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CONJUNCIA

THE CONJUNCTION
Defini[ie.
Conjuncia este partea de vorbire care exprim:
a) Raporturi de coordonare sau subordonare =ntre dou] propozi[ii, raporturi
de coordonare =ntre dou] p]r[i de propozi[ie sau =ntre o parte de
propozi[ie \i o propozi[ie.
b) Este neflexibil] din punct de vedere morfologic;
c)
Nu ndeplinete nici o funcie sintactic n propoziie, dar marcheaz raporturile de
coordonare
i subordonare n cadrul propoziiei i al frazei.
Not]
Pronumele relative who, which, that \i what, precum \i adverbele where,
when, how \i why, leag] propozi[iile =ntre ele, dar, spre deosebire de
conjunc[ii, intr] =n =ns]\i structura propozi[iei (ca parte a propozi[iei).
Ex: I know the man that helped them. +l cunosc pe b]rbatul care i-a ajutat.
Clasificare.
Dup] form] conjunc[iile pot fi:
a) Simple (Simple), formate dintr-un singur cuvqnt: and (\i); or (sau); if (dac]);
for (pentru); that (c]), sice (deoarece) etc.
Ex: A man came in and I had to open the door. A venit un b]rbat \i a trebuit s]
deschid u\a.
b) Compuse (Compound), formate din dou] sau mai multe p]r[i de vorbire
scrise =ntr-un singur cuvqnt: although (all + though) - de\i, otherwise
(other + wise) - altfel; however (how + ever) - totu\i etc.
Ex: He was a very bad man, nevertheless the Lord changed him into an
honest man.
Era un om foarte r]u, totu\i Domnul l-a schimbat =ntr-un om cinstit.
c) Complexe (Complex) formate din dou] conjunc[ii sau conjunc[ii asociate
cu adverbe sau prepozi[ii: as if/ as though (ca \i cqnd/ ca \i cum), as soon
as (=ndat] ce, imediat ce), as long as (atqt timp cqt), so that (astfel
=ncqt).
Ex: He was calm as long as David sang a psalm. El se calma atqta timp
cqt David cqnta un psalm.
d) Corelative (Correlative): either ...or (sau...sau); neither ... nor
(nici...nici); both ...and (atqt... cqt \i); no sooner....than (deabia...cqnd).
Ex: No sooner has Mary started to pray than he began to sing.
Deabia s-a apucat Mary s] se roage, cqnd el a =nceput s] cqnte.
e) Locu[iuni conjunc[ionale (Conjunctional Phrases), construc[ii alc]tuite
din p]r[i de vorbire combinate cu conjunc[ii sau cu alte p]r[i de vorbire cu
sens unitar \i valoare de conjunc[ie: on condition that/ provided that (cu
condi[ia ca); in order that (ca s]); no matter how (indiferent).
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Ex: He started studying the Word in order that he would become a


preacher.
El a =nceput s] studieze Cuvqntul, pentru a deveni predicator.
Dup] func[ie \i con[inut, conjunc[iile se =mpart =n:
1) Conjunc[ii coordonatoare (Coordinating Conjunctions)
2) Conjunc[ii subordontoare (Subordinating Conjunctions)
1) Conjunc[iile coordonatoare leag] dou] p]r[i de propozi[ie care au
aceea\i func[ie sintactic] sau dou] propozi[ii de acela\i fel.
Acestea se sub=mpart =n:
a) conjunc[ii copulative (Copulative Conjunctions) indic] o no[iune care se
adaug] alteia: and (\i), besides (pe lqng], afar] de); nor (nici); as well as
(precum \i); both ...and (atqt... cqt \i); not only...but also (nu numai ...ci
\i).
Ex: Besides the old desk he also ordered a new lamp.
+n afar] de biroul cel vechi el a mai comandat \i o lustr] nou].
b) conjunc[ii adversative (Adversative Conjunctions) exprim] un contrast:
but (dar, =ns]), whereas (=n timp ce), while (=n timp ce); however
(totu\i); yet, still (totu\i); only (numai c]).
Ex: Luke likes playing the violin while his brother likes to swim.
Lui Luca =i place s] cqnte la vioar] =n timp ce fratelui s]u =i place s]
=noate.
c) conjunc[ii disjunctive (Disjunctive Conjunctions), care exprim]
alternativa: either ...or (sau...sau), or (sau), otherwise (altfel); else
(altfel); or else (sau dac] nu); neither ...nor (nici... nici).
Ex: I was waiting at the entrance but neither Sam nor his brother waited
for me.
Am a\teptat la intrare, dar nici Sam, nici fratele lui nu m-au a\teptat.
d) conjunc[ii conclusive (Illative Conjunctions), exprim] o concluzie: hence
(deci, prin urmare); so (a\adar); accordingly, conse`uently (=n
consecin[]); therefore (de aceea); that is why (de aceea).
Ex: It was a warm day therefore we decided to go to do some park
evangelism.
Era o zi cald], de aceea ne-am hot]rqt s] mergem s] evangheliz]m prin
parc.
2) Conjunc[iile subordonatoare (Subordinating Conjunctions) leag]
propozi[iile subordonate de propozi[ia regent] de care depind.
+n func[ie de raporturile pe care le stabilesc, conjunc[iile subordonatoare
apar[in urm]toarelor categorii:
a) conjunc[ii de loc (Conjunctions of Place), care introduc subordonate
circumstan[iale de loc: where (unde); wherever (oriunde); whence (de
unde); whither (=ncotro).
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Ex: I will go wherever the Lord sends me. Voi merge oriunde m] va trimite
Domnul.
b) conjunc[ii de timp (Conjunctions of Time), care introduc subordonate
temporale: when (cqnd), after (dup] ce); till/ until (pqn] cqnd); as soon as
(=ndat] ce); as long as (atqt timp cqt); before (=nainte); while (=n timp
ce); whenever (ori de cqte ori); ever since (=ncq de cqnd); since (de
(cqnd)).
Ex: I will be protected as long as I follow the Lord. Voi fi protejat atqta
timp cqt +l urmez pe Domnul.
c) conjunc[ii de mod (Conjunctions of Manner), care introduc subordonate
modale: as (a\a cum); just as (=ntocmai cum); exactly as (exact cum); so
far as (=n m]sura =n care).
Ex: Men will reap as they sow. Cum =[i a\terni a\a dormi.
d) conjunc[ii de cauz] (Conjunctions of Cause), care introduc subordonate
cauzale; as, since, because, for (fiindc], deoarece, pentru c], =ntrucqt);
seeing that (dat fiind c]); now that (acum c]); considering that (avqnd =n
vedere c]).
Ex: He did that for he knew his cause was right.
El a f]cut asta pentru c] a \tiut c] are o cauz] dreapt].
e) conjunc[ii de scop (Conjunctions of Purpose), care introduc
subordonatele finale: so that (ca s]); in order that (ca s], cu scopul de a);
for fear that (de team] s] nu); in case, lest (ca s] nu, ca nu cumva s]).
Ex: We left earlier for fear that we could lose the plane.
Am plecat mai devreme de team] s] nu pierdem avionul.
f) conjunc[ii condi[ionale (Conditional Conjunctions), care introduc
subordonate condi[ionale: if (dac]), on condition that, as long as/ so long
as (cu condi[ia s]); unless (dac] nu).
Ex: I will not go unless all the others agree to join us.
Nu voi pleca dac] nu consimt \i to[i ceilal[i s] ni se al]ture.
g) conjunc[ii concesive (Conjunctions of Concession), care introduc
subordonate concesive: though, although (cu toate c], de\i); however
(oricqt de); in spite of (=n ciuda faptului c]); even if/ even though (chiar
dac]); no matter (indiferent).
Ex: In spite of being tired, I went to the library.
+n ciuda faptului c] eram obosit, m-am dus la bibliotec].
h) conjunc[ii consecutive (Conjunctions of Result), care introduc
subordonate consecutive: (so)... that (astfel =ncqt); such.... that (a\a
=ncqt).
Ex: It was such a sunny day that I had to turn on the air conditioning.
Era a\a de cald c] a trebuit s] dau drumul aerului condi[ionat.
i) conjunc[ii comparative (Conjunctions of Comparison), care introduc
subordonate comparative: than (decqt); as if, as though (de parc], ca \i
cum): as... as (tot atqt... cqt); not so... as (nu atqt...cqt).
Ex: My task is not so easy as it seemed in the beginning.
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Sarcina mea nu este atqt de u\oar] pe cqt p]rea la =nceput.


Utilizarea conjunc[iilor
1) Conjunc[iile coordonatoare sunt folosite pentru a lega dou] sau mai
multe unit][i sintactice de acela\i nivel (p]r[i de propozi[ie sau propozi[ii
=ntr-o fraz]).
Ex: John and his brother James followed the Lord Jesus.
Ioan \i fratele lui Iacov L-au urmat pe Domnul Isus.
Not].
Conjunc[ia and, de\i tipic copulativ], poate exprima \i alte raporturi, atqt de
coordonare, cqt \i de subordonare. Iat] cqteva din acestea:
- Cu valoare adversativ];
Ex: He said he would follow Him and finally he didnt.
El a spus c]-L va urma pe El \i pqn] la urm] nu L-a urmat.
- Cu valoare final].
Ex: Come to me all you who are weary and burdened and I will give you
rest.
Veni[i la mine, voi care sunte[i osteni[i \i =mpov]ra[i \i v] voi da odihn].
Conjunc[iile eitheror (sausau) =n propozi[ii afirmative \i interogative
implic] alternativa.
Ex: Either myself or my wife will be at home at that time. Fie eu, fie so[ia
va fi acas] la acea or].
+ntr-o fraz] alc]tuit] din dou] propozi[ii negative coordonate, conjunc[iile
neither sau nor sunt utilizate =n cea de-a doua propozi[ie cu schimbarea
ordinii cuvintelor.
Ex: She couldnt use her voice in the worship service, nor/ neither did she
play the guitar.
Ea nu \i-a putut folosi vocea =n serviciul de =nchinare, nici nu a
cqntat la chitar].
2) Conjunc[iile subordonatoare sunt folosite pentru a stabili raporturi
=ntre propozi[iile subordonate \i propozi[iile regente dintr-o fraz].
Unele conjunc[ii subordonatoare sunt universale, putqnd introduce mai
multe tipuri de subordonate.
a) Conjunc[iile that \i whether pot introduce:
- subordonate completive directe
Ex: He told me that John was coming. Mi-a spus c] John urma s] vin].
- subordonate subiective
Ex: It is essential that he comes with me to the church. Este esen[ial ca el
s] vin] cu mine la biseric].
- subordonate predicative
Ex: The problem is whether he would mind this change of schedule.
Problema e dac] el va avea ceva =mpotriva acestui program.
b) Conjunc[ia if poate introduce:
- subordonate condi[ionale
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Ex: If I were you, I should go straight there now. Dac] a\ fi =n locul t]u, ma\ duce direct acolo acum.
- subordonate completive directe
Ex: We wondered if he was a Christian. Ne =ntrebam dac] el este cre\tin.
- subordonate subiective
Ex: It is not known if she came here last night. Nu se \tie dac] ea a venit
aici asear].
- subordonate predicative
Ex: The problem was if we could get the van we needed. Problema era
dac] puteam face rost de microbuzul de care aveam nevoie.
c) Conjunc[ia as poate introduce:
- subordonate circumstan[iale de mod
Ex: Judge as you think fit. Judec] cum crezi c] e mai bine.
- subordonate circumstan[iale de cauz]
Ex: He decided to go to pay them a visit, as he missed them very much.
S-a hot]rqt s] mearg] s] le fac] o vizit], fiindc] =i era foarte dor de ei.
-subordonate circumstan[iale de timp
Ex: He thought itis best to solve it as he returned home.
S-a gqndit c] e cel mai bine s-o rezolve cqnd s-a =ntors acas].
Poziia conjunciilor
1) Conjunc[iile coordonatoare sunt a\ezate =ntre unit][ile sintactice pe
care le leag].
Ex: I saw Paul and June coming together at the office yesterday.
I-am v]zut pe Paul \i June venind =mpreun] la birou ieri.
2) Conjunc[iile corelative sunt alc]tuite din doi termeni a\eza[i =naintea
p]r[ilor de vorbire cu aceea\i func[ie sintactic].
Ex: Either I or my wife will meet you at the airport. Fie te voi primi eu la
aeroport, fie so[ia mea.
3) Conjunc[iile subordonatoare sunt a\ezate la =nceputul subordonatei
care: a) precede sau b) urmeaz] propozi[ia regent].
a) MAIN CLAUSE + CONJUNCTION + SECONDARY CLAUSE
Ex: We are happy because the Lord granted us salvation.
Suntem ferici[i pentru c] Domnul ne-a promis mqntuirea.
b) CONJUNCTION + SECONDARY CLAUSE + MAIN CLAUSE
Ex: As he was on the wrong way, a Christian shared with him about Jesus.
Deoarece era pe drumul gre\it, un cre\tin i-a =mp]rt]\it despre Isus.

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