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NOŢIUNI DE TEORIE

ŞI

T E S T E

DE

LIMBA ROMÂNĂ

ŞI

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE

Lucrarea “Noţiuni de teorie şi teste de limba română şi limba engleză” apare într-un moment când
nevoia de sintetizare a datelor şi informaţiilor necesare pentru a fi însuşite de către cei cărora se adresează
lucrarea de faţă, se simte cel mai mult.
Autoarele, pe baza unei laborioase activităţi didactice desfăşurate la catedră au reuşit să selecteze
şi să ordoneze logic cele mai reprezentative noţiuni din limba română şi limba engleză.
Lucrarea se adresează în egală măsură atât elevilor din învăţământul de diferite niveluri, cât şi
studenţilor din învăţământul superior.
În abordarea lucrării, autoarele au pornit de la ideea că: “învăţătura este frumuseţea cea mai aleasă
a omului, este comoara celui învăţat pe care moştenitorii nu o pot împărţi, hoţii nu o pot fura, iar dacă din
ea dăruieşte şi altora, nu scade niciodată; învăţătura este averea ascunsă şi tăinuită care procură plăceri, dă
glorie şi bucurie; este prietenul celui ce se află printre străini ori printre duşmani; ea este divinitatea
supremă”.
Nici prin ani, nici prin părul alb, nici prin averi, nici prin rude nu poţi fi mare; înţelepţii străbuni
au stabilit legea: cine-i învăţat acela-i mai mare în ochii tuturor. Împăraţii, regii şi şefii de state sunt
respectaţi în ţara lor; învăţatul este respectat pretutindeni.

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CUPRINS

ARTICOLUL

SUBSTANTIVUL

ADJECTIVUL

PRONUMELE

NUMERALUL

VERBUL

GENERALITĂŢI

MODURI PERSONALE

MODURI NEPERSONALE

DIATEZA PASIVĂ

VORBIREA INDIRECTĂ

TESTE

REZULTATELE TESTELOR

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CAPITOLUL I

GRAMATICA LIMBII ENGLEZE (ENGLISH GRAMMAR)

I.ARTICOLUL (THE ARTICLE)

Clasificare (Classification of Article):

1. Articolul hotărât (The definite article)


2. Articolul nehotărât (The indefinite article)
3. Articolul zero (Zero article)

1. ARTICOLUL HOTĂRÂT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)

THE -se pronunţă [ ðə ]


a) înaintea consoanelor: the teacher
b) înaintea semiconsoanelor (u,y,w): the university
the weak
the year
-se pronunţă [ ði ]
a) înaintea vocalelor: the eye
b) înaintea lui h mut: the hour
c) când accentuăm ceva în mod special: This is the man.

Folosirea articolului hotărât


1. înaintea unui substantiv deja menţionat sau cunoscut de vorbitor:
The cat near the window is my pet.
2. înaintea adjectivelor la gradul superlativ:
She is the tallest girl in the class.
3. înaintea substantivelor nume proprii la plural ce denumesc familii:
The Whites are our neighbours.
4. înaintea substantivelor urmate de apoziţie:
Mr. Smith, the teacher, is an Englishman.
5. înaintea substantivelor la singular folosite in sens general:

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The horse is a useful animal.
6. înaintea substantivelor considerate unice:
The earth moves round the sun.
7. înaintea substantivelor care denumesc munţii la plural sau lanţuri muntoase;grupuri de insule;
întinderi de ape,deşerturi;canale,golfuri;capuri.
The Alps, the Bahamas, the Atlantic Ocean, the Sahara, the English Canal, the
Persian Golf, the Cape of Good Hope.
8. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc instituţii:
-hoteluri şi restaurante:the Hilton, the Chinese Restaurant
-muzee,biblioteci,bănci: the British Museum, the Central University Library,the
Midland Bank.
-teatre,cinematografe:the National Theatre, the Capitol Cinema
9. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc ziare:the Times, the Guardian, the Observer
10. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc nume de vase,trenuri,avioane:the Titanic, the Orient
Express.
11. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc ţări (dacă sunt la plural sau reprezintă o uniune):
the Unitated States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland.
12. înaintea numeralelor ordinale:Henry the Eighth
13. înaintea substantivelor provenite din adjective ce denumesc clase,naţionalităţi sau o idee abstractă:
The rich should help the poor.
The Romanians live in România.
14. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc punctele cardinale:
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
15. înaintea lui same,only:
We live in the same building.
You are the only woman for this job.
16. înaintea numelor de instrumente muzicale în sens general:
She plays the piano.
17. ca echivalent al pronumelui this sau that:
I am busy at the moment.
I could not remember it at the time.
18. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc o specie:
The trout lives in cold mountain rivers
19. înaintea substantivelor care arată o parte a corpului omenesc:
The head was on his shoulders.
20. înaintea substantivelor însoţite de prepoziţii:

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at the beginning
by the way
for the time being
in the end
on the whole
to the right
to break the ice

2. ARTICOLUL NEHOTĂRÂT (THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE)

Articolul nehotărât are două forme: a şi an.


Articolul nehotărât este folosit numai înaintea substantivelor la singular.
a -se pronunţă [ə] când este neaccentuat.
-se pronunţă [ei] când este accentuat.
a man, a woman, a child
-se pune înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o consoană sau o semivocală (u,y,w) şi one:
a table, a useful thing, a year, a window
a one-legged table
an -se pronunţă [ən] sau [æn]
-se pune înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o vocală sau h mut:
an apple, an hour
Folosirea articolului nehotărât
1. înaintea unui substantiv despre care nu ştim nimic:
There is a car near the house.
2. înaintea numeralului one:
There is a book on the table.
3. înaintea substantivelor are denumesc o profesie, meserie, naţionalitate:
Mary is a doctor.
Peter is an Englishman.
4. înaintea substantivelor la singular folosite în sens general:
A hen gives us eggs.
5. înaintea substantivelor care denumesc religia sau clasa:
Tom is a Christian.
He is a lord.
6. înaintea substantivelor proprii care denumesc o persoană necunoscută sau un membru al
unei familii:
The call was from a Mr. Brown.

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7. în faţa lui little şi few pentru a evidenţia plusul de cantitate:
I have a few English books.
He has a little money.
8. pentru a arăta o singură parte dintr-o clasă:
I have a car.
9. după half, many, such, rather, as, quite, what, without:
He is such a handsome man.
What a day!
He is quite a man!
10. în expresii :
as a matter of fact
all of a sudden
at a time

3. ARTICOLUL ZERO (ZERO ARTICLE)


Articolul zero marchează absenţa articolului.

Folosirea articolului zero


1. înaintea substantivelor proprii ce denumesc persoane:
Susan,Peter,Sister Mary
2. înaintea substantivelor proprii ce denumesc continente, ţări, oraşe, formate dintr-un
singur cuvânt:
Romania is in Europe.
London is a very beautiful town.
3. înaintea substantivelor proprii care denumesc clădiri, străzi, poduri:
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Sovereign.
Some of the best shops in London are in Oxford Street.
Tower Bridge is one of London's best landmarks.
4. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc lacuri şi munţi:
Last week we was at Lake Erie.
Mount Everest is a best-known peak.
5. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc anotimpurile, lunile anului, zilele săptămânii,
sărbătorile:
Spring is green.
I was at the seaside on August.
I'll come home at Easter.
Come back on Sunday.

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6. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc mesele zilei:
I have breakfast rather early.
7. înaintea substantivelor la plural folosite în sens general:
Babies like milk.
8. înaintea substantivelor nenumărabile folosite în sens general:
Oil is lighter than water.
9. înaintea substantivelor abstracte nedefinite:
Life is wonderful.
10. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc limbile:
I speak French.
11. înaintea substantivelor ce denumesc obiecte de studiu, jocuri sau sporturi:
I like history.
John plays football.
12. înaintea unor substantive ca:bed, church, hospital,prison, school(când se referă la
scopul pentru care au fost făcute):
It's time to go to bed.
I go to school.
He is in prison.
I go to church on Sunday.
13. înaintea substantivelor man şi woman folosite în general:
Woman is a beautiful flower.
Man is unable to understand life.
14. înaintea unor expresii:
to be in trouble
day by day
at night
hand by hand

II.SUBSTANTIVUL ( THE NOUN)

A.Clasificare: (Classification.of Nouns )

I 1.SUBSTANTIVE PROPRII (PROPER NOUNS)

Andrew, Romania, Bucharest, Monday, July.

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2.SUBSTANTIVE COMUNE (COMMON NOUNS)

a) substantive abstracte (Abstract Nouns): happiness, music, weather, autumn, time ,luck, beauty,
freedom, fun.
b) substantive concrete. (Concrete Nouns) : glass, concrete, cotton, silk, leather;
girl, table, tree, rain;
c) substantive numărabile. (Countable Nouns) :
-au formă şi de singular şi de plural ; pot fi folosite cu many, few, several;
cat - cats, pen - pens.
d) substantive nenumărabile (Uncontable Nouns) :
-se folosesc cu verbul la singular.
-au formă numai de singular;
-pot fi folosite cu munch , little;

coal, coffe, food, ice, iron, rice, sand, steel, cruelty,honesty, patience, anger, happiness, hope, joy,
pride, relief, respect, help, travel, sleep, work, freedom , baggage, business, equipment, furniture,
housework, homework, advice, music, noise, peace, news, youth, knowledge, measles, fun, courage,
despair, sugar, economics, beauty, information, scissors, tea, machinery, merchandise, money,
nonsense, progress, research, spaghetti, strength, aeronautics, astronautics, electronics,
mathematics, psysics,politics,aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, billiards, cards, checkers, darts,diabets,
mumps.

e)substantive colective. (Collective Nouns):

army, team, fleet, flock, audience, committee, community, council, crew, enemy, gang, government,
group, herd, jury, navy, press, public, staff.

II 1. SUBSTANTIVE SIMPLE (SIMPLE NOUNS)

cat, boy, weather, idea, cloud, soldier.

2 . SUBSTANTIVE FORMATE PRIN DERIVARE (DERIVED NOUNS)

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driver, childhood, writer, actress, pianist, imposibility.

3 . SUBSTANTIVE FORMATE PRIN COMPUNERE (COMPOUND NOUNS)

pencilbox, icecream, classroom, a merry-go-round, bypass

B. Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns)

a) masculin: man, boy, father, brother, son, uncle, wolf, lion


b) feminin: woman, girl, mother, sister, daunghter, aunt, she-wolf, lioness.
c) neutru: pen, bag, table, idea, cloud
d) comun: friend, cousin, doctor, engineer.

Formarea substantivului feminin din masculin:

1) prin cuvinte diferite:


boy - girl
son – daughter
father - mother
king - queen
nephew - niece
uncle – aunt
2) prin adăugarea unui sufix:
bride - bridegroom
actor - actress
3) cu ajutorul pronumelui:
wolf – she-wolf
4) folosind un cuvânt ajutător:
doctor – lady-doctor

C. Cazul substantivelor (Case of Nouns)

1. Nominativ.( The Nominative Case)- cazul subiectului:


The boy is singing a nice song.
2. Dativ. (The Dative Case)-cazul complementului indirect:

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Mother told a beautiful story to her daughter.
3. Acuzativ. (The Accusative Case)-cazul complementului direct:
Tom bought a doll for my daughter.
4. Genitiv. (The Genitive Case)- cazul atributului:
a) genitivul sintetic : - `s se adaugă la substantivele la singular sau la pluralele
neregulate:
boy`s ball, man`s work, men`s works.
- ( ` )se adaugă la pluralele regulate sau la substantivele proprii
terminate în `s:
boys` balls, Whites` car.

Genitivul sintetic se foloseşte cu:

Substantive ce denumesc persoane sau fiinţe:


The bird`s wings the student`s papers
Susan`s bag the horses` food
The boy`s toy my parents` house
Mother`s blouse teachers` books
The cat`s tail children`s toys
Substantive ce denumesc unităţi de timp, spaţiu, măsură:
A life`s work
A mile`s distance
Two weeks` work
A pound`s worth of apples
Yesterday`s newspaper
Substantive ce pot fi personificate:
Romania`s history
The sea`s voice.
Substantive ce denumesc o organizaţie:
The government`s decision
The army`s retreat
Substantive ce denumesc elemente geografice sau locuri:
England`s weather
The Danube`s waters
The world`s population
The city`s parks
Substantive din expresii legate de natură:

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The ocean`s roar
The sun`s heat
The moon`s light
Substantive din expresii legate de distanţă:
At arm`s length
A ten yards` distance
Substantive din expresii legate de dimensiune şi valoare:
A pound`s weight
Three dollars` worth
Substantive ce urmează după sake:
For peace`s sake
For order`s sake
For pity`s sake
b) genitivul analitic :
Construcţia cu of se foloseşte:
Cu substantivele la genul neutru:
The leg of the table
The colour of the car
The window of the room
The back yard of the house
În expresii mai lungi:
The child of the woman you have talked.

D. Numărul substantivelor (Number of Nouns):

1. SUBSTANTIVE VARIABILE (VARIABLE NOUNS):

Regula generală de formare a pluralului substantivelor în limba engleză este de a adăuga un -s la


sfârşitul substantivului:
Boy – boys
Idea – ideas
Horse – horses
Cat - cats

Excepţii:
a) Atunci când substantivul se termină în x, s, z, ch şi sh acesta primeşte terminaţia – es la plural:

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box - boxes brush - brushes
fox - foxes finish - finishes

bus - buses buzz - buzzes


glass - glasses quiz - quizzes

church - churches
watch - watches
dish - dishes

b) Atunci când substantivul se termină în o precedat de o consoană, acesta primeşte terminaţia --es la
plural:
tomato – tomatoes domino - dominoes
potato - potatoes echo - echoes
hero - heroes Negro - Negroes
dar: radio – radios
piano - pianos
photo – photos.

c) Atunci când substantivul se termină în y precedat de o consoană, acesta primeşte terminaţia –ies la
plural:
lady – ladies country - countries story - stories
baby – babies party - parties victory - victories

city – cities factory - factories


fly - flies

dar: toy – toys day - days


boy – boys key - keys

d) Atunci când substantivul se termină în –f(e) acesta primeşte la plural terminaţia –ves.
Knife - knives wolf - wolves calf - calves
Wife - wives loaf - loaves half - halves
Life - lives thief - thieves scarves - scarves
Leaf - leaves shelf - shelves wolf - wolves
Dar roof - roofs

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e) Unele substantive schimbă la plural o vocală sau două:
Man - men
Woman - women
Louse - lice
Goose - geese
Foot - feet
Tooth - teeth
Mouse - mice

f) Unele substantive primesc la plural terminaţia -en sau –ren:


Child - children
Ox - oxen

g) Unele substantive nu îşi schimbă forma la plural:


Carp - carp aircraft - aircraft
Deer - deer crossroads - crossroads
Sheep - sheep dice - dice
Pike - pike fish - fish
Trout - trout fruit - fruit
Series - series hovercraft - hovercraft
Species – species spacecraft - spacecraft

h) Unele substantive provenite dintr-o limbă străină îşi păstrează forma de plural ca în limba
de provenienţă.
Stimulus - stimuli
Larva - larvae
Alga - algae
Phenomenon - phenomena

i) Substantivele compuse primesc la plural un –s la cuvântul mai important:


Mother-in-law mothers-in-law
Sunflower sunflowers
Rain-coat rain-coats

2. SUBSTANTIVE INVARIABILE (INVARIABLE NOUNS)

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a) care au numai formă de singular:
- meat, luggage, furniture, bread, money;
- music, information, knowledge, homework, luck;
- news, mathematics, economics, measles;

b) care au numai formă de plural şi au verbul la plural:


- trousers, pyjamas, jeans, shorts, knickers, slacks, tights, pants, spectacles;
- glasses, scissors, tongs, shears, scales, pliers, pincers, nutcrackers, compasses, binoculars;
- the rich, the poor, goods;
- police, people;
- the Carpathians, the Alps, the Highlands

III. ADJECTIVUL ( THE ADJECTIVE)

Observaţie:
- In limba engleză -adjectivul stă de obicei în faţa substantivului.
Ex.: beautiful woman
handsome man
Excepţii: Lieutenant- Colonel
court- martial
C flat
three feet long
-adjectivul stă după verbele BE, BECOME, SEEM, STAY:
The weather will stay dry.
She seems happy.
-adjectivul este invariabil
- Dacă avem mai multe adjective în faţa unui substantiv, ordinea acestora este următoarea:
QUALITY SIZE SHAPE AGE COLOUR ORIGIN/STYLE MATERIAL NOUN

Exemplu: a big old expensive book


A nice small red box
A splendid young white Arab horse

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The beautiful little girl
Two fantastic tall middle-aged Canadian actors

Clasificare (Classification of Adjectives):

I.1. ADJECTIVE DETERMINATIVE (DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES):

a) Adjective demonstrative (Demonstrative Adjectives):


- de apropiere: this, these;
- de depărtare: that, those;
This cat is nicer than the other one.

b) Adjective posesive (Possessive Adjectives):


- my, your, his, her;
- our, your, their
Tom is my son and Susan is his daughter.

c) Adjective interogative (Interrogative Adjectives):


- which? what? whose? how much? how many?
What man asked you such a question?
How much sugar do you want?

d) Adjective relative (Relative Adjectives):


- which, whose, what.
The girl whose bag is red was near the window.

e) Adjective nehotărâte ( Indefinite Adjective):


- other, several, one, certain, another, such, much, many, (a) little, (a) few, enough, each, every,
all, any, no, both, either, neither.
Neither idea was good.
They are both my friends.
I have a few French books.

I. 2. ADJECTIVE CALIFICATIVE (QUALIFIER ADJECTIVES):

Observaţie. Numai adjectivele calificative au grade de comparaţie.

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a) Adjective scurte. (Short Adjectives):
- monosilabice şi bisilabice
big, tall, small, thin, thick, happy, clean, dark;
Comparaţia adjectivelor scurte:
- gradul pozitiv: tall
- gradul comparativ:
- de inferioritate: not so/ as tall as
- de egalitate: as tall as
- de superioritate: taller than

- gradul superlativ:
- relativ: the tallest
- absolut: very tall

c) Adjective lungi.(Long Adjectives).


Exemplu: beautiful, handsome, interesting, difficult;
Comparaţia adjectivelor lungi
- gradul pozitiv: interesting
- gradul comparativ:
- de inferioritate: not so/as interesting as
- de egalitate: as interesting as
- de superioritate: more interesting than
- gradul superlativ:
- relativ: the most interesting
- absolut: very interesting

Observaţie. Unele adjevtive lungi pot primi –er,-est sau more, the most:
Able, clever, gentle, common, narrow, handsome, noble, simple, pleasant, simple, unkind,
polite.

d) Adjective neregulate (Irregular Adjectives):


good,well, bad, ill, little, few, much, many, old, far, near, fore, late.

Comparaţia adjectivelor neregulate.


POZITIV COMPARATIV SUPERLATIV
Good better the best

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Well
Bad worse the worst
Ill

Much more the most


Many
Little less-lesser the least
Few less-fewer the fewest
Far farther the farthest/the farthermost
the furthest/the farthhermost
Near nearer the nearest/the next
Fore former the foremost/the first
Late later the latest/the last

II.1. ADJECTIVE SIMPLE (SIMPLE ADJECTIVES)

young, tall, cold, warm, thin, short, fat, thick, clean, happy

2. ADJECTIVE FORMATE PRIN DERIVARE (DERIVED ADJECTIVES)

sunny, useless, unhappy, handsome, hopeless

3. ADJECTIVE FORMATE PRIN COMPUNERE (COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

long-distance, fair-haired, dark-haired, snow-white, one-eyed, well-meaning


Good-looking, long-lasting, open-minded, well-dressed

IV.PRONUMELE (THE PRONOUN)

IV A.Clasificare (Classification of Pronouns):

1. PRONUMELE PERSONAL (PERSONAL PRONOUNS)

1. Nominativ: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they


2. Dativ: (to) me, you, him, her, us, you, them
3. Acuzativ: me, you, him, her, us, you, them

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She is with me.
They are happy.

2. PRONUMELE POSESIV (POSSESSIV PRONOUNS)


(este pronumele personal în genitiv)

-mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs

The house is mine.


This is a bag.It is hers.

3. PRONUMELE REFLEXIV SAU DE ÎNTĂRIRE (REFLEXIVE OR INPHATIC PRONOUNS)

-myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Behave yourself!
Tom prooved himself to be a very good student.

4. PRONUMELE DEMONSTRATIVE (DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS)

a) de apropiere: this, these


b) de depărtare: that, those

That is my daughter.
This are my pupils.

5. PRONUMELE INTEROGATIVE (INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS)

-who?, whose?, (to) whom?, whom?, what?, which?

Ex.: Who told my name?


What day is today?

6. PRONUMELE RELATIVE (RELATIVE PRONOUNS)

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-who, whose, whom, to whom, which, that, but

The film which I saw was nice.


I can`t understand whose those things are.

7. PRONUMELE NEHOTĂRÂT (INDEFINITE PRONOUNS)

-each, every, either, weither, any, some, no, none, nothing, both, all, much, many

Everybody should be happy.


She told me something about her.

V. NUMERALUL (THE NUMERAL)

V Clasificarea (Classification of Numeral):

1. NUMERALUL CARDINAL (CARDINAL NUMERAL)

1-one 11-eleven
2-two 12-twelve
3-three 13-thirteen
4-four 14-fourteen
5-five 15-fifteen
6-six 16-sixteen
7-seven 17-seventeen
8-eight 18-eighteen
9-nine 19-nineteen
10-ten 20-twenty

30-thirty 21-twenty-one
40-forty 32-thirty-two
50-fifty 43-forty-three
60-sixty 54-fifty-four
70-seventy 65-sixty-five
80-eighty 76-seventy-six
90-ninety 87-eighty-seven

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100 (a) one hundred

174 one hundred and seventy-four


800 eight hundred
1,000 (a) one thousand
6,247 six thousand two hundred and forty-seven
1,000,000 (a) one million

Utilizarea numeralului cardinal :


a) pentru a exprima un număr:
1,457 (a) one thousand four hundred and fifty-seven
b) pentru a exprima anii:
1457 fourteen fifty-seven
1012 ten twelve
c) pentru a indica un număr de telefon:
059123356
0 five nine one two double three four five six
d) pentru a exprima timpul cronologic:
1:00 It’s one o’clock
2:10 It’s ten past two
11:15 It’s quarter past eleven
4:30 It’s half past four
6:55 It’s five to seven
4:40 It’s twenty to five
7:45 It’s quarter to eight

Observatie.: În engleza americană se folsesc şi after şi before în loc de past şi to.


9:10 It’s ten after nine
7:45 It’s quarter before eight
e) în exprimarea vârstei:
I am seventeen (years old).

2.NUMERALUL ORDINAL (ORDINAL NUMERAL)


1st -the first 9th -ninth
2nd -the second 10th -tenth
3rd –the third 11th -eleventh

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4th –the fourth 12th -twelfth
5th –the fifth 20th -twentieth
6th –the sixth 30th -thirtieth
7th –the seventh
8th –the eighth

642nd –six hundred and forty-second

Utilizarea numeralului ordinal:


a) în exprimarea datei:
August 27th, the 27th of August
I was born on the 1st of December 1966.
În engleza americană: December the 1st 1966
b) pentru a indica ordinea persoanelor, lucrurilor, acţiunilor în timp şi spaţiu
The Second World War
Henry IV (the Forth)
Susan plays only in the third act.

VI. V E R B U L ( THE VERB)

A. CATEGORIILE GRAMATICALE ( The Grammatical Categories)

I. PERSOANA ( THE PERSON )


sg. pl.
I I we
II You You
III He, she, it They

II. NUMĂRUL ( THE NUMBER)

Obs. La persoana a III-a sg. verbul primeşte la timpul prezent simplu,modul indicativ,terminaţia –s sau –
es.
Andrew plays football.
He does his homework.

III. DIATEZA ( VOICE )

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1. Diateza activă .( the Active Voice)- subiectul face acţiunea.
Andrew came home yesterday.
2. Diateza pasivă. ( the Passive Voice) -subiectul suferă acţiunea săvârşită de verb.
The letter is written by Andrew.
3. Diateza reflexivă – nu este marcată formal în limba engleză ( subiectul face acţiunea şi el o şi
suferă).
I wash myself every day.

IV. ASPECTUL ( THE ASPECT)

1. Aspectul simplu ne arată că acţiunea se repetă sau se face în mod general.


Andrew goes to school every day. t
2. Aspectul continuu ne arată că acţiunea se desfăşoară în mod continuu şi neîntrerupt într-o perioadă de
timp bine definită.
Andrew is going to school now.

Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu:


- verbe care arată sentimente: to love, to hate, to like, to dislike, to detest, to please, to refuse, to
prefer, to want, to hope, to wish to satisfy, to regret.
- Verbe care arată activităţi mentale: to think, to suppose, to belive, to agree, to know, to mean, to
forget, to intend, to notice, to remember, to imagine, to expect, to surprise, to need, to
understand.
- Verbe care arată percepţii senzoriale:to see, to feel, to taste, to hear, to smell, to sound, to look, to
look like, to appear.
- Verbe care arată o acţiune de moment: to begin, to end, to start, to stop.
- Verbe modale: can, must, may ,shall, will, ought to, need, dare.
- Alte verbe ca: to appear, to be, to belong, to chance, to consist, to contain, to comprise, to cost, to
connect, to contribute, to date, to depend, to deserve, to exist, to fail, to have, to hold, to include,
to matter, to mean, to possess, to resemble, to suffice, to weigh.

V.TIMPUL (THE TENSE)

1. Când acţiunea este bine definită în timp avem:


a) prezent
b) trecut
c) viitor
2. Când acţiunea s-a desfăşurat într-un moment anterior unui timp fix şi nu este definită în timp:

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a) prezent perfect
b) trecut perfect
c) viitor perfect
VI. MODUL (THE MOOD)

1. Moduri personale:
a) Modul indicativ.( The Indicative Mood).
b) Modul subjonctiv. ( The Subjunctive).
c) Modul condiţional. ( The Conditional).
d) Modul imperativ. ( The Imperative).

2. Moduri impersonale:
a) Modul infinitiv. ( The Infinitive).
b) Modul participiu. ( The Participle).
c) Modul gerundiv. ( The Gerund).

B. VERBE TRANZITIVE SI VERBE INTRANZITIVE. (Transitive and Intransitive Verbs)

Verbul tranzitiv este verbul după care urmează în mod obligatoriu un complement direct.
Andrew read Shakespeare’s poems.
Verbul intranzitiv nu primeşte complement direct şi nici nu are diateză pasivă.
Andrew is reading for his exams.

C. VERBE AUXILIARE (AUXILIARY VERBS)

a) ajută la formarea unor construcţii verbale compuse:


I am singing a song.
b) nu au înţeles de sine stătător:
Does he finish his work?
c) se pun la modul, timpul, numărul şi persoana cerute de context:
I have my dress washed.

Verbele auxiliare sunt: TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO, TO LET, SHALL, WILL, SHOULD, WOULD.

D. VERBE MODALE (MODAL VERBS)

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a) sunt verbe speciale:
b) au echivalenţi modali, deoarece nu au toate timpurile şi modurile:
c) nu primesc desinenţa –s sau –es la persoana a III-a singular a modului indicativ.
d) formele interogativă şi negativă ale timpurilor prezent şi trecut nu sunt formate cu ajutorul verbului
auxiliar TO DO.
e) Nu au formă de infinitiv şi verbul care urmează după un verb modal se pune la infinitivul scurt.( nu au
particula TO nici înaintea lor şi nici după; excepţie făcând verbul OUGHT TO).

Verbele modale şi echivalenţii lor sunt:

Verb past tense/conditional equivalent

Can could to be able to


Must - to have to
May might to be allowed to
to be permitted to
to be possible to
Shall should -
Will would -
Ought to - -
Need needed -
Dare dared -

Can you speak English?


Father could solve the exercise.
She is able to do that.
You must go now.
May I open the window?
She might go there.
Thomas might have had an accident.
They will do that.
Shall I help her?
The teacher should have corrected the English tests by now.
She would see him tomorrow.
I ought to visit my parents more often.
How dare you do that?

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Need I come now?

E. FORMELE VERBULUI.( VERB FORMS)

1. VERBE REGULATE ( REGULAR VERBS)

- formează trecutul şi participiul trecut prin adăugarea sufixului –ed la infinitiv.


- prin adăugarea sufixului – ed unele verbe suferă modificări:
to try – tried
to bake – baked
to travel – travelled

2.VERBE NEREGULATE (IRREGULAR VERBS)

a) care nu suferă nici o modificare în scriere:


to beset to hurt to set
to bet to knit to shed
to bid to let to shut
to broadcast to overcast o slit
to burst to overset to split
to cast to overspread to spread
to cost to put to sweat
to cut to read to thrust
to forecast to recast to upset
to hit to reset

b) care suferă o singură modificare în scriere:

– la past tense şi past participle sunt la fel:


abide- abode blend-blent clothe-clad
backbite-backbit bless-blest creep-crept
backslide-backslid breed-bred dare-dared
behold- beheld bring-brought deal-dealt
bend-bent build-built dig-dug
bereave-bereft burn-burnt dream-dreamt
beseech-besought buy-bought dwell-dwelt
bethink-bethought catch-caugth feed-fed

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bind-bound cleave-clove feel-felt
bleed-bled cling-clung fight-fought

find-found hamstring-hamstring lay-laid


flee-fled hang-hung lead-led
fling-flung have-had lean-leant
foretell-foretold hear-heard leap-leapt
gainsay-gainsaid heave-heaved learn-learnt
get-got hold-held leave-left
gild-gilt inlay-inlaid lend-lent
gird-girt keep-kept light-lit
grind-ground kneel-knelt lose-lost

make-made overlay-overlaid say-said


mean-meant overleap-overleapt seek-sought
meet-met overshoot-overshot sell-sold
misdeal-misdealt oversleep-overslept send-sent
mislead-misled pay-paid shine-shone
misunderstand-misunderstood rebuild-rebuilt shoe-shod
outshine-outshone relay-relaid shoot-shot
overfeed-overfed rend-rent sit-sat
overhang-overhung repay-repaid sleep-slept
overhear-overheard retell-retold slide-slid

sling-slung stave-stove think-thought


smell-smelt stick-stuck tread-trod
speed-sped sting-stung unbend-unbent
spell-spelt strike-struck undersell-undersold
spend-spent string-strung waylay-waylaid
spell-spilt sunburn-sunburnt wed-wedded
spin-spun sweep-swept weep-wept
spit-spat swing-swung win-won
spoil-spoilt teach-taught wind-wound
stand-stood tell-told withhold-withheld

withstand-withstood
wring-wrung

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c) verbe care suferă două modificări în scriere:
- au forme diferite la infinitive, past tense şi past participle
arise-arose-arisen chide-chid
be-was-been choose-chose-chosen
bear-bore-born come-came-come
become-became-become do-did-done
befall-befell-befallen draw-drew-drawn
beget-begot-begotten drink-drank-drunk
begin-began-begun drive-drove-driven
bespeak-bespoke-bespoken eat-ate-eaten
bestride-bestrode-bestrid fall-fell-fallen
betake-betook-betaken fly-flew-flown
bid-bade-bidden forbear-forbore-forborne
bide-bode-bided forbid-forbade-forbidden
bite-bit-bitten forego-forewent-foregone
blow-blew-blown foreknow-foreknew-foreknown
break-broke-broken foresee-foresaw-foreseen
forgive-forgave-forgiven lade-laded-laden
forsake-forsook-forsaken lie-lay-lain
forswear-forswore-forsworn misgive-misgave-misgiven
freeze-froze-frozen mistake-mistook-mistaken
give-gave-given mow-mowed-mown
go-went-gone ourbit-outbade-outbid
grave-graved-graven outdo-outdid-outdone
grow-grew-grown outgo-outwent-outgone
hide-hid-hidden outgrow-outgrew-outgrown
know-knew-known outride-outrode-outridden

outrun-outran-outrun overrun-overran-overrun
outwear-outwore-outworn oversee-oversaw-overseen
overbear-overbore-overborne overtake-overtook-overtaken
overcome-overcame-overcome overthrow-overthrew-overthrown
overdo-overdid-overdone partake-partook-partaken
overdraw-overdrew-overdrawn rid-ridden-rid
overeat-overate-overeaten ride-rode-ridden
overgrow-overgrew-overgrown ring-rang-rung

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overlie-overlay-overlain rise-rose-risen
override-overrode-overridden rive-rived-riven

run-ran-run sink-sank-sunk
saw-sawed-sawn slay-slew-slain
see-saw-seen smite-smote-smitten
sew-sewed-sewn sow-sowed-sown
shake-shook-shaken speak-spoke-spoken
shear-sheared-shorn spring-sprang-sprung
show-showed-shown steal-stole-stolen
shrink-shrank-shrunk stink-stank-stunk
shrive-shrove-shriven strew-strewed-strewn
sing-sang-sung stride-strode-stridden

strive-strove-striven undertake-undertook-undertaken
swear-swore-sworn underwrite-underwrote-underwritten
swell-swelled-swollen underdo-underdid-underdone
swim-swam-swum wake-woke-waked
take-took-taken wear-wore-worn
rear-tore-torn weave-wove-woven
thrive-throve-thriven withdraw-withdrew-withdrawn
throw-threw-thrown write-wrote-written
tread-trod-trodden
undergo-underwent-undergone

A. MODURI PERSONALE

I.TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV

I. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


-arată o acţiune prezentă, generală sau o stare permanentă, o idee de viitor
(EVERYDAY)
The building stands over 200 feet high.

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SE FORMEAZĂ:
-afirmativ: S + V (-es persoana a III sg.)
(-s )
I go to school everyday.
He goes to school everyday.
-interogativ: DO (vb. auxiliar) / DOES (pers, III nr. Sg.) + S + V?
Do I go to school everyday?
Does he go to school everyday?
-negativ: S + DO / DOES + NOT + V
I don’t go to school everyday.
He doesn’t go to school everyday.

II.THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


- arată o acţiune care se desfăşoară acum, în momentul vorbirii.(NOW)

SE FORMEAZA:
-afirmativ: S +TO BE(la prezent)+V-ING
I am going to school now.
She is singing now
-interogativ: AM/IS/ARE+S+V-ING?
Am I going to school now?
Is she singing now?
-negativ: S+AM/IS/ARE+NOT+V-ING
I am not going to school now.
She is not singing now.

III. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE


- arată o acţiune care s-a desfăşurat într-un moment bine definit din trecut şi s-a incheiat.
(YESTERDAY).

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S + V –ed / II
Cu forma a-II-a pt. Verbele neregulate.
Cu terminatia –ed pentru verbele regulate
I went to school yesterday.
He went to school yesterday.

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I arrived home last week.
He arrived home last week.
-interogativ: DID + S + V ?
Did I go to school yesterday ?
Did he go to school yesterday?
Did I arrived home last week?
Did she arrived home last week?
-negativ: S + DID + NOT + V
I didn’t go to school yesyterday.
She didn’t go to school yesterday.
I didn’t arrived home last week.
She didn’t arrived home last week.
OBS: Timpul; momentul de desfăşurare a acţiunii poate fi precizat printr-un adverb de timp.
Ex: yesterday, a day/ week/ month/ year ago, last week/ summer etc.

IV. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

- arată o acţiune care s-a desfăşurat în mod continuu şi neîntrerupt într-o perioada de timp bine
determinată din trecut (sau în acelaşi timp cu unul sau mai multe acţiuni tot din trecut).

OBS: se traduce prin imperfect.

SE FORMEAZĂ:
-afirmativ: S + TO BE(la trecut) +V-ing
I was talking about you all morning yesterday.
You were shopping all afternoon last week.
-interogativ: WAS / WERE + S + V-ing?
Was I talking about you all morning yesterday ?
Were you shopping all afternoon last week?
-negativ: S +WAS / WERE + NOT + V-ing.
I wasn’t talking about you all morning.
You weren’t shopping all afternoon last week.

V. THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

-arată o acţiune care se va desfăşura într-un moment din viitor.


(TOMORROW)

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SE FORMEAZĂ:
-afirmativ: S + SHALL (I sg,pl) / WILL(II,III,sg,pl.) + V
He will graduate in July.
I shall go to the seaside in August.
-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + V?
Shall I open the window?
Will you pass me the butter?
-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + V
I shall not go to the seaside in August.
He will not go to the seaside in August.

VI. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

- arată o acţiune care va fi în curs de desfăşurare într-un moment bine definit din viitor .

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S + SHALL / WILL + BE + V-ing.


I shall be going to the seaside this time in August.
He will be going to the seaside this time in August.
-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + BE + V-ing.
Shall I be going to the seaside this time in August?
Will he be going to the seaside this time in August?
-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + V-ing.
We shall not be flying to London this time next year.
He will not be flying to London this time next year.

VII.THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

- arată o acţiune care s-a desfăşurat într-un trecut apropiat, este nedefinită în timp şi are legătură cu
prezentul( sau se desfăşoară şi în prezent)
- se traduce prin perfectul compus dar şi prin prezent.

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S + HAVE / HAS + V-ed/III

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-interogativ: HAVE / HAS + S + V-ed/III
-negativ: S + HAVE / HAS + NOT + V-ed/III
They have just arrived.
Where have they been?
They haven`t arrive yet.
- datorita faptului că acţiunea exprimată de acest timp este nedefinită,el poate fi însoţit şi de cele mai
multe ori este, de unul din urmatoarele adverbe sau locuţiuni adverbiale:
- care se pun în faţa verbului:
-JUST – tocmai, abia
-EVER - vreodată
-NEVER –niciodată
-OFTEN - adesea
-SELDOM – rareori
-ALWAYS – întodeauna
-SOOMETIMES – cândva, uneori
-ALREADY – deja
-RARELY – rareori
-FREQUENTLY – frecvent
-GENERALY – în general

- care se pun la sfârşitul propoziţiei:


-TODAY – astăzi
-THIS WEEK / MONTH / SUMMER

-LATELY
-RECENTLY recent, de curând, în ultima vreme
- OF LATE

- yet – încă (în propoziţii negative)


The play has just begun.
We have not finished yet.
Have you finished your paper?

SINCE , FOR – cer timpul PREZENT PERFECT în propoziţiile din faţa lor (deci nu în cele introduse de
ele) atunci când acţiunea exprimată de verbul din propoziţia respectivă continuă până în prezent.
SINCE – de, din, de la, de când;(arată momentul începerii acţiunii.)

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FOR – (arată durata acţiunii)
Susan hasn’t visited Oradea since she was a little girl.
Thomas has worked in this office since he gratuated.
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VIII. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

- arată o acţiune care a început de curând şi se desfăşoară în mod continuu şi neîntrerupt până în
prezent.

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S + HAVE / HAS + BEEN +V- ing


-interogativ: HAVE / HAS + S + BEEN + V-ing?
-negativ: S + HAVE / HAS + NOT + BEEN + V-ing.

We have been playing tennis for an hour now


We haven`t been playing tennis for an hour.
Have we been playing tennis for an hour?

IX. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

- arată o acţiune trecută anterioară altei acţiuni tot din trecut.


- se traduce prin mai mult ca perfectul, perfectul compus sau imperfect.
- Acest timp poate fi folosit împreună cu aceleaşi adverbe (locuţiuni adverbiale) ca şi timpul present
perfect .

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S+ HAD + V-ed / III


-interogativ: HAD + S + V-ed / III?
-negativ: S + HAD + NOT + V-ed / III

The teacher had not finished the lesson when the bell rang.
Had the teacher finished the lesson when the bell rang?
The teacher had not finished the lesson when the bell rang.

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X. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

- arată o acţiune care a început într-un moment din trecut şi s-a desfăşurat în mod continuu şi
neîntrerupt până într-un alt moment din trecut.
- Se traduce prin mai mult ca perfectul sau imperfect.

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: HAD + BEEN + V-ing.


-interogativ: HAD + S + BEEN + V-ing?
-negativ: S + HAD + NOT + BEEN + V-ing

Andrew had been waiting for an hour when the teacher arrived.
Had Andrew been waiting for an hour till the teacher arrived.
Andrew had not been waiting forn an hour when the teacher arrived.

XI. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

- arată o acţiune viitoare desfăşurată înaintea altei acţiuni tot din viitor.
- Se traduce prin viitor anterior şi prezent.

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + V-ed / III


-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + HAVE + V-ed / III?
-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + HAVE + V-ed / III

I shall have finished cleaning the house by the time they arrive home.
Shall I have finished cleaning the house by the time they arrive home
I shall not have finished cleaning the house by the time they arrive home.

XII. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

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-arată o acţiune care va fi în curs de desfăşurare înaintea unui moment din viitor.
-Se traduce prin viitor sau prezent.

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S+SHALL / WILL + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing.


-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing?
-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing.

They will have been working till then.


Will they have been working till then?
They will not have been working till then.

XIII. FUTURE IN THE PAST

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S + SHOULD / WOULD + V


-interogativ: SHOULD / WOULD + S + V
-negativ: S + SHOULD / WOULD + NOT + V

XIV. FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST

SE FORMEAZĂ:

-afirmativ: S +SHOULD / WOULD + HAVE + V –ed / III.


-interogativ: SHOULD / WOULD + S + HAVE + V –ed / III?
-negativ: S + SHOULD / WOULD + NOT + HAVE + V-ed / III.

Future in the past


I should go to the theatre.
He would finish the paper.
Ann told me that she would go shopping.
Future perfect in the past
The mechanic was sure that he would have finished fixing the car by the time they
came.

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CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR

Concordanta timpurilor este un set de reguli care reglementeză relaţia dintre predicatul din
propoziţia subordonată şi predicatul din propoziţia subordonată.

Principală Secundară
a) Prezent —————→ Orice timp
b) Viitor —————→ Viitor sau Prezent
c) Trecut —————→ una dintre formele de Trecut ( future in the past)
(past perfect)
(past tense)
a) Când verbul din propozişia principală este la un timp prezent în propoziţia secundară putem folosi
orice timp:
I am sure that he will call me.
Susan is writing a book about what she saw during her travel through Europe.

b) Când verbul din propoziţia principală este la timpul viitor, verbul din secundară poate fi la un timp
viitor sau la un timp prezent.

Ann will give us everything we need when she comes

ATENTIE! În propoziţiile subordonate circumstanţiale de timp ca şi în cele condiţionale, nu


se foloseşte nici un fel de timp viitor format cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare: shall, will, should,
would.
- Aceste propoziţii pot fi introduse prin when, before, after, while, till, until, as soon as, by the time
(that), as long as, if.
- Dacă propoziţia subordonată este introdusă prin if sau when, dar este propoziţie completivă directă, se
poate folosi timpul viitor.

I am sure she doesn't know when Mary will go there.


Father wonders if John will go there.

c) Când în propoziţia principală predicatul este la un timp trecut în propoziţiile secundare predicatele
trebuie să fie tot la un timp trecut (PAST TENSE, PAST PERFECT TENSE, FUTURE IN THE
PAST).

Tom waited in the library as teacher was writting .

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My parents were sure they had never gone there before that day.
Susan promised him she would be there at 8 o`clock.

EXCEPŢII:
1) Când în propoziţia subordonată este prezentat un adevăr general valabil:
She knew very well that the Earth is round.

2) În propoziţiile atributive timpul este cel cerut de context:


The girl who is near the window was my girlfriend.

3) Fraza condiţională are propriile ei reguli de concordanţă


4) În prezentul istoric timpul trecut poate fi folosit pentru a da culoare stilului;

II. MODUL SUBJONCTIV

SE FORMEAZĂ:

1. forma veche este identică cu indicativ prezent fără TO


-aceeaşi pentru toate persoanele atât la plural cât şi la singular:

Long live the king !


German be hanged !

2. SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT are forma de PAST TENSE excepţie verbul TO BE este


WERE la toate persoanele.

I wish you understood me.


If I were you I wouldn’t do that .

3. SUBJONCTIVUL PERFECT
- Are forma de PAST PERFECT
- acesta exprimă o acţiune anterioară celei exprimate de verbul din propoziţia principală sau o situaţie
ireală imposibilă.
- Se traduce prin: conjunctiv perfect sau condiţional perfect.

If Tom had been there he would have finished the work.

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4. SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC
SE FORMEAZĂ:
A. SHOULD / WOULD + V
MAY / MIGHT +V
WOULD +V
COULD +V
B. -când se foloseşte ideea de anterior + HAVE
SHALL / SHOULD + HAVE + V –ed / III
MAY / MIGHT + HAVE + V –ed / III
WOULD + HAVE + V –ed / III
COULD + HAVE + V –ed / III

*Se foloseşte după verbele:
-TO DEMAND
-TO INSIST
-TO ORDER
-TO REQUEST
-TO PROPOSE
-TO DECIDE + THAT
-TO ADVICE
-TO EXPECT
-TO RECOMAND
-TO SUGEST
-TO HURRY
Ex.We advice that everybody shall be graduated the highschool.
We expect that you should have finished the book.
*în construcţiile:
IT + TO BE + ADJECTIV + VERB
Ex.: It is necessary It is faire
It is advisable It is natural
It is better It is strange
It is vital It is odd
It is important It is amazing
It is right It is ridiculos
It is desirable It is impossible
It is wonderful It is essential

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It is essential for me that he should come in time.

*după cuvintele: -desire -request


-idea -agreement
-intention -domand
-proposal -arangement
-wish -in case
-sugestion -however
-as if

III.MODUL CONDIŢIONAL

-exprimă o acţiune dorită sau o condiţie.


1. condiţionalul prezent:

SE FORMEAZĂ:
SHOULD / WOULD + V
2. condiţionalul perfect:
SE FORMEAZĂ:
SHOULD / WOULD + HAVE + V-ed / III

- se traduce prin modul condiţional prezent sau perfect.

Conditional prezent:
I would eat a cake .
I should write my homework .
Conditional perfect:
He would have written you soon.
He should have written you as soon as possible.

FRAZA CONDIŢIONALĂ (Adverbial Clauses of Condition)

1. Propoziţia principală arată o acţiune condiţionată sau dorită


2. Propoziţia subordonată arată condiţia cu care se realizează acţiunea din propoziţia principală.

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OBSERVATIE.Nu există o regulă care să arate ordinea celor două propoziţii dar între predicatele lor
există concordanţă:
a). Verbul la modul condiţional apare numai în propoziţia principală când condiţia
exprimată de propoziţia subordonată este IREALĂ.
If he were here he would helped you.

b). În propoziţia subordonată nu apare verb la modul condiţional.


I’ll go with you if I can.

c). Propoziţia subordonată care conţine condiţia poate fi introdusă prin:


1. IF
2. IF CASE
3. ON CONDITION
4. SUPOSSE
5. UNLESS etc.

d). Condiţia exprimată de propoziţia subordonată poate fi de trei feluri şi în funcţie de acest
lucru apare şi concordanţa predicatelor din cele două propoziţii:
A. CONDIŢIE REALĂ (POSIBILĂ).
- timpul din propoziţia principală este prezent sau viitor
Obs.: în propoziţia secundară nu se foloseşte viitorul.

If you help me, I can go with you.


John comes home now, he will have enough time to call you.
If I am a king you will be my queen

B. CONDIŢIE IREALĂ (POSIBILĂ)


Obs. Condiţia nu se realizează în prezent dar e posibil să se realizeze în viitor.
- în propoziţia SECUNDARĂ verbul este la SUBJONCTIV PREZENT.
- în propoziţia PRINCIPALĂ verbul este CONDITIONAL PREZENT.

If I were a king you would been my queen.


If John were here he would solved the problem.

C. CONDIŢIE IREALĂ (IMPOSIBILĂ)


- Arată o condiţie nerealizată şi nerealizabilă;
- Verbul în propoziţia SECUNDARĂ este la SUBJONCTIV PERFECT

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- Verbul în propoziţia PRINCIPALĂ este la CONDIŢIONAL PERFECT

If only Andrew had been here he would have been helped you.
If I had been a king you would have been my queen.

IV. MODUL IMPERATIV

Exprimă un ordin, un îndemn, o chemare, etc.


SE FORMEAZĂ:
LET + COMPLEMENT în ACUZATIV + V
pentru peroanele I şi III sg. şi plural.

Let me go!
Let the boy play!
pentru a doua : Vocativul:
Read louder, please!
Obs.: Forma negativă se formează cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar DO:
Don’t do that!
Don’t let me wait for you!

B. MODURI NEPERSONALE

I. MODUL INFINITIV
- Este modul care denumeşte acţiunea sau starea exprimată de verb.
TO + VERB = INFINITIV LUNG
VERB = INFINITIV SCURT

1. Infinitivul prezent:
I try to get to the school in time .
2. Infinitvul perfect:
Alice pretended to have been watching TV when I rang her up
3. Infinitivul scurt:

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Obs.: Infinitivul scurt se foloseşte după:

a). Verbe modale;


My mother can make a very good cake.
b). Verbul TO HAVE şi TO MAKE.
He makes me cry.
c). După verbele:
TO SEE,
TO HEAR,
TO FELL,
TO WACH,
TO OBSERVE,
TO LET,
TO HELP,
Când sunt la diateza activă:
Did you hear her sing last evening?
d). După construcţiile:
HAD BETTER
HAD RATHER
WOULD RATHER
WOULD SOONER
RATHER THAN
BETTER THAN
SOONER THAN
MORE THAN
CAN BUT
NOTHING BUT
I had better go now.
I cannot but go away.

II. MODUL PARTICIPIU


- participiul are trei forme:
1. Participiul prezent
V + ing = diateza activă
BEING + V –ed/III = diateza pasivă

2. Participiul perfect

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- arată o acţiune anterioară celei exprimate de predicatul propoziţiei.
HAVING + V – ed/III = diateza activă
HAVING + BEEN + V – ed/III = diateza pasivă

3. Participiul trecut
- este folosit ca adjectiv, intră în compunerea timpurilor perfecte şi a diatezei pasive.
V (regulat): V – ed
V (neregulat): forma a III – a
EXEMPLE:
Participiu prezent
We are playing now
While shopping I met my English teacher.
The film is even more interesting than I thought.
Participiu perfect
Having forgotten his keys at home, Jonh left the classroom in a hurry.
Having sent the letter, Mary left the office in a hurry.
Participiu trecut
The aged man could not ride the horse.
The pupil was called at the blackboard.

III. MODUL GERUNDIV


Gerund nedefinit
- are aceeaşi formă ca şi participiul prezent
- este format din tema verbului+ing
DIATEZA ACTIVA
-Gerund nedefinit: telling
DIATEZA PASIVA
-Gerund nedefinit: being told

Gerund perfect
- are aceeaşi formă ca şi participiul perfect.
DIATEZA ACTIVA:
-Gerund perfect: having told
DIATEZA PASIVA
-Gerund perfect: having been told
Obs.1: Gerundul poate fi tradus în limba română prin:
-gerunziu

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-substantiv
-timp personal
-infinitiv sau subjonctiv
-adjectiv

Obs.2: De cele mai multe ori gerundul urmează.


-după o prepoziţie: TO, AT, FOR, IN
-după anumite verbe: TO ADMIT
TO AVOID
TO CONSIDER
TO LIKE
TO DENY
TO EXCUSE
TO ENJOY
TO DOUBT
TO FINISH
TO FORGET
TO HATE etc
-după cuvinte şi expresii ca: TO BE BUSY
TO BE USELESS
TO FEEL LIKE
THAT IS
THERE IS etc

-după TO HAVE şi TO BE
-după substantive ca: CHANCE OF
EXPERIENCE IN
INTEREST IN
RIGHT OF
USE OF etc
- după adjective predicative ca: CAPABLE OF
ALERT IN
CONSCIOUS OF

DIATEZA PASIVĂ (Passive voice)

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Modurile şi timpurile diatezei pasive

1. ASPECTUL SIMPLU
A). MODUL INDICATIV (INDICATIVE MOOD)
Simple Present Tense:
I am asked a difficult question.
I am blest for this.
She is accept there
She is caught by the police
Simple Past Tense:
I was asked a difficult question
I was blest for this
He was accepted there
H e was caught by the police
Simple Future Tense:
I shall be asked a difficult question
I shall be blest for this
She will be accepted there
She will be caught by the police.
Present Perfect Tense:
I have been asked a difficult question.
I have blest for this.
He has been accepted there.
He has been caught by the police.
Past Perfect Tense:
I had been asked a difficult quuestion.
I had been blest for this.
She had been accepted there.
He had caught by the police.
Future Perfect in the Past
I shall have asked a difficult question.
I shall have been blest for this .
He will have been accepted there.
He will have been caught by the police.
Future in the Past:
I sholud be asked a difficult wuestion,.
I should be blest for this.
He would be accepted there.

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He would be caught by the police.

B). MODUL SUBJONCTIV (SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD):


Present Subjunctive:
I be asked a difficult question.
I be blest for this.
Past Subjunctive:
I were asked a difficult question.
I were blest for this.

C). MODUL CONDIŢIONAL (CONDITIONAL MOOD).


Present Conditional:
I should be asked a difficult question.
I should be blest for this.
Past Conditional
I should have been asked a difficult question
I should have been blest for this

2. ASPECTUL CONTINUU
A). MODUL INDICATIV (INDICATIVE MOOD)
Simple Present Tense:
I am being asked a difficult question.
I am being blest for this.
Simple Past Tense:
I was being asked a difficult question.
I was being blest for this.

B). MODUL SUBJONCTIV (SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD):


Past Subjunctive:
I were being asked a difficult question.
I were being blest for this.

VORBIREA INDIRECTĂ (Indirect Speech)

I. PROPOZIŢIILE ENUNŢIATIVE (Declarative Sentences)


1. Dacă verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut se va respecta corespondenţa timpurilor

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He said “I`ll be there in time”
He said that he would be there in time.

2. TO SAY din principală se înlocuieşte cu TO TELL (se păstrează numai când nu e însoţit de un CD)
“I don’t go there” he said to me
He told me that he wouldn’t go there

3. THIS devine THAT


THESE devine THOSE
TODAY devine THAT DAY
YESTERDAY devine THE DAY BEFORE
TOMORROW devine THE NEXT DAY
AGO devine BEFORE
NEXT WEEK, MONTH devine THE NEXT WEEK…….
HERE devine THERE

He said “Mary is here”


He said that Mary was there

II. PROPOZIŢIILE INTEROGATIVE (Interrogative Sentences)


1. Dacă verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut se va respecta corespondenţa timpurilor

He asked him “Do you know her?”


He asked him whether/if he knew her

2. Propoziţia interogativă indirectă e introdusă prin IF sau WHETHER


He asked him “Will you go there or not?”
He asked him whether he would go there or not.

3. Se respectă regula 3 de la propoziţiile enunţiative

III. PROPOZIŢIILE IMPERATIVE (Imperative Sentences)


1. Aceste propoziţii se redau în vorbirea indirectă cu ajutorul infinitivelor
- Un ordin
- Un sfat
“Come here” the colonel ordered his soldier
The colonel ordered his soldier to come there.

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“Don’t fail again” she said to him
She told him not to fail again.

2. Adjectivele, pronumele şi adverbele determinative se înlocuiesc după înţeles:


Tom suggested “Tell her to be here at seven”
Tom suggested that he should be there at seven.

ÎNTREBĂRI DISJUNCTIVE (Tag questions)

Reguli:
1. Atunci când în propoziţia “stimul” se află un VERB AUXILIAR sau MODAL, acesta se repetă în
întrebarea disjunctivă la semn invers.
Mary is at home, isn’t she?
My parents aren’t at home, are they?

2. Atunci când în propoziţia “stimul” se află un VERB OBIŞNUIT, în întrebarea disjunctivă se foloseşte
verbul auxiliar TO DO la acelaşi timp şi la aceeaşi persoană.
Lucy has finished here paper, hasn’t she?
They haven’t went there, have they?

3. Forma negativă a VERBULUI AUXILIAR sau MODAL din întrebarea disjunctivă este în totdeauna
contrară (am) not?, isn’t, didn’t, can’t, etc.
I am here, am I not?

4. Subiectul întrebării disjunctive este întotdeauna pronumele corespunzător subiectului propoziţiei stimul
He will graduate, will he?

5. Atunci când întrebarea disjunctivă este doar o exclamaţie VERBUL AUXILIAR sau MODAL este
folosit la acelaşi semn cu predicatul propoziţiei stimul.
You will tell me the truth, will you?

6. Întrebarea disjunctivă este despărţită de propoziţia stimul prin VIRGULĂ


Susan is here, isn’t she?

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CAPITOLUL II

TESTE DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

TESTUL NR. 1

1. Andrew… Tom last month.


a). Met
b). Has met
c). Meets
d). Meet

2. Oil is lighter…water.
a). Then
b). Than

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c). Thou
d). From

3. We have…. dinner at 7 o’clock p.m. every day.


a). The
b). A
c). An
d). –

4. That…should be shot .
a). Wolf
b). Wolves
c). Wolfls
d). Wolfes

5. My cat caugth three….


a). Mouce
b). Mouse
c). Mice
d). Mouses

6. The farmer has a few…… .


a). Goose
b). Geese
c). Gooses
d). Geeses

7. …are our permanent clients.


a). Housewife
b). Housewifes
c). Housewives
d). House-wife

8. London`s … theatre is at the Barbican Arts Centre.


a). Older
b). Oldest
c). More older

51
d). The most old

9. Richard….lived in the 15 th century


a). The three
b). The third
c). Third
d). Thirth

10. The plural of “ox” is:


a). Oxes
b). Oxsen
c). Oxen
d). Oxeses

11. The problem was…difficult than he told me.


a). Less
b). Little
c). The least
d). The lesser

12. They had…money than Tom.


a). Few
b). Little
c). The lesser
d). Less

13. I haven`t got…question to ask.


a). Some
b). No
c). Any
d). Each

14. Behave…!
a). Yourself
b). Herself
c). Ourselves
d). My self

52
15. …of children came to see the Zoo.
a). Hundreds
b). Hundred
c). Handreds
d). Handred

16. Nelson`s Column isn`t in front of St. Paul`s Cathedral,…?


a). Isn`t?
b). Is it?
c). Aren`t they?
d). Was it?

17. I have too…homework to do.


a). Many
b). Much
c). Enough
d). Some

18. I`ve already taken…. photos.


a). twelf
b). twelve
c). twelfe
d). twelves

19. Tom… his head in shame.


a). Bowed
b). Bow
c). Bawed
d). Bown

20. I …like Mary`s dress.


a). Don’t
b). Doesn’t
c). Hasn’t
d). Haven’t

53
21. The Roman soldiers who…Britain were part of the best army in the wold.
a). Has invade
b). Invaded
c). Invade
d). Had invade

22. Tell…people not to go here.


a). Those
b). This
c). That
d). Thees

23. My mother always…me do my homework before 8 o’clock p.m.


a). Been made
b). Made
c). Has made
d). Had made

24. He…collecting them for years.


a). Hes been
b). Had been
c). Haven’t
d). Have
25. The fountain with the statue of Eros on top is a favorite…place for young people.
a). Meet
b). Meeting
c). Met
d). Mets

26. John…Richard to the throne.


a). Succeeded
b). Had succeeded
c). Has succede
d). Have been succeed

27. The Great Dome…the second largest in the world.


a). Are

54
b). Was
c). Could be
d). Is

28. I had a terrible headache as I…for hours.


a). Had been typing
b). Have been typing
c). Had typed
d). Have typed

29. Madame Tussand`s...wax models of famous historical characters.


a). Showed
b). Exhibit
c). Exhibits
d). Showeds

30. After a time all those living in Britain…as Britons.


a). Became known
b). Become known
c). Become knowed
d). Was known

31. Passengers proceed to…..to board the plane.


a). Security Check
b). Departure
c). Arrival
d). The Gate

32. Admiral Nelson`s statue is in…..


a). Westminster Abbey
b). Piccadilly Circus
c). Trafalgar Square
d). St.Paul`s Cathedral

33. Who were executed at the Tower on Henry VIII`s orders.


a). Thomas More
b). Michelle Howard

55
c). John Boleyn
d). Catherine Bright

34. One of the Tower’s main attractions are.


a). The walls
b). The gates
c). The warders
d). The keys

35. Some of the best shops in London are in:


a). Oxford Street
b). Carnaby Sterrt
c). Kensington Street
d). Victorian Street

36. Beowulf was written down in:


a). Old English
b). Old Irish
c). Old Scotish
d). Old French

37. Val Moir decided to turn her hobby into a full-time….


a). Hobby
b). Job
c). Work
d). Idea

38. The opposite of “flat” is:


a). Brass
b). Fine
c). Rough
d). Bumpy

39. Fred Crouter is:


a). An engineer
b). A psychologist
c). A reporter

56
d). A worker

40. Where did Holden Caulfiled get off the train:


a). At Penn Station
b). At Victoria Station
c). At South Station
d). At Wilde Station

41. “Holden is back in…..”


a). New Jersey
b). New York
c). San Francisco
d). Los Angeles

42. “Odd” means:


a). strange
b). heavy
c). easy
d). soft

43. Who is Angel Clare?


a). Tess` husband
b). Tess` lover
c). Tess` cousin
d). Tess` father

44. Where is Caesar killed?


a). In the Senate house
b). In the market place
c). In front of the public
d). Near his house

45. What is “The Catcher in the Rye”?


a). A poem
b). A story
c). A short novel
d). A description

57
TESTUL NR.2

1. They go to…church every Sunday.


a). The
b). an
c). a
d). -

2. Mister Smith,….teacher, is an Englishman.


a). The
b). –
c). a
d). an

3. My…are teachers.
a). Sisters-in-law
b). Sister-in-laws
c). Sisters-in-low
d). Sister-in-lows

4. Tom and John are… .


a). Businessman
b). Businessmen
c). Bussinessmans
d). Businnesmens

5. Mother`s advice…always good.


a). Are
b). Is
c). Were
d). Have been

6. The plural of “child” is:


a). Childs
b). Childes

58
c). Children
d). Childrens

7. I have…very bad headache.


a). –
b). a
c). some
d). each

8. This was…idea not mine.


a). Them
b). Him
c). His
d). Ours

9. I…helped them to build the house.


a). Myselves
b). Myself
c). No one else
d). Me

10. On Sunday we can enjoy…


a). Us
b). Ourselves
c). One another
d). Themselves

11. On the table there is a… box.


a). Nice, small, red
b). Small, nice, red
c). Red, small, nice
d). Nice, red, small

12. The cake that I made was ….. than yours.


a). Good
b). The best
c). Better

59
d). The betters

13. The Woolsack…the importance of wool.


a). Symbolises
b). Is symbolieng
c). Symbolizes
d). Symbolize

14. …books did you take?


a). Which
b). Whom
c). Who
d). Witch

15. There were four…books.


a). Hundred
b). Handred
c). Hundreds
d). Handreds

16. The police…after the thief.


a). Are
b). Is
c). Have been
d). Run

17. Mary’s luggage...very heavy.


a). Are
b). Is
c). Were
d). Has

18. The news…very important for me.


a). Is
b). Are
c). Were
d). –

60
19. Nowadays the Tower…one of the world’s great tourist attractions.
a). Had become
b). Has became
c). Has become
d). Have became

20. He…his room yet.


a). Has clean
b). Hasn’t cleaned
c). Isn’t cleaned
d). Doesn’t cleaned

21. Stansted…in the 1980`s.


a). Were built
b). Was built
c). Have been built
d). Has been build

22. Mary…Tom for two years.


a). Had known
b). Have known
c). Was know
d). Were know

23. Those looking for entertainment…miss Piccadilly Circus.


a). Would not
b). Should not
c). Will
d). Shall not

24. Last week I…to an exhibition of paintings in the Barbican Art Centre.
a). Went
b). Go
c). Goes
d). Gone

61
25. Did you…these apples?
a). Has like
b). Liked
c). Likes
d). Like

26. Nelson`s Column isn`t in front of St`Paul`s Cathedral, …..?


a). Isn`t it
b). Is it
c). Aren`t they
d). Was it?

27. I have too…homework to do.


a). Many
b). Much
c). Enough
d). Some

28. The information…useful for everybody.


a). Are
b). Is
c). Were
d). Have been

29. The glass covered walkway …a splendid view of the river.


a). Is giving
b). Give
c). Gives
d). Has given

30. John…Richard to the throne.


a). Succeeded
b). Had succeded
c). Has succeded
d). Have been succed

31. When arriving at the airport, passengers usually take a ……

62
a). Tickket
b). Trolley
c). Flight
d). Boarding pass

32. Some of the great paintings of the world are in ….


a). Barbican Arts Centre
b). Madame Tussand`s
c). British Museum
d). The National Gallery

33. When the Tower became the chief prison of state?


a). In the time of Henry VIII
b). In the time of Edward II
c). In the time of King John
d). In the time of Charles II

34. Most tourist prefer to admire London from:


a). The upper deck of an open bus
b). A black-cab taxi
c). The Official London Transport
d). Peter Pan’s statue

35. People seldom go to….in London.


a). Restaurants
b). Pubs
c). Cafes
d). Inns

36. Beowulf is:


a). An Anglo-Saxon story
b). A heroic poem
c). An old English story
d). An epic story

37. Some of the most impressive collections were those belonging to….
a). Girls

63
b). A boy
c). Children
d). Grown-ups

38. The opposite of “transparent” is:


a). Brittle
b). Opaque
c). Rigid
d). Hollow

39. Crouter`s oldest newspaper is a 1669 issue of:


a). Britain Chronicle
b). London Chronicle
c). Oxford Chronicle
d). Nebraska Chronicle

40. Who is “the devil’s disciple”


a). Richard Dudgeon
b). Francis Macomber
c). Anthony Anderson
d). Morris Townsend

41. Who is Holden Caulfield sister?


a). Sally
b). Phoebe
c). Jane
d). Susan

42. “to reckon” means :


a). To consider
b). To recognise
c). To realise
d). To reveal

43. “to brace” means:


a). To get firmness

64
b). To be good
c). To get wealthy
d). To be well

44. “corny” means:


a). crazy
b). banal
c). easy
d). dump

45. Who is the president of the Court-Martial scence:


a). Gentlemanly Johnny
b). Major Swindon
c). Richard Dudgeon
d). Anthony Anderson

TESTUL Nr.3

1. The rich should help…..poor.

a). A
b). Some
c). –
d). The

2. Mary will dine with…whites.


a). –
b). the
c). a
d). an

3. They told me about the….


a). Tariff
b). Tarif
c). Tarives

65
d). Tarifs

4. Please, buy me a…of milk chocolate.


a). Item
b). Slice
c). Bar
d). Bit

5. His baggage…here a few minutes a go.


a). Was
b). Were
c). Is
d). Are

6. Those…are very interesting.


a). Photos
b). Photoes
c). Phothos
d). Fothos

7. The plural of “wife” is:


a). Wifes
b). Wive
c). Wives
d). Wifeses

8. Tom proved..…to be a very good student.


a). His self
b). Himself
c). Itself
d). Ourself

9. He is our….
a). Lieutenant-colonel
b). Colonel-lieutenant
c). Leutenant colonel
d). Colnel-leutenant

66
10. She never got…answers from him.
a). Some
b). Any
c). An
d). No

11. Big Ben is…. famous clock in London.


a). very
b). a
c). more
d). the most

12. My friends are going to spend their holidays…the mountains.


a). In
b). At
c). On
d). To top

13. People…go to pubs in London.


a). Rather
b). Seldom
c). Usually
d). Rarely

14. Most tourists prefer to admire London from…deck of an open bus.


a). The upper
b). The uppest
c). Upper
d). Upperst

15. …World War started in 1914.


a). Two
b). One
c). The first
d). The second

67
16. The information…useful for everybody.
a). Are
b). Is
c). Were
d). Have been

17. I knew what was written in the article because I … it.


a). Had been reading
b). Had read
c). Have read
d). Had reading

18. Richard the Lionheart`s chancellor…the first expansion of the Tower’s defences.
a). Has begin
b). Began
c). Begun
d). Was begun

19. The Union Jack…of three crosses: of England, Scotland and Ireland.
a). Consisted
b). Consist
c). Consists
d). Has consisted

20. All of them…some money.


a). Hes
b). Haven`t
c). Had
d). To have

21. The play was wonderful. I wish you….


a). Had come
b). Came
c). Has came
d). Have come

22. The glass covered walkway….a splendid view of the river.

68
a). Is giving
b). Give
c). Gives
d). Has given

23. By tradition there ….. ravens at the Tower from its very beginnings.
a). Has
b). Have been
c). Has been
d). Had been

24. I`ll …..my homework before six o’clock.


a). Have written
b). Has written
c). Has write
d). Had wrote

25. I….the long streets in central London with stylish houses.


a). Liked
b). Adored
c). Am likenig
d). Adore

26. By six o’clock, they’ll….tea.


a). Had had
b). Have had
c). Have have
d). Had have

27. You want me to play the piano, ….?


a). Don`t you
b). Didn`t you
c). Will you
d). Shall you

28. It is high time you…..decide upon your future.


a). Would

69
b). Should
c). Shall
d). Will

29. Alice is a very good friend of….


a). Mine
b). One
c). My
d). Him

30. If John ……I could have told him the truth


a). Had come
b). Has come
c). Has came
d). Had came

31. “Every passenger shows his passport for Passport Control before going through…..”
a). Departure Lounge
b). Check-in-Counter
c). Security Check
d). The Gate

32. …….Is a fine example of Gothic architecture.


a). St.Paul`s Cathedral
b). British Museum
c). Westminster Abbey
d). Buckingham Palace

33. Who spent a lot to make the Tower one of the finest medieval castles of 13th century England?.
a). Edward I
b). Henry III
c). William of Normandy
d). King John

34. West End theatres are just few minutes` walk from:
a). Kensington Gardens
b). Peter Pan`s statue

70
c). Piccadilly Circus
d). London Zoo

35. Covent Garden is the home of:


a). The Royal Opera
b). Royal Festival
c). South Bank
d). Museum of the Moving Image

36. The theme of Beowulf is:


a). Killing dragons
b). Fighting dragons
c). Dragons`death
d). Following dragons

37. A boy had contributed his collection of ….


a). Carrier bags
b). Rocks and fossils
c). Cuddly toys
d). Hand-painted plates

38. The opposite of “hard” is:


a). Soft
b). Solid
c). Flexible
d). Rigid

39. Fred Crouter is collecting:


a). Old books
b). Old pictures
c). Newspapers
d). Paintings

40. Who is Jim?


a). Huck`s friends
b). A runnaway slave
c). Huck`s father

71
d). Huck`s brother

41. What does it mean “argument”?


a). Debate
b). Solution
c). Element
d). Reason

42. Who is Alec D`Urbervilles?


a). Tess` brother
b). Tess` lover
c). Tess` husband
d). Tess` father

43. What does it mean “regular”?


a). Normal
b). Seldom
c). Sometimes
d). Always

44. What does it mean “phone booth”?


a). phone box
b). phone house
c). phone signal
d). phone scene

45. Give synonym to “casual”.


a). Chance
b). Case
c). Close
d). In case

TESTUL NR.4

1. Susan is …..honest person


a). The
b). –

72
c). A
d). An

2. The sun rises in….east.


a). The
b). A
c). –
d). an

3. …..Duke of Wellington is buried at St.Paul`s Cathedral.


a). –
b). Himself
c). The
d). A

4. The plural of “leaf” is:


a). Lives
b). Leafs
c). Leaves
d). Leafes

5. Help….to a chocolate.
a). Me
b). Us
c). Yourself
d). Ourself

6. John came home late…..night.


a). –
B). At
C). At the
D). In

7. In small towns like that, everyone knows…..


a). Everybodies
b). Everyone
c). Everythings

73
d). Nothing

8. Andrew wants to become….. engineer.


a). -
b). The
c). A
d). An

9. Ultimately,…….., Beowulf received his own death.


a). Nevertheless
b). Anyway
c). Finally
d). Hoppesly

10. Some of….shop in London are in Regent Street.


a). The better
b). The best
c). Worse
d). The worst

11. My English in bad, but yours is…….


a). Badder
b). Worst
c). Worse
d). Baddest

12. The jack used to be the name of the flag….was hung from the back of a ship.
a). Whom
b). Who
c). Which
d). What

13. Fewer and…..people belive in happiness.


a). Loss
b). Few
c). Fewer
d). Fewest

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14. The man…..I spoke was very polite.
a). To whom
b). Whom
c). To who
d). Which

15. My flat is on the…..floor.


a). Nineth
b). Ninth
c). Nine
d). Nineteen

16. The famous saying “Time is money” is English,….?


a). Is it?
b). Was it?
c). It was?
d). Isn`t it?

17. I was afraid he might get asleep as he….since early morning.


a). Had driven
b). Had been driving
c). Have driven
d). Have been driven

18. The National Gallery….one of the richest collection of paintings.


a). Houses
b). Housed
c). House
d). Has housed

19. Susan…..anybody there since early this morning.


a). Haven`tseen
b). Hasn`t seen
c). Hasn`t see
d). Hadn`t see

75
20. Andrew……breakfast yet.
a). Hasn`t finished
b). Had finish
c). Has finished
d). Has finish

21. I…...never go to the seaside on December.


a). Wouldn`t
b). Will
c). Will been
d). Will be

22. William of Normandy….the building of an earth-and-timber castle.


a). Has ordered
b). Had ordered
c). Ordered
d). Was ordered

23. ….you join us for dinner?


a). Shall
b). Would
c). Will
d). Should
24. She….five husbands.
a). Have have
b). Has had
c). Has have
d). Had had

25. “I….how the English can be so self-controlled when they lose time.”
a). Understand
b). Can`t understand
c). Could understand
d). Wouldn`t understand

26. London’s Carnaby Street attracted…of tourists every year.


a). Thousand

76
b). Thousands
c). Thausant
d). Thausent

27. Tom and Peter…..hands.


a). Have shaken
b). Has shaken
c). Have shake
d). Has shake

28. The Mods most important possessions….their scooters.


a). Was
b). Were
c). Have been
d). Had been

29. If I am a king, you….my queen.


a). Are
b). Will be
c). Would be
d). Should be

30. She becomes fair when her husband finally…. her.


a). Obeyed
b). Obeys
c). Obey
d). Obeying

31. At the…passengers receive a boarding pass.


a). Departure Lounge
b). Arrival
c). Check-in-Counter
d). Passport Control

32. London`s oldest theatre is at:


a). The Barbican Arts Centre

77
b). Piccadilly Circus
c). 10 Downing Street
d). Trafalgar Square

33. When the royal accommodation changed from the White Tower to a new building?
a). During the reign of Edward I
b). During the reign of Henry III
c). During the reign of King John
d). During the reign of Henry VIII

34. In London you have to…for the bus


a). Wait
b). Qeue
c). Queue
d). Qiueue

35. Children will always choose:


a). Regent’s Park
b). Hyde Park
c). St.James`s Park
d). Victoria`s Park

36. ….was triumphantly welcomed by his people.


a). Wiglaf
b). Hrothgar
c). Beowulf
d). Grendel

37. “My favorite was a collection of…….”:


a). Small perfume bottles
b). Hand-painted plates
c). Rocks and fossils
d). Cuddly toy

38. The opposite of “high” is:


a). Low
b). Wide

78
c). Tiny
d). Long

39. ……contains a copy of the U.S. Constitution


a). Pennsylvania Packet
b). London Chronicle
c). Connecticut Journal
d). Nebraska Journal

40. Which of the following is a sequel to “The adventures of Tom Sawyer”:


a). “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”
b). “A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur`s Court.
c). “Life on the Mississippi”
d). “The Adventures of Negro Jim”

41. What is “Julius Caesar”?


a). a tragedy
b). a novel
c). a Roman historical play
d). a chronical play

42. What is Stonehenge?


a). An abbey
b). A prehistoric temple
c). A castle
d). A modern temple

43. “Dawn” means:


a). down
b). dear
c). daybreak
d). sunset

44. Morris Townsend refuses to leave N.Y. because:


a). He loves Catherine
b). He has a job there
c). He has family responsabilities there

79
d). He doesn`t need such a job

45. Holden gave the cab driver the wrong address:


a). Because he was tired
b). Out of habit
c). Because he was drunk
d). Because he was in a hurry

TESTUL NR.5

1. …..lions are wild animals.


a). any
b). the
c). some
d). -

2. It was …important day for him.


a). An
b). A
c). –
d). some

3. It was…. year full of happiness.


a). A
b). An
c). The
d). –

4. “….British Museum shows the works of man from prehistoric times”


a). an
b). –
c). the
d). a

80
5. The plural of “foot” is:
a). Foots
b). Feets
c). Feet
d). Footes

6. She bought….a new hat.


a). Her
b). Herself
c). Of herself
d). Of himself

7. She told me that….is ready.


a). Everything
b). Both
c). Somebodies
d). Anybodies

8. Flying today is…. way of travelling.


a). The safer
b). The safest
c). Saffer
d). Saffeler

9. Mary has…. reason to be upset.


a). Either
b). Each
c). Everything
d). Every

10. She is …. as I am.


a). As happy
b). Not happy
c). As happier
d). Happiest

11. Children will always choose……. which houses London Zoo.

81
a). Oxford`s Park
b). Regent`s Park
c). Coven`s Park
d). Kensington`s Park

12. In London you have to queue…bus.


a). For the
b). For
c). To the
d). At the

13. Life was difficult in ….. days.


a). These
b). This
c). That
d). Those

14. Alice is…than Lusan.


a). Beautiful
b). More beautiful
c). The most beautiful
d). Not as beautiful

15. On Christmas Day…….,William Duke of Normandy, was crowned king of England.


a). Ten sixty – six
b). One o sixty-six
c). One thousand and sixty-six
d). Ten and sixty-six

16. The bell is also…when passengers ring for me of the cabin crew.
a). Heard
b). Hearing
c). Ringging
d). Been ringing

17. For me it was as if someone…me a pair of magic glasses.


a). Give

82
b). Had given
c). Haven`t given
d). Gaves

18. We…. hands and said “good bye”.


a). Shake
b). Shook
c). Has shaking
d). Had shouk

19. Mary….in the living-room as I was dressing.


a). Has wait
b). Had wait
c). Waited
d). Has waited

20. Has he….the news?


a). Heard
b). Hear
c). Heared
d). Hearing

21. At night the Circus….a mass of colored changing lights.


a). Became
b). Become
c). Becomes
d). Becomed

22. John and Mary…in the mountains since June.


a). Hasn’t
b). Hasn’t been
c). Haven’t been
d). Hadn’t been

23. The child…. anything in the the morning.


a). Didn`t eat

83
b). Doesn`t eaten
c). Didn`t ate
d). Don`t ate.

24. The Wife of Bath….a lot.


a). Had travelled
b). Has travelled
c). Have travelle
d). Has travell

25. Only if you ….you will succeed.


a). Will try
b). Has tried
c). Try
d). Are trying

26. Tom…her twice till now, but she hasn’t answered.


a). Has written
b). Have written
c). Had write
d). Had wrote

27. If you…you will succeed.


a). Tried
b). Has try
c). Shall try
d). Will try

28. “When a man…of London he is tired of life”.


a). Tired
b). Was tired
c). Is tired
d). Had tired

29. If I had been a king you…. my queen.


a). Will be
b). Would have been

84
c). Have been
d). Would be

30. John, a carpenter, discovers that his wife, Alison,…….unfaithful to him for some time.
a). Had been
b). Has been
c). Have been
d). Had be

31. When the “Fasten your seat belts” and “……” signs light up a bell rings.
a). “No Starting”
b). “No Smoking”
c). “No Moving”
d). “No Landing”

32. Those looking for entertainment should not miss:


a). Piccadilly Circus
b). St.Paul`s Cathedral
c). Tower Bridge
d). Great Dome

33. Who completed the first expansion of the Tower`s defences?


a). Richard
b). King John
c). Henry IV
d). Edward I

34. For a change visit…., London`s most famous outdoor market.


a). Petticoat Lane
b). Victorian arcades
c). Mayfair`s
d). Piccadilly Circus

35. The hot spots of music and dance are located near:
a). Kensington Gardens
b). Leicester Square
c). James` square

85
d). Covent Garden

36. Grendel killed the men of….


a). Hrothgar
b). Horhtgar
c). Hortgar
d). Hrohgar

37. An unusual collection was one entered by a …….


a). Railway enthusiast
b). Geology enthusiast
c). Boy
d). Girl

38. The opposite of “wide” is:


a). Short
b). Light
c). Tall
d). Narrow

39. “I wouldn`t part with them for any….


a). Price
b). Reason
c). Body
d). Thing

40. Who is Holden`s sister:


a). Susan
b). Jane
c). Phoebe
d). Alison

41. Who is Catherine suitor?


a). Sloper
b). Townsend
c). Morraise
d). Hayes

86
42. How many times was Caesar offered the crown?
a). Once
b). Twice
c). Three times
d). Four times

43. Hardy`s first masterpice is:


a). “Far From Madding Crowd”
b). “Jude the Obscure”
c). “Victorian archades”
d). “The Story of Stonehendge”

44. “pillar” means:


a). Column
b). Stone
c). Instrument
d). Ornament
45. “At hand” means:
a). Closen
b). At the moment
c). Always
d). Near

TEST NR.6

1. Jane wants to become…doctor.


a). –
b). A
c). The
d). An

2. Tom is coming home at…. Christmas.


a). The
b). –
c). a

87
d). nexet

3. The horse is…. useful animal.


a). The
b). An
c). -
d). A

4. The plural of “tooth” is:


a). Teet
b). Teeth
c). Tooths
d). Toothes

5. …..got there in time.


a). Much
b). Neither
c). Him
d). Her

6. “When I am playing tennis I can’t think of…else”.


a). Anything
b). Something
c). Nothing
d). Anybody

7. In soccer the best players are paid huge…of money.


a). Sum
b). Sama
c). Sums
d). Sumes

8. Sometimes I`m completely….


a). Hope
b). Hoppelless
c). Hopeless
d). Hopeful

88
9. He seems to find my project very….
a). Attract
b). Attractive
c). Attractlessing
d). Attractable

10. I don`t know where you find all…. energy.


a). That
b). Thes
c). These
d). Those

11. I`ve always considered him a …. person.


a). Rely
b). Reliable
c). Relions
d). Reliant

12. Has she heard from that friend of…who was there?
a). Her
b). Then
c). She
d). Hers

13. I used to see him….a week.


a). Twice
b). Too times
c). Two times
d). Two time

14. “…..had we walked in when we saw the first exhibit”.


a). No sooner than
b). Scarcely
c). Hardly
d). Right then

89
15. His father is a wealthy man;…isn`t .
a). My
b). Mine
c). His
d). Him

16. Now I …the all the paintings were really beautiful.


a). Found
b). Find
c). Has find
d). Had founding

17. London is even more beautiful than I….


a). Thought
b). Had thought
c). Think
d). Has been thinking

18. An ugly woman…to a man.


a). Maried
b). Have married
c). Is married
d). Are married

19. I wish you….the piano every day.


a). Would sing
b). Will sing at
c). Would play
d). Will play

20. You…open the window if you want to.


a). May
b). Can
c). Could
d). Have

21. ….I give my exam right now?

90
a). May
b). Must
c). Will
d). Shal

22. People and pigeons….at Trafalgar Square to see fountains.


a). Are gathering
b). Gather
c). Gathers
d). Has gathers

23. Chief Yeoman Warder…the keys to the monarch’s representative in the Tower.
a). Show
b). Present
c). Presents
d). Shows

24. Her lawyer…you where I am.


a). Will tell
b). Shall tell
c). Would told
d). Is telling

25. The film…. starting in ten minutes.


a). Can be
b). Must be
c). Had be
d). May

26. I…the Tower yet.


a). Haven`t seen
b). Hasn`t seen
c). Wasn`t seen
d). Weren`t seen

27. If I were a king you….my queen.


a). Would be

91
b). Would have been
c). Will be
d). Should be

28. I`ll be learning the poem when you….


a). Arrived
b). Are arriving
c). Arrive
d). Has arrive

29. Pity you…. with us!


a). Haven`t come
b). Didn`t come
c). Doesn`t come
d). Don`t came

30. It…. important that I had finished the book in time.


a). Were
b). Has been
c). Will be
d). Was

31. When you hear the announcement for your flight you proceed to…..?
a). Departure Lounge
b). The Gate
c). Check-in-Counter
d). Security Check

32. Coming out of the National Gallery, tourists can admire:


a). Nelson’s Column
b). Queen Victoria’s memorial
c). Great Dome
d). The Royal Guards

33. Who ordered the building of the earth-and-timber castle?


a). Edward I
b). William of Normandy

92
c). Richard the Lionheart
d). Henry VIII

34. You can find fashionable discos and night clubs near:
a). Mayfair`
b). Petticoat Lane
c). Leicester Square
d). Covent Garden

35. The world famous Royal Opera is situated in:


a). Covent Garden
b). Leicester Square
c). Kensington Gardens
d). National Theatre

36. Beowulf pronounced….his successor.


a). Grendal
b). Kalevala
c). Wiglaf
d). Roland

37. I have recently visited an exhibition in:


a). Stoke-on-Trent
b). Stone-on-Tent
c). Staik-on-Tent
d). Stroke-on-Trent

38. The opposite of “huge” is:


a). Tiny
b). Wide
c). Long
d). Short

39. The pilgrims met at:


a). Tanner Inn
b). Taben Inn
c). Tabeard Inn

93
d). Tabbard Inn

40. Choose the right matches:


a). The Decameron-Chaucers
b). Beowulf-Boccacio
c). The Canterbury Tales-Chaucer
d). The Arabian Nights-Abbey

41. What do the Roman citizens think of the conspirators when Antony`s speech is over?
a). They are patriots
b). They are trailors
c). They are innocent
d). They are honourable men

42. The antonym of “enemy” is:


a). Friend
b). Lover
c). Lawyer
d). Guest

43. Tess murdered:


a). Angel
b). Alec
c). Clare
d). The policeman

44. “To glisten” means:


a). To wisper
b). To be glad
c). To move
d). To shine brightly

45. “proper” means:


a). Well
b). Correct
c). Possible
d). Suitable

94
TESTUL NR.7

1. She was …very famous person.


a). The
b). –
c). a
d). an

2. The horse is …useful animal.


a). A
b). An
c). –
d). some

3. Stansted was built to relieve the congestion of….Heathrow.


a). The
b). In
c). –
d). a

4. The plural of “tomato” is:


a). Tomatos
b). Tomatoes
c). Tomatoses
d). Tomato

5. The exercise is not…difficult.


a). Too
b). Just
c). Nearly
d). yet

6. That engine goes by….


a). Himself
b). His self

95
c). Itself
d). Themselves

7. …..wants peace and not war.


a). Somebody
b). Someone
c). Everybody
d). Anybody

8. The…fell from the tree.


a). Lives
b). Leaves
c). Leafs
d). Lifs

9. The thieves stole watches and….


a). Radioes
b). Radio
c). Radios
d). Radies

10. The poor woman threw…under the train.


a). Himself
b). Herself
c). Itself
d). Themselves

11. Have you heard….?


a). The news
b). The questtion
c). The knews
d). The new

12. Susan went into the house…him.


a). Rather
b). Befored
c). Over

96
d). After

13. Those wolves killed the….


a). Sheep
b). Sheeps
c). Sheepes
d). Sheepoes

14. Susan has learn a dozen of poems…heart.


a). At
b). To
c). By
d). From

15. Peter has broken his…knife.


a). Nasty
b). Sweet
c). Favourite
d). Interesting

16. I had difficulties in understanding what the artist….


a). Mean
b). Had meant
c). Have mean
d). Have meant

17. I…say I admire London more than like it.


a). Should
b). Would
c). Will
d). Shall

18. Our teacher…to listen to gossip.


a). Doesn`t like
b). Don`t like
c). Hasn`t like
d). Didn`t liked

97
19. Susan and Andrew….come to see us.
a). Might
b). Can
c). Mights
d). Are able to

20. …..good reviews of that exhibition.


a). Had read
b). Have red
c). Reading
d). Had been read

21. If I were you I …. to that doctor.


a). Couldn`t go
b). Shouldn`t go
c). Wouldn`t go
d). Will not go

22. Nowadays, there are about 40 yeoman Warders, who…within the walls of the Tower.
a). Lives
b). Live
c). Lived
d). Is living

23. “I….hours on end in London`s fabulous museums.”


a). Could spend
b). Could spent
c). Would spent
d). Will spent

24. Where have you…?


a). Was
b). Were
c). Be
d). Been

98
25. The airport at Gatwick also…a lot of international flights.
a). Hands
b). Handels
c). Handles
d). Has handels

26. I hate…lies.
a). To tell
b). To speak
c). To ask
d). Tell

27. The numerous parks…shelter from the noise of the city.


a). Offers
b). Offer
c). Make
d). Makes

28. The police promised me that they…the thief.


a). Shall found
b). Shall finding
c). Would find
d). Will found

29. If you tell them now they…enough time to solve the problem.
a). Will have
b). Shall have
c). Would have
d). Should have

30. Susan told us that her husband…just arrived.


a). Have
b). Had
c). Has
d). Have has

31. Clear Customs by taking…….if you have anything to declare.

99
a). Red Channel
b). Green Channel
c). White Channel
d). Yellow Channel

32. Queen Victoria’s memorial is in front of:


a). Westminster Abbey
b). Buckingham Palace
c). Trafalgar Square
d). Barbican Arts Centre

33. Richard’s brother was:


a). Henry VIII
b). Edward I
c). Henry II
d). John

34. We can find street entertainers till late at night near:


a). Oxford St.
b). Mayfair’s
c). Leicester Square
d). Petticoat Lane

35. The black-cab taxi service is available but it is rather…..


a). Expensive
b). Modern
c). Speedy
d). Wide

36. Beowulf managed to kill the dragon with the aid of…….
a). Danish king
b). King John
c). Wiglaf
d). Grendal

37. “The first exhibit displayed above us was a collection of…..”


a). Carrier bags

100
b). Old cameras
c). Small pefume bottles
d). Beatles`records

38. Choose the possible association:


a). Rigid, flexible, narrow
b). Heavy, light, striped
c). Law, short, tiny
d). Oval, light, tall

39. The pilgrims went to:


a). Canterbury
b). Canterbary
c). Cunterburry
d). Canterbarry

40. …………wrote” The Canterbury Tales”.


a). Gershwin
b). Chaucer
c). Goffrey
d). Boccaccio

41. Whom does Holden ask about the duck’s fate:


a). Phoebe
b). His sister
c). The taxi driver
d). His friend

42. “position” means:


a). Level
b). State of fact
c). Rank
d). Job

43. “to depend on” means:


a). To trust
b). To rely on

101
c). To be certain about
d). To belive for

44. “wild” means:


a). Uncontrolled
b). Big
c). Uncivilised
d). Desolate

45. “vacation” means:


a). trip
b). holidays
c). free time
d). time to spent

TESTUL NR.8

1. Andrew likes to eat….good food.


a). The
b). A
c). –
d). An

2. After a few days Mark lost…..courage.


a). –
b). the
c). a
d). an

3. Hampstead is at 58 meters below….ground.


a). –
b). Some
c). A
d). The

4. The plural of “city” is:

102
a). Cities
b). Cityies
c). Citys
d). Cityis

5. He has bought a new….of furniture.


a). Part
b). Bit
c). Piece
d). Slice

6. Clear Customs if you have….to declare.


a). Anything
b). Something
c). Nothing
d). Somebody

7. Mother is…..cook I know.


a). The best
b). Better
c). The better
d). The most

8. A….dog was barking behind the door.


a). Black, little, nice
b). Nice, little, black
c). Little, black, nice
d). Black, nice, little

9. …..45 seconds a plane takes off or lands at Heathrow.


a). Each
b). Every
c). Either
d). Whatever

10. The little dog you `ve found is….


a). Them

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b). My
c). For theirs
d). Mine

11. They made it….


a). Himself
b). Themselves
c). Ourselves
d). Yourselves

12. Andrew is the ….in the class.


a). Tallest
b). More taller
c). Most tallest
d). Taller

13. Wren…is buried at St.Paul`s Cathedral.


a). His
b). Him
c). Himself
d). Herself

14. The…..were invited at school.


a). Pupils` parents
b). Pupil`s parent
c). Pupils` parent
d). Pupiles parent`s

15. I was born on the:


a). December three
b). First of December
c). Dicember first
d). Decembre first

16. I….it was worth it.


a). Hoped
b). Has hope

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c). Had hope
d). Have hope

17. London is where the majority of big business in Britain…..


a). Did
b). Is do
c). Was did
d). Is done

18. He…..his room yet.


a). Has clean
b). Hasn`t cleaned
c). Isn`t cleaned
d). Doesn`t cleaned

19. The first group…..in the newspapers in the late 50s were the Teddy Boys.
a). To see
b). To be see
c). To be seen
d). Was see

20. They…to stay at home this evening if it rains.


a). Will
b). Going
c). Was going
d). Are going

21. Stansted….in the 1980s.


a). Were built
b). Was built
c). Have been build
d). Has been build

22. A boy….by his history teacher to tell the story of Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh.
a). Was asked
b). Has been ask
c). Had been ask

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d). Had ask

23. Gershwin….to compose music for the upper layers.


a). Haven`t want
b). Had not wanted
c). Has not want
d). Hadn`t want

24. Mary…Tom for two years.


a). Had known
b). Have known
c). Was know
d). Were know

25. It`s a pity London….so many problems.


a). Had
b). Have
c). Is having
d). Has

26. If I had stopped at Brasov we would….very late.


a). Should get back
b). Would get back
c). Got back
d). Have got back

27. They complained that they…..all day.


a). Has been singing
b). Had sang
c). Had been singing
d). Have sing

28. Last week I….to an exhibition of paintings in the Barbican Art Centre.
a). Went
b). Go
c). Goes
d). Gone

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29. If father were here he….us the money.
a). Would give
b). Would gave
c). Will give
d). Will given

30. She…..to finish the book in time.


a). Will be able
b). Shall be able
c). Are able
d). Is able

31. Follow the……..sign if you are ending your journey.


a). Departures
b). Arrival
c). Passport Control
d). Departure Lounge

32. The most famous libraries in the world are at:


a). The British Museum
b). Barbican Arts Centre
c). Buckingham Palace
d). The National Gallery

33. Henry III`s son was:


a). Edward I
b). Henry IV
c). Richard the Lionheart
d). John

34. You may also want to have a book at Mayfair`s elegant Vitorian………
a). Market
b). Arcades
c). Art gallery
d). Pubs

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35. In London there is a ……..network of public transport.
a). Large
b). Sort
c). Big
d). Wide

36. When Beowulf had reigned….years, his kingdom was invaded by a fiery dragon.
a). 20
b). 30
c). 10
d). 50

37. Julie visited a fascinating exhibition with:


a). Lizzie
b). Catherine
c). Jane
d). Susan

38. Choose the possible association:


a). High, heavy, opaque
b). Woodon, brass, cotton
c). Plain, concrete, striped
d). Peach, purple, floral

39. “The Canterbury Tales” is a frame-story collection of…stories.


a). 10
b). 42
c). 24
d). 29

40. “The Canterbury Tales” is made up of:


a). Two pats
b). Four parts
c). Three parts
d). Five parts

41. Who accompanied Huck on his voyage?

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a). His sick father
b). Tom
c). Joe
d). Jim

42. Where do Angel and Tess find refuge at night?


a). At Stonehenge
b). At Stratford
c). At Stonhenges
d). At Straford

43. What is General Burgoyne`s nickname?


a). Gentlemanly Johnny
b). Gentle Johnny
c). Johnny the Brave
d). Getlemenly Johny

44. Who is dr.Sloper?


a). Morris` uncle
b). Catherine`s father
c). Sally`s father
d). James` teacher

45. “phony” means:


a). Crazy
b). Telephoning
c). Banal
d). Hypocritical

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REZULTATELE TESTELOR

TESTUL NR.1
1a, 2b, 3d, 4a, 5c, 6b, 7c, 8b, 9b, 10c, 11a, 12d, 13c, 14a, 15a, 16b, 17b, 18b, 19a, 20a, 21b, 22a, 23b, 24b,
25b, 26a, 27d, 28b, 29c, 30a, 31d, 32c, 33a, 34c, 35a, 36a, 37b, 38d, 39b, 40a, 41b, 42a, 43a, 44a, 45c.

TESTUL NR.2
1d, 2a, 3a, 4b, 5b, 6c, 7b, 8c, 9b, 10b, 11a, 12c, 13c, 14a, 15a, 16a, 17b, 18a, 19c, 20b, 21b, 22a, 23b, 24a,
25d, 26b, 27b, 28b, 29c, 30a, 31b, 32d, 33a, 34a, 35b, 36b 37c, 38b, 39b, 40a, 41b, 42a, 43a, 44b, 45b.

TESTUL NR.3
1d, 2b, 3a, 4c, 5a, 6a, 7c, 8b, 9a, 10b, 11d, 12a, 13b, 14a, 15a, 16b, 17b, 18b, 19c, 20c, 21a, 22c, 23b, 24a,
25d, 26b, 27a, 28b, 29a, 30a, 31c, 32c, 33a, 34c, 35a, 36b, 37b, 38a, 39c, 40b, 41a, 42b, 43a, 44a, 45a.

TESTUL NR.4
1d, 2a, 3c, 4c, 5c, 6b, 7b, 8d, 9a, 10b, 11c, 12c, 13c, 14a, 15b, 16d, 17b, 18a, 19b, 20a, 21b, 22c, 23c, 24b,
25b, 26b 27a, 28b, 29b 30b, 31c, 32b 33b, 34c 35a, 36c, 37a, 38a, 39a, 40a, 41c, 42b, 43c, 44c, 45b.

TESTUL NR.5
1d, 2a, 3a, 4c, 5c, 6b, 7a, 8b, 9d, 10a, 11b, 12a, 13d, 14b, 15a, 16a, 17b, 18b, 19c, 20a, 21c, 22c, 23a, 24b,
25c, 26a, 27d, 28c, 29b, 30b, 31b, 32a, 33b, 34a, 35b, 36a, 37a, 38d, 39a, 40c, 41b, 42c, 43a, 44a, 45d.

TESTUL NR.6
1b, 2b, 3d, 4b, 5b, 6a, 7c, 8c, 9b, 10a, 11b, 12d, 13a, 14c, 15b, 16a, 17a, 18c, 19c, 20b, 21b, 22b, 23c, 24a
25b, 26a, 27a, 28c, 29b, 30d, 31b, 32a, 33b, 34c, 35a, 36c, 37a, 38a, 39d, 40c, 41b, 42a, 43b, 44d, 45b.

TESTUL NR.7
1c, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5a, 6c, 7c, 8b, 9c, 10b, 11a, 12d, 13a, 14c, 15c, 16b, 17b, 18a, 19a, 20a, 21c, 22b, 23a, 24d,
25c, 26a, 27b, 28c, 29a, 30b, 31a, 32b, 33d, 34c, 35a, 36c, 37a, 38c, 39a, 40b, 41c, 42d, 43b, 44a, 45b.

TESTUL NR.8
1c, 2a, 3d, 4a, 5c, 6a, 7a, 8b, 9b, 10d, 11b, 12a, 13c, 14a, 15b, 16a, 17d, 18b, 19c, 20d, 21b, 22a, 23b, 24a,
25d, 26d, 27c, 28a, 29a, 30a, 31b, 32a, 33a, 34b, 35d, 36d, 37a, 38b, 39c, 40a, 41d, 42a, 43a, 44b, 45c.

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BIBLIOGRAFIE

Bădescu, L.Alice, Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1984;

Eckersley, C.E. and Eckersley, J.M., A Comprehensive English Grammar for Foreign Students, London,
1966;

Gălăţeanu – Fârnoagă, Georgiana, Sinteze de gramatică engleză, Editura Albatros, Bucureşti, 1987;

Gălăţeanu – Fârnoagă, Georgiana, Comişel, Ecaterina, Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura Omegapres –
Editura Lucman, Bucureşti, 1996;

Cobb Timothy and Gardiner Richard, Today’s English Grammar, Editura Prietenii Cărţii, Bucureşti, 1994;

Leviţchi, Leon, Preda, Ioan, Gramatica limbii Engleze, Editura 100+1 Gramar, Bucureşti, 1999:

Vişan, Monica, Metodă rapidă de învăţare a gramaticii limbii engleze, Editura Viitorul românesc, 1992.

Manualele prevăzute în programa şcolară, ediţia 1998: English My Love, Limba engleză – manual pentru
clasa a XI-a (anul VII de studiu), Limba engleză – manual pentru clasa a XII-a (anul VIII de studiu).
Textele:
Unit.I: Lessons 1,2,3,4,7;
Unit.II: Lessons 1,3,4,6,7;
Unit.III: Lessons 1,2,3.
“The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”;
“Washington Square”;
“The Catcher in the Rye”(Streams A and C);
“The Tragedy of Julius Caesar”;
“The Devil`s Disciple”.

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