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Generator cu Magnei permaneni

- manual de construcie -
Hugh Piggott - Scoraig Wind Electric - februarie 2001 comentarii la hugh.piggott@enterprise.net
Cuprins:
1. Introducere 2
2. Lista materialelor i uneltelor necesare 6
3. aloane i matrie !
". Construcia statorului 23
#. Construcia rotorului 2$
6. %samlarea 3"
&. 'estare i conectare 3$
!. In(ormaii suplimentare "&
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BMG manual Bage 1 7eruar+ 2661
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
1. Introducere
%cest manual descrie cum sC construim un Dgenerator cu magnei permaneniE 9GMB:. Fl
mai putem numi DalternatorE deoarece genereaGC curent alternati0 9%C:. ?u produce
tensiune de DreeaE. /l genereaGC tensiune micC@ tri(aGatC@ care este apoi redresatC
pentru HncCrcarea unei aterii de 12 0oli.
Cum este construit un GMB:
<n GMB 90eGi (igura de mai sus: se compune din:
I <n asiu din (ier cu un ol centralJ
I <n stator coninKnd oineleJ
I ,ouC rotoare cu magneiJ
I <n redresor.
-tatorul conine ase oine din sKrmC de cupru Hngloate Hn rCinC pentru (irC de
sticlC. %cest stator este (i8at de asiuJ el nu se micC. 7irele de la oine se conecteaGC
la punile redresoare care sc)imC tensiunea alternati0C Hn tensiune continuC pentru
acumulator. Bunile se monteaGC pe un radiator de aluminiu pentru rCcire.
>otoarele cu magnei sunt montate pe rulmeni i se rotesc pe olul central. >otorul din
spate se a(lC dupC stator i este (i8at de rotorul din (aC prin patru preGoane ce trec prin
stator. Balele turinei se (i8eaGC Hn (aC prin aceleai preGoane. CKmpul magnetic de la
cele douC rotoare trece de la unul la altul prin stator. Micarea acestui cKmp produce
energie electricC Hn stator.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Construcia GMB
%cest manual descrie cum sC construim un GMB. Citii cu atenie Hnainte de a Hncepe
construcia.
-eciunea 2. /ste o listC cu materialele i uneltele necesare.
-eciunea 3 e8plicC cum se realiGeaGC aloanele i matriele necesare. %cestea se pot
(olosi la construcia mai multor generatoare. /8istC mai multe moduri de a realiGa aceste
unelte i matrie@ dar nu a0em loc Hn acest manual decKt pentru o singurC modalitate.
-eciunea " este despre stator. ,escrie cum se realiGeaGC oinele din sKrmC de cupru
emailat i cum se include acestea Hn rCinC@ (olosind aloane i matriele.
-eciunea # aratC cum se construiete rotorul din magnetic@ plecKnd de la magnei i
discuri din oel@ (olosind de asemeni rCina.
-eciunea 6 aratC cum se asamleaGC pCrile intr-un generator. -e e8plicC cum se (ac
anumite pCri mecanice@ cum se ec)ilireaGC rotoarele i ce este necesar pentru a
conecta corect oinele statorului.
-eciunea & este despre testarea generatorului. Conine procedurile pentru 0eri(icare de
la ec)ilirare la Dgata de (olosireE. ,escrie opiunile de conectare electricC i cum
conectCm generatorul la o aterie de acumulatori.
-eciunea ! conine in(ormaii suplimentare despre (olosirea rCinilor poliesterice i
despre (olosirea generatorului la o micro )idrocentralC.
Ce se poate (ace cu acest generator
%cest generator este destinat (olosirii la o instalaie eolianC de micC putere. Bentru a
construi o asemenea centralC@ mai sunt necesare:
- un turn: Hn principiu din ea0C@ ancorat cu caluri de oelJ
- ansamlul oscilant montat Hn capCtul turnuluiJ
- o coadC@ pentru a ine generatorul DHn 0KntEJ
- o elice@ pentru a-l roti.
asiul pe care se a(lC a8ul generatorului se a(lC (i8at pe ansamlul oscilant. /licea se
monteaGC Hn (aa generatorului. 'ot ansamlul treuie ast(el construit@ ast(el HncKt
generatorul sC (ie Dscos din 0KntE Hn caGul unor 0Knturi puternice@ pentru auto-protecie.
%cest manual nu descrie elicea@ turnul@ coada i ansamlul oscilant.

GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Fn test la -coraig
GMB lucreaGC la turaie micC. ,iagrama indicC puterea de ieire a generatorului@
HncCrcKnd o aterie de 12 0oli. La "26 rotaii pe minut@ el genereaGC 1!6 *ai@ adicC 1#
amperi la 12 0oli.
La o 0iteGC mai mare poate genera mai multC putere@ dar curentul mai mare prin oine
genereaGC mai multC cCldurC@ deci o e(icienC mai slaC. Bentru turaii mai mari este
ine de a se (olosi alte date pentru stator@ ori cu sKrmC mai groasC@ ori sc)imKnd modul
de conectare a oinelor.
,acC este (olosit la turaii mai mari@ este ine de a (olosi un conductor mai gros@ dar Hn
acest caG 0or HncCpea mai puine spire@ ceea ce presupune cC generatorul nu 0a mai
lucra la 0iteGe mici.
Bentru a (olosi acelai generator atKt la 0iteGe mici cKt i mari@ se pot sc)ima modul de
conectare al oinelor. /8istC douC modalitCi de a lega oinele la redresor. /le pot (i
conectate Hn LsteaL sau Ltriung)iL. MeGi capitolul & pentru o descriere detaliatC a acestor
tipuri de cone8iune.
MeGi diagrama 3 pentru gra(icul puterii Hn (uncie de turaie. LegCtura Hn stea Hncepe sC
lucreGe la turaie micC 91&6 rpm:@ iar legCtura Hn triung)i dC mai multC putere@ dar numai
la turaie mai mare. LegCtura Hn stea este unC la 0Knt (oarte sla@ iar legCtura Hn triung)i
la 0Knt puternic. A 0ersiune mai mare a acestui generator poate (i (olositC pentru a da
mai multC putere la un 0Knt mai sla.


GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Aser0aii:
- 'reuie a0ut griNC la construcia i asamlarea generatorului@ ast(el HncKt magneii sC
nu se deGlipeascC. %ceasta se poate HntKmpla Hn situaii e8treme. ,eGlipirea unui
magnet poate distruge Hntregul generatorJ
- <rmCrii toate instruciunile de montare a magneilor@ nu se 0or lipi numai pe discurile
de oelJ
- ?u lo0ii magneii cu ciocanul Hn timpul asamlCriiJ
- -e 0a lCsa un spaiu de minim 1 mm Hntre stator i rotor@ pe amele (ee 9pentru
situaii de (orC sau@ pentru 0iteGC mare@ se 0a lCsa un spaiu mai mare:J
- ?u (olosii generatorul la 0iteGe peste !66 rpm la o turinC eolianC 9cKnd turina se
LleagCnCL@ sunt generate (ore giroscopice mari@ care pot Hndoi discurile rotorului@ iar
magneii se pot atinge de stator:J
- ?u montai ansamlul de pale direct pe discul din (aC ci numai prin preGoane
corespunGCtoare de distanareJ
- CKnd se monteaGC generatorul pe suportul oscilant al turinei@ se 0a pCstra asiul
generatorului 0ertical.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
2. Lista materialelor i uneltelor
Materiale pentru generator
Biese per
GMB
MCrime Greutate totalC
grame
B>A,<-/ B/?'>< 7I1>% ,/ -'ICLO
>CinC poliestericC 9pre amestecatC cu
accelerator:
2&66
CataliGator 9pero8ide: #6
BudrC de talc 1266
BKnGC de (irC de sticlC 91oG=sP(oot: 1 metru pCtrat 366
Bigment colorat pentru rCinC 9dacC se cere: #6
BlastilinC sau c)it
AQ/L I?ARI,%1IL
7ir de oel ino8idail 2 mm 8 16 metri 266
M%G?/QI
1locuri de (eritC Grade 3 9premagnetiGai: 16 26 8 #6 8 #6 mm "666
/L/C'>IC/
Cupru emailat 1" %3G - 1.& mm 9sau
1&%3G - 0eGi p."":
3666
Calu (le8iil 9apro8imati0 1"%3G: 6 metri
7ludor i 0arni pentru cone8iuni
1andC iGolatoare 1=2 inc)
Buni redresoare 2 2#% 266M mono(aGat
>adiatoare pentru redresoare 2#6
AQ/L
Qea0C pCtratC 9S>2-S: pentru asiu 1 3!6 8 #6 82# 8 " mm 1166
,iscuri magnetice 9sau octogonale: 2 6 mm 8 36# mm
,iametru e8terior
6666
BreGoane de 16 mm 1666 mm #66
aie de 16 mm 32 366
Biulie de 16mm 16
BreGoane de ! mm "66mm 12#
Biulie de ! mm ! #6
uruuri cu piulie de # mm pentru punile
redresoare
2 #mm 8 26mm
1ol 2#mm 8 1#6mm #66
M/C%?IC/
1utucul pentru rulmeni@ dupC descrierea de
la capitolul 6
1 12#6
Materiale pentru matrie
BlacaN 9TtegoEJ alte idei sunt posiile: i clei pentru lemn
2Krtie araGi0C@ cearC
90arni din poliurtan i agent de separare@ dacC sunt disponiile:
Bensule i diluant pentru curCarea lor
BlacaN de 13 mm pentru matrie@ (orme i centrul statorului
1arC sau ea0C de (ier@ pentru Tmaina de oinatE
Biese mici din metal
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
asiu@ ol@ utuc i rotorul cu magnei
<nelte
Ac)elari de protecie@ mascC de (aC@ mCnui@ dupC necesitCi
MasC de lucru cu meng)inC
%parat de sudurC
7erCstrCu ung)iular
1om(aier@ ciocan@ punctator@ daltC
Compas@ ruletC@ raportor
T-pannersE: !@16@13@1&@1$ mm@ cKte douC
,opuri pentru gCurile din rotor
-KrmC de alamC pentru mCsurarea HnClimii magneilor
1ormainC de anc
1urg)ie de 6@ !@ 16 i 12 mm
1urg)ie de lemn de 2# i 6# mm
-trung pentru lemn sau un inlocuitor@ con(orm cu seciunea 3
,altC 9 cuit: pentru strungul de lemn
7erCstrCu mecanic pentru lemn
MCsuri pentru rCinC
C)irituri
Ciocan de lipit@ sacKG@ tCietor sKrmC@ cuit
3. aloane i
matrie
%ceastC seciune descrie cum
se 0or realiGa aloanele i
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
matriele pentru construirea GMB. AdatC realiGate@ acestea pot (i utiliGate din nou@ la
construcia altor generatoare.
Maina de oinat
-tatorul generatorului conine 6 oine din sKrmC de cupru 90eGi sc)ema de mai Nos:.
1oinele 0or (i Hn(Curate pe un alon din lemn.
I %cesta 0a (i (i8at la capCtul unei mani0ele cu mKner@ 90eGi (igura #: Hntre douC piese din
lemn.
I -e 0a tCia o ucatC de (ier cu dimensiunile de 66 8 36 8 6 mm 9dimensiune sugeratC: i
se 0a (i8a pe capCtul mani0elei ca in (igura 6.
I 'Ciai 3 piese din placaN din lemn de 13 mm dupC (igura &.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
I alonul oinei este de #6 8 #6 mm cu 13 mm grosime. %re colurile rotunNite.
DCapaceleE au 12#8 12# mm. 'oate cele 3 piese au spaii de 26 mm dimensiune pentru
introducerea unor enGi adeGi0e pentru stailiGarea (ormei oinelor@ dupC realiGare@
atunci cKnd sunt e8trase de pe alon.
I -e 0or pune cele trei piese de lemn una peste alta 9(igura !: i se 0or da gCurile pentru
montarea pe mani0elC. %cestea au 6 mm diametru i "6 mm grosime. -e 0a (olosi o
ormainC de anc pentru a da gCurile e8act perpendicular.
I -e 0or trece douC preGoane prin gCuri i se 0or (i8a pe placa metalicC a mani0elei. -e
0or (olosi e0entual uruuri (luture9(igura $:.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Matriele pentru rotoare
!ablonul pentru g"urile din rotoare
Caseta cu rulmeni are o (lanC cu@ de e8emplu " gCuri pe 162 mm 9" inc):. Fn diagrama
16 se da e8emplul cu " gCuri@ dar pot (i i alte aranNamente@ dupC posiilitCi.
-e 0a crea un alon care se 0a (olosi i pentru ec)ilirarea rotoarelor. GCurile treuie
sC (ie marcate i realiGate (oarte precis 90eGi diagrama 11:
- se 0a tCia o ucatC pCtratC de (ier de 12# 8 12# mmJ
- se deseneaGC diagonala i se marc)eaGC e8act centrul cu un punctatorJ
- se pune compasul pe #1 mm i se deseneaGC un cercJ
- diametrul este distana ma8imC dintre gCurile din rotoareJ
- se marc)eaGC locurile unde linia diagonalC@ HntKlnete cerculJ
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
- se pune compasul pe &2 mm i se marc)eaGC celelalte douC puncte 9dacC (lana
disponiilC are alte dimensiune@ se 0or recalcula 0alorile:J
- se 0or da cele " gCuri@ mai HntKi cu un urg)iu mai mic@ apoi cu cel normal.
!ablonul pentru po#iionarea magneilor $diagrama 12%
%cesta este necesar pentru plasarea e8actC a magneilor pe discurile de oel. /ste
necesar doar un singur alon. %cesta se (ace din o ucatC de placaN sau aluminiu 9nu
(ier:.
-e 0or (ace urmCtoarele:
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
- se marc)eaGC centrulJ
- se deseneaGC 3 cercuri cu diametrul de #6@ 162 i 266 mm@ cu acest centruJ
- se deseneaGC o perec)e de linii@ tangente la cercul de #6 mm@ dupC cu este indicat
Hn desenJ
- se mai deseneaGC HncC 3 perec)i de linii la "# i $6 grade de prima perec)eJ
- (olosind aceste linii se marc)eaGC poGiia magneilor i se taie dupC liniile HngroateJ
- se deseneaGC o linie Hntre douC centre opuse ale magneilorJ
- se plaseaGC alonul de gCurire a rotoarelor peste cercul de 162mm@ aliniat cu
centrul magneilor i se dau " gCuri@ pentru a se potri0i cu gCurile de pe rotoare.
&eali#area matrielor
-e 0or realiGa matrie pentru turnarea statorului i a rotoarelor. %cestea se pot realiGa
din lemn sau aluminiu. A altC metodC este de a (ace matria din argilC sau plastilinC.
Interiorul matriei 0a (i e8teriorul statorului.
Matriele treuie sC (ie destul de rigide netede. ?u este uor de a separa matria de
piesa realiGatCJ adesea este ne0oie de ciocan.
/ste o idee unC de a realiGa o oinC 90eGi seciunea ":@ Hnainte de a (ace matria
statorului@ pentru a 0eri(ica modul cum oinele se HncadreaGC Hn matriC.
Fn cele ce urmeaGC se 0a preGenta o metodC de a (ace matriele din placaN gros 9tego:
prin strunNire.
Matria statorului
- se taie cKte0a discuri de placaN de apro8imati0 #66 mm diametruJ
- se iau discurile 9mai puin unul: i li se taie cKte o gaurH de 366 mm Hn centrul lorJ
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
- -e deseneaGC un cerc de 366 mm pe discul rCmasJ
- -e dC o gaurC de 12 mm Hn centrul acestui discJ
- -e lipesc discurile pe discul rCmas@ pentru a (orma o TgaurCE de 66 mm adKncime
9diagrama 1#:. -e 0a utiliGa su(icient clei@ pentru a umple spaiileJ
- -e taie un disc de 1# mm din lemn i 1"6 mm diametru i se gCurete Hn centru cu
12 mmJ
- -e plaseaGC acest disc e8act Hn centru ansamlului@ unde se lipete. -e 0a utiliGa de
asemenea su(icient cleiJ
- se monteaGC o altC ucatC de lemn pe un strung@ motor sau utucul roii unui mic
0e)icul. %ceasta 0a (i piesa de legCturC 9T(aceplateE: din diagrama 16J
- rotii motorul i (olosind un creion@ marcai un mic cerc Hn centruJ
- se dC o gaurC de 12 mm@ (oarte precis@ Hn centru@ perpendicular pe discJ
- se (i8eaGC ansamlul de discuri gaura de 12 mm pentru centrare. -e 0or (olosi "
uruuri pentru lemn pentru (i8areJ
- 0eri(icai ca (aa matriei sC se roteascC Hn plan. -e (olosete un creion pentru a lCsa
semne. -e slCesc uruurile din partea opusC a Gonei Hn care creionul lasC semne
i se introduce )artie Hntre matriC i piesa de prindere@ dupC care se strHng din nou.

GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
%cum este posiil sC prelucrCm matria cu o daltC 9pe post de cuit de strung:. -e 0a
purta o mascC pe (aC@ pentru a e0ita in)alarea de pra(. %tenie la materialul HndepCrtatU
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
- se 0or prelucra supra(eele neted 9diagrama 1&:J
- latura e8ternC a statorului 0a (i HnclinatC cu & gradeJ
- Gonele de trecere 0or (i rotunNite nu ascuiteJ
- discul din centru 0a (i prelucrat dupC (igura 1&J
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
- se 0a plasa o oinC Hn matriC i se 0a 0eri(ica sC HncapC ine. ,acC nu@ se 0a lCrgi
TgauraE sau se 0a micora discul central@ cu puin. Fn (inal@ centrul oinelor treuie
sa (ie pe un cerc cu diametrul de 2#6 mmJ
- se 0a scoate matria din strung sau motor.
- se dau " gCuri Hn partea centralC@ pentru a (i (olosite la separarea din matriC.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Matria inelului statorului
- se taie discuri de 3&6 mm diametruJ
- se dC cate o gaurC de 12 mm Hn centrul (iecCrui discJ
- se lipesc HmpreunC@ centrate@ pentru a se
oine un pac)et de "# sau@ mai ine@ de #6
mm grosimeJ
- se prelucreaGC ast(el HncKt sC aiC pe e8terior
26 grade@ dimensiunea reducKndu-se de la 36!
la 32# mmJ
- se 0eri(icC@ punKnd matria e8ternC peste inel@
ca spaiul rCmas sC (ie de apro8imati0 6 mm
(aC de margineJ
- se deseneaGC 2 linii pe (aa mai mare a matriei
inelului@ la 3"6 mm distaC 9(igura 21:J
- se taie douC (ee dupC (igura 21. %cestea 0or
crea douC HngroCri Hn stator@ utile la (i8area de
asiu.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Matriele rotoarelor
GMB necesitC douC rotoare cu magnei. ?umai o matriC este necesarC@ dar din
considerente de producti0itate@ se 0or realiGa douC matrie@ ast(el HncKt cele douH rotoare
0or (i realiGate Hn acelai timp.
Matria e8ternC 9(igura 22: este similarC cu cea a statorului@ dar mai simplC.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
<se t)e BC, Nig to drill (our )oles to matc) t)e )oles in t)e magnet dis4s.
/ac) magnet rotor also needs an inner dis4 mould 9diagram 23:@ *it) t)e same pattern
o( (our )oles.
%ll moulds are sanded do*n to a 0er+ smoot) sur(ace@ and (inis)ed *it) pol+uret)ane
0arnis) and *a8 polis). ,o not use ordinar+ paint on t)e moulds. ')e )eat o( t)e
resin process *ill cause t)e paint to *rin4le and spoil t)e appearance o( t)e casting.
>otor mould eing made and used
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Vigs (or t)e stator
-tator studs Nig 9see diagram 2":
')e stator needs (our ! mm supporting studs cast into it. ')ese studs need a Nig to
)old t)em in place@ until t)e resin is set. ')is Nig is made (rom *ood 3!6 8 #6 8
2#mm. It must e made precisel+@ or t)e studs *ill not (it t)e spine later.
I Ma4e a punc) mar4 at t)e e8act centre o( t)e largest (ace 9see diagram 2":.
I <se di0iders or compasses to mar4 arcs at a radius o( 1&! mm (rom t)is mar4.
I Bunc) (our mar4s on t)ese arcs@ 36 mm apart and 16mm (rom t)e edge.
I ,rill t)roug) *it) an !mm drill 9using a smaller siGe (irst to e accurate:. <se a
drill press@ to drill t)e )oles trul+ sPuare.
I >emo0e some o( t)e underside o( t)e ends o( t)e piece o( *ood@ so as to pre0ent
contact *it) t)e (ireglass resin.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Baper templates 9see diagram 2#:
7ireglass Sc)opped strand matS 9C-M: is to e used in t)e stator. Ma4e some paper
templates (or cutting out t)e pieces o( C-M. Later +ou can la+ t)e templates on t)e
s)eet o( C-M@ dra* around t)em *it) a (elt pen and t)en cut t)e pieces out.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
". -tator construction
')is section tells )o* to ma4e a stator@ using t)e Nigs and moulds (rom section 3. It
is a good idea to *ind a coil e(ore ma4ing t)e stator moulds@ so t)at t)e mould can
e c)ec4ed (or correct (it.
3inding t)e coils
I Mount t)e reel o( *inding *ire on an a8le e)ind +ou@ in line *it) t)e coil (ormer.
')e *ire s)ould (orm an S-S end as it *inds onto t)e coil 9diagram 26:.
I 1end t)e tail o( t)e *ire $6 degrees@ at a point 166mm (rom t)e end. ,o not
)andle t)e end an+ ot)er part o( t)e *ireJ lea0e it straig)t. 1ent *ire does not
ma4e a compact coil.
I Blace t)is end in t)e notc)@ so t)at t)e tail )angs out.
I '*ist t)e tail loosel+ around one o( t)e utter(l+ olts.
I Grip t)e *ire et*een t)e reel and t)e *inder in a piece o( rag to 4eep it tig)t.
I 3ind t)e )andle o( t)e cran4s)a(t.
')e (irst turn lies against t)e c)ee4 piece on t)e side *)ere t)e tail comes out. ')e
ot)er turns lie against eac) ot)er neatl+@ *it)out crossing o0er. 1uild t)e coil up in
e0en la+ers. Count t)e numer o( turns care(ull+. ?ormall+ t)ere *ill e 166 turns.
I 3)en t)e coil is complete@ pass a piece o( stic4+ tape under t)e coil on ot) sides
and ind it tig)tl+. ,o not cut o(( t)e *inding *ire until t)is is done@ or t)e coil
*ill spring out@ and loosen. Cut t)e tail o( *ire 166mm a*a+ (rom t)e coil.
I >emo0e t)e coil (rom t)e (ormer@ and *ind (i0e more coils in e8actl+ t)e same
*a+.
I Blace t)e coils on a tale 9so t)at t)e+ are all e8actl+ t)e same *a+ up 9diagram
2&: C)ec4 t)at t)e starting tail is on t)e upper sur(ace@ and not )idden under t)e
coil.
I ?umer t)e coils 1-6@ *riting on t)e mas4ing tape.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
I -crape t)e enamel o(( t)e last 26mm o( eac) tail o( enamelled *ire@ until it is all
rig)t copper. 9% )ac4sa* lade ma4es a 0er+ good scraper@ *)en t)e edge )as
een s)arpened *it) a grinder.:
I -older on tails o( (le8ile *ire 9diagram 2!:.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
-uggested lengt)s o( (le8ile tails:
coils 1 and 6 - !66 mm (le8
coils 2 and # - 666 mm (le8
coils 3 and " - "66 mm (le8
I Co0er t)e soldered Noints *it) slee0ing. Lea0e no are copper s)o*ing.
I Lael t)e tails *it) t)e coil numer and t)e letter % or 1.
% is (or t)e start o( t)e coil@ 1 is (or t)e (inis). ,o not mi8 t)em up.
Ar use t*o colours: lac4 (le8 (or t)e starts and *)ite (or t)e (inis)es.
I La+ t)e coils out in t)e outer mould.
I C)ec4 t)at t)e+ *ill (it com(ortal+@ and t)at t)e tails are long enoug) to remain
*it)in t)e mould until t)e e8it point et*een coils 3 and ".
It is important to la+ all t)e coils t)e same *a+ up.
Breparations (or stator casting
')e stator casting *ill contain:-
I si8 coils
I pol+ester resin and talcum po*der 9and per)aps pigment:
I (ireglass mat 9C-M:
I (our studs o( !mm 8 166mm t)readed rod
%lso@ e sure to )a0e t)e moulds prepared properl+. -and t)em@ seal t)em@ polis)
t)em. I( BM% release agent can e got@ t)en use it.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Cut out pieces o( (ireglass C-M@ using t)e templates. ')ere *ill e 2 circular dis4s
(or la+ing (lat in t)e outer mould. Wou also need enoug) cur0ed strip pieces to co0er
t)e inside *all o( t)e outer mould in a doule t)ic4ness o( C-M. A0erlap 2#mm
et*een pieces.
3)en +ou are sure t)at +ou )a0e e0er+t)ing to )and@ start t)e resin casting process.
It is a good idea to read t)roug) t)e procedure (irst@ and c)ec4 t)at +ou understand it
all e(ore +ou start. ')ere are notes on pol+ester resins in section !.
')e stator casting procedure
,iagram 36 s)o*s t)e procedure (or *eig)ing out t)e resin and t)e talcum po*der.
')e talcum po*der is onl+ used (or ul4 mi8es 9not t)in la+ers *it) C-M:@ to pre0ent
o0er)eating@ and to t)ic4en t)e mi8. ,i((erent mi8es use di((erent *eig)ts - (ollo*
t)e step + step instructions elo*. ,iagram 31 s)o*s all t)e parts coming toget)er.
Mi8 resin *it) catal+st t)oroug)l+ ut slo*l+ to a0oid c)urning in air ules. %dd
an+ talcum po*der onl+ a(ter t)e catal+st is mi8ed. 3)en t)e resin is mi8ed@ use it
at once. %(ter a (e* minutes in t)e mi8ing uc4et@ it *ill )eat up@ and egin to set.
<se e8actl+ t)e rig)t amount o( catal+st. >esin casting needs less catal+st t)an
normal (ireglass *or4 9aout )al( t)e time:. 3)en t)e *or4s)op is )ot@ put in less
catal+st. Casting t)ic4 la+ers o( resin@ put in less catal+st. I( in dout@ ma4e some
trial mi8es o( resin@ to (ind out t)e correct amount o( catal+st.
I( t)ere is no BM% Srelease agentS@ t)en ta4e care not to *ipe t)e polis) o(( t)e mould
*it) rus) stro4es. %ppl+ t)e resin *it) a SproddingS action.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
I Blace t)e outer mould on some ne*spaper on a *or4enc).
I Mi8 266g o( resin@ *it) 3cc o( catal+st 9and 1#-36cc o( pigment (or colour@ i(
rePuired:. <se no talcum po*der in t)e (irst t*o mi8es.
I Baint t)is resin all o0er t)e inside o( t)e outer mould. ,o not paint it on top o( t)e
island in t)e centre.
I %ppl+ one la+er o( (ireglass mat 9C-M:@ and paint more resin o0er it again@ *it) a
po4ing motion to remo0e ules. 3or4 t)e resin into t)e C-M.
I %ppl+ a second la+er o( C-M to t)e *all@ ut 4eep one dis4 (or later.
I But t)e coils into t)e mould. ')e *ire tails all come out in one place@ et*een
coils 3 and ".
I Mi8 anot)er 166 g o( resin *it) 2cc catal+st. Bour t)is o0er t)e *ires o( t)e coils
so t)at it soa4s in. %0oid ma4ing SpoolsS o( resin.
I Mi8 anot)er 666g o( resin *it) $cc catal+st and 666g o( talcum po*der. Bour t)is
mi8 into t)e spaces et*een t)e coils. ')e resin s)ould (ill t)e outer mould until
it is le0el *it) t)e island at t)e centre.
I -)a4e t)e mould 0igorousl+@ to remo0e air ules. >otar+ motion and 0iration
*ill )elp t)e resin to settle@ and )elp an+ air ules to rise .
I Mi8 anot)er 266g resin *it) 3cc catal+st and onl+ 166g o( talc. But t)e second
C-M dis4 o0er t)e coils and paint it *it) t)is mi8. ')oroug)l+ *as) out t)e paint
rus) *it) t)inners.
I But t)e inner mould do*n inside t)e outer mould@ and (it t)e 12 mm olt t)oug) t)e
centre o( ot). 'uc4 t)e *iring neatl+ into t)e space et*een t)e moulds. Ane
(lat spot on t)e inner mould sits o0er t)e part *)ere t)e *ires come out o( t)e
stator. ')e resin *ill rise up t)e sides. -ome resin ma+ spill out.
I I( necessar+@ pour resin gentl+ into t)e gap et*een t)e moulds until it rises to
near t)e top o( t)e (emale mould. Wou ma+ need to mi8 anot)er 166g o( resin *it)
1.#cc o( catal+st to do t)is. .eep notes o( t)e amounts o( resin used@ (or ne8t
time.
I Blace t)e Nig 9(or t)e studs - diagram 2": o0er t)e inner mould@ *it) one end o0er
t)e *ire tails. 'ig)ten t)e 12mm olt *it) a nut. Insert t)e (our !mm studs into
t)e )oles@ *it) nuts on top. ')e studs s)ould e immersed in resin (or aout )al(
o( t)eir lengt).
-i8 stages o( t)e rotor casting procedure
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
')e casting is no* complete. It s)ould ecome slig)tl+ *arm@ and )arden *it)in
)ours. I( it does not egin to set *it)in a (e* )ours@ t)en put it in a *arm place to
speed up t)e process.
3)en t)e resin is (ull+ )ard@ remo0e t)e casting (rom t)e mould. 1e patient and
gentle i( possile. >emo0e t)e Nig (rom t)e studs. 'ap t)e t*o moulds apart@ using a
olt in eac) o( t)e )oles around t)e central )ole. .noc4 t)e casting out o( t)e outer
mould + turning it o0er and 4noc4ing t)e edge o( t)e mould gentl+ against t)e (loor.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
#. >otor construction
')e magnet rotor is also a casting. ')ere is also a procedure later (or assemling t)e
parts. 7irst collect toget)er t)e magnet plates@ magnet loc4s@ stainless *ire rope@
etc. as descried ne8t.
Magnet plates
/ac) magnet rotor is uilt on a steel dis4@ 6mm t)ic4. -ee diagram 32. ,o not use
aluminium or stainless steel (or t)is dis4U ')e dis4s )a0e to e made o( magnetic
material. ')e dis4 )as )oles to mount it to t)e )u - in t)is manual t)e )u )as (our
)oles@ eac) 16mm diameter@ on a circle at " inc)es 9162mm: BC,. I( a di((erent )u
is c)osen@ t)en all t)e Nigs and moulds must matc) t)is )u.
%t t)e centre o( t)e dis4 is a 6#mm diameter )ole. ')ere s)ould also e (our )oles
drilled and tapped 9t)readed: (or M16 rod et*een t)e magnet positions@ at 226mm
BC,. -cre* (our pieces o( M16 rod@ 26mm long@ into t)ese )oles. ')ese *ill ond to
t)e resin and )elp to secure t)e casting onto t)e dis4.
')e magnet plates must e (lat@ not *arped. It is not eas+ to cut t)e outer circle
*it)out *arping t)e plate. % guillotine can cut steel plate into an octagon 9see
diagram 33:@ *it)out *arping t)e plate. ')is is an alternati0e *a+ to ma4e t)e rotor
dis4. 7irst cut a sPuare@ dra* a circle on it@ and t)en cut o(( t)e corners at "#
degrees. ')e lengt) o( eac) edge is 116 mm.
')e magnets *ill e placed on t)e corners o( t)e octagon.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
')e central )ole is made *it) a )ole-sa* or it can e cut out on a lat)e.
Grind t)e steel dis4s until t)e+ are rig)t and clean@ Nust e(ore putting t)em in t)e
mould (or resin casting. >emo0e an+ grease *it) spirits.
Magnet loc4s
')ere are ! magnet loc4s on eac) rotor. /ac) loc4 )as a nort) pole and a sout) pole
9see diagram 3":.
'a4e care *)en )andling t)e magnets. Magnets can damage (lopp+ discs@ music tapes@
credit cards and ot)er magnetic media. -eparate t)em (rom eac) ot)er + sliding
t)em side*a+s. ')e+ attract eac) ot)er *it) strong (orces. 'a4e care not to let
t)em (l+ toget)er - t)e+ ma+ rea4. ?e0er use a )ammer to assemle t)e BMG. Wou
ma+ rea4 a magnet or rea4 t)e resin )olding it.
')e top (aces o( t)e magnet loc4s on t)e dis4 must alternate ?---?---... ')ere is a
met)od to c)ec4 t)at +ou are doing t)is correctl+@ as (ollo*s. /ac) time a magnet
loc4 is placed@ )old it so t)at it repels t)e one e(ore 9see diagram 3#:. ')en place
it *it)out turning it o0er. 3)en t)e+ are all in@ c)ec4 *it) anot)er magnet: it *ill e
attracted@ repelled@ attracted@ repelled@ + eac) magnet in t)e circle.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
')e t*o magnet rotors must attract eac) ot)er *)en t)e mounting )oles are aligned.
C)ec4 t)at t)e magnets ne8t to t)e )oles on one rotor are di((erent (rom t)e ones
ne8t to t)e )oles on t)e ot)er rotor 9see diagram 36:.
-tainless -teel *ire
3)en t)e BMG is turning@ t)e magnets *ill tr+ to (l+ o(( t)e rotors. ')ere is a large
centri(ugal (orce pulling t)e magnet loc4s to (l+ a*a+. 3)en *e started uilding
t)ese BMGs@ t)e magnet loc4s *ere simpl+ glued to t)e steel dis4s. 3)en t)e BMGs
turned (ast@ t)e magnets (le* o((@ and t)e *ind generators *ere destro+ed.
?o* *e emed t)e magnets in a resin casting. >esin alone is not strong enoug) to
)old t)e magnets. It s)ould e rein(orced. 3rap *ire around t)e outside o( t)e
magnet rotors to )old t)e magnets in. -teel *ire is strong enoug)@ ut steel *ould
ta4e t)e magnetism (rom t)e magnet loc4s. 3e use stainless steel ecause it is not
magnetic and it does not spoil t)e e((ect o( t)e magnets. -tainless steel *ire cale
is used on (is)ing oats.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
1e(ore using an+ resin assemle t)e parts dr+. But t)e stainless steel rope around
outside t)e magnets (i0e times@ and cut it o(( *it) a grinder or c)isel. 'ape it in
se0eral places so t)at it is in a coil@ read+ to drop into place later.
>otor casting procedure
1e(ore starting@ c)ec4 t)at e0er+t)ing is read+:
I t)e moulds are prepared *it) polis) or release agent@
I t)e magnets and t)e magnet dis4s are clean and rig)t 9no grease:@
I 16 strips o( C-M are read+ to (it et*een t)e magnets
I t)e stainless steel *ire is cut to lengt) and taped
I t)e magnet positioning Nig is read+
')e amounts o( resin mentioned in t)is procedure are enoug) (or t*o magnet rotors.
I Blace (our olts t)roug) t)e )oles in t)e outer mould@ (rom elo* 9see diagram
3&:. La+ a steel dis4 in t)e outer mould. Blace t)e inner mould on top. C)ec4 t)e
taper@ and place t)e smaller (ace do*n@ so t)at it can e easil+ remo0ed a(ter
casting.
I Mi8 266g o( resin *it) 3cc catal+st. Baint it all o0er t)e steel dis4. %dd 26g o(
pigment (or colour i( rePuired. Mi8 166g talcum po*der *it) t)e remains o( t)e
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
resin. Bour t)is mi8 around t)e edge o( t)e dis4 until it (ills t)e gap@ le0el *it)
t)e top o( t)e steel dis4.
I Blace t)e magnet positioning Nig onto t)e olts. Blace t)e magnet loc4s on t)e
steel dis4@ *it)in t)e positioning Nig. 'a4e care t)at t)e poles o( t)e magnets
alternate - nort)@ sout)@ nort)@ sout).. 1e(ore +ou place a magnet on t)e dis4@
c)ec4 t)at t)e underside o( t)e magnet is repelled + t)e one ne8t to it 9diagram
3#:. 3)en all t)e magnets are in@ remo0e t)e positioning Nig@ and use it (or t)e
ne8t magnet rotor. >ememer : position t)e magnet loc4s di((erentl+@ so t)at t)e
t*o rotors attract eac) ot)er.
'a4e care not to 4noc4 t)e magnets out o( place@ or t)e+ *ill slide toget)er under
t)e magnetic attraction.
I 7it nuts to t)e (our olts and tig)ten t)e central dis4 do*n onto t)e steel dis4.
I Mi8 #66g o( resin *it) &cc o( catal+st. %dd 366g talcum po*der. La+ small
strips o( C-M et*een t)e magnets and into t)e gap at t)e edge. %dd resin until
t)e C-M is soa4ed. Bo4e it@ or 0irate it@ to remo0e ules.
I La+ t)e coil o( stainless steel *ire loosel+ around t)e outside o( t)e magnets@
elo* t)e top o( t)e mould. ,o not let t)e *ire (all elo* t)e magnets. Let it sit
on t)e C-M. 'a4e care not to mo0e t)e magnets around.
I Mi8 #66g o( resin *it) &cc o( catal+st. %dd 366g talcum po*der. 7ill t)e spaces
et*een t)e magnets until t)e resin mi8 reac)es t)e top o( t)e mould.
Lea0e t)e rotor castings to set )ard 9se0eral )ours: e(ore +ou remo0e t)em (rom t)e
moulds. 1e patient *)en remo0ing t)e rotors (rom t)e moulds. ,o not use 0iolent
)ammer lo*s *)ic) ma+ damage t)em. 2it t)e mould@ and not t)e rotor.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
7our stages o( t)e rotor casting procedure
6. %sseml+
>otor alancing
/ac) rotor s)ould e alanced@ or t)e BMG *ill s)a4e *)en it is turning. ')e *)ole
BMG needs to e alanced again at t)e end@ ecause t)e rotors ma+ not e mounted
e8actl+ centrall+. % di((erent procedure is used (or t)e (inal alancing in -ection 6.
'o alance a magnet rotor 9see diagram 3!:@ (irst attac) t)e BC, Nig 9(rom diagram
11:@ using (our olts. ')en alance t)e rotor on a spi4e as s)o*n:
I( t)e rotor *ill sit le0el@ t)en it is alanced. I( it *ill not sit le0el@ t)en add small
*eig)ts to it@ or drill out some o( t)e resin et*een magnets@ until it *ill sit le0el.
'urn t)e BC, Nig around on t)e rotor@ and c)ec4 it again. >eplace an+ *eig)ts *it)
pieces o( M16 t)readed rod@ scre*ed into )oles in t)e resin et*een t)e magnets.
BMG spine and earing )u 9see diagram 3$:
Ma4e t)e spine o( t)e BMG (rom a 3!6mm lengt) o( So8 sectionS steel tue
#682#8"mm 9sometimes called >2-:. Mar4 t)e e8act centre o( one large (ace@ and
t)en mar4 (our !mm )oles@ in t)e same *a+ as (or t)e Sstator studs NigS. It could also
e possile to use t)e stator studs Nig to )elp drill t)e )oles.
')e )ole at t)e centre is 2#mm 9or to suit t)e s)a(t used:. ,rill t)is *it) a )olesa*@
or ore it on a lat)e.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
3eld t)e s)a(t in t)e 2#mm )ole. 'a4e care to )old t)e s)a(t as sPuare as possile
9$6 degrees: to t)e spine@ *)en *elding it.
')e earing )u 9diagram "6: (its on t)e s)a(t. It )as t*o #682# mm deep-groo0e
allraces in it@ *it) a spacer et*een t)em. It needs a plastic cap o0er t)e end to
4eep dirt out o( t)e earings.
,o not (orget to grease t)e earings. Bac4 t)em *it) grease around )al( o( t)eir
circum(erence onl+. ,o not (ill t)em entirel+ or t)e+ *ill ecome sti(( to turn.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
B)otos s)o* t)e rear magnet rotor eing (itted
BMG asseml+
I Cut " pieces o( M16 t)readed rod@
eac) 266 long. ')e+ are used as studs
to )old t)e magnet rotors to t)e )u.
')e *ind turine lades *ill also
mount onto t)ese studs.
I But 6 nuts onto eac) stud: see
diagram "1:.
I 7it t)e studs t)roug) t)e )oles in t)e
earing )u@ (rom t)e (ront
I But t)e rear magnet rotor onto t)e
ends o( t)e studs.
I But a nut on t)e end o(
eac) stud@ and tig)ten t)e
ot)er nuts do*n@ so t)at
t)e rear magnet rotor is
attac)ed to t)e ac4 o(
t)e )u (lange. ')e outer
end nut s)ould e sealed
*it) paint or t)read-
sealant.
I Blace t)e spine in a 0ice *it) t)e
s)a(t up*ard. Blace t)e )u onto
t)e s)a(t. ,o not )ammer t)e
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
magnet rotor *)ile (itting. 7asten
t)e )u to t)e s)a(t *it) a nut and
split pin. ,o not o0er tig)ten t)e
nut. 7it a dust co0er o0er t)e end
o( t)e earing )u.
I >otate t)e magnet rotor past a piece o( rass
*ire. ,o not use steel *ire@ ecause it is
attracted to t)e magnets. ')e magnet (aces
s)ould all e at t)e same )eig)t 5=- 6.#mm.
I( not@ use 0er+ t)in s)ims et*een
)u(lange
and rotor-dis4@ to adNust t)e rotor.
I <sing a spirit le0el@ adNust t)e spine in t)e
0ice until t)e magnet rotor is le0el. C)ec4
ot) *a+s: nort)-sout) and east-*est.
I 'a4e t)e stator. 7it one ! mm nut onto eac)
support stud. -cre* t)em rig)t do*n.
I Blace t)e stator o0er t)e rear magnet rotor
and (it its support studs into t)e
)oles in t)e spine. 7it more ! mm
nuts to t)e ends o( t)e studs.
I -lo*l+ lo*er t)e stator@ and rotate
t)e rear magnet rotor. .eep t)e
stator le0el in ot) directions. Wou
*ill )ear a sound *)en t)e )ig)est
magnet touc)es t)e stator.
I <se t)e nuts to raise t)e stator
ePuall+ 1mm on all (our studs.
I 7it some *as)ers to t)e 16 mm
studs *)ic) )old t)e rotors.
%l*a+s t)e same numer o( nuts
and *as)ers on eac) stud. % total
o( si8 nuts and t*o *as)ers ma+ e
enoug). ')en (it t)e (ront magnet rotor.
I I( t)e (ront magnet rotor is less t)an 1mm (rom t)e stator at an+ point@ t)en add
more *as)ers under it. I( it is muc) more t)an 1mm (rom t)e stator t)en remo0e
*as)ers. 'o
(ind t)e correct
numer it is
necessar+ to
remo0e *as)ers
until
it egins to ru t)e
stator. ')en
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
add 1mm.
I 3)en t)e (ront rotor is 1mm (rom
t)e stator@ t)en (it more nuts on
top@ and tig)ten t)em securel+.
/lectrical Barts
')e ne8t section 9-ection &: *ill descrie )o* to connect t)e recti(ier to t)e stator.
I recommend using t*o Ssingle p)ase ridge recti(iersS 9see diagram "2:. ')e+ come
in loc4s 36 8 36 mm. ')e positi0e terminals are ot) connected to t)e atter+
positi0e terminal. 9')e+ are o(ten at rig)t angles to t)e ot)er t)ree. : 1ot) negati0e
terminals are connect to t)e atter+ negati0e. ')e remaining (our terminals are (or
%C connection to t)e stator. Wou *ill proal+ onl+ need to use t)ree o( t)ese@
connected as desired to suit t)e speed 9see -ection &:.
S1loc4 connectorsS are use(ul (or connecting t)e *ires (rom t)e stator. %lternati0el+
soldering or crimping *ould e (ine.
<se solder@ or crimped SreceptacleS connectors@ to connect *ires to t)e recti(iers.
'a4e care not to o0er)eat t)e recti(iers *)ile soldering. 1olt t)e recti(iers onto t)e
)eatsin4@ *)ic) *ill proal+ loo4 li4e t)e one in t)e diagram@ ut can e an+ piece o(
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
aluminium appro8imatel+ 2#6 grams or more in *eig)t.
.eep all t)e connections under a *eat)erproo( co0er.
&. 'esting and connecting
C)ec4 t)at t)e BMG )as no (aults e(ore it is put into use. It *ill e muc) easier to
correct t)e (aults no*@ t)an to return t)e unit to t)e *or4s)op later.
Mec)anical testing
Mount t)e spine 0erticall+ in a 0ice. ')e magnet rotors are (ree to mo0e. ')e s)a(t is
)oriGontal@ as it *ill e in a *ind generator. C)ec4 t)at t)e *ires are not touc)ing
eac) ot)er@ creating a s)ort circuit *)ic) ma4es t)e BMG )arder to turn.
C)ec4 t)at t)e rotor *ill spin (reel+.
-pin t)e rotor and listen (or sounds. ')ere s)ould not e an+ scu((ing or rus)ing o(
t)e rotor@ as it turns. It s)ould spin (reel+ (or se0eral seconds and graduall+ come to
a )alt. I( it slo*s do*n rapidl+ t)en t)ere ma+ e an electrical (ault@ or t)e earings
ma+ e o0er-tig)tened.
Grasp t)e stator *it) ot) )ands. Bus) one side ac4*ard *)ile pulling t)e ot)er
side (or*ard@ *)ile t)e rotor is spinning. It must not touc) t)e rotor. I( t)ere is a
ruing sound@ t)en it ma+ e necessar+ to disassemle t)e BMG and assemle it more
care(ull+@ *it) more space et*een t)e rotor and t)e stator. Ar it ma+ e possile to
correct t)e prolem + ma4ing minor adNustments to t)e stator mounting studs.
-top t)e rotor *it) one o( t)e studs in t)e 3 oScloc4 position 9diagram "3:. 2ang an
oNect *eig)ing 166 grams on t)is stud. ')e rotor s)ould egin to turn cloc4*ise. I(
it *ill not turn@ t)en t)e earings ma+ e o0er-greased or too tig)t.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
')e rotors )a0e alread+ een alanced in section 6. ')e *ind turine lades must
also e alanced in t)e same *a+. 3)en t)e unit is assemled@ +ou s)ould c)ec4 t)e
alance again using t)e ne* procedure elo*. ')is is necessar+ ecause t)e rotor
dis4 ma+ not e per(ectl+ central on t)e BMG s)a(t.
>epeat t)e starting test 9diagram "3: *it) eac) o( t)e (our rotor studs in t)e 3
oScloc4 position. 'r+ di((erent *eig)ts@ and (ind t)e lig)test *eig)t *)ic) *ill start
t)e rotor turning. I( one stud needs muc) more *eig)t t)an anot)er@ t)en t)e rotor is
not alanced. 7i8 small *eig)ts to t)e rotor until t)e alance is correct.
/lectrical testing
Coil connection test
It *ould e )elp(ul to )a0e a multimeter *)en testing t)e BMG@ ut it is possile to
do some asic tests *it) a 3 0olt torc) ul. -ee diagram "".
I Connect t)e *ires 11 to "%@ 21 to #%@ and 31 to 6%. 9-eries connections o( pairs
o( coils *)ic) are in t)e same p)ase.:
I -et t)e multimeter to S16M%CS or similar 9i( +ou )a0e one:.
I Connect t)e meter@ or a ul@ et*een t)e *ires mar4ed 1% and "1.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
I >otate t)e BMG slo*l+ + )and@ aout one re0olution per second.
I ')e meter s)ould gi0e a reading o( aout t*o 0olts@ or t)e ul s)ould (lic4er.
I >epeat t)e test *it) t*o more pairs o( *ires: 2% and #1@ 3% and 61.
In eac) case t)e result s)ould e t)e same.
I( t)ere is no reading@ or a 0er+ lo* reading@ t)en c)ec4 t)at t)e series connections
911-"%@ 21-#%@ 31-6%: are correct. I( all t)ese connections are good@ t)en it is
possile t)at one coil )as een re0ersed 9placed upside-do*n:.
I( an+ coils )a0e een re0ersed@ t)en it is necessar+ to do anot)er test 9see diagram
"#:@ to (ind out *)ic) one is at (ault. Connect "1-2% and #1-3% as s)o*n in t)e
diagram. ?o* test et*een 1% and 61. ')ere s)ould ?A' e more t)an a 0er+ small
0oltage. I( t)ere is a 0oltage@ or t)e ul lig)ts up@ t)en re0erse t)e connections
9s*ap % (or 1: on t)e coils until t)e 0oltage drops to a 0er+ lo* le0el.
3)en t)e (ault+ coil )as een (ound@ lael t)e tails again@ *it) % and 1 at t)e correct
ends.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
')ere *ill al*a+s e a small 0oltage in t)is test@ ecause t)e coils are not per(ectl+
positioned in t)e mould. I( t)e test gi0es more t)an one 0olt@ t)en it s)ould e
possile in (uture to ma4e a etter stator + placing t)e coils at e8actl+ ePual
distances apart in t)e mould.
,C output test
3)en t)ese tests )a0e een completed and t)e results are correct@ t)en connect t)e
recti(ier@ as s)o*n in diagram "6. Connect t)e tails 1%@ 2% and 3% toget)er. Connect
eac) o( "1@ #1 and 61 to an+ t)ree o( t)e recti(ier %C terminals 9mar4ed *it) S-S
s+mol:. ')is is t)e SstarS connection. Connect a ul to t)e output. I( possile@ also
a multimeter on 16 M,C 9or similar:.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
>otate t)e rotor + )and as e(ore@ appro8imatel+ one re0olution per second 966 rpm:.
')e meter s)ould s)o* a stead+ reading around " 0olts ,C 9or 3 0olts *it) t)e ul
present:. ')e ul s)ould glo* *it) a stead+ lig)t@ not (lic4ering as e(ore.
I( t)ere is no reading@ or t)e ul (lic4ers@ t)en t)ere is a (ault+ connection or a
(ault+ recti(ier. C)ec4 t)e connections care(ull+. 'r+ anot)er recti(ier.
Wou can also test t)e BMG *it)out a ul or a meter. -impl+ connect t)e positi0e and
negati0e *ires (rom t)e recti(iers toget)er 9all (our: in a Ss)ort circuitS. ?o* tr+ to
turn t)e BMG. It s)ould e sti(( ut smoot) to turn. I( it tremles as +ou turn it t)en
t)ere is a (ault.
Connecting t)e BMG to t)e 12 0olt atter+
-tar and ,elta connections
7or lo* *indspeeds@ connect t)e coils SstarS as ao0e. 7or )ig) *inds@ and )ig)er
current output@ connect t)e coils SdeltaS@ as in diagram "&.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
It is also possile to *ire a rela+ 9see diagram "!: *)ic) *ill s*itc) t)e
connections (rom star to delta and ac4 as desired.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
Wet anot)er option (or connecting t)e stator
%t t)e time o( *riting t)is document@ t)e ao0e arrangement 9using a rela+ to c)ange
t)e connections: is still under de0elopment. Later@ an electronic control circuit *ill
e a0ailale to automate t)e c)angeo0er. ')is is all 0er+ comple8@ and it so it can go
*rong.
I( +ou do not *is) to )a0e to c)ange t)e connections et*een lo* and )ig)
*indspeeds@ t)en t)e BMG *ill still *or4. 2o*e0er@ t)e e((icienc+ *ill e slig)tl+
less. ')ree are t*o options:-
I I( +ou e8pect mainl+ lo* *indspeeds@ t)en +ou can simpl+ use t)e star connection
s)o*n in diagram "6.
I I( +ou also need )ig)er po*er in )ig)er *inds@ +ou can use a 1&%3G *ire 91.2 mm
diameter: to *ind coils *it) 266 turns eac). ')en +ou can connect one group in
delta and one group in star as s)o*n in diagram "$. ?ote t)at +ou need si8 %C
terminals on t)e recti(iers so +ou *ill need t)ree recti(ier loc4s.
BMG-to-1atter+ Cale siGe
')e cale (rom t)e BMG to t)e atter+ can e eit)er t)ree-p)ase-%C or ,C. I( t)e
recti(ier is mounted at t)e *ind generator@ t)en it *ill e ,C. ')is is onl+ slig)tl+
more e((icient t)an t)ree p)ase %C.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
%t 12 0olts@ t)e siGe o( t)e cale must e large. /0en i( t)e current is onl+ 1# amps@
it is ad0isale to use a )ea0+ cale. 7or a distance o( 26 metres@ t)e recommended
siGe is 6 mm2 916%3G:. ')e diameter 9t)ic4ness: o( eac) copper *ire is aout 3mm.
% 1# amps current (lo*ing in t)is cale *ill lose 1#X o( t)e po*er (rom t)e *ind
generator as )eat in t)e cale. I( t)e cale is longer@ it s)ould e )ea0ier@ in direct
proportion.
/lectrical -a(et+
')ere is no danger o( electric s)oc4 (rom a 12 0olt atter+. 1ut i( t)e *ind generator
is disconnected (rom t)e atter+@ and running (ast@ t)en t)e 0oltage *ill e )ig)er
t)an 12 0olts@ ma+e as )ig) as #6 0olts. ,o not run t)e BMG at )ig) speed *it)out a
atter+ connected.
')e atter+ contains stored electrical energ+. 3)en t)ere is a s)ort-circuit (ault in
t)e *iring (rom t)e atter+@ (or e8ample t)e positi0e and negati0e *ires touc)ing
eac) ot)er@ t)is energ+ is released in a 0er+ )ig) current. ')e cale *ill )eat up and
urn. ')ere(ore it is necessar+ to use a (use or a circuit rea4er on e0er+ *ire *)ic)
attac)es to t)e atter+ positi0e terminal. <se one (use (or t)e *ind generator and a
separate one (or t)e cale to t)e load 9t)e lig)ts@ or *)ate0er uses t)e po*er:. -ee
diagram #6.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
1atter+ acid is ad (or t)e clot)es and t)e s4in. ,o not splas) it. 1e especiall+
care(ul o( t)e e+es. I( t)ere is an accident@ t)e est cure is to (lus) *it) plent+ o(
*ater.
1atteries produce )+drogen gas@ *)ic) is 0er+ e8plosi0e. ,o not ma4e spar4s near a
atter+ or it ma+ e8plode@ and t)ro* acid in t)e e+esU
1atter+ C)arging
Lead acid atteries s)ould e 4ept in a c)arged condition. In t)e case o( a *ind
po*ered s+stem@ +ou ma+ )a0e to *ait (or a *ind to c)arge t)e atter+. 1ut e
care(ul not to disc)arge t)e atter+ too deepl+@ or to 4eep it too long in a disc)arged
state@ or it *ill e damaged 9sulp)ated: and ecome useless. -top using a atter+
e(ore it is (ull+ disc)arged. I( t)ere is a prolem *it) t)e *ind generator@ t)en
c)arge t)e atter+ (rom anot)er source *it)in t*o *ee4s.
C)arging t)e atter+ too )ard *ill also damage it. %t (irst@ *)en t)e atter+ is
disc)arged@ it is sa(e to use a )ig) current@ ut later t)e current must e reduced or
t)e atter+ *ill o0er)eat and t)e plates *ill e damaged. ')e est *a+ to (ull+
c)arge a atter+ is to use a small current (or a long time.
3atc) t)e atter+ 0oltage. I( t)e atter+ 0oltage is elo* 11.# 0olts@ t)en it is eing
disc)arged too muc). I( t)e 0oltage is )ig) 9o0er 1" 0olts: t)en t)e atter+ c)arging
current is too )ig). <se less current or more current in t)e loads to correct t)ese
prolems. I( t)ere is no 0oltmeter a0ailale@ t)en t)e user s)ould *atc) t)e
rig)tness o( t)e lig)ts and (ollo* t)ese rules:-
I ,im lig)ts@ mean lo* atter+. <se less electricit+U
I Mer+ rig)t lig)ts mean too muc) *indpo*er. <se more electricit+U
% good *a+ to use more electricit+ is too c)arge more atteries in *ind+ *eat)er@
per)aps c)arging atteries (rom neig)oursS )ouses.
')ere are simple electronic circuits *)ic) can regulate t)e atter+ 0oltage
automaticall+. ')e+ are called Slo* 0oltage disconnectsS and Ss)unt regulatorsS. I( t)e
user is not *illing to *atc) t)e atter+ 0oltage@ t)en it is necessar+ to (it a
disconnect and a regulator.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
!. %dditional in(ormation
<sing pol+ester resin
Bol+ester is t)e plastic sustance used in (ireglass *or4 (or uilding oats@ car
od+ parts@ etc. Marious t)ings are added to it to ma4e it *or4 etter (or 0arious
Nos. 'al4 to +our supplier and e8plain *)at t)e resin is to e used (or. Wour supplier
s)ould e ale to )elp +ou.
2ardeners
')ere are t*o s+stems used to )arden pol+ester resin@ and eac) s+stem uses t*o
c)emicals. 7or resin casting and most (ireglass *or4 *e use pero8ide and coalt.
9S1od+ (iller pastesS use t)e ot)er s+stem.:
Coalt is a purple (luid. %s4 t)e supplier to mi8 t)e rig)t amount o( coalt into t)e
resin. %(ter it is mi8ed@ t)e resin must e stored in t)e dar4@ or it *ill )arden.
Bero8ide is a )aGardous c)emical. %0oid contact *it) s4in. -tore in a BMC container@
in t)e dar4@ elo* 2# degrees C. ?e0er mi8 it *it) coalt 9e8cept (or t)e coalt
alread+ in t)e resin:@ or it *ill e8plode. Mi8 0er+ small Puantities 9aout 1-2X: o(
pero8ide *it) resin or it *ill o0er)eat.
3a8-(ree S%ir in)iitedS resin S1S
')is t+pe o( resin is used (or Sgel-coatsS on oat moulds@ *)ere t)e resin is going to
e uilt up in stages. 3e do not recommend using t)is resin (or t)e BMG. %n+ e8posed
sur(ace *ill remain tac4+ inde(initel+. %s4 (or resin S%S@ or etter still Scasting
resinS.
')i8otropic additi0e
% special po*der o( 0er+ lig)t silica is o(ten added to resin to ma4e it t)ic4er@ so
t)at it is easier to spread it *it) a paint rus). ')is po*der is not needed (or
casting resin . I( it is alread+ added@ it does no )arm.
-t+rene monomer
%ppro8imatel+ 3#X o( t)e resin as supplied is st+rene monomer. ')is is used (or
t)inning t)e resin. It causes t)e smell. It is possile to add a little more st+rene
monomer 916X: to ma4e it more liPuid.
Bigment
Bigment is used to colour t)e casting@ i( a coloured (inis) is desired. %dd pigment to
t)e (irst mi8@ *)ic) *ill e on t)e outside o( t)e casting. %dd no more t)an 16X
pigment to t)e mi8. It is not necessar+ to add pigment to t)e resin. 3it)out pigment@
t)e casting is transparent and t)e coils are 0isile.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
7ireglass
')e resin )as almost no strengt) *it)out (ireglass. It is a0ailale in s)eets o(
Sc)opped strand matS 9C-M:. It is also possile to u+ Nust c)opped strands@ and to
mi8 t)em *it) t)e resin. ')is is use(ul (or t)e magnet rotor castings. %dd a little
resin to t)e (ireglass@ and press out all t)e air ules@ e(ore adding more resin.
'alcum po*der
'alcum po*der is a c)eap (iller *)ic) can e mi8ed *it) t)e resin a(ter t)e pero8ide
)as een added. It ma4es t)e resin mi8ture muc) c)eaper@ and a little t)ic4er. >esin
can e mi8ed *it) up to t*ice its o*n *eig)t o( talcum po*der. ')e po*der also
)elps to reduce t)e )eat uild-up in large resin castings.
Mould preparation
Bol+uret)ane 0arnis)
Ardinar+ paint s)ould not e used on moulds.
1etter to use not)ing. I( possile@ use
pol+uret)ane 0arnis). ')is *ill pre0ent
moisture
coming out o( a mould made (rom *ood@
plaster or
cla+. -moot) t)e 0arnis) o(( *it) sandpaper
e(ore polis)ing it.
Bolis)
Bolis) t)e mould se0eral times e(ore using it
(irst time. >u all t)e polis) o(( *it) a rag and
t)en lea0e it some )ours and do it again.
-ilicone
polis) is not compatile *it) BM% release
agent.
<se *a8 polis).
BM% >elease agent
Baint t)is o0er t)e mould and let it dr+. It (orms
a s)eet o( BM%@ *)ic) greatl+ )elps to separate
t)e casting (rom t)e mould.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661
<sing t)e BMG (or )+dro po*er
')e BMG can also e used (or c)arging atteries (rom small )+dro turines. It *ill e
ideal (or lo* )ead@ lo* po*er sites@ ecause it is e((icient e0en *)en producing onl+
a (e* *atts. It can also e used (or )ig)er )ead )ig)er po*er sites@ ecause it is
capale o( )ig) po*er outputs at )ig) rpm.
')ere is a danger o( rust damage to t)e magnet rotors in a 0er+ )umid or *et
en0ironment suc) as in a )+dro application. It is ad0isale to gal0anise or plate t)e
steel components *it) Ginc.
Lo* )ead sites
2ere are some e8amples o( conditions *)ere t)e BMG could *or4 *it)out
modi(ication 9connected delta:. It *ould need a simple SimpulseS runner mounted on
t)e (ront magnet rotor.
2ead 9metres: 16 16 #
7lo* 9litres=second: 1 # #
?et Bo*er9*atts: "6 266 166
pcd runner 9cm: 3& 2& 23
speed 9rpm: 32# ""6 366
2ig) )ead@ )ig) po*er
%t )ig)er rpm@ )ig)er po*er is a0ailale (rom t)e BMG. ,ouling t)e speed can also
doule t)e output 0oltage and t)e current@ o((ering (our times as muc) po*er *it)
t)e same e((icienc+ as e(ore. ')e BMG ma+ o0er)eat under t)ese conditions@ so it
ma+ e etter to 4eep t)e current t)e same@ and )a0e etter e((icienc+. Muc) *ill
depend on *)et)er t)e *ater is used (or cooling.
In an+ case@ increasing t)e speed impro0es t)e BMGSs po*er )andling ailities
consideral+. It *ould e ris4+ to run a *ind turine at )ig) speeds@ ecause o( t)e
prolem o( g+roscopic (orces on t)e rotors@ ut t)is prolem does not arise *it)
)+dro po*er@ ecause t)e s)a(t a8is is (i8ed.
I( )ig)er 0oltage is not rePuired@ t)en t)e stator *inding can e c)anged to gi0e 12
0olts 9as e(ore: at t)e )ig)er speed@ ut deli0er )ig)er current *it)out o0er)eating.
')is is done + connecting t)e coils o( eac) p)ase in parallel instead o( in series. Ar
t)e coils can e *ound *it) (e*er turns o( t)ic4er *ire. ')is is etter still@ ecause
parallel and delta connections can su((er (rom parasitic internal currents.
,o not use t)e star=delta connection 9diagram "$: (or )+dro po*er *)ere t)e speed is
constant. ')ere is no ad0antage.
GMB manualul de construcie 7eruarie 2661