. Cu alte cuvinte, este o oper de
art ... O oper arhitectonic nu este niciodat n mod exclusiv o oper de art. Finalitatea ei, prin care face parte din ansamblul vieii, nu
poate fi desprins de aceasta, fr ca astfel ea nsi s piard din propria realitate. Dac opera arhitectonic constituie doar obiectul unei
contiine estetice, atunci ea ... triete doar sub forma degenerat a obiectivului turistic sau al reproducerii forografice a unei viei
distorsionate. Opera de art n sine se dovedete a fi o pur abstraciune (Gadamer, Adevr i metod).

[2] The work of art is symbolic in that it points beyond itself, but not in a self-effacing way. It is a fragment of the total meaning; it is
an essential but incomplete part [] This surplus of the meaning in the image reveals another fundamental characteristics of the symbol:
that it is multivalent, that is condenses multiple kinds of indication within itself, gathering together different realms of being. Such a
function is key to understanding the magical power that have often been associated with symbols [] To treat a bridge as an isolated entity
is to miss its very manner of existing within a world of meaning. As a thing it is always caught up in a web of natural and cultural
involvements; as an architectural thing it is especially dedicated to the gathering of a landscape, for it draws two banks together, relating a
path and thus a human journey to the river and its surroundings (Heidegger). The bridge orients one within the landscape and
complements that landscape by virtue of what it adds. It serves its purpose; it draws significance from its mediation of an environment; yet
within the fulfillment of these purposes it realizes its unique artistry. Similary a building gathers by mediating an exterior context and interior spaces1.

Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance. The predicament posed by Ricoeur [in 1961] namely, how to become modern and to
return to sources now [1982] seems to be circumvented by the apocalyptic thrust of modernization, while the ground in which the
mythic-ethical nucleus of a society might take root has become eroded by the rapacity of development. [] Critical Regionalism as a
cultural strategy is as much a bearer of world culture And while it is obviously misleading to conceive of our inheriting world culture to
the same degree as we are all heirs to universal civilization, it is evident that since we are subject to the impact of both, we have no choice
but to take cognizance today of their interaction. [] CR involves a directly dialectical relation with nature [toward] an engagement in
the act of cultivating the site. / Such a mode of beholding and acting brings one close once again to Heideggers etymology; at the same
time, it evokes the method alluded to by Mario Botta as building the site. It is possible to argue that in this last instance the specific culture
of the region that is to say, its history in both a geological and agricultural sense becomes inscribed into the form and realization of the
work. This inscription has the capacity to embody, in built form, the prehistory [mythical ground!] of the place, its archeological past and
its subsequent cultivation and transformation across time [] The tactile resilience of the body the place-form and the capacity of the body
to read the environment in terms other than those of sight alone suggest a potential strategy for resisting the domination of universal
technology The tactile is an important dimension in the perception of built form The intensity of light, darkness, heat and cold; the
feeling of humidity; the aroma of material; the almost palpable presence of masonry as the body senses its own confinement In this way,
CR seeks to complement our normative visual experience by redressing the tactile range of human perceptions. In so doing, it endeavors to
balance the priority accorded to the image and to counter the Western tendency to interpret the environment in exclusively perspectival terms2.

Condiia creaiei. Mi se pare c dac vrem s atingem nucleul cultural, trebuie s spm n adnc la acest strat de imagini i simboluri ce
constituie reprezentrile de baz ale unui popor Fenomenele accesibile descrierii [fenomenologice] ar trebui s poat conduce pn la
imaginile stabile, pn la visele permanente care constituie fondul cultural al unui popor i care alimenteaz aprecierile sale spontane
Imaginile i simbolurile constituie ceea ce s-ar putea numi visul treaz al unui grup istoric. n acest sens vorbesc despre nucleul etico-mitic
ce constituie fondul cultural al unui popor [] O tradiie cultural nu rmne vie dect dac se recreeaz nencetat Exist pentru
umanitate dou feluri de a traversa timpul: civilizaia dezvolt un anumit sens al timpului ce st la baza acumulrii i a progresului, n timp
ce felul n care un popor i dezvolt cultura se bazeaz pe o lege de fidelitate i de creaie; o cultur moare ndat ce ea nu mai este
rennoit, recreat; e nevoie s se ridice un om de spirit pentru a relansa cultura i pentru a o risca din nou ntr-o aventur i un risc total.
Creaia scap oricrei previziuni, oricrei planificri, oricrei decizii a unui partid sau a unui stat. Artistul pentru a-l lua drept martor al
creaiei culturale nu este expresia poporului su dect dac nu-i propune acest lucru i dac nimeni nu-i comand aceasta Aceasta este
legea tragic a crerii unei culturi, lege diametral opus acumulrii cumini [prudente] a uneltelor, acumulare ce constituie civilizaia. [Dar]
n ce condiii poate fi dus mai departe creaia cultural a unui popor? Ne temem c nu orice cultur ar fi compatibil cu civilizaia
mondial, nscut din tiin i din tehnici. Numai o cultur capabil s integreze raionalitatea tiinific va putea supravieui i va putea
renate Problema este de a nu repeta pur i simplu trecutul, ci de a se nrdcina n el pentru a inventa [crea] nencetat3.


1
Paul Kidder, Gadamer for architects, Routledge, London and NY, 2012
2
Kenneth Frampton, Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance
3
Paul Ricoeur, Istorie i adevr, [https://issuu.com/raducom/docs/paul_ricoeur-istorie_si_adevar-anas], Editura Anastasia, 1995, p. 321-324.