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EVRIKA!

50 de probleme de logic
Problema 1 (Hotul de bijuterii)
Un diamant celebru si foarte rar a fost furat din muzeul local. Toate indicatiile arata ca sustragerea a fost planificata si executata de
o singura persoana. Cautarile s-a redus in final la patru suspecti. Toti au vazuti in muzeu, toti au mai executat pedepse pentru furt;
oricare din ei putea fura bijuteria si -- in mod cert -- aceasta a fost sustrasa de unul din ei.
La politie, cei patru (sa-i notam cu A,B,C,D) au facut urmatoarele declaratii:
A: 1. B este hotul.
2. Da, l-as fi luat eu, dar cand am ajuns, diamantul disparuse deja.
3. D si cu mine planuisem sa il luam impreuna.
B: 1. D nu stia de diamant.
2. Da, l-as fi luat eu, dar cand am ajuns, diamantul disparuse deja.
3. D si cu mine planuisem sa il luam impreuna.
C: 1. Bijuteria nu a luat-o B.
2. A ar fi vrut sa o ia, dar cand a ajuns la muzeu, aceasta disparuse deja.
3. D si cu mine planuisem sa o luam impreuna.
D: 1. A este hotul.
2. Nu am planuit cu nimeni furtul ei.
3. B ar fi vrut sa o ia, dar cand a ajuns la muzeu, aceasta disparuse deja.
Cercetand mai atent, detectivii au ajuns la concluzia ca nu exista doi suspecti care sa fi facut acelasi numar de afirmatii adevarate.
Pe baza acestei observatii, ei au gasit hotul.
Cine este acesta ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 2 (Concurs)
Trei licee D. Cantemir, I.L. Caragiale si Gr. Moisil, au organizat un concurs triunghiular de atletism. Fiecare scoala a inscris cate un
elev la fiecare proba. Toate probele au fost punctate la fel: un anumit numar de puncte pentru invingatorul probei, un numar mai
mic pentru locul doi, si un numar si mai mic pentru locul trei (pentru neprezentare sau descalificare se dau 0 puncte).
Cand Andreea - o eleva de la I.L. Caragiale - a ajuns acasa seara tarziu, tatal ei a intrebat-o ce a facut scoala ei.
- Am castigat proba de greutate, a spus Andreea, dar Gr. Moisil a castigat concursul. Ei au obtinut un total de 22 puncte, pe cand
noi nu am adunat decat 9 puncte, la fel ca cei de la Cantemir.
- Cate probe au fost in total ?, a intrebat-o tatal ei.
- Nu stiu; eu am urmarit numai proba de greutate.
- Saritura in inaltime a fost ?
Andreea - dupa un moment de gandire - a aprobat din cap.
- Cine a castigat-o ?
Andreea nu stia.
Cate probe au fost si cine a castigat proba de saritura in inaltime, stiind ca nu au fost descalificari sau neprezentari ? Justificati
raspunsul.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 3: (Dosarul)
Pe masa sunt imprastiate sase foi (coli) de hartie; trei din ele numerotate cu 1,2,3 -- sunt albe; celelalte trei -- care poarta
numerele 4,5,6 sunt colorate in bleu. Pe fiecare foaie este scris un text, anume:
Pe foile de culoare alba:
1. "Dupa mine mai este o singura foaie alba."
2. "Urmatoarele doua coli au culori diferite."
3. "Eu nu sunt ultima coala."
Pe foile de culoare bleu:
4. "Urmatoarele doua coli sunt albe."
5. "Prima foaie este de aceeasi culoare cu aceasta."
6. "Foile anterioara si urmatoare sunt de culori identice."
Se cere sa se indosarieze aceste foi astfel incat toate propozitiile scrise pe ele sa fie adevarate.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 4 (Problema lui Einstein):


Sunt cinci case diferite, fiecare pictata in alta culoare. In fiecare casa locuieste o persoana de alta nationalitate, care prefera
propria sa bautura, diferita de a celorlalti. Fiecare om are pe langa el un animal distinct si fumeaza o marca distincta de tigari.
Se fac urmatoarele afirmatii:
1. Englezul locuieste in casa rosie.
2. Suedezul are un caine.
3. Danezul bea ceai.
4. Casa verde este la stanga casei pictata in alb.
5. Persoana din casa verde bea cafea.
6. Persoana care fumeaza Pall Mall creste pasari.
7. Persoana din casa galbena fumeaza Dunhill.
8. Persoana din casa din mijloc bea lapte.
9. Norvegianul locuieste in prima casa.
10. Persoana care fumeaza Blend locuieste in casa vecina celei unde se cresc pisici.
11. Persoana care creste cai locuieste langa cel care fumeaza Dunhill.
12. Persoana care fumeaza Blue Master bea bere.
13. Germanul fumeaza Prince.
14. Norvegianul locuieste alaturi de casa vopsita in albastru.
15. Cel care fumeaza Blend este vecin cu persoana care nu bea decat apa.
Intrebarea este: Cine creste pesti ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 5: (Triatlon):
Finala concursului de triatlon a Istetilor a fost foarte stransa. Tot clasamentul a fost decis de ultimele doua probe, cele de inot si
ciclism.
Se cunosc urmatoarele:
1. Adrian nu a castigat nici o proba.
2. Cel care a castigat proba de inot a iesit pe locul 3 la ciclism.
3. Adrian l-a invins pe Costin la inot, dar la ciclism Costin s-a clasat inaintea lui Adrian.
4. Costin nu a fost ultimul la nici o proba.
5. Doru a castigat proba de ciclism dar a fost invins de Sorin la inot.
Puteti stabili clasamentele celor doua probe -- de ciclism si inot ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 6 (Serata}:
Patru prietene vechi au obiceiul sa se intalneasca cateva ore joia seara. Pentru a nu crea obligatii gazdei (o cunostinta comuna), la
sfarsitul fiecarei intalniri, prietenele isi impart obligatiile pentru urmatoarea saptamana.
Astfel, saptamana aceasta:
1. Dna Andreescu va veni cu o prajitura cu ciocolata.
2. Nici Dna Balan, nici Viorica si nici Ana Corneanu nu vor aduce pricomigdalele.
3. Rodica, care nu este din familia Dumitriu, va aduce cafea.
4. Maria nu este cea desemnata sa vina cu bautura.
Aflati numele complet al doamnelor, precum si ce va aduce fiecare.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 7 (Lazile cu fructe)


Intr-un depozit cu fructe, seful echipei i-a spus unui muncitor:
- Uite, aici ai 5 lazi cu fructe. Una contine mere, alta pere, alta prune, alta cirese, iar in ultima lada ai impreuna mere si pere.
Inchide lazile si pune etichete pe ele, ca sa le putem expedia.
Muncitorul a inchis lazile si a lipit pe ele cele 5 etichete pe care scria "Mere", "Pere", "Prune", "Cirese", "Mere si pere". Distrat insa,
a lipit etichetele alandala, astfel ca de fapt nici o lada nu continea vreun fruct scris pe eticheta sa.
Cand a venit seful, s-a luat cu mainile de cap. "Acum va trebui sa desfac totul, ca sa vad ce contine fiecare lada" s-a plans el.
A desfacut o lada, s-a uitat la fructul pe care l-a scos din ea, si deodata s-a luminat la fata.
- Ce noroc ! Acum stiu ce fructe se afla in fiecare lada !
Si a rearanjat corect etichetele, fara sa mai desfaca celelalte lazi.
Ce fructe erau in lada pe care scria "Mere" ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 8 (Rubine si safire)


Un imparat dorea sa testeze capacitatea Sfatului Batranilor, care numara 12 intelepti. Pentru aceasta, a chemat in ajutor un intelept
de peste mari si tari. Acesta a adunat batranii la sfat si le-a spus: "In aceasta punga am 12 pietre pretioase, rubine si safire. In fata
fiecaruia dintre voi se afla cate un sipet. Am sa va invit, pe rand, pe fiecare dintre voi, sa parasiti incaperea, si am sa va pun in sipet
o piatra pretioasa la intamplare. In felul acesta, fiecare din voi va sti ce se afla in sipeturile celorlalti, dar nici unul nu va sti ce se
afla in propriul sipet. Apoi, am sa va invit sa ghiciti ce se afla in sipetul vostru."
Zis si facut. Inteleptul a asezat cate o piatra in sipetul fiecarui batran, fara ca acesta sa vada, apoi le-a spus: "Cei care au rubine in
cutie, sa vina la mine". Nici unul din cei 12 nu s-a miscat. Imparatul, manios, a dat sa le taie capul tuturor, dar inteleptul i-a facut
semn sa aiba rabdare.
Dupa 10 minute, inteleptul si-a repetat invitatia. Din nou, nimeni nu s-a miscat. Invitatiile s-au repetat din 10 in 10 minute, pana
cand dupa o ora de la prima chemare, un numar de intelepti s-au ridicat si si-au adus sipeturile la intelept. Acesta le-a deschis: in
fiecare se afla un rubin. Inteleptul a deschis si sipeturile inteleptilor care continuau sa stea jos: fiecare continea cate un safir.
Cate rubine erau si cum au judecat inteleptii?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 9 (Numere consecutive)


Doua persoane, sa spunem A si B, stau fata in fata, fiecare avand in mana cate un carton. Pe spatele celor doua cartoane sunt
scrise doua numere naturale nenule consecutive. Fiecare persoana poate vedea numarul scris pe cartonul celeilalte persoane, nu
insa si numarul scris pe propriul carton. Intre ele, are loc urmatorul dialog:
A - Nu stiu ce numar am !
B - Nu stiu ce numar am !
A - Nu stiu ce numar am !
B - Nu stiu ce numar am !
A - Nu stiu ce numar am !
B - Nu stiu ce numar am !
A - Nu stiu ce numar am !
B - Stiu ce numar am !
A - Stiu ce numar am !
Ce numere sunt scrise pe fiecare carton ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 10 (Mingi)
Patru fete legate la ochi au primit cate o cutie cu mingi. Toate cutiile erau identice si contineau cate 3 mingi. O cutie avea 3 mingi
rosii, alta 2 mingi rosii si una alba, a treia avea o minge rosie si 2 mingi albe, iar ultima cutie avea 3 mingi albe.
Pe fiecare cutie este lipita o eticheta unde scrie: ''Trei rosii'', sau ''Doua rosii, una alba'', sau ''Una rosie, doua albe'' sau ''Trei albe''.
Fetele stiu ca nici o eticheta nu descrie corect continutul cutiei pe care este lipita. Fiecarei din cele patru fete i s-a cerut sa scoata
doua mingi din cutie. Culorile acestor mingi au fost anuntate cu glas tare tuturor. Apoi fetelor li s-au desfacut pe rand esarfele de pe
ochi. In acest moment, fiecare din ele putea vedea ce scrie pe eticheta cutiei din fata ei, dar nu si celelalte etichete.
Urma de fiecare data intrebarea: ''Stii ce culoare are mingea ramasa in cutia ta ?''
Prima fata, care avea in mana doua mingi rosii, a spus: ''Da, stiu.''
A doua fata cu o minge rosie si una alba in maini, si a spus la randul ei: ''Da, si eu stiu culoarea mingii din cutie''.
A treia fata s-a uitat la cele doua mingi albe din mana ei, s-a uitat la eticheta de pe cutie si a spus: ''Nu pot spune exact ce culoare
are mingea din cutie''.
In sfarsit, a patra fata a declarat: ''Nu este nevoie sa imi scot esarfa de pe ochi si nici sa ma uit la mingi, pentru ca stiu culorile celor
trei mingi pe care le am. Mai mult, pot spune ce culoare are a treia minge aflata in fiecare din cutiile voastre.''
Prima fata a fost uimita de aceasta afirmatie si i-a cerut sa se justifice. Si a patra fata a inceput: ''Pentru ca ....''
Incercati sa reconstruiti justificarea celei de-a patra fete.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 11: (Calatoria celor sase scriitori)


Sase scriitori calatoresc impreuna intr-un compartiment de clasa I al unui vagon de tren. Pentru a evita orice asemanare cu
persoane cunoscute, ii vom numi Dl.NEGRU, Dl. GALBEN, Dl. ALBASTRU, Dl. VERDE, Dl. ROSU si Dl. ALBU.
Unul este eseist, unul istoric, unul pamfletar, unul romancier, unul dramaturg si altul poet. Fiecare dintre ei a scris o carte pe care o
citeste un alt ocupant al compartimentului.
1. Dl. NEGRU citeste eseuri.
2. D-lui ALBASTRU nu-i place sa stea langa culoar in sensul de mers.
3. Dl. GALBEN sta intre eseist si pamfletar.
4. Dl. ROSU sta langa dramaturg.
5. Eseistul sta fata in fata cu istoricul.
6. Dl. VERDE citeste piese de teatru.
7. Dl. GALBEN este cumnatul romancierului.
8. Dl. NEGRU sta intr-un colt si nu-l intereseaza deloc istoria.
9. Dl. VERDE sta in fata romancierului.
10. Dl. ROSU citeste o carte de pamflete.
11. Dl. ALBU nu citeste niciodata poezii.
Se cere sa se determine specialitatea fiecarui autor.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 12: (Traversari)


Problemele cu traversari sunt foarte cunoscute. Propunem doua astfel de probleme.
Traversare (A): Trei oameni, o gorila si doi urangutani mici vor sa traverseze un rau folosind o barca. Se stie ca:
1. Doar oamenii si gorila stiu sa vasleasca;
2. In barca incap numai doua fiinte (oameni sau maimute);
3. Permanent, pe oricare din cele doua maluri, numarul oamenilor trebuie sa fie cel putin egal cu cel al maimutelor; daca se afla in
superioritate numerica, maimutele vor ataca imediat oamenii.
Cum vor traversa toti raul, fara nici un incident ?
Considerand o solutie cu un numar minim de traversari, de cate ori va vasli gorila ?
Traversare (B): Trei barbati -- Andrei, Barbu si Costin, impreuna cu sotiile lor
-- Ana, Beatrice si respectiv Corina, au plecat in excursie in Muntii Apuseni. Pe drum au intalnit un torent pe care trebuiau sa il
treaca.
Dupa multa munca, au reusit sa incropeasca o pluta, pe care incap doar doua persoane. Problema este ca cei trei barbati sunt
foarte gelosi si nici unul din ei nu admite ca sotia sa sa traverseze apa sau sa ramana pe vre-un mal cu alt barbat, fara sa fie si el
acolo.
Cum au reusit sa se descurce cele trei cupluri sa traverseze torentul si sa continue excursia ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 13 ( Reni )

Mos Craciun lasa in fiecare an renilor sai sa-si aleaga ordinea in care sa se aseze la sanie, si ii inhama dupa aceea pentru a merge
sa imparta daruri. Anul acesta, pentru calatoria spre Europa, cei 9 reni s-au asezat pe o singura linie. Mos Craciun a observat ca:
1. Comet este in spatele lui Rudolph, Prancer si Cupid.
2. Blitzen este dupa Cupid dar in fata lui Donder, Vixen si Dancer.
3. Cupid sta anul acesta inaintea lui Comet, Blitzen si Vixen.
4. Donder s-a multumit sa se aseze dupa Vixen, Dasher si Prancer.
5. Rudolph este situat in spatele lui Prancer dar inaintea lui Donder, Dancer si Dasher.
6. Vixen i-a luat fata lui Dancer si Comet.
7. Dancer abia a prins un loc dupa Donder, Rudolph si Blitzen.
8. Prancer este inaintea lui Cupid, Donder si Blitzen.
9. Dasher sta ca de obicei dupa Prancer dar acum este inaintea lui Vixen, Dancer si Blitzen.
10. Pe Donder nu-l deranjeaza ca sta in spatele lui Comet si Cupid.
11. Cupid este acum in fata lui Rudolph si Dancer.
12. Vixen sta si acum tot dupa Rudolph, Prancer si Dasher.
In ce ordine sunt asezati renii la sania lui Mos Craciun in acest an ?
Suplimentar: Descrieti o situatie in care doi frati gemeni sa fie nevoiti ca intr-un an sa-si serbeze data nasterii la doua zile distanta
una de alta. Evident este vorba de frati gemeni intre ei, nu doua perechi de frati gemeni.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 14 ( Cine a furat camila ? )

Au fost furate un cal, o maimuta si o camila. Politia a retinut 3 suspecti: Ali, Hassan si Ahmed. Tot ce stiau era ca fiecare din ei
furase un animal, si vroiau sa afle cine ce furase. Iata afirmatiile acuzatilor:
Ali: Ahmed a furat calul.
Hassan: Ahmed a furat maimuta.
Ahmed: Mint amandoi; nu am furat nici calul si nici maimuta.
Mai tarziu, politia a aflat ca cel care furase camila spusese o minciuna, iar cel care furase calul spusese adevarul.
Cine a furat camila ?
Suplimentar: Sunt un palindrom (un numar care se citeste la fel si de la dreapta la stanga, spre exemplu 79297) , mai mare decat
50.000 dar mai mic decat 90.000. Sunt divizibil cu 9 si 25. Pe pozitia sutelor nu se afla 3,6 sau 9. Nici o cifra nu apare mai mult de
doua ori. Ce numar sunt ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 15 (Clasament)
Patru echipe de fotbal - sa zicem Steaua, Dinamo, Rapid si F.C.Natioanl - joaca intre ele un turneu de fotbal, in urma caruia s-a
stabilit urmatorul clasament:
F.C.National
2
1
0
5
2
7
Rapid
1
2
0
3
0
5
Steaua
1
0
2
2
4
3
Dinamo
0
1
2
2
6
1
Care sunt rezultatele meciurilor directe ?
Reamintim: pentru victorie se acorda 3 puncte iar pentru meci egal, fiecare echipa primeste cate un punct. Cele 6 coloane
reprezinta pe rand: numarul meciurilor castigate, numarul meciurilor nule, numarul meciurilor pierdute, numarul de goluri marcate,
numarul de goluri primite si - in final - numarul total de puncte (pe baza caruia se stabileste clasamentul).

SOLUIE:

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Problema 16 (Inmultiri)
Reconstituiti inmultirile:
* * *
* * *
----------------* * * *
* * *
----------------a a a a a
si
* * *
* * *
----------------* 6 * *
* * 6 6
6 * 6
----------------* * * * *
SOLUIE:

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Problema 17 (Cine a luat ciocolata ?)


La scoala, in timpul pauzei de pranz, un grup de 5 copii din clasa a II-a au fost la bufet. Unul din ei a luat pe furis o ciocolata fara sa
o plateasca. Luati la intrebari de director, ei au facut urmatoarele declaratii, in ordine:
Vlad: Nici Tudor si nici eu nu am facut asa ceva.
Victor: A fost Vlad sau Andrei.
Andrei: Vlad si Victor mint amandoi.
Dan:
Afirmatia lui Andrei nu este adevarata; numai unul din ei minte, celalalt spune adevarul.
Tudor: Ce spune Dan este neadevarat.
Consultata, invatatoarea clasei a II-a a spus:
- Trei din copiii astia spun totdeauna adevarul, dar orice spune oricare din ceilalti doi este o minciuna.
Presupunand ca invatatoarea isi cunoaste copiii, puteti sa determinati cine a luat ciocolata fara sa plateasca ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 18 (Concert U2)


Formatia U2 da un concert pe malul unui rau. Concertul incepe peste exact 17 minute si membrii formatiei nu au ajuns inca. Ei se
afla pe celalalt mal al raului si mai au de trecut un pod, prea subred ca sa suporte mai mult doua persoane. Este noapte. Cei patru
membri ai formatiei au la dispozitie numai o lanterna. Indiferent daca trec podul una sau doua persoane, lanterna trebuie sa
insoteasca fiecare grup (reamintesc, podul este vechi si plin de surprize neplacute). Fiecare membru al formatiei merge cu o viteza
diferita; deci, daca sunt doua persoane, ele vor traversa podul cu viteza celui mai lent. Astfel, Bono poate efectua traversarea intrun minut, Edge - in doua minute, Adam in 5 minute, pe cand lui Larry (il stiti, nu ?) ii trebuiesc nu mai putin de 10 minute pentru
traversare. De exemplu, daca Bono si Larry trec primii, ei ajung pe malul celalalt in 10 minute; daca Larry se intoarce cu lanterna
pentru a-i ajuta pe ceilalti, au trecut deja 20 minute si organizatorul concertului ii va penaliza pentru intarziere.
Poate traversa formatia U2 podul in 17 minute, pentru a putea incepe concertul la timp ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 19 (Restaurantul)

Cinci colegi se decid sa mearga la un restaurant tailandez, deschis recent in capitala. Chelnerul le aduce o lista formata din 9 feluri
de mancare. Fiecare mesean comanda cate un fel, si li se aduc cele cinci platouri, care sunt puse in mijlocul mesei. Tot personalul
este strain si ei nu pot comunica cu acesta, pentru a afla care este felul comandat de fiecare. Totusi mancarea este buna si amicii
vin tot aici si in urmatoarele doua seri. La finalul lor, remarca ca sunt in masura sa recunoasca fiecare din cele noua feluri de
mancare si sa vina sa le deguste oricand vor, fara a se mai ajuta unii pe altii.
Cum a fost posibil acest lucru ? Cate seri erau minim necesare daca lista ar fi cuprins 15 feluri ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 20 (Usi magice):

Anca si Bogdan merg in parcul de distractii si intra intr-un labirint. Trecerea dintr-o camera in alta se face pe usi colorate in rosu,
verde, galben sau albastru. La fiecare trecere ei primesc sau dau un anumit numar de bile, conform unor reguli legate de culoarea
usii pe care o deschid. La iesirea din labirint, bilele pe care le are fiecare sunt transformate de organizatori in premii. Anca si
Bogdan au trecut impreuna prin primele 8 usi, colorate in ordine cu rosu, verde, galben, albastru, rosu, verde, galben, albastru.
Cand au trecut prin prima usa - rosie - fiecare din ei a primit cate 4 bile.
Dupa trecerea prin a doua usa (verde), aveau cate 8 bile fiecare. Apoi, trecand prin celelalte usi, Anca si Bogdan au avut pe rand
cate 9,3,7,14,15 si in final 5 bile fiecare. La acest punct cei doi s-au separat. Pana sa iasa din labirint, fiecare din ei a mai trecut
prin 8 usi, cate doua de fiecare culoare. Afara, Anca avea 5 bile, iar Bogdan 6 bile.
Puteti gasi drumul pe care l-a urmat fiecare pana la iesirea din labirint ? (este posibil ca solutia sa nu fie unica).
SOLUIE:

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Problema 21 (Imparteala)

Ahmed si Ali sunt crescatori de camile si decid intr-o zi sa isi schimbe profilul: vor sa creasca oi. Asa ca merg la targ si isi vand
toate camilele. Pretul pe pe care il iau pe fiecare camila este egal cu numarul total de camile pe care le aveau amandoi. Cu acesti
bani cumpara cat mai multe oi posibil, la 10 dinari oaia; mai raman niste bani, cu care cumpara si o capra. Pe drumul spre casa se
cearta si decid sa imparta turma de oi. Cand o impart, mai ramane o oaie. Asa ca Ali ii spune lui Ahmed:
- Iau eu ultima oaie si iti las tie capra.
- Nu este drept - spune Ahmed - o capra costa mai putin decat o oaie.
- Bine, raspunde Ali, atunci iti dau si unul din cainii mei, si suntem chit. Si Ahmed este de acord.
Cat costa un caine ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 22 (Oceane)

Daca printr-o anumita regula asociem oceanului Atlantic numarul 80, atunci ce numar vom asocia oceanului Pacific ?
a) 60;
b) 47;
c) 85;
d) 93;
SOLUIE:

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Problema 23 (Flori)

O florareasa isi vinde florile dupa o regula bizara. Un crin costa 800 lei, in timp ce o dalie costa 1000 lei. O frezie costa 1200 lei iar
o tuberoza 1600 lei. Urmand aceeasi logica, cat costa un trandafir ?

SOLUIE:

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Problema 24 ( Regina captiva )

O regina este inchisa impreuna cu fiul si fiica ei in varful unui turn. Singura comunicare cu exteriorul se face cu ajutorul unei franghii
trecuta peste un scripete si asezata in fata ferestrei. Pe acolo prizonierii primesc zilnic mancare si de baut. De ambele capete ale
franghiei sunt legate doua cosuri de greutate egala. Pentru a cobori cosul, prizonierii folosesc o piatra, special lasata de gardieni.
Regina si copiii ei planuiesc sa scape din turn folosind acest mijloc. Dar ei trebuie sa fie atenti deoarece, pentru a nu se prabusi,
diferenta de greutate dintre continuturile celor doua cosuri trebuie sa nu depaseasca 15 livre. Regina cantareste 195 livre, fata ei
105 livre, baiatul 90 livre, iar piatra are 75 livre (O livra este aproximativ 450 grame). Cum vor reusi cei trei sa evadeze din turn ?
Nota:
1. Pentru ca un cos sa coboare trebuie - evident ca el sa contina o greutate mai mare decat greutatea aflata in celalalt cos.
2. Se admite ca un cos poate cobori avand doar piatra, iar celalalt cos sa fie gol; evident, chiar daca se loveste de pamant, piatra
nu va pati nimic.
Suplimentar: Pe o creanga se afla agatata o franghie pe care la un capat este o maimuta, iar la celalalt capat, o piatra. Sistemul
este in echilibru. Daca maimuta incepe sa urce pe franghie, ce se vaintampla cu piatra ? Va urca sau va cobori ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 25 (Cutii cu vopsea):

O companie cumpara lunar 16 cutii cu vopsea. Dupa ultima achizitie insa, ea este anuntata ca una din cutiile cumparate este
contaminata cu plumb si i se interzice sa foloseasca vopseaua din acea cutie. Nimeni nu stie insa exact ce cutie trebuie eliminata.
Compania nu isi face probleme prea mari pentru ca, din fericire, dispune de aparatura care ii da posibilitatea de a afla aceasta
cutie. Dar procedeul este costisitor, asa ca se doreste sa se afle cutia care trebuie eliminata folosind un numar cat mai mic de
teste. Daca s-ar testa continutul unei cutii, apoi al celei de-a doua s.a.m.d, rezultatul poate fi aflat - in cel mai bun caz - intr-o
singura testare; dar, daca avem ghinion, vor fi necesare pana la 15 teste.
Care este cel mai mic numar de teste pe care il va plati compania, ca sa fie sigura ca a aflat cutia ce contine vopsea cu plumb ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 26 (Usi)

Te afli intr-o camera mare unde - pe doua laturi opuse - se afla doua usi. Pe celelalte doua laturi se gasesc doi roboti. Una din usi
duce spre libertate; cealalta spre moarte. Usile nu se deosebesc cu nimic una de alta. Robotii sunt programati sa raspunda la o
singura intrebare. Unul din ei este programat sa spuna numai minciuni, iar celalalt - numai adevarul. Poti pune deci o singura
intrebare unui singur robot. Daca nu faci asta in 10', robotii te vor ataca sa te omoare.
Ce intrebare pui ? Carui robot ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 27 (Elevii care spun adevarul):


O scoala are 200 elevi. Dupa opinia cadrelor didactice, ea este o scoala speciala. Aici sunt elevi care spun totdeauna adevarul si
numai adevarul. Ceilalti mint de sting: niciodata nu au spus vreo propozitie adevarata. In scoala a venit o comisie care vrea sa afle
parerea elevilor despre trei discipline: matematica, informatica si limba engleza. Toti cei 200 elevi au fost testati sa raspunda cu DA
sau NU la trei intrebari:
- Matematica este materia preferata ?
- Informatica este materia preferata ?
- Limba engleza este materia preferata ?
Rezultatele la test au fost urmatoarele: 104 elevi au raspuns DA la prima intrebare, 86 au completat cu DA raspunsul la a doua
intrebare, iar restul de 60 elevi au afirmat ca limba engleza este materia lor preferata.
Cati elevi mint si cati spun adevarul in aceasta scoala ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 28 (Lumanari)
Am doua lumanari. Fiecare din ele arde in exact 60'. Sunt facute din materiale diferite si - chiar daca timpul final de ardere este
acelasi - se consuma in ritmuri diferite. Mai mult, fiecare lumanare arde in mod inegal; uneori mai repede, alteori mai lent.
De exemplu, daca as taia o lumanare in doua parti egale, nu pot fi sigur ca fiecare parte arde exact o jumatate de ora (desi timpul
total de ardere este o ora, nici un minut mai mult sau mai putin).
Vreau sa masor 45' si nu am la dispozitie decat aceste doua lumanari. Cum fac ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 29 ( 100 propozitii )

Pe o hartie sunt scrise una sub alta 100 propozitii:


Din aceste 100 propozitii, exact 1 este falsa.
Din aceste 100 propozitii, exact 2 sunt false.
.........................................................................
Din aceste 100 propozitii, exact 99 sunt false.
Din aceste 100 propozitii, exact 100 sunt false.
Cate propozitii sunt false ? Dar daca in cele 100 propozitii cuvantul "exact" se inlocuieste cu "cel putin" ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 30 ( Mostenirea )

Un batran arab, aflat pe patul de moarte, isi cheama cei 3 fii si le spune:
- Copii, eu am muncit toata viata si am reusit sa strang averea pe care o stiti:
aceste 17 camile, pe care vi le las voua. Consider ca dreapta impartirea acestor camile in felul urmator: Ahmed, fiul cel mare va lua
1/2 din numarul camilelor; Hassan, fiul mijlociu, va lua 1/3 din numarul camilelor, iar Farouk, fiul meu cel mic va lua 1/9 din numarul
camilelor.
Parintele moare si - dupa ce il inmormanteaza - cei 3 baieti incep sa se gandeasca la modul cum sa-si imparta camilele. Dar cum
17 nu se imparte nici cu 2, nici cu 3 si nici cu 9, problema li s-a parut extrem de dificila.
Cand erau ei mai in ceata, trece pe acolo un batran intelept; invitat la o ceasca de vorba, batranul descaleca de pe camila sa (pe
care o lasa langa celelalte) si se aseaza alaturi de baieti, ca sa le asculte pasul. Dupa care - cu acordul acestora - face el
impartirea, conform testamentului tatalui lor. Cei 3 copii se declara mai mult decat multumiti cu ceea ce au primit, iar batranul
incaleca pe camila lui si pleaca mai departe.
Cum a impartit batranul cele 17 camile celor 3 fii ai arabului ?
Suplimentar: Tot un arab batran vrea - tot prin testament - sa-si lase averea celor 2 fii ai sai. Vrea insa sa o lase unuia singur, nu la
amandoi. Dar cui ? Si decide astfel: cei doi baieti sa plece pe camile pana la cea mai apropiata oaza si apoi sa se intoarca. Acela
dintre ei a carui camila ajunge ultima, va mosteni intreaga avere. Cei doi sunt de acord (se putea altfel ?) si pleaca. Dar cum regula
era ca ultimul sa fie castigatorul, mergeau extrem de incet. Pe drum se intalnesc cu inteleptul din problema de mai sus. Ii spun si
lui dilema in care se afla, si acesta le da un sfat. Baietii se lumineaza la fata, ii multumesc, incaleca pe camile si pornesc in goana.
Mostenitorul se decide astfel in scurt timp si povestea se incheie.
Ce i-a sfatuit batranul intelept sa faca ? De notat ca nici vorba nu poate fi de impartirea averii intre cei doi copii. Unul singur ia totul.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 31 (Copii si ursuleti)

La un magazin de jucarii, parintii a patru copii au venit si le-au cumparat ursuleti. Cei patru copii, in varsta de 1,2,3 si 4 ani au primit
unul, doi, trei sau patru ursuleti, nu neaparat in aceasta ordine. Astfel, Doru are mai multi ursuleti decat varsta lui. Sorin este mai
mare decat Matei. Curios, numai un copil are un numar de ursuleti egal cu varsta sa. Paul, care este cel mai tanar, are mai putini
ursuleti decat Sorin, iar copilul de 3 ani are doi ursuleti. Ce varsta are fiecare copil si cati ursuleti a primit cadou ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 32 (Triburi)

Pe o insula indepartata traiesc la un loc doua triburi Afar si Araf. Cand copiii din aceste triburi sunt mici, ei nu se deosebesc unii de
altii. Se stie insa ca, in timp ce copiii din tribul Afar spun totdeauna adevarul, cei din tribul Araf nu-l spun niciodata. Intr-o zi a sosit
pe insula un calator care, vazand un grup de copii, intreaba pe unul din ei:
- Din ce trib esti ?
Deoarece nu intelese raspunsul copilului, intreaba pe alt copil din grup:
- Ce a spus prietenul tau ?
- A spus ca este din tribul Araf - a raspuns acesta.
Din ce trib este al doilea copil ? Dar primul copil ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 33 (Timbrele)

La un show televizat, un moderator invita 3 personalitati A,B,C, cunoscute ca foarte buni logicieni. El ia 8 timbre - 4 rosii si 4
galbene, dupa care, fara sa le arate - lipeste cate 2 timbre de fruntea fiecarui logician. Un logician poate vedea timbrele lipite pe
fruntile celor doi colegi ai sai, dar nu si timbrele lipite pe fruntea sa, sau cele ramase in buzunarul moderatorului. Intrebarea care se
pune fiecarui logician este daca stie ce culori au timbrele lipite pe propria frunte. Raspunsurile sunt in ordine:
1. A: "Nu"
2. B: "Nu"
3. C: "Nu"
4. A: "Nu"
5. B: "Da"
Ce culori au timbrele de pe fruntea lui B ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 34 ( Amicii )

Sunt 4 perechi de prieteni: Mihai cu Costel, Aurel cu Relu, Paul cu Bogdan si George cu Doru. Sapte din ei locuiesc intr-un bloc
P+6 (parter + sase etaje), iar unul locuieste in alta parte. Se stie ca:
1. Mihai locuieste mai sus decat prietenul sau.
2. Bogdan si prietenul lui Doru locuiesc sub Relu.
3. Prietenul lui Relu locuieste cu doua etaje mai sus decat George.
4. Costel locuieste cu patru etaje mai sus decat prietenul lui Paul.
5. Bogdan locuieste deasupra lui Doru.
La ce etaj locuieste fiecare dintre prieteni si care dintre ei locuieste in alta parte?
Suplimentar: Daca un tren are 3 minute intarziere si intarzie incontinuu cate 3 secunde pe minut, cate ore trebuie sa mearga pentru
a avea intarziere de o ora ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 35 ( Circulatie criptata )

Desi semnele de circulatie sunt notate peste tot la fel, in Atbashland ele fac exceptie. Astfel semnul de circulatie STOP este notat
HGLK, iar PARCARE
este marcat KZIXZIV.
Ce semnifica pentru circulatie urmatoarele semne ?
HVMH FMRX
IZWZI
YVMARMZIRV
NLGVO
GIVXVIV KRVGLMR
WIFN XF KIRLIRGZGV
Care este regula de scriere in Atbashland ?
Suplimentar: Pentru vopsirea unui cub e necesar 1 kg de vopsea. Dupa ce am vopsit cubul, il taiem in cubulete cu muchia de 2 ori
mai mica decat cea a cubului initial. De cata vopsea e nevoie pentru vopsirea fetelor neacoperite deja cu vopsea ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 36 ( Joc pe cub )

Sa consideram urmatorul joc de 2 persoane, in care jucatorii coloreaza alternativ muchiile unui cub. Cand ii vine randul, fiecare
jucator coloreaza in intregime o muchie (necolorata anterior), folosind una din urmatoarele trei culori: rosu, galben sau albastru.
Initial, cubul are toate muchiile necolorate. Doua muchii care au un varf comun nu pot fi colorate cu aceeasi culoare. Castiga
ultimul jucator care poate colora o muchie, conform regulilor de mai sus(altfel spus, primul jucator care nu mai poate colora o
muchie, pierde).
Daca vi s-ar propune sa jucati acest joc, ce ati prefera sa fiti: primul sau al doilea jucator ?
Care este strategia de castig ?
Suplimentar: Folosind numerele 1,3,4,6 (o singura data fiecare), oricare din operatiile +,-,*,/ si oricate paranteze, gasiti o expresie
aritmetica a carei valoare sa fie 24.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 37 (Steaua sus rasare ...)

o
o

o o
o
o o

o
o o
o

Figura de sus reprezinta (cu putina imaginatie) o stea cu 6 colturi.


Asezati numerele 1-12 in cele 12 puncte ale sale (marcate cu o), astfel incat:
- suma celor 4 numere de pe fiecare din cele 6 linii este aceeasi;
- suma numerelor aflate in cele 6 colturi este aceeasi cu suma liniilor.
Se poate gasi o aranjare a celor 12 numere astfel incat cele 7 sume sa dea 7 valori consecutive ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 38 (Codul istetilor):

Clubul Istetilor si-a lansat propriul site Internet.


Pentru accesarea lui insa, trebuie rezolvata o problema. Aceasta consta in plasarea a doua numere in secventa
53
2
91
44
79
6
11
10
0
Cele doua numere sunt generate aleator si sunt distincte de numerele din secventa. Sa presupunem ca vrei sa intri pe site si ai
primit pentru inserare numerele 3 si 18. Unde le vei plasa, pentru a putea avea acces la site ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 39 (Becuri):
La intrarea intr-o camera sunt amplasate 3 intrerupatoare. Fiecare din ele comanda aprinderea sau stingerea unui bec din camera.
Din pacate, o persoana aflata afara nu poate vedea care este becul aprins sau stins de un anumit intrerupator. Initial toate becurile
sunt stinse. Alice se afla inafara camerei. Ea foloseste cele trei intrerupatoare, dupa care intra in camera si spune care este
corespondenta dintre cele 3 becuri de aici si intrerupatoarele de afara.
Cum a procedat Alice pentru a afla aceasta ?
Intrebare suplimentara:
Cum scoti 1 din 9 ca sa ramana 10 ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 40 (Ghicitul numerelor):


Bob: Ma gandesc la un numar intreg intre 10 si 1300.
Alice: Este mai mic decat 500 ?
Bob ii raspunde, dar minte.
Alice: Este un patrat perfect ?
Bob ii raspunde, dar minte.
Alice: Este un cub perfect ?
Bob ii raspunde corect.
Alice: Daca as sti daca a doua cifra din stanga este sau nu 1, as putea ghici numarul .. Este 1 ?
Bob ii raspunde corect si Alice ii spune numarul la care crede ca s-a gandit Bob.
Dar a gresit !
La ce numar s-a gandit Bob ?
Suplimentar: Gasiti o semnificatie pentru afirmatia: 9 P ale S S.
Fiecare majuscula este o prescurtare a unui substantiv care incepe cu aceeasi litera, de exemplu: 'C cu 3 I' poate semnifica 'Capra
cu 3 iezi', iar 'S cu 3 N' - 'Soacra cu 3 nurori'.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 41 (Traducere):

Doua dintre numeroasele limbi vorbite in Caucaz sunt limbile bezhtiniana si ginuhiana. Problema urmatoare se va referi la denumiri
ale numerelor in aceste doua limbi. Se da o lista de numere, impreuna cu denumirile lor; numele fiecarui numar este scris in una
din cele doua limbi: bezhtiniana sau ginuhiana.
Se stie ca primul nume de numar (10) este din bezhtiniana:
10 - acona
19 - oceno ocino
24 - qona oqena
33 - quno oceno xono
41 - qono quno hes
43 - oqenajigna xana
77 - aknajigna akna
94 - oqino oceno uqino
a) Care numere sunt scrise in bezhtiniana si care in genuhiana ?
b) Traduceti fiecare din numele numerelor din lista dintr-o limba in alta.
Suplimentar: Puneti un semn intre 2 si 3, astfel ca sa obtineti un numar mai mare decat 2 si mai mic decat 3.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 42 (MasterMind):

Se dau 5 cartonase, dintre care 3 sunt rosii (notate cu R) si 2 sunt albe (notate cu A). Aceste cartonase se aseaza pe masa unul
langa altul, intr-o anumita ordine. Se cere apoi lui Alice sa ghiceasca aceasta ordine, fara sa vada ce este pe masa. Alice spune AR-R-A-R. I se raspunde ca a ghicit o singura pozitie corecta a cartonaselor.
Cate intrebari mai pune Alice pentru a fi sigura ca a ghicit pozitiile corecte ale tuturor cartonaselor ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 43 (Doua cantariri):


Un zidar are 8 caramizi. Sapte din ele au aceiasi greutate, iar una este putin mai grea decat celelalte. Zidarul dispune de o balanta.
Poate el depista caramida mai grea, folosind numai doua cantariri ? Cum ?
Suplimentar:
Brazilia a castigat ultima oara cupa mondiala in 1994. Obtinuse titlul mondial anterior in 1970 si 1970+1994=3964.
Argentina a castigat ultima oara cupa mondiala in 1986. Obtinuse titlul mondial anterior in 1978 si 1978+1986=3964.
Germania a castigat ultima oara cupa mondiala in 1990. Ultima oara obtinuse titlul mondial in 1974 si 1990+1974=3964.
Daca tinem cont de aceasta regula, cine va castiga Campionatul Mondial de Fotbal in 2002 ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 44 ( La curse )
Suntem pe hipodromul national. La prima intrecere din aceasta duminica, stim urmatoarele informatii despre caii care au terminat
cursa pe primele 4 locuri:
1) Calul imbracat in albastru nu a fost al treilea.
2) Steluta a sosit inaintea calului imbracat in verde.
3) Uraganul a castigat cursa.
4) Norocosul a ajuns dupa Steluta, dar nu a fost ultimul.
5) Fulgerul este imbracat in rosu, iar Steluta nu suporta galbenul.
Puteti determina clasamentul primelor patru locuri, precum si culoarea sub care a concurat fiecare cal ?
Suplimentar: Ce oras ascunzi ?
SOLUIE:

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Problema 45 ( Deductii)

Se fac urmatoarele afirmatii (adevarate):


1. Eu am incredere in toate animalele care imi apartin;
2. Cainii rod ciolane;
3. Eu nu admit in biroul meu alte animale decat pe cele care isi cer iertare cand le pretinzi;
4. Toate animalele din aceasta curte imi apartin;
5. Eu admit in biroul meu toate animalele in care am incredere;
6. Singurele animale care isi cer iertare atunci cand le pretinzi acest lucru sunt cainii.
Sa se arate ca propozitia:
" Toate animalele din aceasta curte rod ciolane"
este adevarata.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 46 (Doua familii)

Intr-un bloc locuiesc numai doua familii: familia ADEVAR (ai carei membri spun totdeauna adevarul) si familia FALS (ai carei
membri mint totdeauna). Alte persoane nu mai exista aici. Doar privind pe cineva, nu se poate afla din care familie face parte.
Problema consta in a decide din discutia cu o persoana, daca aceasta face parte din familia ADEVAR sau FALS.
Deci:
1. Primele persoane cu care ne intalnim sunt Andrei si Bogdan. Andrei face urmatoarea afirmatie:
"Noi suntem din familia FALS". Puteti afla din ce familie este Andrei ?
2. Ne intalnim apoi cu Corina si Daniela. Din afirmatia lui Corina, aflati din ce familie este Daniela:
"Doar una din noi este din familia FALS"
3. Urmatoarele doua persoane cu care ne intalnim sunt Emil si Fane. Emil spune:
"Suntem amandoi din aceeasi familie". Din ce familie este Fane ?
4. Perechea urmatoare este formata din Georgeta si Hanelore. Georgeta spune:
"Numai una din noi este din familia ADEVAR". Din ce familie este Hanelore ? Se poate decide familia lui Georgeta ?
5. La intalnirea cu Ionel si Jean, Ionel face urmatoarea afirmatie:
"Cel putin unul din noi este din familia ADEVAR". Ce se poate spune despre Ionel si Jean ?
6. Vin acum la rand Karen si Liliana. Analizand afirmatia lui Karen, se poate spune ceva despre familiile lor ?
"Eu sunt din familia FALS si Liliana este din familia ADEVAR".
7. Ultimele persoane cu care ne intalnim sunt Marian si Nelu. Marian face urmatoarea afirmatie:
"Nu este posibil ca Nelu si cu mine sa fim amandoi din familia ADEVAR".
Din ce familii fac parte cei doi ?

SOLUIE:

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Problema 47 ( Padure )

In Padurea Neagra traiau un anumit numar de pisici, pasari si serpi. Dimineata, fiecare pisica mananca o pasare. La pranz, fiecare
sarpe mananca o pisica. Seara, fiecare pasare mananca un sarpe.
In noaptea asta am fost in padure si am gasit o singura vietuitoare: o pasare. Cate fiinte erau in padure ieri dimineata, inainte de de
micul dejun ?
Suplimentar: Mai jos este o strofa extrem de cunoscuta din literatura romana, din care au fost eliminate vocalele.
Refaceti strofa respectiva.
Lstcrrsrt
clttdlng
Cmdntrbt
Lmnsnjng.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 48 (Euro)

Daca litera 'a' valoreaza 1 eurocent, 'b' - 2 eurocenti, s.a.m.d., pana la 'z' care valoreaza 26 eurocenti, gasiti cuvinte din limba
romana care valoreaza un euro (100 eurocenti).
Nota:
1. Diacriticele au valoarea literei de baza (-1, - 1, - 9, - 19, - 20).
2. Se considera numai cuvinte din dictionarul limbii romane, cu grafia stabilita de Academia Romana in 1991.
De exemplu, 'strmt' are valoarea 1 euro, dar este scris in grafia veche (cu din i), asa ca nu va fi luat in considerare.
Suplimentar:
Folosind cifre romane, fractia 1/9 poate fi scrisa:
I
--IX
Mutand o singura cifra (romana), transformati aceasta fractie in alta fractie echivalenta cu 1/5.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 49 (Politica)
Intr-o tara oarecare (sa nu detaliem), politicienii nu spun niciodata adevarul,iar non-politicienii spun intotdeauna adevarul. Un strain
intalneste trei locuitori ai respectivei comunitati si il intreaba pe primul dintre ei:
- Esti politician ?
Primul raspunde ceva neinteligibil. Al doilea locuitor explica strainului:
- Primul a negat ca este politician.
Al treilea zice:
- Primul este politician.
Intrebare: Cati dintre cei trei membri ai comunitatii sunt politicieni ?
Suplimentar:
Cum pot fi puse 4 monede in 3 pahare, in asa fel incat in fiecare pahar
sa se afle un numar impar de monede.
SOLUIE:

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Problema 50 (1+1):
Inlocuind fiecare litera cu o cifra, sa se gaseasca solutiile adunarii
UNU + UNU = DOI
Nota: Sunt 5 litere distincte, deci vor fi 5 cifre distincte.
Suplimentar: Ce nume de animal urmeaza in lista : porc, vitel, dromader, cal, berbec, maimuta,...
Numele cautat trebuie ales dintre urmatoarele: bivol, caine, cangur, crocodil, girafa, hipopotam, soarece, tigru.
SOLUIE:

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Succes !