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THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Conjunctivul a disp rut aproape complet n englez . Se mai p streaz anumite forme mai ales la trecut pentru a exprima ndoiala, regretul sau situa iile ireale.

Form

A. Subjonctivul sintetic prezent Subjonctivul prezent are aceea i form ca Infinitivul f r TO. Are aceea i form pentru toate persoanele. God save the king! They be damned!

Se folose te: 1. pentru a exprima dorin e, ur ri sau exclama ii devenite expresii Heaven help us all! Be that as it may! God forgive/bless you! Damn you! God bless you! 2. n propozi iile condi ionale If this be true, we must inform the authorities. 3. n propozi iile subordonate introduse de THAT cnd n propozi ia principal se exprim o dorin , o cerere, o obliga ie, o necesitate - n propozi ii completive directe dup urm toarele verbe: to suggest, order, demand, urge, recommend, insist, command, propose, arrange, decide, agree, arrange, determine I insist that he go. (Insist s se duc ) She urged that he sit down and listen crefully. - n propozi iile subiective dup urm toarele construc ii impersonale: it is natural, important, advisable, necessary, possible, impossible It is important that he go. It is necessary that your friend arrive there first.

B. Subjonctivul sintetic trecut Subjonctivul trecut are aceea i form ca i trecutul simplu. Verbul be are forma were pentru toate persoanele. Its time we went home. I wish he were nicer.

C. Subjonctivul sintetic mai mult ca perfect Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect are aceea i form ca mai mult ca perfectul. We wished we had had better weather.

Se folose te: 1. n propozi iile condi ionale pentru a exprima un Condi ional prezent sau un Condi ional trecut If I were you, I would try to talk to her. The children will like this film if they saw it. I would have bought that book if I had found it. 2. pentru a exprima irealitatea dup wish, as if/though, even if/though, would rather/sooner, its high time, suppose (that)

WISH Wish + Would +Infinitiv (nu este un subjonctiv!) exprim o dorin n viitor I wish he would write to me. y Wish + Past Tense Simple - pentru a indica o situa ie nereal n prezent (regret pentru o ac iune sau situa ie care se produce sau nu) I wish they agreed to my proposal. - wish + could What a pity! I wish you could sing. - cu referire la obiceiuri, st ri prezente i ac iuni regulate I wish I got up early in the morning. - wish + past tense continuous cu referire la ac iuni care se desf oar la momentul prezent sau ac iuni care continu pe o perioad care include i momentul prezent I wish he were playing in the park. - wish + was going to pentru referin e n viitor I wish I was going to do the housework tomorrow. y wish + Past Perfect cu referire la situa ii dorite dar care nu se pot realiza sau pentru ac iuni n trecut He wishes he had bought his newspaper. y wished + Past Tense - cele dou ac iuni sunt simultane She wished she werent ill. y wished + Past Perfect cnd ac iunea dorit se produce sau nu nainte de momentul trecut exprimat de wished Mary wished she hadnt been ill during her holiday. Main Clause Subjunctive Form I wish = a vrea 1. You came = s vii I wished = a fi vrut would come now = ce n-a da s vii had come yesterday = s fi venit y AS IF/THOUGH y y y As if/thorugh + Past Tense Simple - pentru a indica nesiguran a sau dubiul n prezent (ac iuni contrare faptului prezent) He behaves as if he were a teacher. As if + Past Tense of Going to pentru situa ii ipotetice n viitor He talks as if it were going to rain. As if + Past Perfect pentru a indica ndoiala, incertitudinea n leg tur cu o ac iune trecut (ac iune contrar faptului trecut) She talks/ talked as if/ as though she had bought it.

Main Clause He is/was walking as if as though

Subjunctive Form he did not know - simultan he had already known -anterior

WOULD RATHER / SOONER y y y y y Would rather + Infinitiv (persoana care exprim preferin a este aceea i cu subiectul ac iunii care urmeaz ) Bill would rather play tennis than football. Would rather + Infinitiv perfect (acela i subiect) She would rather have travelled by plane. Would rather + Past Tense Simple (subiectul lui would rather este diferit de subiectul ac iunii care urmeaz ) I would rather you got up early. Would rather + Past Perfect (subiecte diferite) I would rather they had left on time. Would rather + would + infinitiv (cu referire la un eveniment dorit n viitor)

I would rather you would come tomorrow. IF ONLY y If only + Past Tense pentru dorin e care se refer fie la prezent fie la viitor, n special cu verbe care exprim ac iuni obi nuite, obiceiuri sau st ri If only she didnt eat so much! If only + Past Tense Continuous pentru a indica o dorin care se refer la viitor sau prezent If only I were leaving, too. If only + Past Perfect pentru a exprima un regret pentru o ac iune care nu s-a produs If only they had come, this wouldnt have happened. If only + Would + Infinitiv pentru a exprima o dorin n leg tur cu viitorul dar f r speran If only he would buy me a watch! If only + Present / Future Tense ca unechivalent pentrupropozi iile care ncep cu HOPE I hope she will come in time. If only she comes in time!

y y y y

ITS TIME y Its Time + Past Tense Simple Its time you finished reading the newspaper. y Its time + Past Tense Continuous pentru a accentua natura progresiv a ac iunii Its time you were decorating your house. y Its time + For + Infinitiv a sosit timpul s faci ceva Its time for you to have lunch. y Its time + Past Tense este deja cam trziu s mai faci ceva Its time you had your lunch. Main Clause Subjunctive Form I would rather/sooner = a prefera he left now = s plece If only = m car dac Suppose = dac cumva! He had arrived = s fi sosit It is high time = e vremea s D. Subjonctivul analitic Subjonctivul analitic este mai des folosit dect cel sintetic i poate ap rea att n subordonat ct i n propozi ia principal . Este format dintr-un verb modal shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could i Infinitivul Prezent sau Perfect.

Se folose te: y Shall + Infinitiv Shall I help you with your homework? They have decided that you shall go there. (you must go) y Should + Infinitiv in main clauses Why should they come so early? y Should + Infinitiv dup urm toarele construc ii: it is/was important, necessary, natural, surprising, advisable Its necessary that you should be present. y Should + Infinitiv dup urm toarele verbe: to demand, insist, command, propose, request, suggest They suggested that you should tell them the truth. y Should + Infinitiv n propozi ii subordonate de scop introduse de lest, for fear (that), in case We left in a hurry lest she should see us there. (= ca s nu ne vad ) Where would you sleep in case you should miss the train? y Should + Infinitiv n propozi ii subordonate atributive His desire that no one should enter that room surprised us. y Should + Infinitiv n propozi ii concesive introduse de though, although, whatever Whatever she should say, dont contradict her.

y y

y y y

May/ Might + Infinitiv in main clauses May all your dreams come true! Just imagine, next year we might have a car! May/ Might + Infinitiv n propozi ii subordonate dup urm toarele construc iiit is/was possible, probable, likely It is probable that our friend might have known you. It is possible that she may come today. May/ Might + Infinitiv n propozi ii subordonate de scop introduse de that, in order that, so that He took a seat in the first row so that he might hear the actors well. May/ Might + Infinitiv n propozi ii subordonate concesive introduse de though, although, however, whatever, no matter However painful it may be to you, you must know the truth. No matter how expensive that car might be she still wants to buy it. Would + Infinitiv n propozi ii completive directe dup wish They wish we would pay them a visit. Would + Infinitiv n propozi ii subordonate de scop She learnt all the new words so that she would be able to translate the text. Could + Infinitiv pentru a exprima scopul, ca o alternativ la may/might, avnd un grad mai mare de certitudine She studied a lot so that she could pass the difficult exam.

Exerci ii Pune i verbele din paranteze la forma corect : past tense simple, past perfect sau would + infinitiv: 1. We had lots of fun at the party. I wish you (be) there, too. 2. The plants need a lot of water at this time of the year and it hasnt rained for a long time. I wish it (rain) now. 3. I wish my mother (be) here now to help me. 4. Tom forgot to buy the sports newspaper this morning. He wishes he (buy) it, as he doesnt know the football results. 5. We wish the teacher (explain) the grammar rules again next week. 6. Id like to go to the concert, but I havent got a ticket. I wish I (buy) one this morning. 7. The lecturer is already half an hour late. We wish he (come). 8. I didnt like the film yesterday. I wish I (not stay) up to the end. 9. I wish you (pay) more attention to your spelling in the future. 10. I wish I (follow) the doctors advice. I wouldnt be so ill now. 11. The teacher wishes someone (offer) to bring some coloured chalk to school tomorrow. 12. I wish you (inform) me about this matter several months ago.

Traduce i urm toarele propozi ii n limba romn : 1. I wish you would listen more carefully to your teacher. 2. Do you wish they had sent you a card? 3. I wished she had posted this letter for me. 4. Dont your friends wish you would go on the trip with them? 5. Mother wishes I got better marks at school. 6. The little boys wished they were allowed to swim in the lake. 7. Dont you wish it were summer now? 8. Doesnt your teacher wish you would improve your pronunciation?

Pune i verbele din paranteze la forma corect : 1. He is speaking as if he (answer) an examination. 2. I always get seasick when I travel by sea. If only I (not take) the boat and (come) by plane! 3. If only you (give) me a chance to try again, Cecily begged. 4. I wish you (stay) with me for a while. I feel very lonely. 5. She went on talking as if she (not hear) what I had said. 6. Its time you (stop) making a nuisance of yourself. 7. Its a pity you left so early. Id rather you (stay) a little longer. 8. For the first time in his life he felt as if he (be) in a hurry to get where he was going. 9. She acted as though she (be) born an actress.

Traduce i urm toarele propozi ii n limba englez : 1. Ana ar dori s nu fie att de ocupat s pt mna asta. 2. Va trebui s a tept m 20 de minute pn la sosirea trenului. Ce p cat c am plecat de acas att de devreme! 3. B ie elul ar dori ca p rin ii s -l trimit n tab ra de var de la Sinaia, dar sunt sigur c ei l vor duce la ar la bunici. 4. Numai de-a putea g si cuvintele cele mai potrivite! 5. Se l uda c a rezolvat singur toate problemele de matematic . Numai de l-ai fi auzit! 6. A dori ca ea s treac acest examen dificil. 7. Mai degrab m-a duce s v d un film dect s -mi pierd timpul a teptndu-te. 8. Luna viitoare e primul examen; e timpul s te apuci serios de nv at. 9. A trecut o s pt mn de cnd ai primit scrisoarea de la Angela. E timpul s -i r spunzi la scrisoare. 10. Numai de nu s-ar opri

motorul chiar la mijlocul pantei! 11. Diana vorbe te de parc n-ar ti nimic despre conferin . 12. A fi preferat ca el s spun adev rul. 13. Se comport de parc el ar fi f cut toate preg tirile pentru serbare. 14. To i prietenii mei joac handbal pe terenul de sport. Ce p cat c nu tiu s joc handbal! Traduce i urm toarele propozi ii n limba romn : 1. E ciudat c cheltuie te a a de pu ini bani cnd tie c scumpul mai mult p gube te. 2. E de necrezut c citea cnd trebuia s lucreze la teza de doctorat. 3. E remarcabil c ei lucrau de dou ore i terminaser treaba cnd ai sosit. 4. Nu i se pare de necrezut s se strice untul a a de repede? 5. Insist s treci deoparte, fiindc stai n drum. 6. Copilul acesta e bun la toate jocurile, a a c va juca orice i ceri. 7. Zise c e competent n meseria lui, ca s avem ncredere n el. 8. E ncntat de ideea de a merge la mare de parc n-ar ti c -i prea frig acum acolo. 9. S tr ie ti mult i s fii fericit! 10. Orice ar fi g tit cnd ai sosit tu, trebuia s i dea o por ie.

Cheia exerci iilor: * 1. had been 2. were raining 3. were 4. had bought 5. would explain 6. had bought 7. were coming 8. hadnt stayed 9. would pay 19. had followed 11. would offer 12. had informed

* 1. ce n-a da s o ascul i mai atent pe profesoar . 2. Ai dori s - i fi trimis o ilustrat ? 3. A fi dorit s mi fi pus scrisoarea la po t pentru mine. 4. Nu i doresc prietenii t i s mergi cu ei n excursie? 5. Ce n-ar da mama s iau note mai bune la coal . 6. B ie eii i-ar fi dorit s aib voie s noate n lac. 7. Nu i-ai dori s fie var acum? 8. Nu i dore te profesoara ta s i mbun t e ti pronun ia? *1. were answering 2. hadnt taken, had come 3. would give 4. would stay 5. hadnt heard 6. stopped 7. had stayed 8. was 9. had been * 1. Ann wishes she werent /wasnt so busy this week. 2. Well have to wait for tewnty minutes until the train comes in. I wish I hadnt left home so early! 3. The little boy wishes his parents would send him to the Sinaia summer camp, but Im sure theyll take him to his grandparents in the country. 4. If only I could find the most suitable words! 5. He boasted he had solved all the maths problems by himself. If only you had heard him! 6. I wish she will pass / passes this difficult examination! 7. Id rather go and see a film than waste my time waiting for you. 8. Your first exam is next Monday, its time you got down to work. 9. Its a week since you received Anglas letter. Its time you answered her letter. 10. If only the engine wouldnt stop right in the middle of the bend! 11. Diana is talking as if/ as though she didnt know anything about the conference. 12. Id rather he had told the truth. 13. He behaved as if / though he himself had made all the preparations for the festival. 14. All my friends are playing handball in the sportsground. I wish / if only I could play handball. * 1. It is strange that he should spend so little when he knows that cheapest is the dearest. 2. It is unbelivable that he should have been reading when he should have been working on his dissertation. 3. It is remarkable that they should have been working for two hours and had finished the job when you arrived. 4. Dont you think it unbelivable that the butter should go bad so soon? 5. I insist that you should go aside because you are in the way. 6. The boy is clever at all games, so he will play anything you ask him to. 7. He said he was competent at his job so that we might trust him. 8. He is delighted with the idea of going to the seaside as though he did not know it was too cold there now. 9. May you live long and be happy! 10. Whatever he may be cooking when you arrived, he ought to have given you a helping.