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Gramatica limbii engleze Substantivul: Genul

Genul: Genul masculin: fiintele de gen masculin fenomene cu caracter puernic, de regula negativ

Genul feminin: substantive reprezentand genul feminin Genul neutru: obiecte fara suflet Genul comun: substantive care pot fi atat masculine cat si feminine

Exemple
Genul masculin: boy, man, duke, son, Baron Mr. Death Genul feminin: mother, girl, woman, Baroness (femininul e format citeodata adaugand "ess" la forma de masculin) Genul neutru: pencil, book, umbrella, chair Genul comun: writer, student, reader

Substantivul: Pluralul
La forma de singular este adaugat: 1. "s" : regula generala; 2. "es" : daca singularul substantivelor au terminatia in ch, sh, s, ss, z, x; 3. "ies" : daca singularul are terminatia y si inaintea lui e o consoana; 4. "es" : daca singularul are terminatia o iar substantivul e intrat de mult in folosire; 5. "ves" : majoritatea substantivelor terminate in f sau fe (exceptii: roof/ roofs dwarf/dwarfs);

la substantivele de origine greaca, substantivele terminate in sis, la plural sis e inlocuit de ses.
6.

Exemple
1 1 2 3 inainte de "s" avem o consoana surda (p, t, k, f, th): cats, roofs, boats, books, cups ("-s" se pronunta "s") inainte de "s" avem altceva decat in cazul anterior: balls, days ("-s" se pronunta "z") babies, ladies, factories, spies spy) ("-ies" se pronunta "iz") ideas, boys,

boxes, buses, dashes, prizes ("-es" se pronunta "iz") (from baby, lady, factory,

4 5 6

tomatoes, potatoes, heroes, volcanoes (from tomato, potato, hero, volcano) ("-es" se pronunta "z") wives, elves, loaves, lives, thieves, knives (from wife, elf, loaf, life, thief, knife) ("-ves" se pronunta "vz") analyses, hypotheses, bases (plural from analysis, hypothesis, basis) (la singular "-sis" se pronunta "sis", iar la plural "-ses" se pronunta "siz")

Comentarii
child (copil) - children, man (barbat)-men, woman (femeie) - women, die (zar) - dice, foot (picior) - feet, goose (gasca) - geese, mouse (soarece) - mice, ox (bou) - oxen, tooth (dinte) teeth
1. O serie de substantive au pluralul neregulat:

Substantivul: Articolul
Articolul este partea de vorbire care constituie un mijloc de individualizare a fiintelor, obiectelor si fenomenelor intr-un anumit context. In limba engleza sunt 2 tipuri de articole: 1) articolul hotarat : the 2) articolul nehotarat: an (in fata substantivelor care incep cu o vocala) a (in fata substantivelor care incep cu o consoana) Exceptii: An inainte de un "h" mut: - an hour (o ora), an honor (o onoare). A inainte de "u" sau "eu" atunci cnd se pronunta ca "you": - a European, a university, a unit, a one-way street

Exemple de cazuri in care se folosesc articole hotarate si article nehotarate in limba engleza
-- Articole nehotarate in limba engleza

a book = o carte a boy = un baiat an elephant = un elefant an apple = un mar

-- Articole hotarate in limba engleza the book = cartea the boy = baiatul the elephant = elefantul the apple = marul

Comentarii legate de articolul nehotarat/ hotarat in limba engleza


1. Articolele hotarate fac referire la un anumit obiect (obiectul e specificat). 2. Articolul the este pronuntat diferit in limba engleza in functie de litera cu care incepe substantivul:
- daca substantivul incepe cu o vocala, the se pronunta astfel: the elephant, the apple, the egg - daca substantivul incepe cu o consoana, the se pronunta astfel: the boy, the book, the door

3. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca exista cazuri cand articolul hotarat THE trebuie folosit in mod obligatoriu in limba engleza:
pe langa un substantiv, atunci cand acesta este folosit in sensul sau cel mai general, ca reprezentant al unei clase. In acest caz, articolul hotarat insoteste substantive la numarul singular: Ex: The boy is here. Baiatul este aici. (stim despre care baiat e vorba) pe langa nume proprii, atunci cand in structura acestora intra si un adjectiv: The United States of America, The Thames, The Mediterranean Sea, The University of Bucharest

pe langa denumiri geografice (deoarece sunt unice): The Danube, The Olt, The Sahara, The Carpathians, The Alps

pe langa nume de ziare: The Times, The Guardian. (Numele de reviste nu au de obicei niciun articol: Life, Avantaje). Lista situatiilor in care articolul THE se foloseste sau nu cu numele de tari, munti, insule, etc: se foloseste cu articolul Example THE Countries No France Countries which are in a plural Yes The USA form Countries when limited by time Yes The Spain of today Individual monutains No Mount Everest Mountains in the Bernese Yes The Jungfrau Oberland Mountain chains Yes The Carpati Islands No Sicily Groups of islands Yes The West Indies Rivers Yes The Volga Oceans Yes The Pacific Seas Yes The Mediterranean Gulfs, bays ans straits Yes The gulf of Mexico The bay of Biscay Lakes No Lake Erie Current Yes The Gulf Stream

4. Articolul hotarat (the) sau nehotarat (a, an) este acelasi pentru toate genurile (in limba engleza): a man, a woman, an actor, an actress, a table, the boy,
the girl, the day

5. Articolul a/ an in limba engleza e folosit si cu:


nume predicativ:

It was an earthquake. Shell be a dancer. He is an actor. in anumite expresii de cantitate:

a lot of, a couple, a great many, a great deal of cu anumite numere: a hundred, a thousand, a half-holiday, a half-portion metre in exclamatii: in expresii legate de pret, viteza, etc.: 5p a kilo, 10p a dozen, four times a day, sixty kilometres an hour, 1 a

Such a long queue! What a pretty girl! a poate fi plasat inainte de Mr/Mrs/Miss + nume:

a Mr. Smith inseamna a man called Smith si se intelege ca Mr. Smith ii este strain vorbitorului. Mr. Smith (without a ) inseamna ca vorbitorul il stie pe Mr. Smith sau stie de existenta lui.

6. Articolele a/an/the nu se folosesc in limba engleza


inaintea substantivelor ce nu au plural:

We cant use a/the sugar, a/the milk but a/the can of sugar, a/the bottle of milk. inaintea numelor de mese, cu exceptia celor precedate de un adjectiv: We have breakfast at eight. He gave us a good breakfast. Atentie: A/an has no plural forms. So the plural of a dog is dogs , and of an egg is eggs.

7. Articolul hotarat THE mai este folosit in rmatoarele situatii (in limba engleza):
before inaintea superlativelor, a pronumelor/ adjectivelor first, second etc. si a cuvintului only:

the first (week), the best (day), the only (way) cu forma de plural a unui nume de familie semnificind "familia"

the Smiths = Mr. and Mrs. Smith (and children) = familia Smith cu obiecte unice:

the moon, the sun

Substantivul: Nominativul
Intr-o propozitie substantivul in nominativ este subiectul actiunii.

Exemple
Substantivul in nominativ este in albastru: Mark read a book. The tree has a lot of flowers.
Water freezes at 32F (0C).

Substantivul: Acuzativul
Indica obiectul asupra caruia se rasfrange actiunea intr-un mod direct. Acuzativul este un caz ce exprim complementele direct, indirect i circumstaniale. Intrebarile cu care se identifica: ce? pe cine? unde? de unde? pana unde? de cand? pe cine? pe ce? cu ce? cu cine? de ce? de cine? de la cine? cand? pana cand?

Exemple
Substantivele in acuzativ sunt marcate cu albastru:
Max fixed the car. The girl sells the big box. The girl hugs the boy. I eat the pizza you gave me. The boy gives the book.

Substantivul: Dativul
Indica obiectul asupra caruia se rasfrange actiunea intr-un mod indirect. Identificarea se face cu intrebarea "Cui ?".

Exemple
Substantivele in albastru sunt in cazul Dativ.
1. I have baked Mary a cake. (Am gatit o prajitura pentru Mary. Cui i-am gatit prajitura ?) 2. The king gave his son his kingdom. (Regele i-a dat regatul fiului sau. Cui i-a dat regele regatul sau ?) 3. Give the ball to Mary. (Da-i mingia lui Mary. Cui sa-i dau mingea ?) 4. Give Mary the ball. (Da-i mingia lui Mary. Cui sa-i dau mingea ?)

Comentarii
In cazul verbelor care cer dupa ele un complement direct si unul indirect, dativul se poate construi in 2 feluri (vezi exemplul nr. 3 si nr. 4).

Substantivul: Genitivul
Exprima o posesie (ceva/cineva apartine cuiva)

Exemple
1. Mark's shop (magazinul lui James) 2. John's car (masina lui John) 3. the sailors' boat (barca pescarilor) 4. the chemist's guide (ghidul chimistului) 5. the window of the house (fereastra casei) 6. the firms new project (noul proiect al firmei) 7. the gift of the girl who... (darul fetei care ...)

Comentarii
a) Genitivul (posesia) in limba engleza se formeaza astfel:
cand posesorul este o persoana: prin adaugarea unui 's dupa posesor (obiectul posedat se afla dupa posesor in propozitie). Vezi exemplele nr. 1, 2, 4;

cand posesorii sunt mai multe pesoane: prin adaugarea unui ' (apostrof) dupa posesori (obiectul posedat se afla dupa posesori in propozitie). Vezi exemplul nr.3;

cand posesorul este un lucru: se foloseste constructia cu "of":

obiect posedat + of + posesor (un lucru). Vezi exemplul nr. 5; b) In exemplul nr. 6 ambele forme de genitiv sunt corecte deoarece posesorul este un grup de persoane. Aceeasi regula se aplica pentru posesori precum: government, company, committee, team, party.

c) Daca posesorul e urmat de that, who, etc se foloseste genitivul format cu "of". Vezi exemplul nr. 7.

Substantivul: Genul
Cum se identifica
Genul masculin: fiintele de gen masculin fenomene cu caracter puernic, de regula negativ Genul feminin: substantive reprezentand genul feminin Genul neutru: obiecte fara suflet Genul comun: substantive care pot fi atat masculine cat si feminine

Genul masculin: boy, man, duke, son, Baron Mr. Death Genul feminin: mother, girl, woman, Baroness (femininul e format citeodata adaugand "ess" la forma de masculin) Genul neutru: pencil, book, umbrella, chair Genul comun: writer, student, reader

Adjectivul Calitativ
Cum se identifica
Adjectivele din aceasta categorie sunt adjective care descriu proprietati ale obiectelor ce pot avea grade, nivele, intensitati ale acelei proprietati.

Exemple
big (mare) clever (destept) profound (profund) small (mic) dry (uscat) good (bun) activ (activ) blue (albastru)

Adjectivul Posesiv
Cum se identifica Adjectivele posesive sunt cele care arata o posesie; arata al cui e un obiect (al meu, al tau, etc ...);

Exemple my book (cartea mea) your book (cartea ta, cartea voastra) his book (cartea lui) her book (cartea ei) its book (cartea lui, ei -> pentru lucruri, animale, abstractiuni) our book (cartea noastra) our books (cartile noastre) your books (cartile voastre) their book (cartea lor) their books (cartile lor)

Corespondenta pronumelor posesive cu adjectivele posesive:

Persoana 1st singular 2nd 3rd (female) 3rd (male) 3rd (neuter) 1st plural 3rd plural

Pronumele posesiv mine yours hers his its ours theirs

Adjectivul posesiv my your her his its our their

Adjectivul Demonstrativ
Adjectivul demonstrativ are numai 4 forme:
singular

plural

closer
farther

these this (acestia/ (acesta/ aceasta) acestea)

that (acela/ aceea)

those (aceia/ acelea)

Adjectivul demonstrativ arat deprtarea sau apropierea unui obiect.

Exemple
this house (aceasta casa) that house (acea casa) these houses (aceste case) those houses (acele casa)

Adjectivul Nehotarat
Adjectivul nehotarat este adjectivul care nsoeste substantivul fr s individualizeze obiectul denumit de acesta.

Exemple
There are some Canadians here. We need some water. How much do we need ? There are a few doctors in town. We need some paper. How much do we need ? How many cigarettes do you smoke a day ?

I have enough knowledge to do it.

Comentarii
Cele mai intalnite adjective nehotarate sunt :
Some ("ceva, cativa, cateva", in propozitie afirmativa)/ Any ("ceva, cativa, cateva", in propozitie negativa si interogativa) Much ("mult, multa", pentru substantive care nu se pot numara)/ Many ("multe, multi", pentru substantive care se pot numara)

A lot of ("o multime de") /lots of ("multimi de")

Little ("putin, putine", pentru substantive care nu se pot numara) /Few ("putin, putine", pentru substantive care se pot numara)

Enough ("destul, destule, etc") Plenty of ("o multime de") No (pentru negarea existentei)

Comparatia adjectivelor calitative


Raport de inferioritate
Raportul de inferioritare in limba engleza se formeaza folosind constructiile: NOT SO/AS+ adj. + AS + subst./ pronume LESS + adj. +THAN + subst./ pronume ( mai putin (de) ... decat .... )

THE LEAST + adj. -> se traduce prin cea/ cel mai putin ...

Exemple
It is less cold than it might look. E mai putin rece decat pare. She said it was colder there but less windy than Kansas.

Ea a spus ca vremea a fost mai rece acolo, dar a batut mai putin vantul decat in Kansas. Chinese is the least easy language. Chineza e cea mai putin usoara limba.

Residents say this street is the least noisy in the town. Locuitorii acestei strazi spun ca strada e cea mai putin zgomotoasa in oras. My homework is not as easy as yours. Tema mea nu e la fel de usoara ca a ta. This lesson is less interesting than the previous one. Acest curs e mai putin interesant decat cursul anterior.

It is not so cold as it might look. Nu e chiar asa de rece cum ar parea. She said it was colder there but not so windy as Kansas. Ea a spus ca vremea a fost mai rece acolo, dar nu asa de vantoasa ca in Kansas. Learning Chinese is as difficult as you think. Invatatul Chinezei e chiar asa de dificil cum crezi. Residents say this street is as noisy as it was in the war time. Locuitorii acestei strazi spun ca strada este asa de galagioasa cum a fost in timpul razboiului.

Comparatia adjectivelor calitative


Raport de egalitate & inegaliate
Raportul de egalitate in limba engleza se formeaza folosind constructia: ... as/so ... as ... (... asa de/ la fel de ... ca/cum ...)

Raportul de inegalitate in limba engleza se formeaza folosind constructia:

... not as/so ... as ... (... nu asa de/ nu la fel de ... ca/cum ...) Nota: Aceste moduri de comparatie se numesc si "regulate" deoarece o regula se foloseste in formarea comparatiei.

Exemple
It is not so cold as it might look. Nu e chiar asa de rece cum ar parea. She said it was colder there but not so windy as Kansas. Ea a spus ca vremea a fost mai rece acolo, dar nu asa de vantoasa ca in Kansas. Learning Chinese is as difficult as you think. Invatatul Chinezei e chiar asa de dificil cum crezi. Residents say this street is as noisy as it was in the war time. Locuitorii acestei strazi spun ca strada este asa de galagioasa cum a fost in timpul razboiului.

Comparatia adjectivelor calitative


Raport de superioritate
Pentru adjective monosilabice comparatia se face prin adaugarea de sufixe: big -> bigger -> the biggest (Nota: consoana "g" se dubleaza deoarece are o
vocala in fata)

(mare -> mai mare -> cel mai mare) tall -> taller -> the tallest (inalt -> mai inalt -> cel mai inalt)

Pentru adjective ce au 3 sau mai multe silabe comparatia se face cu "more" si "the most": important -> more important -> the most important (important -> mai important -> cel mai important)

Pentru adjective ce au 2 silabe terminate in comparatia se face cu "more" si "the most":

ED, ING, RE, FUL, OUS

famous -> more famous -> the most famous (faimos -> mai faimos -> cel mai faimos)

Pentru adjective ce au 2 silabe terminate in face prin adaugarea de sufixe:

ER, Y, LE, OW

comparatia se

simple -> simpler -> the simplest (simplu -> mai simplu -> cel mai simplu) Comentariu: Adjective ca cheerful, common, cruel, pleasant, quiet formeaza comparativul de superioritate cu ajutorul lui "more" si "the most"

Comparatia adjectivelor calitative


Comparatia neregulata
Trebuie cunoscuta forma de comparativ si superlativ a adjectivelor. Iata mai jos lista celor mai cunoscute adjectivelor cu comparatia neregulata: Adjectiv Comparativ Superlativ (mai ) (cel mai ) better the best Pronuntie

good (=bun) well (=sanatos) bad (=rau) ill (=bolnav) far (=departe; pt. distanta metaforica, nefizica) far (=departe; pt. distanta fizica)

worse

the worst

further

the furthest

farther

the farthest

old (=in virsta; in familie) old (=vechi, batran; la modul general ) many (=multi, numeric) much (mult, cantitativ) little (=putin, cantitativ)

elder

the eldest

older

the oldest

more

the most

less

the least

Exemple
This is the best way to fix that problem. (Aceasta este cea mai buna modalitate de a rezolva acea problema) This is a better way to fix this problem. (Aceasta este o mai buna modalitate de a rezolva acea problema) This is the worst thing that could happen. (Acesta este cel mai rau lucru care se poate intampla)

Good si/ versus Well - in limba engleza


Folosirea corecta a lui "good" si "well" in limba engleza "good" = adjectiv; Este folosit uneori cu verbe care descriu un substantiv sau pronume (look, sound, taste, be). "well" = adverb. (Exceptie cand are sensul de "healthy"(sanatos) si e folosit ca
adjectiv.)

Exemple
I feel very well. (Ma simt foarte bine. "Well" este adjectiv, avand sensul de "sanatos"; vezi exceptia de mai sus) It looks good. (Arata bine. Obiectul respectiv arata bine. "good" este adjectiv) I run well. (Alerg bine. "bine" este un adverb deci se foloseste "well")

This steak tastes good. (Aceasta friptura are gust bun. "bun" are rol de adjectiv, deci se foloseste "good". ) Tom is well. (Tom se simte bine. "Well" este adjectiv, avand sensul de "sanatos"; vezi exceptia de mai sus) Tom is good. (Tom e bun. "bun" are rol de adjectiv, deci se foloseste "good". )

Bad si/ versus Badly - in limba engleza


Folosirea corecta a lui "bad" si "badly" in limba engleza "bad" = adjectiv; Este folosit uneori cu verbe care descriu un substantiv sau pronume (look, sound, taste, be). "badly" = adverb.

Exemple
I feel bad.

(Ma simt rau.)

It looks bad.

(Arata rau. Obiectul respectiv arata rau. "bad" este adjectiv)


I run badly.

(Alerg rau. "badly" este un adverb)

This steak tastes bad.

(Aceasta friptura are gust rau. "rau" are rol de adjectiv, deci se foloseste "bad". )
This team played badly last week.

(Aceasta echipa a jucat rau saptamina trecuta. foloseste "badly")

"rau" e adverb, deci se

Farther versus/ si further - in limba engleza


Folosirea corecta a lui "farther" si "further" in limba engleza "farther" "further"
in timp.

: e folosit pentru distante fizice. : e folosit pentru a arata distanta/ avansarea in grad (metaforica) sau

Exemple
I run farther than Tom. (on the road) The binoculars are used to see farther. (e vorba de distanta fizica) You must think further. ("a gandi mai departe, mai profund", nu are sens de distanta fizica) AMD has announced further plans to innovate the x86 architecture. ("further plans" semnifica "planuri mai indepartate in timp fata de prezent")

References are given for those who wish to go further in their research. ("to go further" semnifica "a merge mai departe" ) Hubble telescope encounters further problems. ("further problems" semnifica "probleme aditionale, suplimentare")

Littlest si/ versus Least - in limba engleza


Folosirea corecta a lui "littlest" si "least" in limba engleza
Cuvintul "little" are 2 semnificatii : "mic(a) in marime" sau "cantitate mica de". Fiecare semnificatie face comparatia diferit: little ("mic(a) in marime") are urmatoarele forme cand face comparatia: - comparativ : littler sau more little - superlativ : littlest little ("cantitate mica de") are urmatoarele forme cand face comparatia: - comparativ : less - superlativ : the least

Exemple
John was the littlest boy in the class. (baiatul e cel mai mic in marime) (este vorba de o

What is the least amount of money you have spent on a car? cantitate) John has less money than his sister. bani)

(este vorba de o cantitate de

The littlest bird sings the prettiest song. (este vorba de cea mai mica pasare ca marime)

Pronumele in limba engleza Pronumele personal


Cum se identifica
Pronumele personal face referire la o persoana care face actiunea (cazul A) sau asupra careia se rasfrange actiunea (cazul B).

Exemple
I will go to the sea. (cazul A) Tom will tell me something. (cazul B) This idea belongs to him. (cazul B) We will go shopping. (cazul A) I know them. ( "I" = cazul A, "them" = cazul B )

Comentarii
Formele pronumelui personal: Pronumele arata persoana care face actiunea ( Cazul A ) I (eu) You (tu) He (el, pt. fiinte umane) She (ea, pt. fiinte umane) It (el, ea pt. lucruri, animale) We (noi) You (voi) They (ei) Pronumele arata persoana asupra carei se rasfrange actiunea ( Cazul B ) Me (mie) You (tie) Him (lui, pt. fiinte umane) Her (ei, pt. fiinte umane) It (lui, ei, pt. lucruri, animale) Us (noua) You (voua) Them (lor)

Pronumele impersonal

Cum se identifica
Este un pronume care nu face referire la cineva anume. Afirmatiile/ negatiile/ intrebarile sunt facute la modul general.

Exemple
You can't always do what you want. People can't always do what they want. We can't always do what we want. One can't always do what one wants.
Nota: Toate propozitiile se traduc la fel: "Nu se poate ca totdeauna sa faci ce doresti".

Comentarii
Cel mai folosit pronume impersonal este "one". Cu aceeasi semnificatie se mai foloseste: you, we, people. Pentru a avea forma impersonala verbul folosit cu "one" este la pers. a 3-a singular: one says = se zice, one tells = se povesteste, one learns = se invata, one sings = se canta, etc.

Pronumele interogativ
Cum se identifica
Pronumele interogativ este un pronume folosit in constructiile interogative (Atentie: pronumele este partea de vorbire flexibila care tine locul unui substantiv).

Principalele pronume interogative din limba engleza sunt:

Cazul N Ac D G

Referire se face la o persoana who ? = care, cine ? whom ? = pe care ? to whom = caruia, careia ? whose ? = al, a, ale, (...) careia, caruia, (...) ?

Referire se face la un lucru, actiune which ? = care ? which ? = care, pe care ? to which ? = caruia, careia ? whose ? = al, a, ale, (...) careia, caruia, (...) ?

Pronumele nehotarat
Cum se identifica
Un pronume nehotarat face referire la ceva ce nu e definit, specific sau exact. Pronumele nehotarate cele mai utilizate sunt: any, all, anybody, anyone, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, some, somebody, someone.

Exemple
All are welcome to attend the course. Do you have some ? No, I don't have any. Somebody will take the pie. Has anybody seen that movie ? Some get it and some just refuse to open their eyes !

Comentarii
Pronume nehotarat Traducere toti unii someone cineva Variante Traducere

all some

any

oricare

every each

fiecare fiecare (in parte)

somebody something somewhere anyone anybody anything anywhere everyone everybody everything everywhere

cineva ceva undeva cineva cineva ceva undeva fiecare toata lumea totul peste tot

Formele lui "some" se folosesc la afirmativ, iar formele lui "any" la negativ si interogativ.

Any poate fi folosit si in propozitiile afirmative atunci cand are sensul de oricare, orice: Ex: Any of you could answer this question. Mai exista un pronume nehotarat, cu forma afirmativa si una negativa: Either (afirmativ) = fiecare Neither (negativ) = niciunul

Se folosesc atunci cand e vorba doar de doua persoane si sunt utilizate mai ales in propozitiile interogative si negative: Ex: Have you seen either of them? L-ai vazut pe vreunul dintre ei (doi)? In propozitiile afirmative, either are sensul de oricine, oricare: Ex: Either of you can do it. Oricare dintre voi (doi) poate face acest lucru.

Pronumele reflexiv si de intarire


Cum se identifica
Aceste tipuri de pronume se folosesc in propozitii in care referirea la subiect se

face de 2 ori. (A doua oara se foloseste acest pronume reflexiv si/sau de intarire).

Formele pronumelui reflexiv (si/sau de intarire) sunt:


Pronume personal I you (singular) you (plural) he she it we they Pronume reflexiv/ de intarire myself yourself yourselves himself herself itself ourselves themselves

Exemple
I hurt myself. (M-am ranit singur.) I'll do it myself. (O voi face eu.) She did it by herself. (Ea a facut-o singura.) He did it by himself. (El a facut-o singur.)

Comentarii
Pronumele de intarire (reflexiv) se foloseste de regula in 3 cazuri: Cand subiectul si obiectul asupra caruia se rasfrange actiunea e acelasi (I hurt myself. ); Cand se doreste intarirea faptului ca un anume subiect a facut actiunea si nu altul (She did it by herself.); Se foloseste o prepozitie in fata unui pronume care face referire la subiect (I am talking to myself.).

Pronumele relativ

Cum se identifica
Pronumele relativ se refera la un substantiv mentionat anterior, caruia ii adauga informatii suplimentare.

Principalele pronume relative din limba engleza sunt:


Cazul N Ac D G Referire se face la o persoana who = care, cine whom = pe care to whom = caruia, careia whose = al, a, ale, (...) careia, caruia, (...) Referire se face la un lucru, actiune which = care which = care, pe care to which = caruia, careia whose = al, a, ale, (...) careia, caruia, (...)

who, whom, to whom, whose which, which, to which, whose

Exemple
I'm talking about the car which is parked over there. I talked to the girl whose car is red. This is the girl who comes from Halifax. I wrote this book for people who like history. I have written a lot about this place to which we belong.

Comentarii
1) Pronumele relativ in Ac. poate fi inlocuit cu that. 2) Pronumele relative who, which, that se omit in propozitiile restrictive (in limba vorbita) cand se gasesc in cazul acuzativ. Ex: The girl (who) you have just met is my niece. The magazine (that) you lent me is very interesting.

Pronumele posesiv
Cum se identifica
Aceste tipuri de pronume se folosesc in propozitii in care se doreste identificarea unui obiect prin referirea la posesor.

Formele pronumelui posesiv sunt:


Pronume personal I you (singular) you (plural) he she it we they Pronume posesiv mine (al meu) yours (al tau) yours (al vostru) his (al lui) hers (a ei) its - is, however, rarely used ours (ale noastre) theirs (al lor)

Exemple
John has a red car. Mine is green.
That is your book. This is hers. That computer is his. This book is not mine. This book is yours.

Comentarii
Cand relatia de posesie e aratata impreuna cu obiectul posedat, aveam de-a face cu un adjectiv posesiv.

Numeralul in limba engleza Numeralul cardinal


Cum se identifica
Numeralul cardinal este partea de vorbire care exprima un numar de obiecte, persoane (numeralul cardinal).

Exemple
1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 one hundred 350 three hundred and fifty 500 five hundred 1,000 one thousand 2,652 two thousand six hundred and fifty-two 5,000 five thousand 1,000,000 one million 2,000,000 two million

Comentarii

intre numeralul zecilor si cel al unitatilor se foloseste cratima; punctul se foloseste pentru a marca zecimalele : (Ex: 3.10); Cand sunt folosite la singular, numeralele hundred, thousand si million

sunt intotdeauna precedate de articolul nehotarat sau de un numeral: 100 one/ a hundred books 141 a hundred and forty- one 1200 a thousand and two hundred 1500000 a million and five hundred-thousand Cand sunt precedate de numarul unitatilor si acesta este mai mare decat 1, numeralele hundred si thousand nu primesc "-s" la plural: 300 three hundred 5000 five thousand Atentie! Aceste numerale primesc terminatia "-s" cand sunt folosite: a) ca substantive: Thousands have read this book. Mii au citit aceasta carte. b) cand sunt urmate de prepozitia OF: The number of young people studying in our schools amounts to hundreds OF thousands. Numarul de tineri ce studiaza in scolile noastre se ridica la sute de mii.

inaintea zecilor este obligatorie conjunctia "and".

Numeralul ordinal
Cum se identifica
Arata ordinea; locul pe care se afla un obiect, o actiune, un eveniment, etc dintr-o multitudine de obiecte, evenimente, etc.

Exemple
Numeral Cardinal 1 2 3 4 Numeral Ordinal ( forma I ) the1st the 2nd the 3rd the 4th Numeral Ordinal ( forma II ) the first the second the third the fourth

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 30 100 1000

the 5th the 6th the 7th the 8th the 9th the 10th the 11th the 12th the 13th the 14th the 15th the 16th the 17th the 18th the 19th the 20th the 21st the 30th the 100th the 1000th

the fifth the sixth the seventh the eighth the ninth the tenth the eleventh the twelfth the thirteenth the fourteenth the fifteenth the sixteenth the seventeenth the eighteenth the nineteenth the twentieth the twenty-first the thirtieth the hundredth the thousandth

Comentarii
Numeralul ordinal se formeaza prin adaugarea sufixului "th" la numeralul cardinal. Exceptii: 1) one ---> first (1st) 2) two ---> second (2nd) 3) three ---> third (3rd) 4) la five si nine ---> se suprima -e final: fifth (5th) si ninth (9th) 5) in cazul zecile la care -y final se transforma in -ie: forty ---> fortieth (40th) Observatii: 1. La numeralele compuse, numai ultimul numar primeste "th": 27: the twenty-seventh 236: the two hundred and thirty-sixth

2. In engleza, numeralul ordinal se foloseste si la exprimarea datei: April 25th the 25th of April In exprimarea datei, numeralul ordinal poate fi asezat inainte sau dupa numele lunii. Daca numeralul ordinal precede denumirea lunii, acesta este urmat de of: I was born on the 25th of April 1986. Daca numeralul ordinal este asezat dupa denumirea lunii, of este omis: I was born on April (the) 25th.

Numeralul multiplicativ
Cum se identifica
Arata de cite ori se repeta o actiune, eveniment, etc.

Exemple
once = o data twice = de doua ori three times = de trei ori four times = de patru ori five times = de cinci ori ten times = de zece ori

fifty times = de cincizeci de ori sixty times = de saizeci de ori a hundred times = de o suta de ori a thousand times = de o mie de ori

Comentarii
Tot cu sensul de multiplicare se mai folosesc: double = twofold triple = threefold fourfold = impatrit ( dublu ) ( triplu )

Numeralul iterativ
Cum se identifica
Arata pentru a cata ora ceva s-a intamplat (se intampla, se va intampla).

Exemple
(for) the first time (for) the second time (for) the third time (for) the fourth time (for) the fifth time (for) the sixth time (for) the seventh time

(for) the eighth time (for) the ninth time (for) the tenth time (for) the eleventh time (for) the twelfth time (for) the thirteenth time (for) the fourteenth time (for) the sixteenth time (for) the eighteenth time (for) the nineteenth time (for) the twentieth time (for) the twenty-first time (for) the thirtieth time

Numeralul adverbial
Cum se identifica

Arata "in al catelea rand" se doreste sa se precizeze, sublinieze ceva.

Exemple
first(ly) = in primul rand

second(ly) = in al 2-lea rand third(ly) = in al 3-lea rand

fourth(ly) = in al 4-lea rand fifth(ly) sixth(ly) = in al 5-lea rand = in al 6-lea rand

Numeralul distributiv
Cum se identifica
Numeralul distributiv exprima gruparea, repartizarea obiectelor (distributia).

Exemple
one at a time = cate unul o data one by one = unul cate unul two at a time = cate doi o data two by two = doi cate doi every other minute = din doua in doua minute every other hour = din doua in doua ore = la fiecare doua ore every three hours = din trei in trei ore = la trei ore o data

every six hours = din sase in sase ore = la interval de sase ore

Numeralul nehotarat
Cum se identifica
Face referire la un numar indefinit de obiecte.

Exemple
a number of (un numar de) a lot of (o multime de) lots of, many (multi, multe) tens of (zeci de) hundreds of (sute de) many (multi) several (cativa)

VERBUL Diateza activa a verbelor


Cum se identifica
Subiectul gramatical face actiunea exprimata de verb. Actiunea se rasfrange asupra altui lucru.

Exemple
I have seen a tree.

Subiectul (cel care face actiunea) = eu ("I") Actiunea "se rasfrange" asupra copacului ("tree"). Yesterday, he broke his bicycle. Subiectul (cel care face actiunea) = el ("he") Actiunea "se rasfrange" asupra bicicletei sale ("his bicycle").

Diateza pasiva a verbelor


Cum se identifica
Actiune este realizata de subiectul logic ( complementul de agent ).

Exemple
I have seen a tree. (diateza activa). The tree has been seen by me. (diateza pasiva). Yesterday, he broke his bicycle. (diateza activa). Yesterday, his bicycle was broken by him. (diateza pasiva). I will buy a car. (diateza activa). The car will be bought by me. (diateza pasiva).

Diateza reflexiva a verbelor


Cum se identifica
La diateza reflexiv aciunea este realizat i suportat de subiect. Diateza reflexiva se foloseste cu verbe reflexive.

Exemple
Mary washes herself. Maria s-a spalat.

Jen and Greg kiss each other. Jen si Greg se saruta. He shaved himself. El s-a barbierit.

Comentarii
Verbe care au forma reflexiva: to shower, to wash, to shave, to hurry, to rest, to sit down, kiss.

Timpurile verbelor la modul indicativ in engleza


TRECUTUL/ PAST - in limba engleza

Trecutul Simplu
(The Simple Past Tense)
Cum se formeaza
Acest timp desemneaza o actiune care a avut loc in trecut, dar care este amintita in momentul prezent.

a) VERB+ed --> pentru verbele regulate. b) forma a 2-a a verbelor neregulate --> pentru verbele neregulate.
Observatii: 1) consoana finala a formei de infinitive se dubleaza cand vocala care o precede este scurta si accentuate: stop -> stopped prefer -> preferred 2) verbele terminate in y precedat de consoana il schimba in i: study -> studied 3) verbele terminate in e adauga doar d: move -> moved

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. actiunea e in trecut; timpul e definit cu exactitate (last week, last month, last year, that day, that week, that year, in 1990, on Thursday, 10 years ago)

I visited London 10 years ago.


(Am vizitat Londra acum 10 ani.) 2. pentru o actiune care era o obistuinta in trecut (acum nu mai e)

We went to the Black See every year.


(acum nu mai mergem in fiecare an la Marea Neagra) (Am mers la Marea Neagra in fiecare an. /Obisnuiam sa mergem la Marea Neagra in fiecare an)

3. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Present Conditional (Unreal)" Where would you stay if you went to Bucharest? (Unde ai sta daca ai merge la Bucuresti?) Tom would help me with my homework if he had time. (Tom m-ar ajuta cu temele daca ar avea timp.) 4. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Future-in-the-Past" (cand actiunile viitoare fata de actiunea trecuta sunt simultane) He promised me that we would go to Italy when he had time. (when arata simultaneitatea) (Mi-a promis ca vom merge in Italia cand va avea timp.)

Trecutul (Simplu) Continuu


(The Past Tense Continuous)
Cum se formeaza
was/were + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. pentru a exprima o actiune in progres la un anumit moment din trecut

I remember that yesterday at 5 Pm I was watching TV.


(Imi amintesc ca ieri la ora 5 pm, ma uitam la Tv.) 2. pentru a arata ca o actiune trecuta a fost intrerupta de o alta

I was playing a computer game when she called.


(Ma jucam pe calculator cand ea a sunat.)

While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.


(In timp ce eram la picnic, a inceput sa ploua.) 3. folosind "Past Continuous Tense" pentru actiuni trecute sublinieaza ideea de paralelism, simultaneitate (se cunoaste timpul)

Last evening at 5 Pm, I was studying while he was making dinner.


(Seara trecuta, la ora 5 pm, eu invatam in timp ce el pregatea cina.) 4. pentru a exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiuni care se repetau in trecut

He was constantly/ always coming late to the English class.


(Intotdeauna venea tarziu la ora de engleza.) 5. pentru a exprima conditionalul prezent ireal continuu

What would you say if the boy were studying now ? (Discutie
intre parinti cand se pregatesc sa intre in camera copiilor. Ei nu se asteapta ca baiatul lor sa invete acum.) (Ce ai spune daca baiatul ar invata acum?)

Trecutul Perfect
(The Past Perfect Tense)
Cum se formeaza
had + past participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. exprima o actiune anterioara altei actiuni din trecut sau anterioara unui moment din trecut

The little boy said that he had seen a flying saucer in the

garden.
(Baietelul a spus ca vazuse o farfurie zburatoare in gradina.)

The little spoke as if he had seen a flying saucer.


(Micutul a vorbit ca si cum vazuse o farfurie zburatoare.) 2. in constructiile care folosesc Conditional in Trecut (Ireal)

Tom would have helped me with my homework if he had had time.


(situatie ipotetica in trecut) (Tom m-ar fi ajutat cu temele daca ar fi avut timp.) Pentru a recapitula Conditional in Trecut (Ireal) dati click aici.

3. pot exprima o dorinta nerealizata

I wish I hadn't missed the buss.


(Imi doresc sa nu fi pierdut autobuzul.)

I wished I hadn't missed the buss.


(Mi-as fi dorit sa nu fi pierdut autobuzul.) 4. exprima o actiune anterioara unei actiuni a carui timp e "Future-in-the-Past"

Tom said that he would go to England after he had learned English a little bit.
(Tom a spus ca va merge in Anglia, dupa ce va invata putina engleza.)

Trecutul Perfect Continuu


(The Past Perfect Continuous Tense)
Cum se formeaza
had been + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. exprima o actiune continua inainte unei actiuni situate in trecut

They had been talking for over two hours before Tom arrived.
(Ei vorbeau de peste doua ore, cand Tom a ajuns.) Aceeasi situatie poate fi prezenta si in vorbirea indirecta:

John said that he had been watching TV at 9 o'clock.


(John a spus ca se uitase la TV la ora 9. )

PREZENTUL/ PRESENT - in limba engleza

Gramatica limbii engleze Prezentul Simplu


(Simple Present Tense)
Cum se formeaza
VERB + s/es (pentru persoana a 3-a singular)

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. pentru a exprima adevaruri general valabile (nu poti sa le schimbi in viitor) The sun rises in the East and sets in West. (Soarele rasare in Est si apune in Vest.) The water boils at 100 degrees C. (Apa fierbe la 100 C.) 2. pentru a exprima actiuni care se repeta in mod regulat (sau nu se repeta deloc si devin general valabile) I drink a tea every day. (Beau ceai in fiecare zi.) I never drink tea. (Nu beau ceai niciodata.) In acest caz repetarea actiunii se "marcheaza" prin: every day/ month/ week/ year,

occasionally, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, twice a week. 3. in vorbirea directa pentru a marca ce a spus cineva John says: "I speak French". (John spune: Vorbesc Franceza.) 4. pentru a exprima actiuni planificate in viitor The match starts at 2pm on Sunday. (Meciul incepe la ora 2 pm, duminica.) 5. in modul conditional (Conditional Prezent Real) Tom helps me with my homework when he has time. (Tom ma ajuta cu temele cand are timp.)

6. cateodata cand se povesteste o intamplare (de regula se folosesc si expresii, cuvinte care sa accentueze surprinderea, sau rapiditatea cu care se intampla o alta actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de baza) I went into the house and suddenly I see a misterious map. (Am intrat in casa si dintr-o data am vazut o harta misterioasa.) I went into the house = actiunea de baza (suddenly) I see a misterious map = actiune paralela sau imediat urmatoare actiunii de baza care accentueaza surprinderea

Comentarii
a) "-es" se adauga la persoana a 3-a singular pentru verbele care se termina in s, z, sh, ch, consoana+y b) Din punct de vedere al formei, prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul, la toate persoanele singular si plural, cu exceptia persoanei a III- a singular, care se adauga (e) s.

Gramatica limbii engleze Prezentul (Simplu) Continuu


(Present Tense Continuous)
Cum se formeaza

am/is/are + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (are loc chiar acum) I am just writing my exercise. (Tocmai imi scriu exercitiul.) I am writing my exercise now. (Imi scriu exercitiul acum.) In acest caz, de regula, in propozitie intalnim cuvinte (care sa intareasca aceasta idee) precum: just, now. 2. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (dar care se va termina in viitorul mai departat) I am studying French. (Studiez franceza.) Cand fac afirmatia poate ca nu studiez franceza (la acea ora), insa aceasta actiune/ activitate e inceputa in trecut si va continua si in viitor. In acest caz nu se folosesc cuvinte de subliniere a prezentului precum just, now.

3. pentru a exprima planuri in viitorul apropiat (are nuanta subiectiva; Prezentul Simplu in acest caz nu are nuanta subiectiva) What are you doing tomorrow ? (Ce faci maine?) In acest caz frecvent se folosesc verbe de miscare precum to come, to arrive, to go, to leave: My friend is leaving tomorrow. (Prietenul meu pleaca maine.) 4. pentru o actiune care se repeta regulat, frecvent I am constantly thanking God for the opportunities that He has given me in my life. (nu exprima iritarea) (Ii multumesc lui Dumnezeu in permanenta, pentru oportunitatile pe care mi le-a dat in viata.) De regula exprima iritarea vis-a-vis de actiune: He is continually making noise. (El face galagie in permanenta.) Repetarea se exprima folosind adverbe precum: always, constantly, continually, often.

Comentarii

Exista verbe care nu au forma continua. Dati click aici pentru a vedea lista verbelor care nu au forma continua.

Prezentul Perfect
(The Present Perfect Tense)
Cum se formeaza
has/have + past participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. pentru o actiune trecuta cand nu se precizeaza timpul exact (dar se stie ca e in trecut) I have seen that movie 10 times. (Am vazut acel film de 10 ori.) Yes, I have seen that movie. (Da, am vazut acel film.) Uneori se pot folosi adverbe de frecventa sau de timp care nu precizeaza timpul cu exactitate (ever, never, often, seldom, always, sometimes): I have never seen him. (Nu l-am vazut niciodata.) 2. actiunea din trecut are repercursiuni in prezent

I have seen an interesting museum.


(Am vazut un muzeu interesant.) ... in prezent imi amintesc bine acel muzeu.

A terrible accident has happened.

(Un accident teribil a avut loc.) ... inca sunt afectat de acel lucru.

3. actiunea e terminata in trecutul apropiat. It has just rained. (Tocmai a plouat.) In general, propozitiile contin adverbe precum just, recently, lately,

latterly, till now, up to now, so far, up to the present, last week.


4. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE I have been at home since 5Pm. (Sunt acasa de la ora 5 pm.)

I have been at home for 2 hours. (Sunt acasa de 2 ore.)


SINCE: specifica de la ce data/ ora. FOR: specifica perioada In cazul in care actiunea/ activitatea e facuta fara intrerupere sau se doreste accentuarea ei se va folosi The Present Perfect Continuous 5. in propozitiile care se folosesc adverbele YET (=INCA) si ALREADY (=DEJA)

Have you learned Polish curses already ?


(Ai invatat deja cursurile in poloneza? )

I have already learned the Polish curses.


(Am invatat dj cursurile in poloneza.)

I have not learned the Polish curses yet.


(Inca nu am invatat cursurile in poloneza.) 6. cand actiunea trecuta s-a desfasurat intr-o perioada care a inceput in trecut dar care nu s-a terminat I have eaten a good cake this morning. (este ora 9 am si dimineata nu s-a terminat) (Am mancat o prajitura buna in aceasta dimineata.) In acest caz se folosesc constructii ca: this week, this day, this year, this month, all day, all night, today, etc.

Prezentul Perfect Continuu


(Present Perfect Continuous Tense)
Cum se formeaza
has/have + been + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua (FARA INTRERUPERE) in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE

I have been working for 2 hours. (Lucrez de 2 ore.)


dar,

I have worked in this factory for two years. (inca mai lucrez, dar la
modul general; acum poate ca sunt acasa si ma uit la TV) (Lucrez in aceasta fabrica de 2 ani.)

2. actiunea tocmai s-a terminat (si dorim sa subliniem asta)

I have been reading all afternoon. Ive just finished the novel.
(Am citit toata dupa-masa. Tocmai am terminat de citit romanul.)

Comentarii
Atentie la verbele care nu au forma continua !

VIITORUL/ FUTURE - in limba engleza

Viitorul Simplu
(Simple Future Tense)
Cum se formeaza
will + verb

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

Viitorul simplu se foloseste in propozitiile simple si in cele subordonate care incep cu verbe ce exprima promisiunea, actiuni neplanificate, predictii. In aceste cazuri, de regula, in propozitia principala avem verbe precum: think, assume, expect, hope, doubt, belive, suppose, be sorry, wonder, be sure pentru a exprima opinii/ optiuni personale despre o actiune viitoare.

I suppose I will be there.


(Presupun ca voi fi acolo.)

(predictia)

I will be there at 7 o'clock. (promisiunea)


(Voi fi acolo la ora 7.)

Comentarii
1) Pentru actiunile planificate in viitor nu se foloseste viitorul simplu ci "TO BE GOING TO" sau Simple Present Continuous !

Daca actiunea e planificata in decursula a 1-7 zile sau e vorba de o activitate repetitiva in viitor de regula se foloseste viitorul format cu "to be going to":

I am going to see that movie on Friday. "am going to" are sensul de "planific sa"
(Imi planific/ Intentionez sa merg vineri la acel film.) Daca actiunea e planificata mult mai tarziu (in viitor) de regula se foloseste prezentul simplu continuu:

Mike is moving to New York next month.


(Mike se muta la New York luna viitoare.)

Nota: viitorul format cu "to be going to" are nuanta de viitor apropiat; cel format cu prezentul simplu continuu nu are nici o nuanta de acest fel.

2) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile introduse cu after,while, when, before, as soon as, by the
time, if nu vom avea viitor !

Viitorul Continuu
(Future Continuous Tense)
Cum se formeaza

will be + present participle

am/is/are + going to be + present participle (pentru "to be going to")

Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. la un anumit timp in viitor actiunea e in desfasurare (incepuse inainte de acel moment/ timp)

Tonight at 7 o'clock, Tom will be watching TV. (Acum e1 Pm si


Tom va incepe sa se uite la TV la 6:30 Pm) (Deseara la ora 7, Tom se va uita la TV. ... deja se uita de ceva vreme) 2. o actiune viitoare se va intinde pe toata durata viitoare

Ann will be writing letters all day long.


(Ann va scrie scrisori toata ziua.)

Comentarii
1) O varianta a cazului 1 de folosire a lui "Future Continuous Tense" este cand se vrea sa se sublinieze faptul ca in viitor doua sau mai multe actiuni vor avea loc simultan:

Tonight, they will be watching TV, discussing their vacation plans, and having a good time.
(Deseara, ei se vor uita la TV, isi vor discuta planurile de vacanta si vor petrece o seara minunata.) 2) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile introduse cu after,while, when, before, as soon as, by the time, if nu vom avea viitor !

I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.


(Ma voi uita la TV cand ea va sosi deseara.)

Viitorul Perfect
(Future Perfect Tense)
Cum se formeaza

will have + past participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui eveniment viitor

Jerry will have worked for this company for 20 years when he retires.
(Jerry va fi lucrat 20 de ani pentru aceasta companie, in momentul cand se va pensiona.)

Comentarii
1) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile introduse cu after,while, when, before, as soon as, by the
time, if nu vom avea viitor ! 2) "Future Perfect Tense" e folosit in constructii de genul "By next January/ month/ week"

By next January, I will have received my reward.


(Pana in ianuarie viitor , imi voi fi primit premiul.)

Viitorul Perfect Continuu


(Future Perfect Continuous)
Cum se formeaza
will have been + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care incep si NU se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui eveniment viitor

Jerry will have been working for this company for 20 years when she retires.
(Jerry va fi lucrat 20 de ani pentru aceasta companie ( si va continua sa lucreze) in momentul cand ea se va pensiona.)

Comentarii
1) In propozitiile de timp nu se foloseste viitorul ! Astfel, in propozitiile introduse cu after,while, when, before, as soon as, by the
time, if nu vom avea viitor ! 2) "Future Perfect Tense" e folosit in constructii de genul "By next January/ month/ week"

By next January, I will have been learning a lot of things related to this subject.
(Pana in ianuarie viitor, voi fi invatat o multime de lucruri legat de acest subiect. ... si voi continua sa invat. )

"Viitorul in Trecut"
(The Future-in-the-Past)
Cum se formeaza
would + VERB or was/ were going to + VERB (pentru actiuni planificate)

Exemple
1. exprima o actiune viitoare unei actiuni trecute He promised me that we would go to Italy when he had time. (when arata simultaneitatea) (El mi-a promis ca vom merge in Italia cand va avea timp.)

Tom said that he would go to England after he had learned English a little bit. (after arata anterioritatea)

(Tom a spus ca va merge in Anglia, dupa ce va invata putina engleza.)

Comentarii
Propozitiile (de timp) care incep cu before, when, while, after, as soon as, by the time, if, unless nu au verbul la viitor.

Lista verbelor neregulate in limba engleza - Gramatica limbii engleze Cum se identifica verbele neregulate in engleza
Sunt verbe care nu formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea lui "ed" la sfarsitul formei de infinitiv. Practic aceste verbe neregulate trebuiesc invatate ca atare.

Lista principalelor verbe neregulate in engleza

Infinitiv
-forma 1-

Trecut
-forma 2-

Participiu Traducere trecut verb


-forma 3-

to abide

abode

abode

a astepta, a sta, a locui a se ridica a se trezi a fi a se naste a bate a deveni a icepe a zari, a vedea a indoi, a curba a implora a se naste a paria

to arise to awake to be to bear to beat to become to begin to behold

arose awoke awaked was, were bore beat became began beheld

arisen awoken awaked been born beaten become begun beheld

to bend

bent

bent

to beseech besought to bear to bet bore bet

besought born bet

to bid

bade

bidden

a oferi, a licita a lega a musca a sangera a binecu vanta a sufla a sparge a creste a aduce a transmite prin radio a arde

to bind to bite to bleed to bless

bound bit bled blest

bound bitten bled blest

to blow to break to breed to bring

blew broke bred brought

blown broken bred brought

to broadcast broadcast broad cast to burn burnt (burn ed) burst bought could burnt (burn ed) burst bought been able to cast caught

to burst to buy to can

a izbucni a cumpara a putea

to cast to catch

cast caught

a arunca a prinde

Pronuntia lui '-ed' la sfarsitul verbului


Pronuntia lui '-ed' la sfarsitul verbului

Pronunarea i ortografierea terminaiei -ed este n funcie de terminaia infinitivului. -ed se pronun: a) [d] cnd verbele se termin n vocal sau consoan sonor [b,g,l,m,n,v,z,dz,_dj_]: play - played [pleid]; arrived [__raivd]; b) [t] cnd verbele se termin n consoan surd [f,k,p,s,sh,ch,__,t__] like liked [laikt], cross - crossed [kr_o_st]; c) [id] cnd verbele se termin n -t sau -d: want - wanted [w_o_ntid]; nod nodded [n_o_did]. Particulariti ortografice ale terminaiei -ed: Consoana final a formei de infinitiv se dubleaz cnd vocala care o precede este scurt i accentuat: stop - stopped; prefer - preferred Consoana final se dubleaz la cteva verbe, dei silaba final nu este accentuat: kidnap - kidnapped; handicap - handicapped; worship - worshipped; iar la verbe terminate n ic, =c se dubleaz n ck: picnic - picnicked. n engleza britanic, verbele terminate n -l dubleaz aceast consoan, indiferent de accent: control - controlled; travel - travelled

Verbe care nu au forma continua in limba engleza


1. Verbele de perceptie
to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to taste
ex: I see a red car. TOTUSI, daca actiunea e una voluntara, una constienta se

poate folosi aspectul continuu: What are you seeing ? (se presupune ca persoana care vede ceva realizeaza o actiune voluntara; de exemplu: se uita cu binoclu, s-a urcat pe ceva sa vada mai departe, etc) DEASEMENEA, daca sensul verbului nu mai este cel de baza, iar se poate folosi forma continua: I am seeing my dentist on Wednesday. (sensul nu mai e de a vedea ci de a fi consultat, de a se duce la)

2. Verbele care exprima activitati mentale

to agree, to believe, to distrust, to imagine, to doubt, to remember, to understand, to suppose, to recognize, to forget, to think, to mean
NOTA: Daca se foloseste forma continua apare o modificare de sens: I am thinking. (nu se spune si ce gandesc.)

3. Verbe care exprima dorinta


to wish, to want, to intend, to desire
ex: I wish to go there.

4. Verbe care exprima sentimente, atitudini, trairi emotionale


to love, to like, to dislike, to detest, to prefer, to abhor, to adore, to hate
ex.: I like it.

5. verbele modale
can, may, must, ought to

ex.: I can do it.

6. Verbe care exprima posesia


to posses, to owe, to belong to, to own, to keep, to hold
ex.: I keep it for me.

7. Alte verbe care nu pot avea forma continua


to expect, to suffice, to differ, to appear, to contain, to deserve
ex.: This movie appears to be interesting.

Gramatica limbii engleze Conditional in Prezent (Real)


(Present Real Conditional)
Cum se formeaza
If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Present ...

Exemple
When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach. general valabila: e valabila in prezent) Tom helps me with my homework when he has time. general valabila: e valabila in prezent) (situatie

(situatie

If the weather is nice, I walk to my office. (situatie general valabila: e valabila in prezent) Where do you stay if you go to Bucharest? (situatie general valabila: e

valabila in prezent)

Comentarii
1) "Present Real Conditional" se foloseste pentru a vorbi despre situatii care apar in mod normal in viata de zi cu zi; sint situatii generale si care se repeta frecvent sau sunt sigure (sunt reale si nu fictive); 2) If e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai putin frecvente; When e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai frecvente.

Conditional in Prezent (Ireal)


( Present Unreal Conditional )
Cum se formeaza
If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...

Exemple
What would you do if you won the lottery? (situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul) Where would you stay if you went to Bucharest? (situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul; calatoria la Bucuresti in acest caz nu e reala) If the weather were nice, I would walk to my office. (situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul; vremea nu e frumoasa) Tom would help me with my homework if he had time. (situatie ipotetica ce vizeaza prezentul/ viitorul; Tom nu are timp deci nu ma ajuta, dar daca ar avea timp m-ar ajuta)

Comentarii
1) "Present Unreal Conditional" se foloseste pentru a vorbi despre situatii ipotetice.

Conditional in Trecut (Real)


(Past Real Conditional)
Cum se formeaza
If / When ... Simple Past ..., ... Simple Past ...

Exemple
Tom helped me with my homework when he had time. (situatie general valabila in trecut) If the weather were nice, I walked to my office. (situatie general valabila in trecut) When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. (situatie general valabila in trecut)

Comentarii
1) "Past Real Conditional" face referire la un obicei trecut (nu mai e valabil in prezent).

2) If e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai putin frecvente; When e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai frecvente.

Conditional in Trecut (Ireal)

(Past Unreal Conditional)


Cum se identifica
If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle ...

Exemple
Tom would have helped me with my homework if he had had time. (situatie ipotetica in trecut) If the weather had been nice, I would have walked to my office. (situatie ipotetica in trecut) If I had had a day off from work, I would have gone to the beach. (situatie ipotetica in trecut)

Comentarii
1) "Past Real Conditional" face referire la o situatie trecuta ipotetica.

2) Pentru situatiile imaginare (ireale) nu se foloseste "when" deoarece se considera ca actiunea/ evenimentul nu a avut loc.

Conditional in Viitor (Real)


(Future Real Conditional)
Cum se formeaza
If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Future ...

Exemple

If the weather is nice, I will walk to my office. (valabila pentru o situatie particulara in viitor) Tom will help me with my homework when he has time. pentru o situatie particulara in viitor) (valabila

Comentarii
1) "Future Real Conditional" se foloseste pentru a spune ce se va face intr-o situatie particulara viitoare.
If the weather is nice, I walk to my office. (situatie generala) vezi

"Present Real Conditional"


If the weather is nice, I will walk to my office. (situatie particulara) Diferenta dintre cele 2 mesaje e foarte mica, practic insesizabila in vorbirea curenta.

2) If e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai putin frecvente; When e folosit in cazul actiunilor mai frecvente.

Conditional in Viitor (Ireal)


(Future Unreal Conditional)
Cum se formeaza
Forma 1 If ... were + present participle ..., ... would be + present participle ... (Cu aceeasi semnificatie se poate folosi Present Unreal Conditional (Forma 2); aceasta forma e preferata formei de Present Unreal Conditional)

Forma 3 If ... were going to + verb ..., ... would be + present participle ... (Se traduce cu "Daca se va intampla sa/ ca sa ..." (se pune accentul pe predictie) ... dar stiu ca nu se va intampla)

Exemple

Tom would be helping me with my homework if he were having time. ( Tom ma va ajuta cu lectiile, daca va avea timp. (dar stiu ca nu va avea) Tom would be helping me with my homework if he were going to have time. ( Tom ma va ajuta cu lectiile, daca se va intampla sa aibe timp. (dar stiu ca nu va avea)

Comentarii
1) "Future Unreal Conditional" face referinta la o situatie imaginara (nu e rela) in viitor. 2) Pentru situatiile imaginare (ireale) nu se foloseste "when" deoarece se considera ca actiunea/ evenimentul nu va avea loc. 3) Forma 2 e cea mai folosita (in aceasta situatie) in manualele de gramatica.

Subjonctivul
(The Subjunctive)
Cum se identifica Subjonctivul se foloseste cand avem : o actiune posibila in viitor o actiune nerealizata (ireala) in trecut sau prezent o recomandare, un sfat Exemple
It is necessary that the work be done. (recomandare, sfat, deci AVEM subjonctiv) He speaks as if he were not from Bucharest. (situatie ireala in prezent, deci AVEM subjonctiv) El vorbeste ca si cum nu ar fi din Bucuresti, dar e din Bucuresti. He speaks as if he is not from Bucharest. (situatie reala in prezent, deci NU AVEM subjonctiv)

El vorbeste ca si cum nu ar fi din Bucuresti, dar nici nu e din Bucuresti. It's time you went to bed. (recomandare, sfat, deci AVEM subjonctiv)

Comentarii
Subjonctivul in engleza se formeaza cu : a) infinitivul scurt al verbului 1) dupa constructii ca: It is necessary, It is advisable, It is recommendable, It is possible, It is unsure, It is probable ( ca si formularile de genul "He recommends", "He advices", "He requests" ); 2) in propozitii de scop (so that ...); ex.: Come earlier so that you find him at home. (forma americana) Come earlier so that you can find him at home. (forma britanica) 3) in propozitii concesive ( however ... ); ex.: I go there however difficult it be. 4) in exclamatii afective: ex.: Bless you ! 5) In formulas (short infinitive):
Long live the queen. (Triasc regina!) So be it. (Aa s fie.) Come what may. (Fie ce o fi.) Suffice it to say. (Este suficient de zis.) Be that as it may. (Fie ce o fi.) Say what you will. (Spune ce vrei.)

b) forma de "Past Tense" a verbului, pentru a exprima: 1) un regret prezent I wish I knew her address. ( ... nu-i stiu adresa si regret);
If only he was faithful to me! (Dac mi-ar fi fidel!) If only I had known about her mischance! (Dac a fi tiut de ghinionul ei!)

2) ceva ce e ireal in prezent (cu constructiile "as if", "as though"); 3) preferinta (cind se folosesc constructiile "would rather/ sooner", "it is time",
"had better", "I'd prefer"). You had better go home. (Mai bine ai merge acas.) Id prefer if you didnt go. (A prefera s nu mergi.)

c) forma de "Past Perfecte Tense" a verbului, pentru a exprima un regret vis-a-vis de o actiune anterioara timpului din propozitia principala: ex.: I wish(ed) you had written to him. (As dori/ As fi dorit ca tu sa-i fi scris lui.) d) alte forme de imperativ:
Somebody bring me a glass of water! (Cineva s mi aduc un pahar cu ap!) Come on everybody, leave the room! (Haidei, toat lumea s prseasc ncperea!)

e) After verbs expressing a desire that someone should do something: ask, advise, desire,
intend, order, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, want; after verbs expressing plans: arrange, leave word, pland; after adjectives expressing feelings: anxious, willing, eager, pleased, glad. They demanded that the meeting be held in our new conference room. (Au cerut ca ntlnirea s se in n sala nou de conferine.)

We planned that they should see the room beforehand. (Am plnuit s vedem camera nainte.) She was anxious that they should see her dancing. (Era emoionat c o vor vedea dansnd.) f) cu "may/might" May you live long! (S trieti mult!) However tired might he be, he must come down. (Orict de obosit ar fi, trebuie s vin jos.)

Alte comentarii: i) Forma de "Past Tense" a lui "to be" este "were"; ii) in constructiile cu "for + subiect" se foloseste forma lunga a infinitivului: It's time for you to go to bed. iii) Pentru a vedea cum se formeaza subjonctivul in propozitiile conditionale studiati: Conditional in Trecut (Ireal) Conditional in Prezent (Ireal) Conditional in Viitor (Ireal) iv) In engleza americana, in propozitia subordonata introdusa de "that" cand propozitia
principala exprima o recomandare, decizie, cerere, speranta, intentie sau surprindere. They recommended that he pay more attention to class. (I-au recomandat s fie mai atent la lecie.) They hoped that he be elected President. (Au sperat s fie ales preedinte.) They suggested that our flowers be put into a vase. (Au sugerat ca florile noastre s fie puse n vaz.) v) if need be inseamna if it is necessary If need be she can always tell him the truth. (La nevoie, i poate spune oricnd adevrul.)

Modul Imperativ in limba engleza


Cum se identifica
Verbele din infinitiv se gasesc in propozitii exclamative ce reprezinta ordine, sfaturi ce trebuiesc executate.

Exemple
Let him go !

( Lasa-l sa se duca ! )
Lock the door !

( Incuie usa ! )
Go there !

( Du-te acolo ! )
Let me know !

(Da-mi voie sa stiu !)


Don't worry be happy!

Nu te ingrijora, fii fericit!


Leave me alone !

Lasa-ma in pace!
Take it easy !

Usor !

Verbele modale: Can


Cand se foloseste & Exemple
1. exprima capacitatea fizica sau intelectuala

I can speak English. I can swim very well.

2. pentru a exprima imposibilitatea sau neincrederea

Can Tom make such a mistake ?

3. pentru a exprima permisiunea in limbajul neoficial

Can I borrow your book ?

Nota: Aceasta forma de exprimare a permisiunii nu este foarte delicata si poate fi vazuta si ca o cerere politicoasa. 4. pentru a exprima continuitatea verbelor de perceptie

I can see somebody near my car.

Comentarii

1. Pentru a exprima permisiunea in limbajul oficial/ politicos se foloseste "May"; 2. Cererea cu "Could" este may politicoasa decat cea cu "Can"; de aceea de regula cererile se fac cu "Could"; 3. "Could" este folosit in unele cazuri drept trecutul lui "Can".

Verbele modale: May


Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. cand se cere permisiunea in mod oficial, politicos

May I go home now ?


Nota: Permisiunea se poate cere si cu "Can" insa in mod neoficial, protocolar. 2. exprima posibilitatea

It may rain in the afternoon.


( Se poate sa ploua in dupa-amiaza ) Nota: Daca se foloseste "might" probabilitatea e mai mica decat "may", insa diferenta nu e foarte mare:

It might rain in the afternoon.

( S-ar putea sa ploua in dupa-amiaza ) 3. exprima o dorinta

May all your wishes come true.


( Fie ca ... )

Comentarii
1. "May" in situatia in care exprima posibilitatea poate fi inlocuit cu "it is

possible" fara ca sensul sa se schimbe:

It is possible for Tom to do that thing. Tom may do that thing.

Verbele modale: Must


Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. cand se exprima o obligatie interna (subiectiva, personala)

I must go.
(Trebuie sa plec -> pentru ca asta e decizia mea) Nota: Daca obligatia e externa in loc de must se va folosi "to have to":

I have to go.

(Trebuie sa plec -> pentru ca cineva ma asteapta, pentru ca trebuie sa ajung undeva; nu e o decizie subiectiva, ci una obiectiva) 2. pentru a exprima o deductie logica, o concluzie

John always at this hour is at home. Now must be at home as well.


(logic John ar trebui sa fie acasa, dar poate nu e).

Comentarii
Daca nu suntem foarte siguri de deductia logica folosim verbul "may".

Verbele modale: Ought to


Cand se foloseste & Exemple

1. "Ought to" se foloseste cu precadere pentru a exprima o recomandare:

Margaret ought to exercise more.


Margaret trebuie sa exerseze mai mult; este o recomandare si nu are semnificatie imperativa.

- Shall I go to this funeral ? - Well, you ought to.


Este o recomandare si nu are semnificatie imperativa; insa e ceva ce trebuie facut caci asa e bine din punct de vedere moral. Nota: Daca s-ar raspunde "Well you have to." semnificatia ar fi: "Trebuie sa te duci, nu ai de ales." (obligatia e exterioara in acest caz)

Comentarii
1) Pentru a exprima recomandari negative dispare "to" dupa "to have":

You ought not smoke so much. We ought not be afraid of the these risks.
Totusi, sunt acceptate deasemenea si formele:

You ought not to smoke so much. We ought not to be afraid of the these risks.
2) "Ought not" e folosit mai mult de englezi, Americanii folosesc mai mult "should not".

Verbele modale: Shall


Cand se foloseste & Exemple
1. pentru a exprima solicitarea unui sfat, o ofert sau o sugestie (Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ) What shall I do? (Ce sa fac?) Shall I listen to you? (S te ascult ?) Shall we go on a vacation? (S mergem intr-o vacanta?)

2. pentru a exprima o promisiune, o obligaie sau o ameninare care provin de la cel care vorbete ( Folosit cu persoanele II i III) You shall have a great surprise if you keep your promise to me. Vei avea o mare surpriza daca iti tii promisiunea fata de mine. He shall not see his children again if he treats them like that. Nu isi va mai vedea copiii daca ii trateaza asa. You shall hear from me again! Vei mai auzi tu de mine!) 3. pentru a exprima o hotarare The gates shall not open . (Usile nu se vor deschide.) 4. pentru a exprima o interdictie in acte oficiale The candidates shall not have more than 5 paper sheets to write on, during the examination. Candidatii/Participantii nu vor avea mai mult de 5 foi in timpul examinarii.

Comentarii
1. Folosit cu persoana I, shall indic viitorul. 2. Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste.

Verbele modale: Will


Cand se foloseste & Exemple
1. pentru a exprima vointa, hotarare I will climb this mountain even if its the last thing I do. Voi urca acest munte, chiar daca va fi ultimul lucru pe care il fac. 2. pentru a exprima o promisiune I will not let you down. Nu te voi dezamagi . 3. pentru a exprima o posibilitate, presupunere

This boy looks very much like Tom. He will be his brother. Acest baiat seamana foarte bine cu Tom. O fi fratele lui. 4. pentru a exprima ceva inevitabil Polar bears will perish. Ursii polari vor disparea. 5. pentru a inlocui prezentul simplu pentru o actiune obisnuita, repetata I always drink coffee in the morning . (= I will drink coffee in the morning). Intotdeauna beau cafea dimineata. Voi bea cafea dimineata. 6. pentru a exprima o invitatie, cerere politicoasa Will you sit down? Vrei sa iei loc?

Comentarii
1. Will - are si intelesul de a voi. La casatorie se foloseste expresia I will.

Alte verbe modale: Dare, Need, Used to


Alte verbe modale: Dare, Need, Used to
NEED / NOT NEED - este folosit pentru a exprima necesitatea sau lipsa acesteia
You needn't come early to the meeting. Nu trebuie sa vii devreme la sedinta.

She doesn't need to come. Nu este necesar sa vina si ea. You don't need to go there tomorrow. Nu e necesar sa mergi maine acolo.

USED TO - este folosit doar la Past Tense, pentru a exprima: 1) o actiune repetata, un obicei trecut, care nu mai este precticat in prezent
I used to swim in the Olt river when I was a child, but I don't do this any longer. Obisnuiam sa inot in Olt cand eram copil, dar acum nu mai inot.

2) o actiune repetata, un obicei trecut, care mai este practicat si in prezent


They used to spend their holidays in the mountains. Obisnuiau sa isi petreaca vacantele la munte; poate ca inca si le mai petrec.

DARE - se foloseste cu sensul de "a indrazni", in special in propozitii interogative si negative


The boy dared not tell his father what he had done. Baiatul nu a indraznit sa ii spuna tatalui sau ce a facut. They dared not speak to him ugly. Ei nu au indraznit sa vorbeasca urat cu el. How dare you contradict me? Cum indraznesti sa ma contrazici?

Comentarii
NEED poate fi folosit si ca verb principal: He needs help. Are nevoie de ajutor. USED TO nu are forma de prezent. Pentru a exprima un obicei in prezent folositi prezentul simplu: I (usually) spend my holidays in the mountains. De obicei imi petrec vacantele la munte. DARE ca verb modal este urmat de: a) infinitivul fara to dupa forma invariabila dare (persoana a III-a singular sau Past Tense): I wonder wheter he dare come. Ma intreb daca va indrazni sa vina.

He felt that he daren't try. Si-a dat seama ca n-are curajul sa incerce. b) infinitivul cu to, dupa participial prezent sau dupa persoana a III-a singular: Now he dares to attack me! Acum indrazneste sa ma atace! c) infinitivul cu sau fara to dupa forma de infinitiv a verbului, forma de Past Tense dared si participiul trecut: He wouldn't dare (to) tell me this. N-ar indrazni sa imi spuna acest lucru. He dared (to) write upon the subject. A avut curajul sa scrie despre acea problema. ATENTIE! Verbul dare este urmat de infinitivul cu to cand este folosit ca verb principal: He dared me to compete with him. M-a provocat la intrecere.

Conjunctia in limba engleza


Cum se identifica
Conjunctia : a) exprima raporturi de coordonare sau de subordonare intre doua propozitii, raporturi de coordonare intre doua parti de propozitie sau intre o parte de propozitie si o propozitie; b) este neflexibila din punct de vedere morphologic; c) nu indeplineste nicio functie sintactica in propozitie dar marcheaza raporturile de coordonare si subordonare in cadrul propozitiei ai al frazei.

Exemple
Dorina went to mall but she forgot the money at home. Dorina a plecat la mall, dar si-a uitat banii acasa. Will you come or should I come?

Vii tu sau sa vin eu? I didn't call you yesterday because I was busy. Nu te-am sunat ieri pentru ca am fost ocupata.

Comentarii
A. Conjunctiile coordonatoare (Coordinating Conjunctions) Conjunctiile coordonatoare leaga parti de propozitie cu aceeasi functie sintactica sau propozitii de acelasi fel. 1. Dupa relatiile pe care le stabilesc, conjunctiile coordonatoare pot fi: a) copulative: and (si), as well as (precum), both and (atat cat si), not only but also (nu numai dar si) b) disjunctive: or (sau); eitheror (sausau), neithernor (nicinici) c) adversative: but (dar, ci). Either or indica doua alternative din care numai una este posibila, in propozitii pozitive sau interogative: We can either have a snack now, or we can have lunch at noon. Putem lua o gustare acum sau putem lua pranzul la amiaza. eitheror + verb negativ sau neithernor + verb pozitiv se folosesc pentru a exprima o negatie: I can't travel either by air or by sea. (Nu pot calatori prin aer sau pe mare.) I can travel neither by air nor by sea. (Nu pot calatori nici prin aer nici pe mare.) Atentie: Conjunctiile coordonatoare nu pot fi asezate la inceputul frazei.

B. Conjunctiile subordonatoare (Subordinating Conjunctions) Conjunctiile subordonatoare leaga propozitiile secundare din fraza de elementele lor regente. 1. Dupa felul propozitiilor pe care le introduce, conjunctiile subordonatoare pot fi: a) universale: that (ca); if, whether (daca); -> Aceste prepozitii pot introduce

mai multe tipuri de propozitii subordonate. b) specializate: De loc: where (unde), wherever (oriunde); De timp: when (cand), since (de cand), till/ until (pana cand), while/as (in timp ce), before (inainte ca), after (dupa ce) De mod: exactly/just as (exact cum) De cauza: as, since, because (deoarece, fiindca) De scop: so that, in order that/ so (that) (mai formal) (pentru ca, cu scopul ca) for fear (that) (de teama sa), in case, lest (formal) (ca sa nu) Conditionale: if (daca), provided (that) /on condition (that), as long as/ so long as (cu conditia ca, atata timp cat); unless (afara daca, numai daca nu) Consecutive: so that (incat), so (familiar) (incat), so/ such (that) (asa/ astfelincat) Concesive: though, although (mai formal), while, whereas (formal), even if/ though (desi, cu toate ca, chiar daca) Comparative: as as (la fel de ... ca ...); as if/ as though (ca si cum, de parca) When indica: simultaneitatea a doua actiuni: When I am tired I go for a walk. Cand sunt obosit fac o plimbare. When she rang the bell, he came to the door. Cand ea a sunat la sonerie, el a venit la usa. ---> Accentual este pe momentul actiunii sau succesiunea lor imediata in timp. As este folosit pentru actiuni paralele: She wept as she spoke. Plangea in timp ce vorbea. sau sinonim al lui while: As I was crossing the street, I heard somebody call my name. In timp ce/ Pe cand traversam strada, am auzit pe cineva strigandu-mi numele.

Since presupune un argument admis de interlocutor: Since you need this book, i'll get it for you. Deoarece ai nevoie de carte, am sa ti-o iau. Cand folosim conjunctia unless, verbul din propozitia conditionala este la forma pozitiva: You can't see me unless you call me first. Nu ma poti vedea decat daca ma suni inainte.

Conjugarea verbelor in limba engleza

Conjugarea verbelor in limba engleza - Modul indicativ

Trecut/ Past
Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana I singular II singular III singular I singular II singular III singular

Past Simple I came You came He/She/It came We came You came They came

Past Continuous I was coming You were coming He/She/It was coming We were coming You were coming They were coming

Past Perfect Simple I had come You had come He/She/It had come We had come You had come They had come

Past Perfect Continuous I had been coming You had been coming He/She/It has been coming We had been coming You had been coming They had been coming

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana I singular II singular III singular I singular II singular III singular Past Simple I did not come You did not come He/She/It did not come We did not come You did not come They did not come Past Continuous I was not coming You were not coming He/She/It was not coming We were not coming You were not coming They were not coming Past Perfect Simple I had not come You had not come He/She/It had not come We had not come You had not come They had not come Past Perfect Continuous I had not been coming You had not been coming He/She/It has not been coming We had not been coming You had not been coming They had not been coming

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana I singular II singular III singular I singular II singular III singular Past Simple Did I come? Did you come? Did he/she/it come? Did we come? Did you come? Did they come? Past Continuous Was I coming? Were you coming? Was he/she/it coming? Were we coming? Were you coming? Were they coming? Past Perfect Simple Had I come? Had you come? Had he/she/it come? Had we come? Had you come? Had they come? Past Perfect Continuous Had I been coming? Had you been coming? Has he/she/it been coming? Had we been coming? Had you been coming? Had they been coming?

Prezent/ Present

Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Direct and indirect (reported) speech


Vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta in limba engleza
Sunt 2 moduri in care putem reda ceea ce o persoana a spus: modul direct (vorbirea directa) si modul indirect (vorbirea indirecta). In direct speech, we repeat the original speakers exact words: - vorbirea directa He said, "I have lost my umbrella." (El spuse: Mi-am pierdut umbrela.) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (" ... "). Direct speech is found in conversations in books, in plays and in quotations. In indirect speech, we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily using the speakers exact words: He said (that) he had lost his umbrella. (El spuse c i-a pierdut umbrella.) - vorbirea indirecta

There is no comma after say in indirect speech. That can usually be omitted after say and tell + object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, although direct speech is sometimes used for a more dramatic effect. When we turn direct speech into indirect (reported) speech, some changes are usually necessary. TENSE CHANGES 1. Indirect Speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense:

He sais that . (El a spus c.) - vorbirea indirecta = reporting a conversation that is still going on = reading a letter and reporting what it sais = reading instructions and reporting them = reporting a statement that someone makes very often: Tom sais that he ll never get married.

2. Indirect Speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense: - vorbirea indirecta

Direct speech - vorbirea directa


Simple Present - Vorbirea directa "I never eat meat" he explained.

Indirect speech - vorbirea indirecta


Simple past - Vorbirea indirecta = He explained that he never ate meat.

(Eu niciodat nu mnnc carne explic el). Present Continuous - Vorbirea directa "I m waiting for Ann" he said. (O atept pe Ana spuse el). Present Perfect - Vorbirea directa "I have found a flat" she said. (Am gsit un apartament spuse ea). Present Perfect Continuous - Vorbirea directa He said "I ve been waiting for ages". (El spuse: Am ateptat o groaz de timp.) Simple Past - Vorbirea directa "I took it home with me" she said. (L-am luat acas cu mine spuse ea.) Future - Vorbirea directa He said, "I shall/will be in Rome on Monday". (El spuse: Voi fi n Roma luni.) Future Continuous - Vorbirea directa "I will/shall be using the car on the 1st " she said. (Voi folosi maina pe data de 1 spuse ea) Conditional - Vorbirea directa I said, "I would/should like to see it" . (Eu am spus: A vrea s o vd.)

(El explic faptul c nu mnca niciodat carne.) Past Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta = He said (that) he was waiting for Ann. (Spuse c o atepta pe Ann). Past Perfect - Vorbirea indirecta = She said (that) she had found a flat. (Ea spuse c i gsise un apartament). Past Perfect Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta = He said (that)he had been waiting for ages. (El spuse c ateptase o groaz de timp). Past Perfect - Vorbirea indirecta = She said she had taken it home with her. (Ea spuse c l luase acas cu ea.) Conditional - Vorbirea indirecta = he said he would be in Rome on Monday. (El spuse c va fi n Roma luni.) = Conditional Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta She said shed be using the car on the 1st. (Ea spuse c va folosi maina pe data de 1). Conditional - Vorbirea indirecta I said I would/should like to see it. (Eu am spus c a vrea s o vd.)

Direct speech - vorbirea directa

Indirect speech - vorbirea indirecta

3. Note on I/we shall/should I/ we shall normally becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech: "I shall be 21 tomorrow" said Bill = Bill said he would be 21 the following day. (Voi mplini 21 ani mine. Spuse Bill. = Bill spuse c va mplini 21 ani n ziua urmtoare.) But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, I/we shall can become either I/we should or I/we would.

PAST TENSES SOMETIMES REMAIN UNCHANGED

1.

In spoken English, past tenses usually remain unchanged. He said, "Ann arrived on Monday". = He said Ann (had) arrived on Monday. (El spuse: Ann a ajuns luni. = El spuse c Ann ajunsese (a ajuns) luni.) He said, "When I saw them they were playing tennis" . = He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis.

(El spuse: "Cnd i-am vzut eu, jucau tenis. = El spuse c atunci cnd i-a vzut, jucau tenis.) 2. A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported remains unchanged: She said, "I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road". = She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road. (Ea spuse: M-am hotrt s nu cumpr casa pentru c era pe strada principal. = Ea spuse c s-a hotrt s nu cumpere casa pentru c era pe strada principal).

SUBJUNCTIVES IN INDIRECT SPEECH

- vorbirea indirecta

1.

Unreal past tenses after wish, would rather/sooner and it is time do not change: "It s time we began planning our holidays" he said. = He said that it was time they began planning their holidays. (Este timpul s ncepem s ne planificm concediul. Spuse el. = El spuse c era timpul s nceap s i planifice concediul.) 2. I/he/she/we/they had better remains unchanged. You had better can remain unchanged or be reported by advise + object + infinitive. "Youd better not drink the water" she said = She advised us not to drink water. (Mai bine nu ai bea ap. Spuse ea. = Ne suger s nu bem ap.)

3.

Conditional sentences remain unchanged. "If my children were older, I would emigrate" he said. = He said that if his children were older, he would emigrate. (Dac ar fi mai mari copiii mei, a emigra. Spuse el. = el spuse c dac ar fi mai mari copiii lui, ar emigra.)

MIGHT, OUGHT TO, SHOULD, WOULD, USED TO IN INDIRECT STATEMENTS

1. Might remains unchanged except when it is used as a request form: He said, "Ann might ring today." = He said that Ann might ring that day. (El spuse: S-ar putea s sune Ann astzi. = El spuse c s-ar putea s sune Ann n acea zi.) 2. Ought to/should for obligation or assumption remains unchanged: "They ought to widen this road" I said. = I said that they ought to widen this road. (Ar trebui s lrgeasc strada. Spuse el. = El spuse c ar trebui s lrgeasc strada.) 3. Would in statements does not change. "Id be very grateful if youd keep me informed" he said. = He asked me to keep him informed. (A fi foarte recunosctor dac m-ai ine la curent.Spuse el = El m rug s l in la current.) 4. Used to does not change.

"I know the place well because I used to live here" he explained. = He explained that he knew the place well because he used to live there. (Cunosc bine locul pentru c am stat acolo. Explic el. = El explic faptul c tia locul pentru c a stat acolo.)

PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE IN INDIRECT SPEECH

Pronouns and possessive adjectives usually change from first or second to third person, except when the speaker is reporting his own words: I said, "I like my new house" = I said that I liked my new house. (Am spus: mi place casa mea nou. = El a spus c i plcea casa lui nou.) This used in time expressions usually becomes that. This, these used as pronouns can become it, they/them. He said, "We will discuss them tomorrow". = He said that they will discuss it (the matter) the next day. (El a spus: Vom discuta (problema) mine. = El a spus c vor discuta (problema) yiua urmtoare.)

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE IN INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct speech - vorbirea directa


Today Yesterday The day before yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next week/ year etc. Last week/ year etc. A year ago

Indirect speech - vorbire indirecta


That day The day before Two days before The next day/ the following day In two days time The following week/ year etc. The previous week/ year etc. A year before/ the previous year

Direct speech - vorbirea directa

Indirect speech - vorbire indirecta

SAY AND TELL

1. Say and tell with direct speech Say can introduce a statement or follow it, while tell requires the person addressed. Inversion of say and noun subject is possible, when say follows the statement, but inversion with tell is not possible. "Im leaving at once" Tom said. (Plec odat. A spus Tom) - vorbirea directa "Im leaving at once" Tom told me. (Plec odat. Mi-a spus Tom) - vorbirea directa 2. Say and tell with indirect speech Indirect statements are normally introduced by say, or tell + object.

Say + to + object is also possible, but much less usual than tell + object.

Concordanta timpurilor in limba engleza - Gramatica limbii engleze Concordanta timpurilor in limba engleza
Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonata cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. In limba engleza timpul verbului din subordonata trebuie sa se subordoneze timpului verbului din regenta. Cu alte cuvinte timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaza folosirea anumitor timpuri in subordonatele lor. Exista in acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut si aplicat. Regula I: Daca in regenta verbul este la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense in subordonata se poate folosi orice timp:

REGENTA Verbul este la prezent sens)


(Present Tense Simple, Present Tense Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, Present Perfect Continuous )

SUBORDONATA Verbul poate fi la orice timp (cerut de

We all know that = Noi toti stim ca

... he had gone = el mersese ... he went = el a mers ... he will go= el va merge

Regula II: Daca in regenta verbul este la trecut in subordonata el trebuie sa fie la unul din cele trei timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze: The Past Perfect, The Past Tense, The Future in the Past. REGENTA Verbul este la trecut
(Past Tense Simple, Past Tense Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect Continuous)

SUBORDONATA Orice alt timp past"

a) Past Tense actiune simultana Past Tense He said = El a spus ... he was ill = ca este bolnav b) Past Tense actiune anterioara Past Perfect He said = El a spus ... he had returned home a week before

= ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamna inainte

Atentie: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala, se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. Ex. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii.) c) Past Tenseactiunea posterioar Future-in-the-Past He said = El a spus ... he would leave the next day = ca va pleca a doua zi . Atentie: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala, dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. Future-inthe-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data, dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). He said = El a spus ... he would buy a car if he had money = ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani Regula III: Daca verbul din regenta este la viitor in subordonatele conditionale si temporale, el trebuie sa fie la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense, iar daca subordonata este completiva directa verbul va fi la viitor. REGENTA Verbul este la viitor SUBORDONATA Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens, cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale, care nu pot include un verb la viitor.

Situatiile cel mai des intlnite sunt urmatoarele:

a) Future actiune simultana Present I will read this book = Voi citi aceasta carte avea timp when I have time =cnd voi

b)Future actiune anterioara Present Perfect I will go to England = Voi merge in Anglia after I have received a visa= dupa ce voi obtine viza

c) verbul va fi la orice timp in subordonata completiva directa I shall see what = Eu voi vedea ce I shall do. = voi face. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana, se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci cnd verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Se poate intlni, de exemplu, o formulare de tipul: He said he loves me". Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta, cu timpul, sa ajunga regula. Pentru moment insa, sfatuim pe vorbitorii romni de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. EXCEPTII (deci cazuri cand nu se aplica regulile de concordanta a timpurilor) 1. Cand in subordonata se exprima un adevar stiintific /general. Everybody knew that gold is a metal. = Toata lumea stia ca aurul este metal. I told you that silver is gray. = Ti-am spus ca argintul este gri. 2. Cand subordonata este: a) cauzala He will not go to school because he didn't learn his lessons. = El nu va merge la scoala pentru ca nu si-a invatat lectiile. We shall go on the trip because they gave us the money. = Vom merge in excursie pentru ca ei ne-au dat banii. b) atributiva You will see the man who wrote that book. = Il vei vedea pe omul care a scris cartea aceea. I saw the girl who will play the piano. = Am vazut fata care va canta la pian. c) comparativ modala Tomorrow I shall work more than I worked yesterday. = Maine voi munci mai mult decat am muncit ieri.

Infinitivul si gerunziul in limba engleza Infinitive and Gerund


Home > Gramatica limbii engleze > Verbul > Infinitivul si gerunziul in limba engleza

Folosirea infinitivului si a gerunziului & Exemple


Sunt verbe in limba engleza care cer infinitivul iar altele care cer gerunziul. Iata mai jos modul in care verbele limbii engleze se folosesc fie cu gerunziul, fie cu infinitivul.

1) Verbs which may take either infinitive or gerund: (Verbe care folosesc fie infinitivul fie gerunziul ) advise, agree, allow, begin, can/could bear, cease, continue, forget, hate, intend, like, love, mean, need, permit, prefer, propose, recommend, regret, remember, require, start, stop, try, used to
verbs taking infinitive or gerund without changing meaning: (verbe care folosesc infinitivul sa gerunziul fara sa-si modifice intelesul) o begin, start, continue, cease I began working./ I began to work. (Am nceput s lucrez.) He continued living/ to live above the shop. (A continuat s locuiasc deasupra magazinului.)

cant bear

I cant bear waiting./ to wait. (Nu suport s atept.) o intend I intend selling it./ to sell it. (Intenionez s l vnd.) o advise, allow, permit, recommend They dont allow us parking here./ to park here. (Nu ni se permite s parcm aici.) o it needs/requires/wants The grass needs cutting./ to be cut. (Iarba trebuie tuns.)

2) Verbs which take only gerund: (Verbe care folosesc numai gerunziul )
o regret, remember, forget (when the action expressed by the gerund is the earlier action) I regret spending so much money. (mi pare ru c am cheltuit atia bani.) I remember reading about the earthquake in the newspapers. (mi amintesc c am citit de cutremur n ziare.) Ill never forget waiting to find out the results. (Nu o s uit niciodat ateptarea rezultatelor.)

go on, stop

He went on to tell us about his new plans. (A continuat s ne spun despre planurile lui noi.) I cant stop him talking to the press. (Nu pot s l opresc s nu vorbeasc cu presa.) o admit, adore, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, commence, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, detest, dislike, dread, endure, enjoy, face, fancy, finish, go, imagine, involve, keep, lie, loathe, mention, mind, miss, practice, report. resent, resist, risk, postpone, stand, sit, suggest.

!!! when regret, remember, forget themselves express the earlier action, they are followed by an infinitive: I regret to say that you have failed your exam. (mi pare ru s te anun c ai picat examenul.) I often forget to sign my cheques. (Adesea uit s semnez cecurile.)

3) Verbs which take only infinitive: (Verbe care folosesc numai infinitivul)
o agree (to), mean, propose, refuse (to) Tom agreed to wait a week. (Tom a fost de acord s atepte o sptmn.) I mean to get to the top by sunrise. (Vreau s ajung pn s rsr soarele.) I propose to start tomorrow. (Mi-am propus s ncep mine.) o try, used to

They tried to put wire netting all round the garden. (Au ncercat s pun gard de srm n jurul grdinii.) I used to swim all the year around. (Obinuiam s not tot anul.)

o afford, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, care, choose, consent, dare, decide, demand, deserve, expect, fail, fight, guarantee, happen, help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, manage, neglect, offer, pause, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, prove, swear, tend, threaten, undertake, volunteer, vow, wait, want, refuse, seem , wish, yearn.

Timpurile verbelor in orice limba sunt folosite pentru a exprima diferite situatii legate de succesiunea evenimentelor, a actiunilor pe scara timpului. Vei observa ca timpurile verbelor in limba engleza nu corespunde in mod direct unui timp din limba romana. Asta nu e o problema. Invatand si exersind intelegerea timpurilor se poate face relativ usor. Academia de Engleza va ofera o serie de articole pentru intelegerea timpurilor limbii engleze. Primele 3 cele mai folosite verbe in limba engleza sunt "to be" (a fi), "to have" (a avea) and "to do" (a face); de aceea noi va oferim aici formele celor 3 verbe la timpul prezent (afirmativ, negativ, interogativ):

Verbul "TO BE" - a fi Forma afirmativa: I am (I'm) - Eu sunt You are (You're) - Tu esti He is (He's) - El este She is (She's) - Ea este It is (It's) - El/ Ea este We are (We're) - Noi suntem You are (You're) - Voi sunteti They are (They're) - Ei/Ele sunt Forma negativa: I am not (I'm not) - Eu nu sunt You are not (You aren't) - Tu nu esti He is not (He isn't) - El nu este She is not (She isn't) - Ea nu este It is not (It isn't) - El/ Ea nu este We are not (We aren't) - Noi nu suntem You are not (You aren't) - Voi nu sunteti They are not (They aren't) - Ei/Ele nu sunt Verbul "TO HAVE" - a avea Forma afirmativa: I have (I've) - Eu am You have (You've) - Tu ai

He has (He's) - El are She has (She's) - Ea are It has (It's) - El/ Ea are We have (We've) - Noi avem You have (You've) - Voi aveti They have (They've) - Ei/Ele au Forma interogativa: Have I ? - Am eu ? Have you ? - Ai tu ? Has he ? - Are el ? Has she ? - Are ea ? Has it ? - Are el/ ea ? Have we ? - Avem noi ? Have you ? - Aveti voi ? Have they ? - Au ei/ele ? Forma negativa: I have not (I haven't) - Eu nu am You have not (You haven't) - Tu nu ai He has not (He hasn't) - El nu are She has not (She hasn't) - Ea nu are It has not (It hasn't) - El/ Ea nu are We have not (We haven't) - Noi nu avem You have not (You haven't) - Voi nu aveti They have not (They haven't) - Ei/Ele nu au Verbul "TO DO" - a face Forma afirmativa: I do - Eu fac You do - Tu faci He does - El face She does - Ea face It does - El/Ea face We do - Noi facem You do - Voi faceti They do - Ei/Ele fac Forma interogativa: Do I ? - Fac eu ? Do you ? - Faci tu ? Does he ? - Face el ? Does she ? - Face ea ? Does it ? - Face el/ ea ? Do we ? - Facem noi ?

Do you ? - Faceti voi ? Do they ? - Fac ei/ele ? Forma negativa: I do not (I don't) - Eu nu fac You do not (You don't) - Tu nu faci He does not (He doesn't) - El nu face She does not (She doesn't) - Ea nu face It does not (It doesn't) - El/Ea nu face We do not (We don't) - Noi nu facem You do not (You don't) - Voi nu faceti They do not (They don't) - Ei/ Ele nu fac